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326). Likewise, Dagbovie (2005) points out that ay Charles drew on black history for his inspiration during a period in American history when the "tradition of protest" had not yet been firmly established. Another biographer suggests that the musical genius of ay Charles helped him reach a prominent place in American society where he could make a difference in the Civil ights Movement: "James Brown fathered funk; Sly Stone raised it. ay Charles' mastery of it all made America see beyond its blinding bigotry" (Dyson, 2005, p. 174).
The research showed that blind musicians can be either musical savants or musical prodigies, with the vast majority of professional performers representing the latter. If 100 people were asked to name a flower, most likely 99 would say "rose." Likewise, if asked to name some famous blind musicians, 99 out of 100 people will probably respond "Stevie Wonder and ay Charles."…
Cooper, B.L. (1991). Popular music perspectives: Ideas, themes, and patterns in contemporary lyrics. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
Dagbovie, P.G. (2005). Of all our studies, history is best qualified to reward our research. Black history's relevance to the hip hop generation. The Journal of African-American History, 90(3), 299.
Goldstein, D. (1998). Music institute for blind college-bound musicians. RE:view, 29(4), 163.
Haroutounian, J. (2000). The delights and dilemmas of the musically talented teenager. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 12(1), 3.
However, though he is still regarded a controversial racist in some quarters, that agner was a musical genius is not in doubt. Indeed, most of his compositions attest to this fact. This is more so the case when it comes to one of his compositions by the name Ride of the Valkyries. In my opinion, this remains one of the most passionate of his compositions. The opening of this classic can best be described as attention-grabbing. As the composition progresses, it simulates what can be regarded a rapid motion to create an air of both intensity and excitement. hen it comes to the melody, the same is chiefly in strong low brass. This gives the composition a rather heavy feel.
As I have already noted elsewhere in this text, apart from being gifted in the art of composition, agner also comes across as being rather controversial based on his…
Bremen Town Musicians" Ludwig Karl Grimm ilhelm Karl Grimm- Tells characters similar problems.Give specific evidence examples story. Can leave a space question I put separate boxes's formated .
Town Musicians of Bremen
The "Town Musicians of Bremen" folktale recorded by the Brothers Grimm is set in a rural area in Prussia, taking into account that its writers were generally concerned about stories involving elements that were familiar to them. The setting is meant to emphasize the simplistic and yet powerful nature of the story, taking into account that it is apparently meant to put across a succinct message. In addition to the geographical setting of the story, the tale is set in an area containing several farms that put across the idea of a home. Readers are likely to sympathize with the central characters as they realize the importance that a home can have on an individual.
The animals are…
Mulock Craik, Dinah Maria, "The Fairy Book: The Best Popular Stories," (Harper, 1870)
Ray Charles was one of the greatest musicians of all time. He embodied the term genius, for there was hardly a music genre in which he did not excel, whether gospel, blues, rock, country, or soul (Inductees pp). By combining the elements of gospel and blues, Charles created what came to be known as soul music (Inductees pp). During the 1950's, while signed with Atlantic Records, he broke down the barriers between sacred and secular music and fostered "a crossover between gospel music and the rhythm patterns of the blues" (Inductees pp). Over the decades, Charles also used elements of country and western, as well as big-band and jazz into his music (Inductees pp). Ray Charles is considered to be "as complete and well-rounded a musical talent as this century has produced" (Inductees pp).
Ray Charles Robinson was born in 1930 in Albany, Georgia, but grew up in Greenville, Florida…
The American Sound
Many young musicians often hear the phrase American sound and wonder what the concept actually means. Historically, the idea of American sound is music that identifies with America in one way or another during a period in history. American sound may vary slightly from different time periods, but has been centered on important historical topics and ideas that have importance to the specific writer's interest. It is believed by many musical historians that the famous American composers William Grant Still and Aaron Copland created American sound in their works. Still's Afro-American Symphony and Copland's Appalachian Spring embody the conceptual idea of American sound, and the reasons why both author's works are considered American sound will be explained in detail.
In 1930, William Grant Still wrote his first symphony, and he entitled it the Afro-American symphony. Still's work combined the traditional elements of a full…
Kamien, R (1997). Music: an appreciation. New York, NY; Mcgraw-Hill College; 3rd edition
Smith, C.P. (2000). William Grant Still: A study in contradictions. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
They take nothing for granted, especially school. While in America kids are cutting classes and slacking off, children in the Dominican Republic soaked up every ounce of knowledge they could. They rose to the challenges posed to them by poverty and oppression. What I witnessed in a developing nation was the immense strength of the human spirit and the ability of all people to overcome adversity.
My experience in the Dominican Republic opened my eyes to social and political realities, and my time in the military school helped me to gain the discipline and courage I will need to succeed. Like Bernice Johnson Reagon, I hope to explore ways of helping others meet life's challenges head-on, helping them to discover who they are. I intend to accomplish my goals by studying law and working hard to change injustice, the greatest challenge of all. Thank you for your consideration.
Miles Davis and Modern Jazz
In every artistic medium there are innovators who push innovation to the edge -- who change the paradigm of their art, and who become iconic figures within their world. Classical music had innovators in every generation -- Stravinsky's ite of Spring, Leonard Bernstein, and more. Jazz, too, evolved from a combination of folk and tribal styles through different eras (Dixie, Be Bop, etc.) into what now is really a true 20th century musical phenomenon.
The origins of Jazz have been much discussed -- emerging out of the African slave culture with a musical synergy of tribal (rhythm, scales, syncopation, and improvisation) and the European musical tradition of harmony, instrumentation and chromaticism. One famous musician noted, though, that jazz was uniquely American and that, "No America, no jazz. I've seen people try to connect it to other countries, for instance to Africa, but it doesn't have…
Remembering Miles. (1991, November 12). Retrieved March 2013, from The Rolling Stone Archieves: http:/www.rollingstone.com/Desktop?s=1991111428#/19911114/44
Miles Davis. (2006, June). Retrieved March 2013, from Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Indusction: http://www.rockhall.com/inductee/miles-davis
House Resolution 894 Honoring the 50th Anniversary of "Kind of Blue" and Reffirming Jazz as a National Treasure. (2009, December 15). Retrieved March 2013, from clerk.house.gov: http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll971.xml
Cook, M., et al. (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Jazz. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
ith a career spanning several decades, and an influence spanning several continents, Miles Davis has arguably had a bigger influence on jazz music than any other musician. In the 1991 obituary in The New York Times, Miles Davis was described as an "an elusive touchstone of jazz," and someone who "defined cool," (Pareles). Davis' album The Birth of the Cool makes his name not just symbolically associated with the quality of coolness, but actually a synonym of the birth of cool jazz -- a specific genre of jazz that originally and bravely broke from established big band and be-bop traditions to enter the realm of the avant-garde via improvisation and experimentation. Jazz was forever transformed via Miles Davis' contributions and his musical legacy as composer and trumpet master.
Davis was born in Alton, Illinois on May 26, 1926. His upbringing was "middle class," and he was exposed to…
Davis, Miles. Miles: The Autobiography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990.
Early, Gerald Lyn. Miles Davis and American Culture. Missouri History Museum, 2001.
Kirker, Tim. "Miles Davis." All About Jazz. Retrieved online: http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=18568#.UTfMJ3zreII
"Miles Davis and John Coltraine." Chapter 42 in?
