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Physical activity is key in slowing the progressive nature of the disease since inactivity will encourage quicker deterioration of the muscle tissue. Beyond the individual maintaining an effort of physical activity, various treatments, such as physical therapy, speech therapy, respiratory therapy, and the use of wheelchairs, canes, walkers, or braces may be needed. Orthopedic surgery to correct damage done to the bones due to the deterioration of the muscle tissue can be performed, though it is usually a temporary improvement. Also, there are drug therapies that include the use of corticosteroids that help control the deterioration of the muscles as well. Of course, there are also drugs to treat the symptoms of later stages of the disease such as seizures and muscle spasms as well as to treat any respiratory infections that often occur due to the collection of fluid in the lungs. Pacemakers and ventilators are sometimes necessary to…
Enerson, Ole Daniel. "Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne de Boulogne." Who Named It. http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/950.html.1 Aug. 2006.
NINDS Muscular Dystrophy Information Page." National Institute of Neurological
Disorders and Stroke. 25 May 2006. 1 Aug. 2006. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/md/md.htm .
Emery, Allan. Muscular Dystrophy: The Facts. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000.
Muscular Dystrophy. The writer explores the types, the causes, the symptoms and the research to find a cure. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
One would be hard pressed to find an American who has never witnessed the Jerry Lewis telethon for Muscular Dystrophy. It is an annual Labor Day tradition and has been for many decades. While everybody is aware that Lewis does the telethon and have watched it at least once, they would have a difficult time reporting on the disease the telethon aims to cure. Muscular Dystrophy is a disorder that afflicts millions of people in the world but in laymen language it seems to get confused with other disorders frequently.
The word dystrophy means faulty nutrition and comes from Greek and Latin roots. When the word is combined with muscular it is easily understood as muscles not being given the proper nutrients to…
MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NINE (9) MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES
MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
Another alternative strategy to gene therapy is exon skipping which differs from gene therapy in that it focuses on the gene transcript rather than the gene itself (McClorey et al., 2005). Exon skipping prevents the transcription of the exon containing the mutation. Exon skipping is a process by which synthetic DNA molecules, antisense, are utilized to create a bridge by which the dysfunctional parts of the gene can be skipped over (Partridge, 2010). This intervention has been found to be particularly useful when treating Duchenne MD in laboratory animals and experts are hoping that this will correlate to human subjects as well.
Cell therapy has also shown promise in the treatment of MD. In this approach cells can be taken either from a donor that has healthy formations of the mutated gene or by utilizing repaired cells of the individual with MD (Cossu and Sampaolesi, 2004). The use of the…
Chamberlain, J.S. 2002. Gene therapy of muscular dystrophy. Human Molecular Genetics, 11(20), pp. 2355-62.
Clemens, P.R. And Duncan, F.J. 2001. Progress in gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 1, pp. 89-96.
Cossu, G. And Sampaolesi, M. 2004. New therapies for muscular dystrophy: cautious optimism. TRENDS in Molecular Medicine, 10(10), pp. 516-20.
Cossu, G. And Sampaolesi, M. 2007. New therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: challenges, prospects and clinical trials. TRENDS in Molescular Medicine, 13(12), pp. 520-26.
Muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis are complicated conditions. According to the research, muscular dystrophy is a "group of familial disorders that cause degeneration of skeletal muscle fibers" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Many researchers believe that the different types are each caused by different biochemical defects. For example, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is thought t be the result of a single gene defect "thought to be caused by a deletion of a segment of deoxyribonucleic acid" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Similarly, Becker Muscular Dystrophy is also caused by deformities in the X-link. Different types of dystrophy affect different muscle groups. There is the example of scapuloperneal Muscular Dystrophy, which affects the facial and shoulder muscles. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular condition, caused by abnormal transmission of nerve impulses to the affected muscle groups. Normal communication is interrupted, where antibodies disrupt the flow of acetylcholine between nerves and muscles. It is also…
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…
During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]
4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]
5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…
Cherie Dimaline, "Inheriting Sickness When Finding Your Roots is a Matter of Life or Death" Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.metisnation.org/metisVOYAGEUR/MVcurrent/disease.html
Dr. Joseph F. Smith, "Genetic Counseling," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.chclibrary.org/micromed/00049280.html
IBAC, "The Basics of Life," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.ibac.org.nz/booklet/basics.html
CMGS, "Disturbance of Gene Frequencies in a Population," Accessed on 15th December 2004 http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/cmgs/genefreq.htm
" (Stone, 2006) Treatment is stated by Stone (2006) to be "diagnosis dependent and may be medical or surgical." Practical modifications include simple steps such as crushing of pills or opening of capsules to ease and facilitate swallowing.
