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E's Music Classroom: Musickit, 2007). The exposition tends to be less resolved, atonal, and discordant in sound. The form was used to create a more open structure than the Baroque fugues or rondeau forms.
hat types of works commonly use this form? Sonatas (obviously) symphonies, and string quartets all make use of the three-part sonata form, although some have more elaborate variations than others, depending on the length of the piece.
olfgang a. Mozart was a master of virtually every form he embraced as a composer. His symphonies and sonatas paved the way for Classical music, as he adopted the innovations of Hayden in the symphony form and made these innovations more flexible and expressive. He was also a master of the operatic form in comic works such as "The Marriage of Figaro" as well as dramatic works like "Don Giovanni." He moved opera away from the more somber…
Characteristics of Baroque Music." Library.thinquest.org. 2007. 26 Mar 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/27927/Baroque_Characteristics.htm
Characteristics of Classical Music." Library.thinquest.org. 2007. 26 Mar 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/27927/Classical_characteristics.htm
Forss, Marcus. "Mozart: A Modern/Classical Composer." Mozart Forums. 2007.
26 Mar 2007. http://www.mozartforum.com/Lore/article.php?id=105
But in the end, the theme becomes a funeral march, reminiscent of Tchaikovsky's piano trio which also ended with a funeral march" (Piano Trio No.1 in g minor Elegiaque, Edition Silvertrust, 2009).
Paul Hindemith (1895-1963): Morgenmusik (1932)
I. MaBig bewegt
Paul Hindemith was a German composer who made use of neoclassical elements, blending "tonal harmony and distinctively modern elements, notably jazz" in his works (Sadie 2005). hile criticized for putting art above political resistance during orld ar II, others have cited his work's celebration of individuality and spontaneity within form as a way of resistance, despite the overall tonality of his work.
Bela Bartok (1881-1945): String Quartet No.5
III. Scherzo a la bulgarese
The Hungarian Bela Bartok is praised both for his innovations in composition as well as for his work collecting and transcribing folksongs. Bartok used dissonances and propulsive rhythms and worked largely with instrumental…
"Bela Bartok." Music Encyclopedia. April 25, 2009.
Herman, Michael. "Swiss symphonies." 2009. April 25, 2009.
The accessible sounds of the beats are meant to be enjoyed by all.
Third Construction (1941): John Cage (1912-1992)
Although a relatively contemporary piece, this work sounds almost primitive, as if it is played on traditional wooden, handmade instruments. It sounds 'constructed' -- perhaps that is why Cage calls it a construction, not a movement, as if it is still a work in progress. Alternating rhythm patterns assault the ears, dissonant and harsh at times, at other times seducing the listener with complementary and more consonant beats.
ExitiX Novum (2007): Peter Saleh (b.1977)
A strangely musical percussion arrangement. The work is a collage of percussion instruments and alternating rhythms that still manage to sound musical and uncluttered. There is an almost exotic and otherworldly tone, despite the featuring of familiar instruments such as snare drums and tympanis.
Dressur (1976/1977): Mauricio Kagel (1931-2008)
This percussion piece begins with a tinkling, almost…
An Idyll for the Misbegotten (Images III). Art of the States. (1986). Art of the States.
April 27, 2009. http://artofthestates.org/cgi-bin/piece.pl?pid=76
..but the strain of musical isolation became too much for me and I suffered a minor nervous breakdown...and the arrogant headmaster showed little compunction in promptly dismissing me from my post at his school. This was in November 1926..."(Alwyn, 1983; cited in: ulot, 1985)
Alwyn was appointed a position as a professor of composition at the RAM in 1926 and as well, "he became a flautist in the London Symphony Orchestra." (ulot, 1985) Alwyn began music composition for films in 1936. In 1939 acknowledged were the works: (1) Rhapsody for Piano Quartet; and (2) Divertimento for Solo Flute. ulot (1985) states: "1955 was an important year for Alwyn; it saw the completion of the beautifully nostalgic Autumn Legend, inspired by Pre-Raphaelite painters, and also of the String Quartet in D minor (in fact, No 1) and the first important piano work Fantasy Waltzes." The slow movement within the First String…
Culot states that among the best film scores of Alwyn are: (1) Odd Man Out (1947); and (2) Shake Hands with the Devil (1959). The work of Johnson (2005) entitled: "William Alwyn: The Art of Film Music" relates that two primary features of film music "were of fundamental importance to Alwyn" which included: (1) the film's dramatic function; and (2) the value of silence. According to Alwyn in his work entitled: "How Not to Write Film Music" "Sound...can only makes its effect by contrast with silence." (1954)
III. MATTHIJS VERMEULEN (1888-1967)
Vermeulen was born in 1888 to a Dutch blacksmith and as he was growing up, he aspired to work with his father in the shop. However, Vermeulen had an accident and the result is that he forgot entering the family business and sent to a Jesuit seminary and it was there that he discovered music. When Vermeulen was fourteen years old, he began his journey toward music composition. Due to a statement Vermeulen made following an orchestra performance his Second Symphony, which was originally composed in the years of 1919-1920, entitled Prelude a la nouvelle journee did not premier until sometime in the 1950s. The work of Vermeulen is such that his symphonies "give therefore beginning to end a stream of melodies heard in a very different appearance and character." It is stated that Vermeulen "draws a parallel between melody and individuals: 'The melody is a strong show affection.' (Sixth Symfonie Les Minutes
Medieval, Baroque, and Renaissance music share core features and elements in common, while also revealing poignant differences that highlight aesthetic, geographic, social, and technological changes. Religiosity, simplicity of instrumentation, and monophic choral qualities characterize early medieval music. Vocals grew increasingly polyphonic toward the late Middle Ages. Renaissance music can be listened to as a sonic and cultural bridge between the medieval and Baroque periods. Instrumentation became more complex, and yet compositions remained religions in tone and relied on a select number of instruments. The Baroque witnessed a flourishing of creativity rooted in the technological advances in Renaissance instrument production and also in the social sensibilities that characterized the era.
Early medieval music bore witness to the intense religious fervor that permeated social life. This can especially be witnessed in the compositions of Hildegard von Bingen. For Hildegard, melody and voice are central elements, as hymns and antiphons comprised a…
Jazz music might sometimes be difficult to define because of its many movements. As a purely American form of music, jazz cannot be overlooked for its influence in other musical genres. As jazz has evolved over the years, the genre has witnessed many movements that represent African-American moods and attitudes. One significant movement in jazz is the avant-garde movement, which changed the course of traditional jazz. Along with this new movement comes a diverse array of opinions regarding jazz, contemporary forms of jazz, and jazz audiences.
The avant-garde movement of jazz is the often referred to as the bebop era. Lewis Porter asserts that bebop was a "revolt" (Porter 174) from bag band arrangements and the confines of tradition. Characteristics of bebop include a melody that does not last for a long time and many beboppers aimed for dissonance, which means experimenting with new sounds. Porter notes that…
Evans, Bill. "The Jazz Cadence of American Culture. "
Gottlieb, Bill. "The Anatomy of Bop."
Jones, Leroi. "The Jazz Avant-Garde."