Utah Symphony Case Study #1
Like many artistic endeavors, opera and symphonic organizations are facing increased budgetary pressures. Consumer spending on the arts has decreased, some say because of access to the Internet and other media, others a decline in public and foundational support coupled with increased costs. Such has been the case for the Utah Symphony and Opera, both of whom have been hindered drastically since 2001. One solution would be to merge both organizations and reach an economy of scale for musicians, audience, human and other resources, advertising, and thus would result in an economy of scale that might help save both organizations (Delong & Ager, 2005).
Baily and Motivation: Bill Bailey was Chairman of the Operatic Board and had some initial concerns about the merger. The Opera was actually financially stronger than the symphony and had its own identity. Bailey was concerned that this identity might be…
Collier, N. (2008, January 28). Personal Power Vs. Positional Power. Retrieved from NSC Blog: http://www.nscblog.com/miscellaneous/personal-power-vs.-positional-power/
Delong, T., & Ager, D. (2005). Utah Symphony and Utah Opera: A Merger Proposal. Harvard Business School Case Study, 9-404-116, 1-16.
Gollwitzer, P. (1999). Implementation Intentions. American Psychologist, 54(7), 493-503.
New Charter University. (2012, August). Commonly Used Influence Tactics. Retrieved from new.edu: https://new.edu/resources/commonly-used-influence-tactics
Jelly oll Morton was born Ferdinand Joseph La Menthe in 1890 and later became a pioneer of modern American jazz. Growing up in New Orleans, he played piano in saloons and brothels when he was still a child. As an adult, he formed a band, the ed Hot Peppers and also played on his own. Morton is renown for his ability to bring traditionally black musical styles to the mainstream and he was heavily influenced by his New Orleans upbringing. Morton is particularly remembered for a series of recordings he made in Chicago for CA Victor in the 1920s, and Morton is credited as being one of the first to mix individual improvisation with more structured group arrangements. Although he claimed to have invented jazz, this is not strictly true; instead, he is credited as the first jazz composer. After Morton, improvisation became a staple of jazz. His best-known tunes…
"Jelly Roll Morton." The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. Accessed 10 October 2004.
"Jelly Roll Morton." Accessed 10 October 2004. http://www.redhotjazz.com/jellyroll.html
"Jelly Roll Morton. World Book online. Accessed 10 October 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/morton.htm
Carlos also proved that the music of ach was dimensionally ever-changing and could be expressed quite well through the use of electronics.
Pink Floyd, one of the most influential "psychedelic" groups from England, utterly transformed the entire spectrum of music in the late 1960's and early 1970's through the use of the synthesizer and other electronic devices. On their "Dark Side of the Moon" album, Pink Floyd, especially bassist/keyboardist Roger Waters and keyboardist Richard Wright, completely altered all previous ideas concerning how the synthesizer could take the listener on a new voyage of discovery into uncharted territories of sound. For Pink Floyd, the synthesizer was far more than just a tool -- it was a machine with the capabilities of transforming the landscape of sound into something cosmic in origin.
In conclusion, electronic music, from its humble beginnings in the 1940's and into the present day, has greatly influenced most…
Appleton, Jon H., ed. The Development and Practice of Electronic Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975.
Darter, Tom. The Art of Electronic Music. NY: William Morrow & Company, 1984.
Electronic Music with the Theremin." Popular Electronics. April 1955: 19-26.
Horn, Delton T. Electronic Music Synthesizers. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books, 1980.
Sidney echet truly led the life of a jazz musician. He was a supporter of Dixieland Jazz who played the clarinet and was the first person to play Jazz on a Soprano Saxophone. Domineering is a word frequently used to express his music. Various fights showed he had a short temper that reflects in his music. His solos were often soaring and passionate, endlessly inventive, direct rather than ornate. Throughout his life, he never had the discipline needed to play in a regular band; he always preferred to be a soloist and worked in many different bands.
echet was born on May 14, 1897 in New Orleans, Louisiana to a black Creole family. His father Omar was educated in a private school so he spoke and wrote both Creole Patois and English. His mother Josephine was black, but was referred to as a passeblanc. echet grew up in…
Schuller Gunther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. Oxford University Press. 1968.
Chilton John. Sidney Bechet: The Wizard of Jazz. Oxford University Press. 1987.
Larlan Colin. Ed. The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Stockton Press.1992.
Collier, James Lincoln. The Making of Jazz: A Comprehensive History. Dell.1979. Marsalis Wynton. Copyright (c) 1997 http://www.jazzradio.org/sidney.htm
A Brief History of Cool Jazz
December 6, 2012, would have marked the ninety-second birthday of pianist Dave Brubeck. The nonagenarian was looking forward to performing at the Palace Theater near his home in aterbury, Connecticut. Sadly, Brubeck died of heart failure just one day shy of the celebratory concert. The concert went on as scheduled, but it was a memorial rather than a birthday party. It is what Brubeck would have wanted. Brubeck was one of the originators of a jazz style that became known as "cool jazz." He was a brilliant pianist who loved to experiment with rhythms and instrumentation in ensemble work. Brubeck never stopped innovating over his long career during which he composed symphonies, classical and religious music, ballets and film scores He valued musical integrity over commercial reward. "You never know what's going to work," he said. "You just go with what you…
Dave Brubeck Quartet. 1961. YouTube. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. .
Dryden, Ken. "Take five: The public and private lives of Paul Desmond." All About Jazz.
2 Feb. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=17894 >.
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
This were then replaced with larger big band orchestras as technology allowed such large groups to be clearly recorded, "As the swing era began, shorts were made of many of the top orchestras," (Yanow 2). Big band orchestras began showing up in all the major Hollywood productions. They featured pre-recorded songs where the musicians lip singed. It is interesting to have such a crucial period on film. The Swing Era "was fortunately captured for feature films and short subjects at the time it was all happening," (Behlmer 1). Big bands became incredibly popular in feature films during the 1930s and 40s. Benny Goodman, "The King of Swing," had a movie- Hollywood Hotel in 1937 "the full orchestra plays an abbreviated version of that quintessential Swing Era arrangement of 'Sing, Sing, Sing' in the film," (Behlmer 1). From big Hollywood productions came popularity on the small screen. As televisions became the…
Behlmer, Rudy. "Big Bands in the Movies." Turner Classic Movies. 2009. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://www.tcm.com/thismonth/article/?cid=199314
Gridley, Mark C. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2006.
History Link, "The Jazz Singer, the First Successful Feature Film with Sound, Debuts in Seattle at the Blue Mouse on December 30, 1927." The Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 Nov 2009 at http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=2485
Schoenherr, Steven E. "Recording Technology History." San Diego University. 2005. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/recording/notes.html#origins
Pop is tomorrow's Classical"- Paul McCartney. Discuss this contention within the context of rock/classical music collaborations since the early 1950s.
Classical Rock and Popular Prophecy
To the average music-listener, musical genres are easily divided into homogenous groupings without any danger of overlapping one another. Certainly, there are rare occurrences of "cross-over" hits on the radio that find airplay on both Adult Contemporary and Country stations, or those releases which find an audience among both Easy Listening and Rock fans. Another seemingly strange occurrence that may be observed by the slightly more alert music consumer is that time shifts musical pieces from one genre to another, and yesterday's Alternative Rock is today's Easy Listening, yet even this phenomenon is considered an anomaly of the music industry. A simplicity is desired among musical elitists that preserves some musical forms as valid, labeling others as mere fads. However, the deep impact of musical…
"Classical Music." Heart & Soul. World Book. 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/classical.htm
Duxbury, Janell R. "The Nexus of Classical and Rock." Progression, no. 39, p70-74. Summer, 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/8660/article.html
Duxbury, Janell R. Rockin' the Classics and Classicizin' the Rock: A Selectively Annotated Discography. Greenwood Press, 1991.