The work of Leibovitz, et al. (2007) entitled: 'Dehydration Among Long-Term Care Elderly Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia" states that long-term care (LTC) residents in the nursing home "especially the orally fed with dysphagia are prone to dehydration. The clinical consequences of dehydration are critical. The validity of the common laboratory parameters of hydration status is far from being absolute, especially so in the elderly." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) it is related however that "combinations of these indices are more reliable." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) the study reported by Leibovitz et al. is one that assessed hydration status among elderly LTC residents with oropharyngeal dysphagia and in which a total of 28 orally…
Spieker, Michael R. (2000) Evaluating Dysphagia. American Family Physician 14 Jun 2000. Online available at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000615/3639.html
Marik, Paul E. And Kaplan, Danielle (2003) Aspiration Pneumonia and Dysphagia in the Elderly. Chest. July 2003. Vol. 1224, No. 1. Online available at http://www.chestjournal.org/content/124/1/328.full
Bautmans, I., et al. (2008) Dysphagia in elderly nursing home residents with severe cognitive impairment can be attenuated by cervical spine mobilization. J. Rehabil Med. 2008 Oct;40(9):755-60. PubMed Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=18843429
Stone, Rebecca S. (2006) Dysphagia in the Elderly. Inpatient Times. October 2006. Online available at http://www.bmc.org/geriatrics/RStone_DysphagiaintheElderly.pdf
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…
Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
Another concern is the lengthiness of the survey -- 35 items -- that may have fatigued some of the respondents and may have resulted in rushed and insufficient care in answering the questions.
Furthermore, attributions may have been incorrectly placed. The participant, too, may have erred due to subjective bias (i.e. A 'falling out' with the principal may have led her to incorrectly accusing administrator of reluctance to integrate); furthermore, few teachers would readily admit to negative attitudes in integrating children, teachers may over-rate or under-rate their abilities (as, for instance, with the question: "I find that my knowledge about teaching pupils with physical disabilities in PE class is satisfactory"), and teachers may have deliberately or unwittingly deviated in order to protect their identity and their identity of the school.
Finally, although the survey was built on earlier studies of inclusion, it would be interesting to know amongst which population…
Jerlinder, K., Danermark, B., & Gil, P. (2010). Swedish primary-school teachers' attitudes to inclusion - the case of PE and pupils with physical disabilities, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 25, 45 -- 57
Pruitt, D. (2000). Your adolescent: Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive development from early adolescence through the teen years. Washington, DC: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Spencer-Cavaliere, N. & Watkinson, E.J. (2010). Inclusion Understood From the Perspectives of Children With Disability, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27, 275-293
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2007). Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities Innocenti Digest No. 13
Grants for science education are provided to schools and individuals, with the objective of helping to inspire careers in science. ("About HHMI," 2010) When you put these different elements tougher, this shows how HHMI is involved in medical research funding from: working directly with researchers to providing funding on a host of projects and initiatives. This is important, because it allows the nonprofit to fund a number of different research studies, while giving scientists the flexibility to effectively conduct their projects. As a result, this has helped HHMI to support a number of different medical breakthroughs to include: making significant progress in spinal cord injuries, HIV / AIDS research and medication that can be used to effectively treat leukemia. At the same time, the organization is focused on identifying the genes that are responsible for: cystic fibrosis, colon cancer and muscular dystrophy. (Leung, 2004)
The Impact of how HHMI's: Mission,…
About HHMI. (2010). HHMI. Retrieved from: http://www.hhmi.org/about/
Developing New Knowledge. (2010). HHMI. Retrieved from:
This is significant, because it shows how the funding and research provided by HHMI is establishing, scientific breakthroughs that are having a profound impact on the lives of millions of people. Evidence of this can seen with the fact that institute is funding 330 investigators in the United States alone (to include seven Nobel Prize winners). At the same time, they are funding research projects in a number of countries around the world such as: the former Soviet Union and South Africa just to name a few. This is important, because it shows how the fortune of Howard Hughes is being used, to benefit millions of people (who are seeking cures for a variety of diseases). (Leung, 2004)
Discuss some of the benefits and pitfalls of planning?