Lewis Porter. "Reaction to Bebop."
Music appreciation [...] my personal attraction to jazz music and some of its composers and performers. Jazz music has been called a particularly American invention, and the many forms of jazz epitomize a successful and exciting country on the move. Jazz encompasses many facets of music, from be-bop to swing, and one testament to jazz's endurance is its continued popularity today. Jazz breathes life into the listener, and embodies life in America.
Jazz, a state of mind! " (Osgood 7)
Jazz is a uniquely American creation, and perhaps that is one reason I enjoy it so much. In the early part of the 20th century, the music we call jazz and blues were beginning to develop into popular songs people enjoyed. One critic writes, "Unquestionably, the most significant contribution made to music by the United States in the period under discussion lay in the field of popular music" (Hansen 84).…
Friedlander, P. Rock and Roll A Social History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Gioia, Ted. The History of Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press U.S., 1997.
Hansen, Peter S. An Introduction to Twentieth Century Music. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1961.
Osgood, Henry O. So This Is Jazz. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1926.
New Orleans as a Focal Point in the Development of Jazz
New Orleans is known a melting pot of culture and music and it has played a major role in early development of jazz. It was full of opportunity and rich with the fine arts of music and dance, while offering a breeding ground for innovation. In the back alley city streets, clubs and saloons, basements of homes and African-American dance halls, jazz was born. Brass bands marched in numerous parades and played to comfort families during funerals. There were numerous society dances that required skilled musical ensembles for entertainment. New Orleans was home to Joe "King" Oliver and his leading student, Louis Armstrong. They hailed from New Orleans along with other influential musicians to include Jelly Roll Morton.
In 1718, the French started building the city of New Orleans. Located at the mouth of the Mississippi River, the city…
Barlow, W. And Morgan, T. From Cakewalks to Concert Halls: An Illustrated History of African-American Popular Music, From 1895-1930. Washington, D.C.: Elliott and Clark, 1992.
Mabunda, L. The Reference Library of Black America. Gale, 1997.
Tirro, T. "Morton, Jelly Roll," World Book, 2001.
Biographical Introduction: Teo Macero
Producers work behind the scenes and are the unsung heroes of music. While some producers receive public notoriety like Brian Eno and George Martin; others like Teo Macero remain known mainly to music scholars and serious audiophiles. In 2008, when Macero died, The New York Times ran an obituary with the tagline: "Teo Macero, 82, ecord Producer," as if readers would need that crucial bit of vocational data. Indeed, Macero is best known for his work on Miles Davis's masterpieces Kind of Blue and Bitches Brew. He was also a composer, whose approach to music takes into account the big picture rather than attention to minute detail.
Macero was ahead of his time. He incorporated electronic effects and electronic media in ways that made Bitches Brew as momentous and groundbreaking an album as it is. The embrace of new technology is therefore a hallmark…
"George Martin," (n.d.). Beatles Bible. Retrieved online: http://www.beatlesbible.com/people/george-martin/
Martin, G. (2012). Interview with Marc Myers. Retrieved online: http://www.jazzwax.com/2012/09/interview-sir-george-martin-pt-1.html
Ratliff, B. (2008). Teo Macero, 82, Record Producer, Dies. The New York Times. 22 Feb, 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/22/arts/music/22macero.html
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (2010). George Martin Biography. Retrieved online: http://rockhall.com/inductees/george-martin/bio/
Music and Society
Music has a profound influence on society. As with other forms of art, music has the ability to communicate messages that are both complex and oblique -- the message need not be specific, but may convey an emotion or ethos, external to the lyrical content of the songs. Music gives a voice to generations by allowing those who have the ability to convey their thoughts and feelings through the form, and others to convey theirs through the consumption of the media. Thus, while music can have significant influence over a generation, and reflect its values, likewise the music to which that generation is drawn to reflects its values outward to the world, allowing some of the music (and other art) consumed by that generation to be understood by any society that chooses to consume that music. One cannot replicate the 60s just by listening to the Doors…
Edmonson, J. (2013). How social media and streaming have influenced the music industry. Socialnomicsi. Retrieved December 6, 2015 from http://www.socialnomics.net/2013/12/02/how-social-media-and-streaming-have-influenced-the-music-industry/
Gordon, A. (2014). Subcultures, Popular Music and Social Change.: Subcultural practices in UK punk culture. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
music and their relationship to either the Baroque or Classical Period. The two pieces of music to be analyzed are Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 by Karl Munchinger performed by the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra and Jeffery Tate's Allegro con brio performed by the English Chamber Orchestra. A brief discussion of the comparison of the two periods of music will be presented to help contextualize the argument before describing both pieces as products of either of those periods.
Baroque Period Vs. Classical Period
The Baroque Period of Music began in 1600 and lasted until 1750. Philosophically, this period's music aligned with much of the social and intellectual enlightenment that was occurring at the same time. The musical styles of this era demonstrated complex layers of melody and appealed to an upper elite class of thought. The orchestra concept began in this period and large booming productions like many operas of the…
Although not nearly as controversial as saxophones upon their introduction, acoustic guitars have nevertheless had a lasting impact on the world of music since their invention 400 years ago. Noted for their pleasant tonality and frequently beautiful appearance, acoustic guitars remain a mainstay of several music genres such as pop and folk, and provide many newcomers to music with their first experience playing an instrument. Given their increasing popularity in recent years, it is clear that acoustic guitars are here to stay, but many people may not appreciate their lengthy heritage and the craftsmanship required to build such an instrument. To this end, this paper provides an overview of the history of acoustic guitars, followed by a description of how they are made; a summary of the research and salient findings will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
History of Acoustic Guitars. In 1944, Muddy aters…
Brain, Marshall. (2005). How Stuff Works. [Online]. Available: http://entertainment.
Guitar. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].
Bennett, Andy and Kevin Dawe. Guitar Cultures. New York: Berg, 2001.
From the research I know he was a ladies man. In Joan Peyser's book (The Memory of All That: The Life of George Gershwin) it is 1927 and Gershwin is discovered in bed with one of the attractive women from a show he and Harry Richman were working on. Caught with his shirt and pants still in his hand, Gershwin offered: "Mr. Richman, what can I say to you? I'm waiting for a streetcar?" (Peyser, 2007, p. 136).
Question #3: Music is far, far more than entertainment. A soft playing of Pieces (8) for Piano, Opus 76, by Johannes Brahms is the healing salve that helps a widow relate to the passing of her 88-year-old husband of 58 years. The Piano Sonata in E Minor D. 566 by Franz Schubert is the ideal theme to be played respectfully in the background as a new artist shows her latest abstract art…
Butterton, Mary. (2004). Music and Meaning: Opening Minds in the Caring and Healing
Professions. Oxon, UK: Radcliffe Publishing.
Peyser, Joan. (2007). The Memory of All That: The Life of George Gershwin. Milwaukee, WI:
Hal Leonard Corporation.