Fissinger, Laura. "Jim Steinman: To 'Hell' & Back." BMI MusicWorld. Spring 1994. http://jimsteinman.com/bmi.htm
On the other hand, he is also referring to the rigorous formation of a cantata. He saw through the rigorous formation of the cantata an instrument to bring a certain order into individual existence as well, with the Lutheran religion as the middle element (Schrade, 1946).
In reference to the previous subchapter on Lully, we should point out towards the fact that, while for Lully, royal patronage was essential for the characteristics of his creation and, in fact, the direct source of inspiration and ultimate goal, ach used the civic appointment to rise above the actual demands and only use the pretext of needing to compose cantatas for a perspective to go beyond and ensure that his musical vision was reached. In Lully's case, patronage determined musical vision, for we cannot see Lully's music otherwise than in the role of a grandiose propaganda instrument for the French absolute monarchy. In…
1. Schrade, Leo. 1946. Bach: The Conflict between the Sacred and the Secular. Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press
2. Isherwood, Robert. 1973. Music in the Service of the King. Ithaca and London: Cornell U.P.
3. Isherwood, Robert. 1969. The Centralization of Music in the Reign of Louis XIV. French Historical Studies. Society for French Historical Studies
4. Bach's Cantatas: a Brief Orientation. On the Internet at http://www.baroque-music-club.com/cantatas.html .Last retrieved on September 30, 2007
Few popular music stars today are as colorful as Lady Gaga. Recently on tour, Lady Gaga is again making the headlines. In South Africa, a group of churches has been organizing protests against Lady Gaga's performances, and even just her presence, in the country. Among other complaints, the South African Council of Churches claims Lady Gaga's visit "could lead to an exponential growth of Satanism," (Engelbrecht, p. 1). For others, Lady Gaga is a welcome presence in the popular culture because she spreads the message of gender equality and positive gender "performativity," (Horn, p. 1). Lady Gaga is like a female "drag queen" and therefore sends a good message about tolerance of gender and sexual identities. Finally, Lady Gaga exemplifies the way social media can be used to promote popular culture and allow for greater fan interactions and control over content. Given that Lady Gaga is associated with Satanism,…
Engelbrecht, David. "Council of Churches Still Anti-Gaga." Channel 24. Retrieved online: http://www.channel24.co.za/Music/News/Council-of-Churches-still-anti-Gaga-20121129
Hampp, Andrew. "Gaga, Oooh Lala: Why the Lady Is the Ultimate Social Climber." Advertising Age. 22 Feb, 2010. Retrieved online: http://vandymkting.typepad.com/files/2010-2-22-adage-gaga-oooh-la-la-why-the-lady-is-the-ultimate-social-climber.pdf
Horn, Katrin. "Camping with the Stars: Queer Perfomativity, Pop Intertextuality, and Camp in the Pop Art of Lady Gaga." Current Ojbectives of Postgraduate American Studies. Vol. 11. Retrieved online: http://copas.uni-regensburg.de/article/view/131/155
planning should start with an identification of the causes that has caused the crises at the St. Louis Symphony. There can be two main such causes: a decrease in revenues, due to decreasing demand for the symphony's programs, and an increase in costs. The latter seems to be less of a problem here. In general, the main component of the variable costs for a symphonic orchestra should be directly linked with salaries. In this case, whilst the musicians were indeed demanding pay raises, there is no actual indication that this has happened. So, in my opinion, the direct cause of the crisis we are facing is related to a decrease in the community's interest for the orchestra and the music it plays.
This decreasing demand can have several different causes, some of them identified in the case as an overwhelming interest for technology and the music made by technology, for…
Music on American Culture and Values
Over time, music has molded the American culture and its values in a variety of ways. In this text, I will highlight the various ways in which both music and radio have shaped American values and culture. In so doing, I will identify my favorite genre/type of music in an attempt to highlight the impact the music I listen to has had on American culture and social behavior.
How the American Culture and Its Values Has Been Shaped by Music and adio
In the words of Eldridge (2008), "by the close of the 1930s, twenty-eight million households (and seven million cars) boasted at least one radio set, with most tuned-in to a network or local station for an average of five hours a day." In that regard, it would be correct to point out that radio has played a critical role in the growth…
Bob & Hanger, J. (2012). The Silent Generation: 1925 -- 1945. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.
Eldridge, D.N. (2008). American Culture in the 1930s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Keith, M.C. (2008). Radio Cultures: The Sound Medium in American Life. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
Electric guitar [...] history of the invention of the electric guitar and of primary inventor/developer Les Paul. What were his contributions, as a designer, and as a musician? How have the technical developments in electric guitars and amplification affected the evolution of rock? The electric guitar electrified rock, literally. A distant cousin of the acoustic guitar, the electric guitar had power, presence, and an attitude, and it made a difference in the music we listen to today. Some believe the electric guitar is rock and roll music, and it exemplifies how a new instrument can create a sound, and a legend, all its' own.
Guitars have existed in history for thousands of years. elated to lutes, (which had only two strings), most guitars had six strings, and were designed to be strummed or plucked. It was not until the 20th century that the acoustic, hollow-bodied guitar metamorphosized into the solid-body,…
Butters, P. (1996, November 7). The power of guitars: Exhibition amplifies instrument's history. The Washington Times, p. 4.
DeCurtis, A. (Ed.). (1992). Present Tense: Rock & Roll and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Friedlander, P. (1996). Rock and Roll A Social History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Gracyk, T. (1996). Rhythm and noise: An aesthetics of rock. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
A certain feeling toward propriety and morality is stamped upon our sex, which does not allow us to appear alone in public, nor without an escort. Thus how can I present my musical work, to the public with anything other than timidity. The work of any lady…can indeed arouse a degree of pity in the eyes of some experts." (owers and Tick, 1987)
owers and Tick state that many composers of this time "Reichardt, Hensel, and Schumann -- published lieder under male authorship. A few of Reichardt's early songs were included in a collection of her father's lieder, 'Duetsche Lieder' and three of Hensel's early songs "appear in each of Felix's Opus 8 and Opus 9; the 'Allegemeine musikalische Zeitung' claimed that 'An des lust'gen runnenes Rand' a duet composed by Fanny, is the best song in the collection" of Opus 8. Additionally three of Schumann's lieder were "included in…
Backer, Eric and Kranenburg, Peter van (2004) on Musical Stylometry- a Pattern Recognition Approach. Science Direct 2004 Elsevier.
Bowers, Jane M. And Tick, Judith (1987) Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1059. University of Illinois Press, 1987.
Haynes, Bruce (2007) the End of Early Music. Oxford University Press. U.S., 2007.
Kranenburg, Peter van (2006) Composer Attribution by Quantifying Compositional Strategies. University of Victoria 2006.
His father agreed to teach him music if he would marry his daughter. The man agreed, but the girl was so ugly that they never spoke. They continued to learn music with the father's strict teaching. The man leaves and does not marry the daughter. She is coming to the river to purify herself and to rid herself of desire. The narrator in the story is at the same river to rid him of worldly desires, just as the daughter is trying to.
The moral of this story is that music and its spiritual connection is better than any earthly desire. e see the same portrayal of music and spirituality in Dante's work as well. Music is used in Dante's work to signal the reader that something wonderful and beyond normal human experience is happening. Music is used to set the mood in Dante's work. For instance, the use…
Aligheri, Dante. Paradise. The Divine Comedy. Tanscribed by Judith Smith and Natalie
Salter. Project Gutenburg. Trans Rev. H.F. Cary. Online at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1007/1007.txt .
King James Bible. Ezekiel I (17-2210.