The benefits of planning are: you can be able to identify changes coming early and it helps you to have more flexibility. These…
Developing New Knowledge. (2010). HHMI. Retrieved from: http://www.hhmi.org/about/ origins.html
Leung, R. (2004). Howard Hughes. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/11/21/60minutes/main584945.shtml
In such situations, "especially if the comments have been made repeatedly" the employer may not be able to fire the employee at will. This seems to be the case with Joe, given the statements he received from his supervisors (Nolo, 2010). In the future, it would be wise for the Strong Steel Company to be careful about making such sweeping statements to employees, to protect the company's interests should the employee use such statements as evidence that they could only be fired with a 'cause.'
Even if the employer argues that there was no implied contract about his employment status, Joe's firing seems clearly linked to his ADA-qualified disability, given that he was told, after he returned to his employment after his operation that his employer felt that Joe was not doing a good job because of his heart problems. Joe, however, had only taken part-time leave for a relatively…
The Americans with Disabilities Act: Title II Technical Assistance Manual. (2010). Americans
with Disability Act. Retrieved February 7, 2010 at http://www.ada.gov/taman2.html
Employment at will: What does it mean? (2010). Nolo. Retrieved February 7, 2010 at http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/article-30022.html
Facts about age discrimination. (2010). Equal opportunity Commission (EEOC).
As a result, children and adolescents are at risk of delays and impairments in cognitive development" (Levy 2009). Such delays are far from inevitable, but they do underline the need to assure that Sarah 'keeps up' with her studies and that reasonable peer-appropriate learning goals may need to be met with the assistance of additional support in some instances.
Although not directly applicable to Sarah, immunizations with live viruses, including chickenpox, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), and oral polio vaccines are not advised for children with lupus (Lupus, 2009, Children's Hospital of Boston). Sarah's parents may need to watch for is the possibility of symptoms in her sibling: "a form of lupus may occur at some point in about one out of twenty people whose siblings have lupus" and they may need to take this into consideration when contemplating a vaccination program if they ever have another child (Lehman 2002). Sarah's…
Lehman, Thomas J.A. (2002, Fall). Early diagnosis of SLE in childhood. Lupus News.
22.3. Retrieved June 29, 2009 at http://www.lupus.org/education/topics/early.html
Levy, Deborah, Stacy P. Ardoin, Laura E. Schanberg (2009). Neurocognitive
impairment in children and adolescents with SLE: Cognitive development in healthy children and adolescents. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol CME. 5(2)
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…
Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy
Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia
Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Particularly, the risks of diverse neoplasms have been seen to be raised in Turner Syndrome is quite low quantum, however, except for gut cancer and gonaboblastoma in patients having occult Y chromosome sequences. (Cabanas; Garcia-Caballero; Barreiro; Castro-Feijoo; Gallego; Arevalo; Canete; Pombo, 2005)
Additionally, there appear to have no prior indication of the relationship between the Turner Syndrome and papillary thyroid carcinoma, irrespective of the fact that there has been one report of an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a TS patient in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Several epidemiological studies and studies relating to exhaustive long-term monitoring of GH-associated patients have been seen to have benefited therapeutically from GH treatment and found to be safe having no detectable effect on risk of cancer. But the current studies have shown a probable relationship between GH-IGF axis and the pathogenesis of neoplasms. The study on papillary thyroid carcinoma after GH therapy for Turner Syndrome…
Cabanas, P; Garcia-Caballero, T; Barreiro, J; Castro-Feijoo, L; Gallego, R; Arevalo, T;
Canete; R; Pombo, M. (2005) "Papillary thyroid carcinoma after recombinant GH therapy for Turner syndrome" European Journal of Endocrinology. Vol: 153; No: 4; pp: 499-502
Dowshen, Steven. (2005) "Turner Syndrome" Retrieved at http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/genetic/turner.html . Accessed 8 November, 2006
Gordon, John D; Lebovic, Dan I; Taylor, Robert N. (2005) "Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility: Handbook for Clinicians" Scrub Hill Press, Inc.
THE EFFECTS OF AIRWAY PRESSURE RELEASE VENTILATION AND HIGH FREQUENCY OSCILLATION VENTILATION ON THE HEART - SPECIFICALLY WHEN THE PATIENT HAS CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.
CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
AIRWAY PRESSURE RELEASE VENTILATION (APRV)
APRV & CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
HIGH FREQUENCY OSCILLATION VENTILATION (HFOV)
HFOV & CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
Mechanical Ventilation refers to the process of helping the normal breathing process of an individual when his breathing patterns are compromised due to either a pathology within the lung or due to a collective collapse of the related organs. Mechanical ventilation can be of two types: negative pressure ventilation where the air is made to suck into the lungs or positive ventilation where air is forced into the lungs through the airway. During the process of providing ventilation to the lungs it becomes important to "secure the airway" which means that the air should go through the…
Calzia E, R.P. (1997). Airway pressure release ventilation and biphasic positive airway pressure:a 10-year literature review. Clinical Intensive Care, 8:296-301.
Cartotto R, E.S. (2004). High frequency oscillatory ventilation in burn patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Burns, 30(5):453-463.
Dickstein K, C.-S. A. (2008). "ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Hear. Eur. Heart J., 29(19):2388-442.
dorland's medical dictionary . (2009).
How variations arise within a phenotype?
Phenotype is the specific characteristics that are displayed by the organism. Phenotypic variation is a prerequisite for evolution due to natural selection, thus without the former, there is no latter. Qualitative traits are traits that show a difference between phenotypes like skin color, sex, and eye color. However, such descriptions are controlled by a small number of genes so environmental influence on these traits is low since it involves the genetics of individuals. Quantitative traits are traits that exhibit a continuous range from one phenotype to another. Therefore, there is no difference between phenotypes and are usually influenced by several gene pairs while the environment has a significant influence on the trait. This type of trait involves the genetics of populations. It is a combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce phenotypes that blend into each other. Phenotypic variance or VP is…
Bellevue College Science Division (2011) Mutation and Genetic Diseases, [online] Available at: http://scidiv.bellevuecollege.edu/rkr/Biology211/lectures/pdfs/GeneticDisease211.pdf [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Biology 346-Evolution (2011) Chapter 13-Evolution of Phenotypic Traits, [online] Available at: www.cbu.edu/~esalgado/BIOL346/ch13.doc [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Chicago Center for Jewish Genetic Disorders (2008) Intro to Genetics, [online] Available at: http://www.jewishgenetics.org/?q=content/intro-genetics [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Grimmel College (2011) Lab 2 -- Sources of Phenotypic Variation, [online] Available at: http://web.grinnell.edu/individuals/brownj/edu/136_lab2.html [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Many of the answers used to hold workers with disabilities can also crack work-related problems of older workers. But older workers would not point out that they are disabled, even though they may come across functional limitations that are comparable to those met by persons with disabilities. Elder workers with vision, hearing, dexterity, memory, attention, standing, and/or sitting disabilities may come across difficulties on the job. There are a range of AT aids and other useful products available to tackle the issues that older workers may experience. (Assistive Technology and Aging)
6. Describe a process as to how assistive technology devices will be transferred to and/or purchased by another agency to support postsecondary activities
Once the nature of the needs have been identified, you can then look at the appropriate assistive technology devices and services. It is also important, that most technologically advanced system may not be the best solution.…
"A framework for assistive technology planning" (2002) Education Tech Points. Retrieved from http://www.edtechpoints.org/manual.htm Accessed on 20 February 2005
"Assistive Technology and Aging" Virginia Assistive Technology System. Retrieved from http://www.vats.org/aging.htm Accessed on 20 February 2005
Assistive Technology Fact Sheet #2. (November 30, 2004) Department of Public Instruction and Wisconsin Assistive Technology Initiative. Retrieved from http://www.wati.org/BestPractices/factsheet2.html Accessed on 20 February 2005
'Assistive Technology: What is it?" Massachusetts Department of Education. Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/11799/data/assistech.html Accessed on 20 February 2005
The most frequent symptom is difficulty in walking or gait ataxia (Unicorn Self-Help Committee 2000), which spreads slowly to the arms and the trunk. Foot deformities, such as clubfoot, flexion of the toes or foot inversion are other early signs. In time, muscles weaken and waste, especially the muscles in the feet, lower legs and hands and, at this time, deformities s begin to show. Other symptoms are the loss of tendon reflexes especially in the knees and ankles, the gradual disappearance of sensation in the extremities, dysarthria or slowness of speech or slurring, easy fatigue, rapid and involuntary movements of the eyes, scoliosis, chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, heart enlargement, myocardial fibrosis, tachycardia, heart block and heart failure. Studies showed that about 20% of FA patients also develop carbohydrate intolerance and 10%, of diabetes mellitus, while others lose their hearing or eyesight.