I especially appreciate the opportunity to place musical compositions and composers within a historical context. Placing music within a historical context illuminates some of the variables that characterize a piece like "ite of Spring." Understanding the cultural, political, and military events taking place during the composer's lifetime is essential to understanding the music. Although analyzing classical pieces can prove difficult because of shifting time signatures, counterpoint, and layering of sounds, I am now much more able to distinguish between different styles and composers. The course content has awoken my mind and my ears to rhythms and melodies and I look forward to exploring Western classical music more in-depth. For example, pieces like "ite of Spring" have made their way into movies and therefore continue to have an impact on musical culture.
Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'ite' Sound." NP MUSIC. etrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9041627
Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'Rite' Sound." NPR MUSIC. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9041627
Kelly, T. (1999). "Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring." NPR Online. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 from Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"
Revolutions in Music: Stravinsky's Rite of Spring." (2006). PBS.org. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.pbs.org/keepingscore/topicfeature2.html
Thomas, M.T. (2006). "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring." San Francisco Symphony. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.keepingscore.org/flash/stravinsky/index.html
In "The Times They Are a-Changin'," released in February 1964, he encapsulated the spirit of the times, and issued a timely warning to the older generation to accept the changing times or be drowned in a youth-inspired social revolution. (Mcilliams, 32)
hile Dylan was introducing protest folk music in the mainstream popular music in the early 1960s, bands such as "The Beatles" had captured the imagination of the estern youth on both sides of the Atlantic. By accepting the influence of each other's music in their work, these artists revolutionized estern popular music. The power of such music in shaping the direction of the youth culture was immense. It spread the message of peace, love, racial and gender equality and challenged the hypocrisy of the existing social order.
Not all aspects of the sixties music were positive. Many of the sixties rock musicians adopted a hedonistic lifestyle and indulged in…
DiGrazia, Judith L. "The Sixties: Notes of Discord." Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. 1983. January 18, 2007. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1983/4/83.04.04.x.html
McWilliams, John C. The 1960s Cultural Revolution. Ed. Randall M. Miller. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Rodnitzky, Jerome L. "The Sixties between the Microgrooves: Using Folk and Protest Music to Understand American History, 1963-1973." Popular Music and Society 23.4 (1999): 105.
Dylan started to introduce amplified rock music into his acoustic folk repertoire by 1965 and the "Beatles" replaced their simple "I wanna hold your hand" lyrics by more socially relevant themes in their songs in the latter part of the sixties.
As far as epertoirethe following web site www.kith.org/jimmosk/piano.html, listed the following: Feinberg, Aleksandrov, Medtner, Tcherepnin, Mompou, Friedman, Tausig, Persichetti, Blumenfeld, Sinding, Sitsky, Nielsen. When you click on one of the name provided it gives you more information. For example Feinberg, Samuil Evgenevich (1890-1972).
A pianist of the very first rank, a pedagogue responsible for the Soviet theory of legato playing, and a composer who stood in the vanguard of 1920s futurism, S.E. Feinberg was one of the major figures of ussian music eclipsed by Soviet cultural insularity. A 1911 graduate of the Moscow Conservatory, studying with a. Goldenweiser, he combined his teacher's love of J.S. Bach and the art of counterpoint with a fascination for the synthetic harmony of a. Scriabin. He composed Sonata #1. Moscow: Muzykalnyi Sektor, 1924. Library of Congress, Sonata #2. Moscow: Muzykalnyi Sektor, 1926. Library of Congress, Sonata #4. Moscow: Muzykalnyi Sektor, 1923. Library of Congress.…
Australia Pictures (2006). Travel to Australia Pictures. Retrieved 06/21/07, at http://www.travel-australia.org/melbourne/pianist.html
Blue Book of Pianos (2005). Blue Book of Pianos. The ages and Historical Records of Pianos sold in America, VI,. Retrieved 06/21/07, at http://www.bluebookofpianos.com
Cello.Org (2005). Famous Orchestras of the World. Retrieved 06/21/07, at http://www.cello.org/heaven/orchs.htm
Classical Archives (2007). Mozart Music Files. Retrieved 06/21/07, at www.classicalarchives.com/mozart.html#mozart_piano_son
Today many mainstream popular artists have Rhythm and Blues influences. In addition some artists fluctuate between signing R&B and pop music. Although there are often distinctions made between the two genres R&B is definitely a type of popular music that has been greatly influenced by all of the above Genres.
Rap music or hip hop is also a prime example of the influence of African-American Music on popular music. Rap music actually comes from the ancient art form of poetry. The original intent for rap was to tell a story -- provide a narrative. ithin the context of African-American folk tradition storytelling is extremely important -- the griot is important. Griots are the keepers of the oral traditions -- the storytellers. According to Powell (1991) "To the accompaniment of drums or other percussive instruments, griots entertain and educate their audiences by reciting tribal history and current events. Their performances are…
Powell, CT. (1991) Rap Music: An Education with a Beat from the Street
The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 60, No. 3,
Progler., J.A.(1995) Searching for Swing: Participatory Discrepancies in the Jazz Rhythm
Section Ethnomusicology, Vol. 39, No. 1,, pp. 21-54
Music and Dance in Indian Films
In sheer quantity, INDIA produces more movies than any other country in the world-over 900 feature-length films in at least 16 languages, according to a recent industry survey. This productivity is explained by several factors: the size of the Indian audience, low literacy rates, the limited diffusion of television in India, and well-developed export markets in both hemispheres. (http://worldfilm.about.com/cs/booksbolly/)
In its historical development, India's film industry paralleled that of the West. Dadasaheb Phalke's Raja Harishchandra, the first silent film for popular consumption, appeared in 1913; Alam Ara, the first "talkie," was released in 1931. ut the Indian cinema derived its unique flavor from the older Indian musical theater-particularly from the Urdu poetic dramas of the late nineteenth century. The influence of this tradition ensured that Indian movies would favor mythological or legendary-historical stories, that their dialogue would carry an Urdu flavor even in languages…
National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema 1947-1987 (Texas Film Studies) by Sumita S. Chakravarty Univ of Texas Pr; (December 1993)
Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema by Ashish Rajadhyaksha (Editor), Paul Willemen (Editor) British Film Inst; Revised edition (September 1999)
Cinema of Interruptions: Action Genres in Contemporary Indian Cinema by Lalitha Gopalan British Film Inst; (July 1, 2002)
The double-gourd drum, called ipu heke, provides accompaniment for the dancers (Meaning pp). Mele refers to sung poetry, and oli refers to the voice techniques used to deliver the mele, which is chanted in a rhythmic manner for dancing and at other times in a non-rhythmic manner (Meaning pp). "They are sometimes composed to mark an event of immense magnitude, such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption, storm, or tidal wave" (Meaning pp). Compositions also recall events such as the birth of a high chief or experiences such as lovemaking or war, and feelings such as nostalgia for a person or place (Meaning pp). Moreover, the composition process may be "straightforward or very complex, depending on the composer's mood and training, and other factors, such as the need to veil the identity of the hero or heroine" (Meaning pp). "Mele are delivered in diverse voice styles in which performers convey the…
Brief History of Hula
The Meaning of Hula
Music and the Universe
Music is one characteristic everything in existence possesses. For anything to be existing, it has to possess an amount of energy and these always undergo vibration. From these vibrations, sound waves are generated and these combine to form what we call music. Nothing better defines the phrase "Universal Language" than music. Every human being relates to it. Sound waves move and come in contact with just about anything existing including water, soil, animals, vegetation, other worlds and galaxies etc. Music could also determine a person's mood. This power of music on human moods and emotions can actually be explained easily. The sound waves on reaching a person encounter his/her unique energy signature which causes a unique response to each sound.