Mehta, Gita. A River Sutra (New York N.A. Talese, 1993)
The Louvre, an architectural masterpiece, has dominated central Paris since the late 12th century. The original structure was gradually dwarfed as the city grew. The dark fortress of the early days was transformed into the modernized dwelling of Francois I and, later, the sumptuous palace of the Sun King, Louis XIV. My online tour of the Louvre allowed me to take a virtual, self-guided, room-by-room tour of the museum. The web site allows navigation through exhibition rooms and galleries and allows one to contemplate the facades of the museum. The first thing one sees before entering the museum is the garden, a delight during any season of the year. It is the perfect place for a relaxing stroll and it offers a range of activities for visitors.
There are more than ten sections in the museum for different kinds of art from all around the world including…
jazz as a musical tradition not only has a bright future ahead of it, but has also had an illustrious past. The reasons for this are its flexibility. This flexibility, as well as its ability to effortlessly mould itself not only to current events, but also to current musical paradigms, ensures that jazz has a past, a present and a future that can be rivaled by few other genres in music.
The flexibility of jazz translates to and from the world around it. We live in a very dynamic world, with overnight change accepted as the order of the day. Jazz then caters to this by being a flexible musical tradition.
Jazz has also become a sort of language; the "English" of the musical world. It crosses all musical boundaries and is likely to appeal to most audiences. The audience for jazz then is the "global village." Jazz can potentially…
The author is extremely qualified to write this book. He began studying piano at the age of six, and remained a musician throughout his life. He also hosted a radio program from 1959 until his death in 2005 about classical music, and he traveled the globe to bring music to people everywhere. He also won several awards and accolades for his work, including two Peabody Awards for excellence in broadcasting for his radio show. He clearly researched the book, and his bibliography shows that he used a wide variety of sources to help with the historic and musical parts of the book.
The only thing that might have made this book better is to include a CD with the purchase, so the reader could listen to the music in question as the author continues through the book. He refers to certain musical pieces throughout the book, and even gives the…
In conclusion, this book has a wide audience, and it has remained in print since 1984, which shows that it appeals to a diverse group that keep passing it on to others. It belongs on the shelf of anyone who enjoys classical music, anyone who wants to learn more about classical music, including the history, and anyone who enjoys a good writing style with plenty of explanations and examples. It would be a good book to introduce music to young people, too, because it is not too overwhelming or hard to read. The book is valuable, and reading it will certainly make the reader want to listen to classical music more often.
Haas, Karl. Inside Music. New York: Random House, 1991.
Brahms - Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) was one of the leading symphonic composers of the European omantic movement. He was also a pianist whose works have become staples of the symphonic and concerti repertoire, although he also composed chamber and vocal works. Unfortunately, many of his works were self-destroyed, Brahms being extremely self-critical and almost manically perfectionistic in his later years (Frisch and Karnes). It is interesting that compositionally Brahms was both an innovative member of the new "German omantic" movement and a staunch adherent to the more formal traditions of Bach and Beethoven. Structurally, his works use the compositional techniques of the Baroque and Classical eras -- he was a master at counterpoint in the tradition of Bach, of symphonic development in the Haydn tradition, and innovative similar to Mozart and Beethoven. eally, Brahms wanted to take the best of the German compositional technique, create new and innovative…
Brodbeck, D., ed. Brahms Studies. Vol. 2. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.
Frisch, W and K. Karnes, Brahams and His World: Revised Edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Geringer, K. Brahams: His Life and Work. New York: DaCapo Press, 1984.
Schonberg, H. The lives of the Great Composers. New York: Norton, 1981.
Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment (Harper Perennial, James Gaines), 2006.
Gaines' book discusses two of history's greatest men, each of whom became great for a different reason. One was a political leader and statesman the other a musician. he biography of each could not have been more different. Both had tough lives and both fought against enormous stakes but one lived in a palace and the other travelled from place to place living in some at most only 3 years. One sampled jail and the other saw his partner killed and was saved by being sent to the military. One was homosexual and the other happily married in love. Bach's love in contradistinction to that of Frederick was more serene and meaningful. His music absorbed him and made him happy. He was focused; his life purely devoted to cantatas…
Two great men who met at the end of one's life and the pinnacle of the energy of another. Their lives could not have been more different but both can inspire us in different ways.
Gaines, J "Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment." Harper Perennial, 2006."
British Invasion on the United States: 1964 -- 1967
The arrival of the Beatles in New York City in 1964 for an appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show marked the beginning of what has become commonly known as the "British Invasion." This period, lasting roughly from 1964 to 1967, was a time when British bands invaded and topped the charts of the American music industry influencing the culture and social behavior of a generation of baby boomers.
In the decade prior to the 1960s fashion designs were intended to encourage housewives and discourage feminism. Teenagers relied upon their peers and the media to determine their style and the practice of conforming to their elder's tastes was beginning to evaporate. For instance, hair styles were greatly influenced by the Rockabilly icon Elvis Presley, sleek and gelled back. Nearly half of America's population was under the age of 18 at the dawn…
"1962 -- 66: American Folk-Rock vs.The British Invasion." State University of New York at Oswego, (ND). Web. 13 May 2013.
Au, Lynda. "The British Invasion: It's effects and Influences." Prezi Inc., 14 January 2013. Web. 13 May 2013.
Bangs, Lester. "The British Invasion." The Rooling Stone Illustrated History Of Rock and Roll, Jim Miller (ed.). New York: Random House, 1980. Print.
Davis, Lina and Crystal Pike."Cultural Impact." The Beatles vs. The Rolling Stones, 2011. Web. 13 May 2013.
Collaboration Work With John Cage
John Cage was a revolutionary artist that transcended his time and his generation. He was a man that refused to limit himself or his work in any way. eing a musician myself, I was certainly very appreciative of his radical and uncompromising musical style and his unique willingness to take great chances in his work. However, after further research I have realized that I had only come to regard a small sliver of Mr. Cage's true mastery. While my musical penchants drew me specifically to his melodic concoctions, I was unaware of his other talents in the genres of poetry, painting, printmaking, philosophy and composition. Through extensive examination of his remarkable and groundbreaking works in these artistic arenas, I began to realize Mr. Cage's genuine and complete genius. The vast scope of his artistic capacity did make it a bit difficult to decide on which…
Cage, John. "An Autobiographical Statement." Southwest Review 17.1 (1991).
John Cage: From Zero. Dirs. Andrew Culver and Frank Scheffer. Perf. John Cage. 2004.
John Cage: One11 with 103. Dir. John Cage. Perf. John Cage. 2006.
Kozinn, Allan. "John Cage." The New York Times 28 July 2009.
He had been most inspired by the songs of Woody Guthrie. "Woody had a sound and said something with his music." He wanted to meet Woody and thank him for such inspiring songs. Woody had not been well and was being treated in a local hospital. Bob went and saw him and then wrote a "ong to Woody."
uddenly, following that visit, as if overnight, Bob Dylan became a household name. He was selling out theatres across America and England. He was referred to as a genius. It has been said that Bob went down to the crossroads and struck a deal with the devil, in order to arrive at such a place. He continued to evolve from the old acoustic folk singer that everyone loved, to a somewhat loud electric rock star. Columbia Records and many of his fans were not happy about this change. Fans were booing and…
Suddenly, following that visit, as if overnight, Bob Dylan became a household name. He was selling out theatres across America and England. He was referred to as a genius. It has been said that Bob went down to the crossroads and struck a deal with the devil, in order to arrive at such a place. He continued to evolve from the old acoustic folk singer that everyone loved, to a somewhat loud electric rock star. Columbia Records and many of his fans were not happy about this change. Fans were booing and heckling him at concerts, yet they continued to buy tickets. Bob's electric song "Like a Rolling Stone" from the acclaimed album "Highway 61 Revisited" climbed to number 2 on the Billboard pop charts, second only to The Beatles "Help."