In most cases, the patient gets…
Adler, Tina. Single Gene Causes Ataxia, Cancer Risk - Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Gene Causes Fetal Disorder or Increased Risk of Cancer. Science News: Science Service, Inc., 1995. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n25_v147/ai_7142442
Barrett, Julia. Ataxia-Telangiectasia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, Gale Research, 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/ai_2601000157
Bird, Thomas D. Hereditary Ataxia Overview. Gene Reviews: National Human Genome Research Institute, 2005. http://www.geneclinics.org/profiles/ataxia/details.html
Robinson, Richard. Friedreich's Ataxia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: Gale Research, 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/is_0005/ai_2601000562
Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…
Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num
This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
The following images show certain disorders that result due to mutation. Children born from the same family members' shows higher similarity index regarding the genetic disorder number inclusive of the Indian community (Cummings, 2010, pg 333).
Curbing gene disorders
Stoppage of varying types of disorders is possible through learning in consideration of human development the number of genes contained in a single genome, their respective location and the establishment of functions or roles in the various genetic processes. This is achievable through strategized genetic mapping, where the establishment of specified genes having same linkage involved. The mapping establishes the respective linkages between genes and as a result of their location in the same gene, the crossing over frequency with the existing distance amid them is notable (Cummings, 2010, pg 333). esearch on the various risks factors involved can also be considerable as beneficial. This enables the development of certain preventive…
Benson, B. (2012). Advances in Child Development. London: Academic Press.
Bowden, V.G. (2009). Children and Their Families. Atlanta: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Cummings, M. (2010). Human Heridity; Principles and Issues. New York: Cengage Learning.
Edward and Susan: My Sister's Keeper ethical dilemma
The film My Sister's Keeper is an emotionally wrought dramatization of what is a very real medical conundrum for some parents today, given advances in medical technology. The drama revolves around the question of the creation of a 'savior sibling,' genetically designed from birth to help her existing sibling survive (My Sister's Keeper: Science Background Talk, n.d., SCU). In the parallel case of Edward and Susan, a couple with a daughter with Acute Childhood Lymphoid Leukemia, many of the objections that people have raised to IV will not likely be persuasive to them: they have already used the technology to have their first child. Additionally, the sibling would be a wanted child, given the couple had always wanted a bigger family, but had held off because of fears of passing on a genetic disorder. The main ethical question for the…
Marcotty, Jacqueline. (2010) 'Savior sibling' raises a decade of questions. The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.com/html/health/2013019779_saviorsibling29.html
My Sister's Keeper: Science Background Talk. (n.d.). SCU. Retrieved:
In-vitro fertilization. (2013). Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility
Heward reference is a book review of Nancy Close's book Listening to Children: Talking With Children About Difficult Issues -- It is improper to reference a book review-unless of course you are also reviewing the book. I have included the proper reference
Perhaps the one of the worst fears of new parents is that their child may develop a serious disability such as mental retardation or other developmental disability. Arguably the most important influences on the development of any young child would be the child's parents and the sociocultural environment in which the child grows up (Skinner & Weisner, 2007). This socio-cultural environment includes the family environment, community environment, and geographic locale including all shared beliefs and assumptions about child development and about disabilities. However, one can argue that the most important aspect of the sociocultural environment that a child with a disability grows up in is the influence of…
Barnett, D., Clements, M., Kaplan-Estrin, M., & Fialka, J. (2003). Building new dreams:
Supporting parents' adaptation to their child with special needs. Infants & Young Children, 16(3), 184-200.
Bostrom, P.K., Broberg, M., & Hwang, P. (2010). Parents' descriptions and experiences of young children recently diagnosed with intellectual disability. Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(1), 93-100.
Bruce, E.J. (2000). Grief, trauma and parenting children with disability: cycles of disenfranchisement. Grief Matters: The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement, 13(2), 27-31.
Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
THE TWO SIDES
Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the gender of an offspring (Mail Online, 2013). The sperm carries the sex chromosome of a future child and sorting involves choosing the desired sex chromosome and then inseminating a woman with it. Gender can also be selected by abortion and before the embryonic stage through IVF or in vitro fertilization. Gender selection has been the subject of much debate because of its many consequences (Mail Online).