This study aims to illustrate just how music and language are related and to also conclusively show that these two have a deep mental and scientific…
Auner, Joseph. "Chapter two: Expanding musical worlds" in Music in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. WW Norton and Company. (2014): 16-34
Brown, Steven, and Joseph Jordania. "Universals in the world's musics." Psychology of Music 41, no. 2 (2013): 229-248.
McMullen, Erin, and Jenny R. Saffran. "Music and language: A developmental comparison." Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal 21, no. 3 (2004): 289-311.
Slevc, L. Robert, and Brooke M. Okada. "Processing structure in language and music: a case for shared reliance on cognitive control." Psychonomic bulletin & review 22, no. 3 (2015): 637-652.
History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.
Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora
Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.
Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)
"Lecture on Haiti," Retrieved March 3, 2012, from the Webster University Website: http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/1844-1915/douglass.htm
The Liberator, 27 March 1846; Reprinted in Philip Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1950), p. 138.
History Of the Media in America
Media America, a History
Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.
Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."
Less than a…
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American
Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd
Music Games International (MGI) had a product that they wanted to develop but they were not sure how they were going to do this. The founders of the company -- Igor, oman and Sasha -- had already produced a game that used a game platform to introduce youth to music, and it had been a critical success. Unfortunately, the game did not sell well, so the three were basically broke and searching for a way to reinvigorate the concept. Every year Harvard Business School (HBS) has a business plan contest that allows students to showcase their talents. They are allowed to work in teams and with outside developers and that is how Henry and Dana became involved with MGI.
The task was to create a business plan out of the previously muddled work of the original founders and determine what was needed to present the concept to investors. There were…
Berry, T, (2007). How to perform a SWOT analysis. Retrieved from http://articles.bplans.com/business/how-to-perform-SWOT-analysis/116
Leslie, J.B. (2009). The leadership gap: What you have, and don't have, when it comes to leadership talent. Center for Creative Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/research/leadershipGap.pdf
ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…
Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.
Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian
Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,
History Of Communication Timeline
TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION
(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)
First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.
Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."
First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."
St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.
Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.
After some ineffective negotiating with the police both Sandro and a passenger on board of the bus get killed.
The main concept of the movie revolves around the unjust system; the blind Brazilian authorities that single-handedly create criminals by neglecting and aggressing most of the poor people instead of creating ways of improving their lives.
Favela Rising" is yet another motion picture intended to expose the truth concerning the Latin-American slums. The action again takes place in Rio de Janeiro, but the intriguing part about the film is that it is a documentary which tells the story of Anderson Sa, a former drug dealer from the Vigario Geral district.
Anderson had been living in a favela in Rio de Janeiro when he heard that his brother has been accidentally shot in the middle of a gang war. Just as the characters in the previous movies and in Carolina's book, Anderson…
De Jesus, Carolina Maria, and St. Clair David. Child of the Dark. Signet Classic, 2003.
Bus 174. Dir. Jose Padilha. 2002.
City of God. Dir. Fernando Meirelles. Miramax, Buena Vista International. 2002.
Favela Rising. Dir. Matt Mochary, Jeff Zimbalist. HBO/Cinemax. 2005.
During the beginning of ancient times, Classical civilization still lived as hunters and gatherers. They used the resources available to them and learned to gather grains, berries, and other plant foods and store them for the winter. This required them to live where the geography and climate could support them, and where supplies of water were easily available. Early settlements clustered around rivers and streams for this reason. y the end of the Classical Era, The Roman Empire had fallen. European cultures had been influenced by Rome's accomplishments, however, and Europeans knew how to build aquifers to bring the water to them. They had learned to build both roads and bridges. They had tamed livestock and used them for transportation. y the Classical Era, many of geography's limitations had solutions. Thus people could live in villages, towns and cities, farm the surrounding countryside and transport it to where…
Garraty, John A., and Gay, Peter, Eds. The Columbia History of the World. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1999.
Steve Jobs was removed from the Lisa project in 1982 by Apple before its debut in 1983. The computer also flopped badly, being too far ahead of its time and too expensive (priced at $10,000).
Jobs joined the Macintosh team in 1982 and proceded to make the product surpass Lisa by incorporating an advanced GUI in the computer. The Mac was launched in early 1984 and was succesful initially. By the end of the year, however, it started to lose out to overwhelming competition from IBM and Microsoft. (Sanford; "History of Apple Computers," ikipedia)
Jobs Loses his Job
By 1982, Steve Jobs had begun to realize that Apple was faced with increasing competition from heavyweight competitors such as IBM and Microsoft and needed outside help. He wooed John Sculley from Pepsi-Cola, who joined Apple as President and CEO in April 1983. The two, however, soon fell out and after an…
Apple Computers: A brief history." BBC News. February 10, 2000. October 1, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/business/2000/microsoft/636824.stm
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of Modern Computer." About.com. n.d. October 1, 2005. http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa121598.htm
History of Apple Computers" From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005. October 1, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Apple_Computer
Sanford, Glen. Company History. apple-history.com. 1976-2005. October 1, 2005. http://www.apple-history.com/
And while those parts in the movie were partially fictional, it made honest, historically valid points. In fact Matthew Broderick played the role of Col. Robert Gould Shaw, and this was a true representation of an actual Union Army officer who led the 54th.
Another message this movie conveyed was that racism was almost always present in society in the 19th century; that is, white soldiers in many cases were racist against the black troops even though they were fighting on the same side. The black and white soldiers were both fighting to rid the nation of slavery and yet there was reluctance on the part of some white soldiers to accept black men as equals in battle. Seeing the film this week after having seen "42," the story of Jackie Robinson getting into Major League Baseball, I see strong parallels. Even though Jackie was a great player, some white…
Massachusetts Historical Society (2002). 54th Regiment! Retrieved July 28, 2013, from http://www.masshist.org .
Reggae music, born of a combination of R&B, blues, jazz, and traditional African music, and combined with a religious tradition, was unique to Jamaica at a time when the country was looking for her identity. The combination of political messages, religious connotation, and raw sound was ideal for the changing society of the time. However, to be pushed to international stardom, the music was altered and rerecorded by milder, less powerful white British artists who helped internationalize the genre. The end result, however, was that it would take many years for true reggae to reach international audiences, complete with the ideology and messages the music was intended to portray. hile the British musicians helped popularize the culture, it would take Bob Marley and many others decades to bring the true message of reggae music to international light.
Connell, John. Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity, and Place. London: Routledge,…
Connell, John. Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity, and Place. London: Routledge, 2002. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103320803 .
Everything Jamaican. "The History of Reggae Music." Jamaica. Everything Jamaican. 2004. 7 May 2007. http://www.everytingjamaican.com/jamaica/ .