The central theme to this documentary is a lesson that teaches us to remain true to ourselves no matter what others think. If we are to conform to the labels and beliefs of others, we are bound for failure. Bob knew this, and continues to follow his heart to this day.
Steve Allen of Billboard said: "Dylan's poetry is born of a painful awareness of the tragedy that underlies the contemporary human condition." This is as true in 2010 as it was in 1965. Martin Scorsese captured a moment in time with this project, and the moment he captured is the same now, as it was then, and will always be.
Green Day, on the other hand, may have started off as a "Punk" band, but devolved into a "punk" band. In the song "American Idiot," Green Day states a problem created by the media, yet proposes nothing to resolve it. Though Green Day attempts to rebel against the media because they do not want to be "one nation controlled by the media," they are giving in to the media through the commercialization and mass production and dissemination of their music. The production of the music is also of a higher quality. Though the band exudes the sound of raw intensity, the utilization of post-production filters and effects detracts from the "anger" and "disenfranchisement" conveyed in the song. Additionally, if one goes beyond the music and analyzes their music video, one can note how highly stylized it is and the higher production value that it conveys compared to the "music video"…
Green Day. "American Idiot." American Idiot. Reprise, 2004. Mp3.
< http://www.rhapsody.com/green-day/american-idiot -- explicit/american-idiot>
The Sex Pistols. "Anarchy in the UK." Nevermind the Bollocks. Virgin Records, 1977. Vinyl.
In fact, in 1968 Stanley Kubrick chose Strauss's tone poem "Also Sprach Zarathustra" as the theme music for the science fiction film 2001: A Space Odyssey. Strauss's inspiration for the tone poem also happened to be avant garde fellow German philosopher Friedrich Nietzche.
Strauss's and Mahler's willingness to be innovative and creative led to considerable criticism as well as acclaim. The compositions of both Strauss and Mahler are filled with an emotional intensity that reflects the troubled times and political chaos they lived through. Richard Strauss's "Metamorphosen" was purportedly composed as a reaction piece to the Nazi bombings. The emotionality present in the works of both composers places them squarely within the late Romantic tradition.
One of the most noticeable characteristics of a Mahler composition, especially evident in his symphonies, is layering, polyphony, and eclecticism. A Mahler composition wanders through peaks and valleys of different terrains, even shifting key and…
Coy, David E. "Richard Strauss Biography." 15 Nov 2000. Retrieved Nov 24, 2008 at http://people.unt.edu/~dmeek/dec-straussbio.html
Gustav Mahler." 8Notes.com Retrieved Nov 24, 2008 at http://www.8notes.com/biographies/mahler.asp
Richard Strauss." Classical Net. Retrieved Nov 24, 2008 at http://www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/straussr.php
Sadie, Stanley (Ed.) "Gustav Mahler." Classical Music Pages. 2000. Retrieved Nov 24, 2008 at http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/mahler.html
Dallas Symphony Review
hat an absolute dual treat to attend the Dallas Symphony's "Tchaikovsky Night" at the Morton Myerson Symphony Center on March 31, 2011. Not only was I privileged to hear two great works, but as an added benefit, proceeds from the Tchaikovsky concerts will benefit Sendai, Dallas's International Friendship City in Japan (DSO Public Relations Office). The conductor for this concert was Jaap van Zweden, music director of the Dallas Symphony and several other European Orchestras (DSO Public Relations Office). Guest artist for this program, performing the Piano Concerto #1 is Olga Kern, Russian Classical pianist who, in June, 2001, received a Gold Medal in the Eleventh annual Van Cliburn International Piano Competition (Van Cliburn Foundation).
There was clearly a sense of excitement in the air that was almost palpable. hether this was from the anticipation of the stirring music to come or the posters and…
"About the Symphony Center." January 2011. City of Dallas Office of Cultural Affairs. April 2011 .
Brown, D. Tchaikovsky: The Man and His Music. New York: Pegasus Books, 2007.
Concerto #1. Perf. Leinsdorf/Rubenstein. 1963..
Retrieved 2 Jan 2004 at http://www.vanderbilt.edu/~cyrus/ORB/orbmusic.htm#early
ajor artists, sculptors, and architects
Unlike the famed ichelangelo and Da Vinci, much of the plastic arts of this period are by anonymous hands and crafts persons.
While mosaics and wall paintings remained the preferred means of embellishing buildings in the Byzantine East, the Latin West deployed carved stone by and large.
The lines of churches and cathedrals are angular, deploying a theme of reaching to heaven, while the more grotesque sculptures on the friezes make use of more rounded shapes
Some of the most inventive art of the iddle Ages appears in the expansive portals of churches, on the rectangular sides of piers, and on the cramped contours of column capitals.
The bright Byzantium mosaics are a sharp contrast to the more staid stone of the Latin West.
VI. Expressive content, Style and…
Much of the charm of architecture in church building was derived from gargoyles and other carved scenes depicting Biblical motifs. Although designed to enhance worship, the style of individual creations could be playful, even if the overall intent of the work was serious.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Medieval European Sculptors." Museum Website. 2 Jan 2004. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/arch/hd_arch.htm .
Since the band exploded onto the scene in 2005, the White Stripes have wooed casual listeners and hypercritical audiophiles alike. Founded by Jack White, the White Stripes have received much critical acclaim and the most affectionate form of flattery, too, which is imitation. For instance, Vancouver, Canada band the White Blood Cells is "a pair of balding Irish guys who only play White Stripes songs," (Lucas, 2012). Usually cover bands are tributes to rock's greats such as Led Zeppelin. The fact that the White Stripes already have cover bands dedicated to them shows how much of a mark they have made on music. Yet it has been difficult to classify the music of The White Stripes. Using the term "rock" music is overly general. Therefore, the best classification of The White Stripes has been, to date, the term "garage rock." Garage rock refers to a sub-genre of rock music…
Florida, R. & Jackson, S. (2010). Sonic City: The Evolving Economic Geography of the Music Industry. Journal of Planning Education and Research 29(3): 310-321.
Lucas, J. (2012). White Blood Cells' Get Going is an impressive effort. Straight.com. Retrieved online: http://www.straight.com/article-838066/vancouver/white-blood-cells
McGreevy, R. (2012). How Jack White earned his stripes. Irish Times. 31 Oct, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2012/1031/1224325939787.html
Crosby, Stills, and Nash (CS&N) concert I attended. Both my parents were big fans of Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young, and when Neil Young went his own way the trio that was left continued making music in concert, touring, and writing songs. So since I had been hearing CS&N's music for much of my life as an adolescent and young adult in college, I was interested in hearing the classic rock group live.
What was the makeup of the ensemble (singers)?
Crosby, Stills & Nash had a high-quality group of session musicians on the stage helping them bring a full, classic rock sound to the audience. Todd Caldwell played the organ; Shane Fontayne played lead guitar; Steve DiStanislao was on drums; Kevin McCormick played bass guitar; and James Raymond, who is David Crosby's son, played the keyboards for the group.