Artificial insemination consists of inserting concentrated sperm into the uterus to achieve a greater chance of fertilization (Stephens, 2011). Other methods are used to choose the gender of the baby. One is by using a dye on the desired gender from the sperm and then returning the dyed cell into womb. The Ericsson…
Dahl, E. (2003). Ethical issues in new uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis:
should parents be allowed to use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to choose the sexual orientation of their children? Vol. 18 # 7, Human Reproduction. Retrieved on November 11, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832358
Knoppers, B.M. et al. (2006). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: an overview of socio-
ethical and legal considerations. Vol. 7, Annual Review of Genomic and Human
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…
Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.
Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.
Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
Morality of Cloning
In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 129.
Christopher bard quoted in: Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 126.
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 127
Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.
Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…
Alberts, Bruce. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell, 4th ed. New York: Garland Science.
Genetic Science Learning Center. 2004. Genetic Disorder Corner. University of Utah. 07 May 2004. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/
McCarrick, Pat Milmoe. 1993.Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening. Scope Note 22. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, 1993. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (KIEJ), Reprinted September 1993, 17 p. (Last updated February 2002). 07 May 2004. http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/scopenotes/sn22.html
Miller, Kelly. 1999. Genetic Screening. Phil McClean, Professor, Ph.D. Colorado State University, PLSC 431/631 - Intermediate Genetics. 07 May 2004. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/mcclean/plsc431/students99/miller.htm. The mundane by excellent cinematography and an effective cast.
advances are made in technology, an increasing number of different forms of technologies, new uses and changes are being made in integrating new technologies into special education so as to benefit learners with disabilities. Research has made tremendous contributions in developing new technologies. Policymakers, too, have enabled the faster adoption of new technologies in special education so as to help learners with different kinds of behavioral and academic challenges. For instance, as early as 1994, James Kulik utilized meta-analysis to collect and analyze the results of over 500 different studies on computer-based learning. Technology-based learning, particularly through the use of computers, individualizes the learning process, so as to accommodate inclinations, knowledge systems, styles of learning, interests and needs of learners. Different forms of computer-based education software have been developed for such purposes, for instance, the Integrated Learning Systems. James Kulik made several conclusions upon the completion of the meta-analysis: that…
Best, S. J., Heller, K. W., & Bigge, J. L. (2005). Teaching individuals with physical or multiple disabilities (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Browder, D.M., Spooner, F., Wakeman, S., Trela, K., & Baker, J.N. (2006). Aligning instruction with academic content standards: Finding the link. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(4), 309-321
Butler-Kisber, L. (2013). Teaching and Learning in the Digital World: Possibilities and Challenges. Learning Landscapes.
Clercq, C. K. (2015). Digitally Enhanced Classrooms: Understanding the Effect of Individualized Technology on Language Arts Instruction in Elementary Schools. University Honors Theses .
Define the term Teratology
Teratology refers to the study of abnormal fetal growth. Teratogenic prenatal exposures arise from: infectious agents, chemical and drug agents, metabolic or maternal causes (such as phenylketonuria and diabetes), and physical agents (such as heat, ionizing radiation, and mechanical factors) (Jelinek, 2005). Inbred abnormalities occur commonly, with 2-3% babies, both live and stillborn, as well as aborted fetuses having structural abnormalities. Furthermore, about 10% of infants have internal functional deficits or anomalies which might not be perceptible at birth, and may only surface later on in life. Congenital abnormalities can be categorized into: (1) Malformations, which denote changes in normal growth transpiring from an inherent development-process abnormality; (2) Deformations, which arise due to an irregular mechanical force upon a fetus which is otherwise normal (e.g., clubfoot in an environment of oligohydramnios); and (3) Disruptions, occurring because of disturbance in normal process of growth (for instance,…
Adam, M.P., Polifka, J.E. & Friedman, J.M. (2011). Evolving knowledge of the teratogenicity of medications in human pregnancy. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 157C:175.
Finnell, R.H. (1999). Teratology: General considerations and principles. J Allergy ClinImmunol.Vol. 103, No. 2. S337-s342
Jelinek, R. (2005). The Contribution of New Findings and Ideas to the Old Principles of Teratology. Reproductive Toxicology 20: 295-300.
Jones, K.L. (August 17, 2005). Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation, Sixth edition Saunders.