Farred, Grant. What's My Name? Black Vernacular Intellectuals. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109751409 .
Bays, Barry T. Reggae, Rastafari, and the Rhetoric of Social Control. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2002. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106845661 .
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
This were then replaced with larger big band orchestras as technology allowed such large groups to be clearly recorded, "As the swing era began, shorts were made of many of the top orchestras," (Yanow 2). Big band orchestras began showing up in all the major Hollywood productions. They featured pre-recorded songs where the musicians lip singed. It is interesting to have such a crucial period on film. The Swing Era "was fortunately captured for feature films and short subjects at the time it was all happening," (Behlmer 1). Big bands became incredibly popular in feature films during the 1930s and 40s. Benny Goodman, "The King of Swing," had a movie- Hollywood Hotel in 1937 "the full orchestra plays an abbreviated version of that quintessential Swing Era arrangement of 'Sing, Sing, Sing' in the film," (Behlmer 1). From big Hollywood productions came popularity on the small screen. As televisions became the…
Behlmer, Rudy. "Big Bands in the Movies." Turner Classic Movies. 2009. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://www.tcm.com/thismonth/article/?cid=199314
Gridley, Mark C. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2006.
History Link, "The Jazz Singer, the First Successful Feature Film with Sound, Debuts in Seattle at the Blue Mouse on December 30, 1927." The Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 Nov 2009 at http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=2485
Schoenherr, Steven E. "Recording Technology History." San Diego University. 2005. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/recording/notes.html#origins
Race and Music: Richie Valens
In the past, an individual's culture would dominate whether or not he or she could have any kind of financial success outside of fans of that particular culture. However, there have been a few musical artists who have been able to transcend the limitations of their culture and become what would be considered mainstream performers. These people are extraordinary in that not only were they able to achieve great success, but were able to do so without sacrificing the integrity of their heritages. One of the first successful Latin or Chicano artists to achieve mainstream success in the United States was Richie Valens, born Ricardo Esteban Valenzuela Reyes. This man introduced 1950s America to the sounds of Latin and Hispanic culture and incorporated Spanish language into popular songs which became big hits in America among Hispanic and white audiences as well. hat is particularly remarkable…
Lehmer, Larry (2004). The Day the Music Died: The Last Tour of Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper,
and Richie Valens. Schirmer: New York, NY.
"Son Jarocho Music." (2011). National Geographic. Retrieved from http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/page.basic/genre/content.genre/son_jarocho_789/en_US
Today sometimes also referred to as 'urban' music, R&B was originally a euphemistic way of referring to the boogie woogie blues-based music of African-Americans in the 40s and 50s. In some circles, these would be referred to as 'race records.' When white musicians like Elvis Presley began recording these songs, the term Rock and Roll was coined. This transition would not render the R&B genre moot, but would instead apply it to most music made by African-Americans. Over the years, this would come to serve as a Billboard Chart classification for forms such as Soul, Funk, Disco and many modes of Hip Hop.
Quite in fact, today, R&B may be said to be the dominant form in popular music once again, with its permeation of the variant of popular forms impacting the sound of music today in the same way that rock would for decades. Particularly in the type of…
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
am Cooke," Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/am_Cooke.An extensive entry on the singer that includes biography, discography, a discussion of his legacy in music, and a large section discussing the mysterious circumstances surrounding his death.
tewart, B. 2005. Message in the Music: Political Commentary in Black Popular Music from Rhythm and Blues to Early Hip Hop. The Journal of African-American History. 90 (3): 196-209. Explores the history, purpose and some specific instances of political commentary in gospel, R&B, soul, and hip hop. Briefly discusses some of am Cooke's songs including "Chain Gang," and his posthumous "A Change is Gonna Come."
Ebony. 2000. The 25 Most Important Events in Black Music History. 55 (8): 140. A brief article chronicling the major events and movements in black music history including an entry on am Cooke's release of "You end Me" in 1957, which "marked the beginning of the transitional period leading to soul music"…
Sam Cooke," Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Cooke.An extensive entry on the singer that includes biography, discography, a discussion of his legacy in music, and a large section discussing the mysterious circumstances surrounding his death.
Stewart, B. 2005. Message in the Music: Political Commentary in Black Popular Music from Rhythm and Blues to Early Hip Hop. The Journal of African-American History. 90 (3): 196-209. Explores the history, purpose and some specific instances of political commentary in gospel, R&B, soul, and hip hop. Briefly discusses some of Sam Cooke's songs including "Chain Gang," and his posthumous "A Change is Gonna Come."
Ebony. 2000. The 25 Most Important Events in Black Music History. 55 (8): 140. A brief article chronicling the major events and movements in black music history including an entry on Sam Cooke's release of "You Send Me" in 1957, which "marked the beginning of the transitional period leading to soul music" (140).
A Brief History of Cool Jazz
December 6, 2012, would have marked the ninety-second birthday of pianist Dave Brubeck. The nonagenarian was looking forward to performing at the Palace Theater near his home in aterbury, Connecticut. Sadly, Brubeck died of heart failure just one day shy of the celebratory concert. The concert went on as scheduled, but it was a memorial rather than a birthday party. It is what Brubeck would have wanted. Brubeck was one of the originators of a jazz style that became known as "cool jazz." He was a brilliant pianist who loved to experiment with rhythms and instrumentation in ensemble work. Brubeck never stopped innovating over his long career during which he composed symphonies, classical and religious music, ballets and film scores He valued musical integrity over commercial reward. "You never know what's going to work," he said. "You just go with what you…
Dave Brubeck Quartet. 1961. YouTube. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. .
Dryden, Ken. "Take five: The public and private lives of Paul Desmond." All About Jazz.
2 Feb. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=17894 >.
He has also learned to appreciate an even wider and more eclectic variety of music than even his mother enjoyed. But without an early musical foundation and exposure to music as a part of life, he does not think he would be nearly as adventurous. The pairing of certain musical styles against one another, like posh vs. common, classical vs. contemporary, and Mod vs. Rock, has more to do with personal, class-based and aesthetic self-definition, he felt, than the fact that one musical style is inherently superior to another musical style.
As he has grown older, Martin says that he listens more for personal taste, rather than to suit his tastes to a particular style because of personal self-definition. He attributes this to being more secure in his own identity. He says that he likes to listen to the music of his youth, although he also listens to a great…
The Hippie community was rapidly expanding and its primary stimulator was music, as people were literally going through brain-affecting experiences as they listened to psychedelic music.