What was the style of music they played? What were…
Race and Music: Richie Valens
In the past, an individual's culture would dominate whether or not he or she could have any kind of financial success outside of fans of that particular culture. However, there have been a few musical artists who have been able to transcend the limitations of their culture and become what would be considered mainstream performers. These people are extraordinary in that not only were they able to achieve great success, but were able to do so without sacrificing the integrity of their heritages. One of the first successful Latin or Chicano artists to achieve mainstream success in the United States was Richie Valens, born Ricardo Esteban Valenzuela Reyes. This man introduced 1950s America to the sounds of Latin and Hispanic culture and incorporated Spanish language into popular songs which became big hits in America among Hispanic and white audiences as well. hat is particularly remarkable…
Lehmer, Larry (2004). The Day the Music Died: The Last Tour of Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper,
and Richie Valens. Schirmer: New York, NY.
"Son Jarocho Music." (2011). National Geographic. Retrieved from http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/page.basic/genre/content.genre/son_jarocho_789/en_US
life of famed musician Frank Zappa. The writer explores his life, his works and why he is a solid candidate for being labeled a 20th century genius in the field of music. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
It used to be that the word genius only applied to a standardized IQ score on an Intelligence Quotient test. In more recent years the world has come to the understanding that there are many types of intelligence and that genius can be found in many areas of life. One area that has always escaped the watchful eye of genius identifiers has been that of the music world. While musicians were often referred to as talented or gifted, the word genius was rarely used. Today, with the new understanding that genius can come in many forms; artists from the past and present are being recognized for the true genius…
Artist (Band):Frank Zappa http://www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/singerUnid/D9BF3455EC85AB7B4825697100357627
He has also learned to appreciate an even wider and more eclectic variety of music than even his mother enjoyed. But without an early musical foundation and exposure to music as a part of life, he does not think he would be nearly as adventurous. The pairing of certain musical styles against one another, like posh vs. common, classical vs. contemporary, and Mod vs. Rock, has more to do with personal, class-based and aesthetic self-definition, he felt, than the fact that one musical style is inherently superior to another musical style.
As he has grown older, Martin says that he listens more for personal taste, rather than to suit his tastes to a particular style because of personal self-definition. He attributes this to being more secure in his own identity. He says that he likes to listen to the music of his youth, although he also listens to a great…
Music Since 1900
A Survey of hree Works by Ives, Schoenberg, and Barber
In the film Legend of 1900, im Roth plays an orphan who grows up aboard the SS Virginian, where he becomes a virtuoso piano player, whose styling rivals the greatest Jazz pianists of the early twentieth century. he Italian film is supposed to represent the impermanence of art and the cheapness of capturing a live performance on a record. However, what cannot be achieved in the film is actually achieved by the film, as the New Orleans jazz artist is surpassed by the glorious skills of an orphan who has spent his entire life aboard a steam liner. What it says is that music may be recorded, but what is even greater than the recording is the music itself and the story that inspired it. his paper will compare and contrast three different works of musical art…
Tornatore G. 1999 The Legend of 1900 Fine Line Features Los Angeles
White DA. 2000 Lecture on Music Theory St. [sound recording] Thomas Aquinas
In his own words he is -- "more like a chef, because I bring my personal taste in sound." (Waves. com (b))
6) Who were/are the engineer's important artists?
Some of the most noted works were for these musicals -- "Genesis the Lamb Lies Down on Broadway & a Trick of the Tail are masterpieces the others are -- Deep Purple Machine Head, Frampton Comes Alive, Led Zeppelin, the Who Quadrophenia, Pink Floyd Wish You Were Here, Def Leppard Hysteria and Chic Good Times." (Waves. com (b)). Some noted songs were Joe Cocker's Unchain My Heart album, Tina Turner's Foreign Affair album, remixes of Madonna's 'La Isla Bonita', Springsteen's 'Dancing in the Dark', 'Cover Me', and 'Born in the U.S.A.'. Carly Simon's Coming Around Again album and 12'Khan's Destiny album, the olling Stones' "Too Much Blood" and more like the ocky IV soundtrack, Some sound tracks he produced include the…
BBC. Chris Lord-Alge Biography. BBC, 2012,
Molly, M. Sound Sampling Protection and Infringement in Today's Music Industry" High
Tech. L.J. vol. 4, no. 1, 1989, pp: 147-151.
This amount of leverage is rare in more standardized industries where management can break pickets with contract labor.
We see them affecting public opinion through their press releases and media control, which portrays management as derisive. This attempts to pinch off donations, which is a battle of attrition that will hurt the musicians in the end, but they are willing to sacrifice this in order to win the race to the bottom they portray management has gamed them into. We see the musicians trying to build goodwill by donating ten performances a year, which is a direct pay issue analogous to taking work home in other industries, but which makes them appear reasonable and eager to work. Promising to reschedule missed concerts follows this type of P strategy.
5. Without actually attending meetings at the table or on the shop floor, we have to speculate about many of the obstacles…
Horowitz, J. (23 Jan. 2010). Looking Beyond the Cleveland Strike. The Unanswered Question,
Arts Journal. Retrieved from http://www.artsjournal.com/uq/2010/01/looking-beyond-the-cleveland-s.html
Rathbun, J. (17 Jan. 2010). Strike Statement. Cleveland Orchestra Musicians Archive for 2010.
Retrieved from http://www.clevelandorchestramusicians.org/2010/01/
The music of United States changed significantly during the twentieth century, and each generation went on to develop its own music. These were all immensely popular, had strong rhythmic touch and were very different from the earlier forms which existed. These were used for dancing or just for the purpose of listening. When the twentieth century started it was the time for a variety called Ragtime. After the end of the First World War, Jazz had its origin and it influenced all other forms till it was affected by the stock market crash in 1929. This period was called the roaring twenties. Then it was time for a new form to emerge and this was in the music of the ig ands and led at different stages by Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, Jimmie Lunceford, Glen Gray and Chick Webb in the beginning. They were then followed by…
Weinstock, Len. "The Big Band Era, Or How America Came Out Of the Great Depression and Went On To Win World War II, 1991" Retrieved at http://www.redhotjazz.com/bigbandessay.html. Accessed on 03/08/2004
Azinhais, Joao "The King of Jazz" Retrieved at http://www.redhotjazz.com/whitemanarticle.html. Accessed on 03/08/2004
Weinstock, Len. "The origins of Jazz" Retrieved at http://www.redhotjazz.com/originsarticle.html. Accessed on 03/08/2004
Slave Songs of the United States" A. Simpson & Co. Retrieved at http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/allen/allen.html . Accessed on 03/08/2004
Various forms of media from the point-of-view of an increasingly mobile population have used local, national, and international media networks in very many different ways towards the development of music. 'Internet offers different schemes and services that provide user with an opportunity to gather info about latest music and sound tracks' (Sharma, S, Hutnyk, J., Sharma, a. (1997)). Different web links offer free music download, the user has the option to choose and select different songs, from different countries, of different singers.
Music has turn out to be money making industry, earlier it was only a source of entertainment, but now it is a source of livelihood for millions around the world. The globalization has been a source of international promotion of local popular artist musicians and vocalist. Many musicians from east and west conduct their live concert throughout the world; this has not only resulted in the world wide…
Morley, D. & Robins, K. (1995). Spaces of Identity: Global Media, Electronic Landscapes and Cultural Boundaries. London. Routledge.
Negus, K. (1999). Music Genres and Corporate Cultures. London. Routledge.
Robinson, D. (1991). Music at the Margins. London. Sage.