IV. Music is essential in some people's lives because they associate it with particular feelings. Patriotic music is a very important factor in most countries because it makes individuals identify with it and because it triggers sentiments related to belonging. Religious music is also important, considering that many religions accept that religious teachings can be expressed more efficiently by being sung. People often turn to music simply because they feel that it helps them as they try to relax or as they attempt to amplify their feelings.
hereas music can be beneficial when used in certain contexts, it can be particularly harmful when used inappropriately. Aggressive language alongside of a rapid beats-per-minute tempo can influence listeners in adopting hostile attitudes and in behaving unethically.…
Bonta, Steve, "Morality of Music: Because Music Primarily Communicates Emotions, Its Morality May Be Judged According to Whether the Feelings Conveyed Are Positive and Noble or Negative and Base," The New American 8 Apr. 2002
Kirkweg, Sara B. "The Effects of Music on Memory," Retrieved October 27, 2011, from the National Undergraduate Research Website: http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/230.php
Oldfield, Amelia Interactive Music Therapy: A Positive Approach: Music Therapy at a Child Development Centre (London: Jessica Kingsley, 2006)
music of the Twentieth entury. Specifically, it will compare music of the Twentieth entury to the music of a previous period, and include information about the significance of composers in society, the role of music in the societal landscape, and the evolution of musical forms through the centuries.
Twentieth entury music embodies so many different forms and types that it is difficult to lump it together under one heading. In the United States, the Twentieth entury brought music listeners everything from Gershwin to rap and blues to headbanging. Just as America is a rich cultural melting pot, her music is just as rich and varied, and this is nowhere more evident than in the Twentieth entury.
At the turn of the Twentieth entury, most of America listened to opera and classical music - much of it from some of Europe's most famous composers of the previous centuries, such as Bach,…
Composers have always been revered by society, and the part they play in the social fabric of a time is incredibly significant. The music of Copland and Gershwin embodies an age in American culture, just as the music of Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman embodies another time and place. Good composers can "feel" the time and place, and create music that embodies the spirit of the country and the people. This was never more evident than after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, when people suddenly wanted to hear patriotic melodies, and several composers complied by writing touching tributes to America and the victims of the attacks. Composers have always created music that spoke of the people and the times, and as such, they are mirrors of society, and change in society. Jazz came about because the lifestyle of the people was changing, and they needed music that reflected these changes. Rap came about for the same reason, and so did rock and roll. All of these forms of music came about at the right time. Composers recognized the societal changes, and were not afraid to change with them.
Music can touch a place in a person's soul, and this is another reason composers who can feel what the people are feeling are so important. Music is woven into the fabric of our lives. We marry to special music, are buried with special music, and remember certain music of the past by the memories it evokes. Music, and the people who write it, are a vital part of society at every level, and at every stage in a person's life. We tend to look back at the music of our youth with fondness, which is one reason music of the past can sometimes resurge, such as the current cult popularity of swing bands, such as Big Bad Voo Doo Daddies, Manhattan Transfer, and the Brian Setzer Orchestra.
In conclusion, music has always evolved and changed how we listen to it. One critic said, "Reviewing the popular music of the twentieth century as a whole, most people would probably agree that some of it is excellent, some unbearable, and most of it very indifferent" (Van der Merwe 3). This continues to be the case.
In many of the cases Music is termed as 'Universal Language', a language that has no word but still has lot to convey. Music therefore has positive consequences on different front of societies including social, cultural and economical (Music industry and Tourism foster economic growth).
All these factors have convinced the school management to introduce and teach Music as formal subject in their schools, the Music subject has equal factor in terms of grade evaluation as compare to any other subject, Music has to be necessarily considered as core subject for teaching, "The term 'core academic subjects' means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography"(No Child Left Behind Act of 2002).
Following facts and figures are listed to support the case,
According to College-Bound Seniors National eport: Profile of SAT Program Test Takers, Students having involved in the environment or…
David Bray., Teaching Music in Secondary School.
Nicholas Temperley., the Lost Chord: Essays on Victorian Music.
Gary Spruce., Teaching Music in Secondary Schools.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, Title IX, Part a, Sec. 9101 (11).
All the places we hung out at had jukeboxes.
I don't remember ever going to concerts when I was a kid, but on television they would have like big western hayrides that were really popular. The concerts they had back then did not include such things as mosh pits. Like I said before, the biggest sin you could commit back then was smoking, and drinking was unheard of.
The values have changed so much that sometimes I just get sick thinking about it. I guess I shouldn't generalize, but it sure seems that way to me. Along with the technological progression, has come such things as pornography and those kinds of things, everything nowadays is so accessible.
When did the music start to change? I really did not notice any changes until the late 60's, Woodstock era was a dramatic change, especially with the hippies and all that backwards nonsense.…
relationship of music and culture and history in Japan. The music of Japan is as rich and diverse as the culture of Japan's people, and it has a long place in Japan's history. Several different musical forms and instruments make up Japan's musical history, and it has ancient beginnings in the earliest history of Japan in many cases. While the Japanese have held on to their musical past, they are also not afraid to create new musical traditions, such as the karaoke fad that swept the world in the 1990s and beyond.
Ancient Japanese Music
Many scholars believe that Japanese music has its roots in the music of China, an ancient culture that dominated Asian culture from the earliest recorded history. However, studies indicate this is really not the case. Japanese music historian Egon Wellesz notes, "It might be expected that Japanese music would exhibit considerable Chinese influence; but it…
Asai, S.M. (1999). Nomai dance drama: A surviving spirit of medieval Japan. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Malm, W.P. (2000). Traditional Japanese music and musical instruments. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International.
Tokita, A. & Hughes, D.W. (2008). Ashgate research companion to Japanese music. Surry, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
Wellesz, E. (Ed.). (1999). Ancient and oriental music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…
Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.
Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.
Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
The Origins of Blues Music
The Blues is a type of music that comes from the Unites States of America. The history of this type of music is closely related to matters of labor, politics, economics, and ethnicity. The Blues is a distinct genre of music and within it there are other subcategories of blues music. Blues did not originate is a vacuum, with respect to musical influences and historical ties. Blues is a form of music that is connected to other musical forms of the past, the present, and the future. There are many precise details about the origins of the blues that are still unknown at this time. There is no specific year of establishment or creation of the blues. There are direct traces or connections to the blues to cultures and musical traditions in Africa, as well as to the musical traditions, predominantly coming from…
Oakley, Giles. The Devil's Music: A History of the Blues. First Da Capo Press, London. 1976, 1997. Print.
As per Dr. Sacks, Alzheimer patients take advantage from listening to the familiar music. The music entails them memory stimulus, restoring the accessibility to personal history. It is said to have motivated the powers of speech and the thought process. However, his entire emotional as well as intellectual configuration, his life history, his identity, is greatly influenced by the music. The study of psycho-neuroimmunology narrates the influence of neuropeptides on human emotions. The beta-endorphins appear to be released and the body is permitted to perform its own healing work on physiological level, while the person is in a relaxed condition. The music therapy attempts to bring such state which is revealed to be 'audio analgesisa'. (Music Heals: Music for Healing and Transition)
5. What facilities practice this form of therapy and where and is it becoming more and more popular?
The Kaiser-Permanente Medical Center in Los Angeles was regarded to…
Alzheimer's and Other Dementias: Understanding the Differences. Retrieved at http://www.helpguide.org/elder/alzheimers_dementias_types.htm . Accessed 6 June, 2006
Forgeron, Nicole. The Impact of Music Therapy on Alzheimer's Disease Patients. March, 1999. Retrieved at http://faculty.uccb.ns.ca/gcarre/courses/health/music.htm. Accessed 6 June, 2006
Gerosa, Cristina. M; Bonanomi, Claudio. Observation of the Alzheimer Patient and Music
Therapy. Retrieved from www.musictherapyworld.de/modules/mmmagazine/issues/20020801160643/20020801170306/Bonamifinal.htm. Accessed 6 June, 2006
Electric guitar [...] history of the invention of the electric guitar and of primary inventor/developer Les Paul. What were his contributions, as a designer, and as a musician? How have the technical developments in electric guitars and amplification affected the evolution of rock? The electric guitar electrified rock, literally. A distant cousin of the acoustic guitar, the electric guitar had power, presence, and an attitude, and it made a difference in the music we listen to today. Some believe the electric guitar is rock and roll music, and it exemplifies how a new instrument can create a sound, and a legend, all its' own.