Taylor, T. (1997). Global Pop: World Music, World Markets. London. Routledge Bennett, a. (2000). Popular Music and Youth Culture. Music, Identity and Place. London. Macmillan Press
Evolution of Jazz
Dizzy Gillespie was a jazz musician and composer who mostly known for his work on the trumpet. He also played several other instruments, including the piano and alternative horns. His tenure in jazz was fairly lengthy, and spanned several eras including big band and bebop, the latter of which he helped to popularize. He also played swing music on more than one occasion and performed vocals on both recordings and during live sets. Count Basie was mostly known for his work on the piano and his compositional skills. He was one of the most noted jazz musicians during the time in which this art form initially became popular. Basie was a part of the big band movement in jazz, and led expansive jazz orchestras for the vast majority of his career. Chet Baker was a jazz musician who was largely renowned for his work on the trumpet,…
Bourne, M. (1972). Fat cats at lunch: an interview with Dizzy Gillespie. www.downbeat.com Retrieved from http://www.downbeat.com/default.asp?sect=stories&subsect=story_detail&sid=1015
Brady, S. (2011). Gordon Goodwin & the big phat band. http://jazztimes.com Retrieved from
Fake books with jazz notation might look as if they are intended for amateurs. However, although beginners may use the simplified notation to practice music, the fake book's original intention was to provide a stepping-stone for a musician or an ensemble to create their own, unique rendering of the music. Thus jazz notation reflects the stress in this musical tradition upon the musician or the band's individual style. The musician, rather than the composer is the star, when using jazz notation. Rather than attempt to slavishly recreate a performance from the past, which is impossible, as every audience, every musical context changes from night to night, jazz notation empowers the musician to create a living and vibrant performance on the stage, with his or her fellow musicians. ("Fake Books," ikipedia, 2006)
Fake books and jazz notation originated with illegal transcriptions of overheard music, although most fake books today copyrighted with…
Fake Book." Wikipedia. [6 Jun 2006]
Marsalis, Wynton. "On a slave's need for improvisation." From Jazz: A PBS documentary by Ken Burns.2001. Companion Website. [6 Jun 2006] http://www.pbs.org/jazz/time/time_slavery.htm
Musical notation." Wikipedia. [6 Jun 2006] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_notation
Le Grand Hautbois
During the reign of Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the courts were alive with new Baroque music and instruments. Many new wind instruments were being created with a variety of innovations and some other instruments were being newly invented. It was a time of experimentation, as these just introduced instruments had to be tried out for their range, sound and quality. Louis XIV from his childhood on throughout his life was always surrounded by music. He and musicians such as Lully would create ballets and compositions (Palisca 1968). During this time, King Louis XIV also revived and updated Le Grand Hautbois with the new instruments. Although little is written about Le Grand Hautbois, with Whitwell the compiler of the information that is available from writers during that period, this does not negate the importance of this twelve-player band to the French royal court and other European…
Anthony, James. French Baroque Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1974
Bernard, Leon. The Emerging City: Paris in the Age of Louis XIV. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1970
Blunt, Anthony Art and Architecture in France 1500 to 1700. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1980
Buelow, George. History of baroque music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004
" This he maintained was the highest honor he could claim. " (Seroff, 1956, 113)
Some of the melodies that Claude Achille Debussy created for example the C'est l'Extase' -- based on the ninths and series of common chords has continuous modulations which are embedded with a lot of changing tones and may have been symbolic of a breeze and the sounds of small voices. Like wise the use of rhythmic characteristics and melody in 'Spleen' is like Chabrier the 'L'Ombre des Arbres' which modulates differently. This was at that time a very daring attempt in music during the 1880's. The performance of La Damoiselle Elue' by the Societe Nationale, was conducted by Gabriel Marie competed by the works of Paul Dukas - Overture to 'Polyeucte', Raymond onheur, 'Iris', and many by Paul Fournier; Ernest Chausson 'Poeme de l'Amour et de la Mer', Pierre de reville 'Medeia', Henri Duparc 'Phidyle'.…
Bruhn, Siglind. Images and Ideas in Modern French Piano Music: The Extra-Musical
Subtext in Piano Works Ravel, Debussy, and Messiaen. Pendragon Press: Stuyvesant, NY, 1997.
Cortot, Alfred. French Piano Music. Oxford University Press:
The creation and enjoyment of music has been a part of our collective human culture since long before the beginnings of recorded history. It is believed that once upon a time even cavemen and Neanderthals were able to create music using their prehistoric instruments and technologies. Archaeologists and historians have discovered remnants of musical instruments in dig sites from all across the globe. The various instruments or what may or may not have at one time been instruments, that have been found at each of these locations have been a reflection of the culture in which it was used. As modern culture is reflected in current musical interests, so too the cultures of past civilizations have been reflected in the instruments and music that those cultures had left behind. Part of the culture invariably involves the tools and available materials that the population would utilize in order to…
Anderson, J 2008, 'Slaves to the rhythm,' CBC News.
Busoni, F 1962, 'Sketch of a new esthetic of music,' Three Classics in the Aesthetic of Music:
Cher 1998, 'Believe,' Believe. Warner Bros.
Everett-Green, R 2006, 'Ruled by Frankenmusic,' The Globe and Mail.
This section was made up mainly of alto and tenor saxophones, but sometimes also included baritones as well.
1935 saw the creation of the Benny Goodman Trio, yet another development in the evolution of Goodman's style. The trio was made up of legendary jazz musicians; Teddy Wilson, Gene Krupa who he had played with in his radio days, with Goodman leading and composing. In this era, Goodman followed a much more mature style, as seen in After You're Gone, (Groove Music, 2008). In these recordings, he explored a complete range of the clarinet and was prone to play in "blue thirds," (Groove Music, 2008). In 1936, the trio became a quartet with the addition of Lionel Hampton on the vibraphone.
One night in 1938, Goodman got the chance of a lifetime, and has been thereafter accredited with bringing swing music into national recognition. He and his band performed at Carnegie…
De Toledano, Ralph. "The Night Swing was Born." Insight on the News. Vol. 13. Feb.,
Gridley, Mark. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2005.
Groove Music. "Benny Goodman." Associated with PBS' Jazz a Film by Ken Burns:
Selected Artist Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 3/31/08 at http://www.pbs.org/jazz/biography/artist_id_goodman_benny.htm
Record companies have been seeking to agree on a common industry standard to make such broadcasts secure and able to be recorded." (" Sony Launches Internet Music Sales" BBC News)
Simply generating a simple, strict technological standard could shut out smaller, cheaper, and better manufactures of particular technological products. "The consequences of launching competing systems was most famously seen in the battle between the Betamax and VHS videotape systems, which were launched almost simultaneously. Video shops often stocked Beta and VHS tapes of the same films" but individuals chose the "more widely available VHS format despite a widely held belief that Beta technology was superior." Consumers will almost always go for the more easily accessible and technologically popular systems, almost regardless of quality, a phenomenon also witnessed in computer technology with the dominance of Microsoft indows. If the standards set by the industry are too rigid, it could lock consumers…
BBC News. "Sony Launches Internet Music Sales." August 16, 1999. BBC News Website. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/the_company_file/newsid_419000/419689.stm . site Accessed February 13, 2002.
Variety. "Music Biz Seeks Security." Variety Website. December 21, 1998. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_vrty/m1312/6_373/53531197/p1/article.jhtml . Website Accessed February 13, 2002.
JAZZ: KANSAS CITY AFTER-HOURS CLUS IN THE 1930S & THEIR CONTRIUTION TO JAZZ
The objective of this work is to examine the question of what would have happened to jazz if there had been a crackdown on illegal "after hour" clubs in Kansas City in the 1930s? Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study.
In the 1930s, while the rest of the United States and its cities were in the grips of The Depression, Kansas City was churning out jazz all night long. Kansas City was for all intents and purposes under the control of a local politician/mob boss/entrepreneur in the form of Jim Pendergrast who upon dying passed his power to his brother who was not as honest or ethical as Jim but who sustained an economic boom in Kansas City right in the middle of The Depression.