Guitars have existed in history for thousands of years. elated to lutes, (which had only two strings), most guitars had six strings, and were designed to be strummed or plucked. It was not until the 20th century that the acoustic, hollow-bodied guitar metamorphosized into the solid-body,…
Butters, P. (1996, November 7). The power of guitars: Exhibition amplifies instrument's history. The Washington Times, p. 4.
DeCurtis, A. (Ed.). (1992). Present Tense: Rock & Roll and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Friedlander, P. (1996). Rock and Roll A Social History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Gracyk, T. (1996). Rhythm and noise: An aesthetics of rock. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Furthermore, Live Nation would have a great advantage in advising and guiding Springsteen regarding his career and recordings. Since the company handles all aspects of the artist's career and has a great chance of benefiting from everything the artist does, it also has a long-term perspective and interest in developing the artist's career.
Springsteen has been widely advised to sign the ten-year deal with Live Nation in order to avoid the difficulties and costs associated with self-marketing. However, this deal is not the most suitable because Springsteen already has a huge and loyal fan base and would therefore have fewer challenges in marketing his album. Secondly, Springsteen will also lose creative control since creative decisions are not left entirely on the artist's hand since the partner has too much at stake. While he stands a chance to receive a lot of money up front in this deal, he will significantly…
Byrne, D. (2008, January 16). David Byrne's Survival Strategies for Emerging Artists -- and Megastars. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://www.wired.com/entertainment/music/magazine/16-01/ff_byrne?currentPage=2
"The Current State of the Music Industry." (2010, March 31). DIO: Do It Ourselves. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://dio333.wordpress.com/2010/03/31/the-current-state-of-the-music-industry/
Rock History -- Analyzing Songs
Since I Don't Have You -- the Skyliners
The arrangement by the Skyliners is very effective and fairly typical of 1950s music, in that there is an strong orchestra opening -- dramatically powering the listener into the mood of the song -- for a few seconds. And suddenly the group's harmony comes blasting in, joining the orchestra, and musically informing listeners that this is a slow dance tune. This is Do-Wop dance music from heaven, for lovers that don't want to dance fast but love clinging on to each other in a slow dance. The beat is strong but slow, and as the lead voice reaches high for emotional impact, other members of the group join in harmony by "Ahhhhh-ing" wordlessly along with the lead singer.
The arrangement is extremely friendly to the listener. As the lead singer Jimmy Beaumont rockets high notes, going into…
23. "96 degrees in the shade." Third World (Jamaica). Reggae Greats
The guitar opening in "96 degrees in the shade" make the song sound not like reggae but like soft rock or smooth jazz. In fact, as the song progresses I was surprised that it took so long for the quintessential reggae sounds to start: including the syncopated rhythms and baseline.
24. "Dodi Li." Theodore Bikell (Israel). Folk Songs of Israel
Meaning "My beloved is mine," Dodi Li is a classic Israeli folk song that has been sung by an astonishing variety of groups including Peter, Paul, and Mary and the Milwaukee Children's Choir. The song emphasizes beautiful vocals and heartfelt Hewbrew lyrics. Theodore Biskell's version is evocative especially because the vocals are haunting and resonate throughout my soul. Moreover, the song is deceptively simple with simple soft strumming and drums in the background.
25. "Slow Hora/Freylekhs." The Klezmer Conservatory…
In the music field, Germany boasts of some of the world's most renowned producers, composers and performers. Germany is the third largest music market in the world and the largest in Europe. The earliest roots of the music culture in Germany are within monastic chants and religious music. The 12th century saw the mystic abbess Hildegard who was from Bingen writing storing compositions and hymns. These were sought to be free musical expressions coming from narrow conventions. Between the 12th and 14th century, minnesingers who were wandering nobles and knights wrote and recited love poems in country version in the tradition of French trovers and troubadours. Out of the many minnesingers during that period of time, einmar Von Hagenau and Walther Von de Vogelweide were the most famous ones. Apart from the minnesingers there was also the development of a secular folk music tradition. There are collections of…
Joseph, A. (2012). Ten Reasons to love German culture: German Giants of classical Music. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://theculturetrip.com/europe/germany/articles/ten-reasons-to-love-german-culture-german-giants-of-classical-music-/
InterNations.org. (2014). The German Music scene. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://www.internations.org/germany-expats/guide/16030-culture-shopping-recreation/the-german-music-scene-16028
Countriesquest. (2009). Culture, Music. Retrieved September 26, 2014 from http://www.countriesquest.com/europe/germany/culture/music.htm
jazz as a musical tradition not only has a bright future ahead of it, but has also had an illustrious past. The reasons for this are its flexibility. This flexibility, as well as its ability to effortlessly mould itself not only to current events, but also to current musical paradigms, ensures that jazz has a past, a present and a future that can be rivaled by few other genres in music.
The flexibility of jazz translates to and from the world around it. We live in a very dynamic world, with overnight change accepted as the order of the day. Jazz then caters to this by being a flexible musical tradition.
Jazz has also become a sort of language; the "English" of the musical world. It crosses all musical boundaries and is likely to appeal to most audiences. The audience for jazz then is the "global village." Jazz can potentially…
History of Japanese Pop Culture
The Japanese introduced Karaoke in the mid-1970s, and many have since argued that this was one of Japan's best known and greatest contributions to the world (Shimatachi, 101). Karaoke in Japan is very different from Karaoke in the United States. In America, Karaoke is viewed primarily "as a kind of talent contest from which the less musically gifted had best abstain" (Shimatachi, 101). Americans commonly go to nightclubs to show off their talents and attempt to win some money in the process. Only those with adequate singing voices are considered serious Karaoke participants. In Japan however, Karaoke is utilized not only as a form of entertainment, but also as an important means with which to conduct business (Shimatachi, 101). Karaoke in Japan is encouraged among all people equally, and is typically carried out as a means to develop camaraderie. These ideas and more…
Craig, Timothy J. Japan Pop! Inside the world of Japanese popular culture. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, (2000).
Shimatachi, Hiro R. "A Karaoke Perspective on International Relations" In, Japan Pop! Inside the world of Japanese popular culture. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, (2000).
Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…
Greene, Meg. Slave Young, Slave Long: The American Slave Experience. Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co., c1999.
Haskins, James. Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1999.
Lisa Vox, (2012). The Start of Slavery in North America." Accessed April 29, 2012 from http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/The-Start-Of-Slavery-In-North-America.htm
Morgan Edmund, (2003). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
Brown had succeeded in spite of a terrible start in life and seemingly without making musical compromises" (95). Indeed, he did.
Brown's style has been one that successfully changed with the times. A close look at his songs will reveal how his music evolved with the sounds of the times. Brown drew from rhythm and blues musical influences such as Little Richard and Ray Charles, as these influences are present in his early work. From "Please, Please, Please" to "Living in America," Brown's identifiable sound has never lost his style. His first hit Please, Please, Please" demonstrates sounds that were popular in the late 1950s. In "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag," we hear the earlier influences of the late 50s and early 60s in the lyrics and the guitar riffs.
Brown's career and musical inclinations began to change in the mid-60s, which can be seen in "I Feel Good…
Brackett, David. "James Brown." Grove Music Online. Site Accessed May 19, 2008. http://www.grovemusic.com
Kamien, Roger. Music: An Appreciation. Boston: McGraw-Hill. 2000.
Danielson, Anne. Presence and Pleasure: The Funk Grooves of James Brown. Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. 2006.
Elliot, Marc. I Feel Good: A Memoir of a Life of Soul: Introduction. New York: Penguin Books. 2005.
MUSIC AND CENSORSHIP the FIRST AMENDMENT U.S. Constitution: Congress make law respecting establishment religion, prohibiting free exercise thereof; abridging freedom speech, press; people peaceably assemble, petition Government a redress grievances.
Photography as art: Walter Benjamin on photography
The invention of photography was initially viewed as a challenge to conventional forms of art because it could more perfectly replicate the surface of reality than any human brushstroke. However, artists were able to meet this challenge through using the human imagination and decentralizing the emphasis on replication. But Walter Benjamin argued that photography still posed a very profound and troubling challenge to art. Before, when people gazed at art, they were gazing at something recognizably 'other' that could not be reproduced and was an object with its own integrity. In contrast, a photograph can always be reproduced in its entirety and thus exists as a commodity. People long for some originality in…
Given that Christianity tended to view history as progressive, and Christ's sacrifice and the event of Christendom being the ultimate apex of earlier civilization, the past was often seen as an inferior precursor to the present in a particularly judgmental light -- hence the persecution of certain groups as infidels and outsiders. It is the historian and the anthropologist's duty to unpack such cultural assumptions and to view the world through a less morally-clouded and self-justifying lens.
Episode 2: Conquest. (2005). Guns, Germs & Steel. PBS. Retrieved May 31, 2011 at http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/show/episode2.html
Anthropological research project: Celebrating women anthropologists
his website catalogues the research of famous women anthropologists throughout the ages. It has a specifically feminist slant, and details the research these women engaged in, along with their personal struggles for recognition in the field. While most people are familiar with the work of Margaret Mead in Samoa,…
This website catalogues the research of famous women anthropologists throughout the ages. It has a specifically feminist slant, and details the research these women engaged in, along with their personal struggles for recognition in the field. While most people are familiar with the work of Margaret Mead in Samoa, Zora Neale Hurston's cataloging of African-American folklore and Dian Fosse and her work with primates, the accomplishments of other pioneering female anthropologists have often been forgotten.
Even during the 19th century, women such as Alice Cunningham Fletcher studied other cultures from an objective anthropological lens. Fletcher acted as a consultant to President Grover Cleveland on the 'Indian Problem,' studied and recorded Native American music, customs, and language, and also acted as an advocate for the restoration of Native American land. Ellen Irene Diggs, an anthropologist who studied with W.E.B. DuBois researched, proofread and footnoted DuBois' work Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880. She was one of the first anthropologists to study the relationship of African and Cuban history and heritage.
Mary Nichol Douglas Leakey, a biological anthropologist, had no formal university training. Yet she discovered the skull of Proconsul africanus in Kenya 1947-48, the skull of an early human prototype Zinjanthropus in Olduvai Gorge in 1959, and 3.5 million-year-old footprints in Laetoli in 1976. These discoveries made major contributions to the understanding of the development of humanity. Leakey's work and the work of other women is testimony to the fact that even when denied a full range of opportunities to practice their craft, female anthropologists have used the opportunities they have been given to shine and make major contributions to the advancement of knowledge. Women anthropologists, as reflective of their marginalized place in society, have also been apt to fuse social activism with their discipline. They have used knowledge as a method of advocacy, and made education of the public a means to restore dignity and justice to the social perceptions of marginalized peoples.
Folk culture refers to the collection of "songs, tales, proverbs, jokes" that reflect a specific segment of society -- and can often refer to the expressions of marginalized groups like African-Americans. Popular culture is more mainstream, and is fabricated and consumed by the dominant culture. It would include newspapers, magazines, and books propagated throughout a country, as opposed to folk culture, which would be localized (either geographically or, if the group is geographically spread out, culturally). According to Levine, popular culture is "seen as the antithesis of folk culture."[footnoteef:1] There is also an impression that popular culture lacks the authenticity of folk culture in capturing the spirit of the people. As Levine puts it, popular culture does not emanate from the community but is created artificially for consumption by the community and usually with financial motives. For historians and other researchers, popular culture, "if it has to be…
Alverman, Donna E., Moon, Jennifer S. And Hagood, Margaret C. "Popular Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Researching Critical Media Literacy. Literacy Studies Series." International Reading Association, 1999.
Bennett, A. Popular Music and Youth Culture: Music, Identity, and Place. CAB, 2000.
Davis, Natalie Zemon. "Toward Mixtures and Margins." AHR Forum.
Haque, Sabir. "Folk Culture, Mass Culture, Convergence Culture." Idea Minefield. Retrieved online: http://www.ideaminefield.com/2008/07/folk-culture-mass-culture-convergence.html
history of the 1920's, a colorful era of tycoons, gangsters, bohemians and inventors. Areas covered include the arts, news and politics, science and humanities, business and industry, society fads and sports. The bibliography includes fives sources, with five quotations from secondary sources, and footnotes.
The 1920's are commonly referred to as the 'Roaring Twenties', an appropriate title for a decade that did indeed roar out of the Victorian Era. Gone were the corsets and up went the skirt hems as flapper girls bared their legs and speakeasies with bathtub gin dominated the nightlife.
Tycoons became America's royalties while bohemian lifestyles bore the twentieth century's most influential era of art and literature. Inventions brought us into the modern age of convenience and history making events.
The twenties began with a serious but short-lived post-war recession, following World War 1.
Yet, by the mid-twenties, business and industry had created legends that have…
Bryer, Jackson R. Edited. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Novels and Stories 1920-1922.
Library of America. September 2000.
http://classiclit.about.com/library/weekly/aa100100a.htm . (accessed 02-14-2002).
sound technologies and sound design in Film
Sound in films
Experiments in Early Age
Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan
Unified sound in film production
Sound designers in Cinematography
Sound Recording Technologies
History of Sound Recording Technology
Film sound technology
Modern Digital Technology
History of sound in films
Sound Recording Technologies
The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…
Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.
Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.
Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.
Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.