Where Did Jazz Get…
Pearson, Nathan W. (1994) Going to Kansas City. University of Illinois Press 1994.
Erenberg, Lewis A. (1999) Swingin' the Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture. University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Ogren, Kathy J. (1992) The Jazz Revolution: Twenties America and the Meaning of Jazz. Oxford University Press U.S., 1992
Driggs, Frank and Haddix, Chuck (2005) Kansas City jazz: from ragtime to bebop-- a history. Oxford University Press U.S., 2005
Downloadable, inexpensive music gives more power to listeners they had during the CD age, in which CDs were getting increasingly expensive, and consumers felt forced to purchase them, even if they liked only a few songs on the album. Technology can be empowering.
The music industry did have a point: the nature of downloadable music is not like a cassette tape or VHS, given the ease of recording and mass distribution. Its actions prosecuting individual violators in retrospect, however, were a public relations disaster and accomplished no social good. From a utilitarian standpoint and in terms of the general good, monitoring and legally sanctioning suppliers rather than focusing on the demand side of the industry seems to be the best way to ensure that file sharing is conduced in an ethical manner.
Violations will likely continue to occur, given that many nations, especially in the developing world, have a less…
Crews, Kenneth D. (2001). Case study a&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.: Implications for the Digital Music Library. Retrieved March 30, 2011 at http://dml.indiana.edu/pdf/AnalysisOfNapsterDecision.pdf
Fisher, Marc. (2007, December 30). Download uproar: Record industry goes after personal use.
Washington Post Staff Writer. Retrieved March 30, 2011 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/28/AR2007122800693.html
oles of The Program Music
Program music refers to a form of music which tries to deliver an additional musical story musically. This story involved could be rendered to its audience as program notes, causing imaginative comparisons with its music.
This concept of program music enjoys more fame and application in the European classical music world, especially during the height of romantic works in the 1800s. Program music was a very common concept in those times. It was commonly used in reference to solely instrumental music works which are music pieces that doesn't have any lyrics. However, it was also used to describe the lieder and opera music type (odgers, 2009).
The single progression orchestral program music works are symphonic poems and the complete works is produced to be enjoyed and heralded without any external references. The Hector Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique is a suitable instance of program music…
'2016 Summer study: Teaching Music's annual listing of summer music programs' 2016, Teaching Music, 4, p. 51, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Blom, D, Bennett, D, & Stevenson, I 2016, 'The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions', Frontiers in Psychology, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Garrett, S 2010, 'The Role of Community Music in Helping Disadvantaged Young People in South Wales to Confront Social Exclusion', International Journal Of Community Music, 3, 3, pp. 371-377, ERIC, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
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Therefore, it compromised the superiority of the German art and body politic. The Bayreuth festival, founded by Wagner, was utilized by the Nazis as a propaganda tool against the Jews.
Both Hitler and Wagner were not only racist, but both were also artists and politicians. Whereas Wagner exhibited a number of talents, Hitler was known for his painting and oratory skills. Both were paranoid that they had Jewish forbearers. Some of those things that Hitler and Wagner shared agreed upon are as follows: race is based on appearance, language, nationality and genetics; an "Aryan" white race is the supreme race of purity, beauty, and goodness; Germans will rule the world; all race other than Aryan are inferior; Nietsche's Will to Power and social Darwinism are the foundations upon which personality and society ought to be based; Jews were contaminating German blood; Jesus was not a Jew; Jews have no religion;…
Every time a person makes a transition into a new environment there is nervousness. I remember how anxious I was when I was going to middle school for the first time. I was leaving a small elementary school and moving into a school that had several times the number of students. Plus, I knew that I was going to be on my own much more here. I wouldn't be able to make as many mistakes or slough off on my homework assignments and projects. I found that out quickly enough when I went from classroom to classroom -- another big difference between schools, which took time management skills -- and each teacher had a different set of coursework schedules. Many of them said, "If you are a day late with homework, then you are docked." Not as lenient as elementary school!
High school was another major transition. Teachers' expectations…
Then in 1949, China was liberated and the state controlled by Mao Zedong, took over all music and artistic activities. Mao made great efforts to change musical traditions which he had associated with the older, defeated Chinese society. Promoted revolutionary songs and "Yangko Plays," (Yu un 1991). He moved the traditional away from professionalism, and towards exploring the life of the proletariat, the common people. Mao then allowed ussian influences to permeate into Chinese cultural traditions based on the nature of communism in the Soviet Union. Communism forced music like you would force production. Mao basically destroyed creative expression, all music other than state approved works were banned Popular musical developments were still occurring in British held Hong Kong, where the 1950s saw movements of Chinese ock and oll based on its Western influences (Wong 2000). Yet, it is clear that the music being handed down by the generations in…
During, Jean. 1982. "Music, Poetry and the Visual Arts in Persia." In The World of Music, 24(1). pages 72-84.
Nelson, Kristina. 1982. "Reciter and Listener: Some Factors Shaping the Mujawwad Style of Qur'anic Reciting." In Ethnomusicology 26(1). pages 41-47.
Nueman, Daniel M. 1985. "Indian Music as a Cultural System." Asian Music 17(1). pp.98-113.
Nueman, Daniel. 1989. "Music." The Cambridge Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives Francis Robinson, ed. Cambridge University Press. (pp.445-8).
Matthew Passion, is one of western music's sublime masterpieces" (Sherrane). Thus, Bach got many of his musical ideas from the religious world, from the Bible, and from the sermons in the churches he served, and perhaps that is one reason his music is still so popular and moving today. It was written with passion and spirituality, and so it touches the hearts of listeners even today.
In conclusion, Johann Sebastian Bach is one of the world's great composers. He spent his entire life writing music, mostly for the church, and he left a legacy that lives on even today. His music is still inspiring and magnificent, and it represents the most popular music of his time, giving a glimpse into the musical hits of the past.
Boyd, Malcolm, and John Butt, eds. J.S. Bach. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Linton, Michael. "Bach to the Future." First Things: A Monthly…
Boyd, Malcolm, and John Butt, eds. J.S. Bach. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Linton, Michael. "Bach to the Future." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Mar. 2007: 37+.
Marshall, Robert L., ed. Eighteenth-Century Keyboard Music. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Stapert, Calvin R. "Johann Sebastian Bach: Life and Work." The Christian Century 12 June 2007: 34+.
Ethiopian Music 4
Ethiopia actually contains many distinct cultures. The most populous is that of the Christian Amhara around the capital plateau, but there are other Christian, Jewish, and Muslim peoples, some remote and virtually unknown. The following remarks apply to Amhara lyric poetry.
Sung verse poetry is here the major musical artform, given a very plastic melodic conception based in artistic standards which revel in double meanings. The basic formats together with the ambiguities in phrasing have something in common with poetic forms in Yemen and serve principally to attract interest. The sonorities of instrumental ensembles can also be similar, with the instruments serving primarily to accompany or mimick the voice, but with the notable inclusion of the krar lyre which seems to have direct ties to ancient lyres of Greece and King David (a fixture of Ethiopian iconography). The music itself is very much melodically driven, frequently with…
Ethiopian Music. Retrieved May 23, 2006 at http://www.scaruffi.com/history/african.html
Abyssinie Swing. Ethiopian Music. Retrieved May 23, 2006 at http://www.rootsworld.com/reviews/book-abbys.shtml
Gebrekidan, Fikru. Roots, Kwas, and Reggae. Retreived May 23, 2006 from htt:/ / www.seleda.com/may00/bawza.shtml
World Fact Book. Ethiopia. Retireved May 23, 2006 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/et.html