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Myes-Biggs Type Indicato (MBTI), a tool used to measue psychological o pesonality types. The MBTI is descibed, discussing its pupose and design, fomat, and standadization sample. The psychometic popeties of this test ae then discussed. Fist, the eliability of the MBTI is demonstated though test-etest and Alpha coefficient measues, then the MBTI's validity is demonstated though pedictive, constuct, concuent, and heuistic measues. A numbe of uses fo the MBTI in a counselling setting ae descibed; pimaily, its ability to pomote discussion, help individuals gain self-insight, and bette undestand the diffeences between themselves and othes. This pape concludes with a discussion of the MBTI's stengths and weaknesses.
Fo this assignment I choose the Myes-Biggs Type Indicato (MBTI) to eview (Fleeno, 1998). The MBTI is based on Jung's (1923) theoy of psychological taits and was ceated in 1942 by a mothe daughte team, Kathaine Biggs and Isabel Myes, in ode to opeationalize…
references of psychotherapeutic approaches were determined using the Counsellor Educators Survey (CES), which classifies 18 of the major psychotherapeutic approaches into one of three broad categories (i.e. affective, behavioural, and cognitive).
132 counsellor education students attending university in the south-eastern United States participated in this study. Six of these students were male, 126 were female, and all were enrolled in one of the following graduate programs: mental health counselling, school counselling, and school psychology.
The results of this study were calculated using the Discriminant Function Analysis, a tool that is used to predict and explain "the relationships that impact the category in which an object is located" (Freeman et al., 2007, p. 259). The results from this analysis found that neither the MBTI nor the SDS predicted choices of psychotherapeutic approaches. These findings contradict a number of other studies which found that personality traits of students do have a statistically significant impact on psychotherapeutic orientation, possibly the result of past studies classifying psychotherapeutic approaches into four categories while the current study only used three.
Hess, A.K. (2002). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (r) Step II (Form Q). The Fifteenth Mental Measurements Yearbook.
But once again, these people are likely to fall into the trap of misinformation since they do not rely on calculated scientific measures.
Feeling is an indication of a person's ability to respond with empathy. These people would respond to information from the inside. Thus they like to know how it feels to be in that situation and then they respond to it. Thinking would then be in direct contrast to this since people with higher score on thinking would stay more detached from the actual situation and make a decision based on things other than their personal feelings towards it. There is no better or worse way of responding and thus both are considered equally rational.
Now let us see how a person with NF as function would behave. Such a person would be more sensitive to the environment and would like to work on gut and…
Myers, Isabel Briggs with Peter B. Myers (1980, 1995). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.
Testing and Assessment in Counseling Practice, ed. C. Edward Watkins and Vicki L. Campbell, 2nd ed. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000)
Testing and Assessment in Counseling Practice, ed. C. Edward Watkins and Vicki L. Campbell 116
In addition, the information that I find on their site seems to be very vague, especially about what kind of 'success' they have had in being accurate regarding people's personalities. While this is not just a quick, online quiz, it has much more of the feel of that type of 'test' than the Myers-riggs assessment does. If I were to take a personality test, I think I would avoid the Keirsey test, simply because it does not seem to be that legitimate of an instrument for truly determining a person's personality and temperament, and what he or she should then do with his or her life based on personality.
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-riggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & orders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional…
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & Borders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1): 94.
Myers-Briggs Personality Test. n.d. Retrieved at http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/reliability-and-validity.asp
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
I get excited about ideas I have for new products and services, and I'm motivated for them to succeed on a personal level. Of course, the income helps motivate me too! I really feel pressure to succeed so I can take good care of my family, so I think that's the extrinsic motivator for me, making sure my family is well taken care of and secure. Otherwise, it's all intrinsic for me, I love the feeling I get when I succeed at something, and it works. it's very satisfying and it makes me feel in control and in charge of my own life and destiny.
ME: I think I'm intrinsically motivated, as well. I find I do much better on assignments that interest me, (like this one), than on assignments that I don't feel any connection with. I think that's the same in many areas of my life. Outward motivation,…
When I am leading a team, I never take all the credit of the success and I make sure that every member of my team has played an equally important role in achieving our goal. Similarly, when my team experiences a failure I take personal responsibility for that (Mind Tools, 2011).
As a member of the society, I am passionate about serving the society and being a valuable asset to it. I try to serve the community in every way, be it physically, intellectually, and financially. When I have to take up certain decisions, I critically analyse all the pros, cons, best case, and worst-case scenarios and then take up my decision. Again, I never let myself be caught in what is called "analysis-paralysis." This is because I believe that although a leader should not make impulsive decisions, however, he should always be prepared for making spontaneous decisions. Furthermore, he…
Weinberger, G. (1994). Can Personality Change?. Washington, American Psychological Association.
Allan, J. & Brock, S. (2003). Health Care Communication using Personality Types. London, Routledge.
Levine, J. (1999). The Ennegram Intelligences. Westport, Bergin & Garvey.
Hare, S. & Hare, a. (1996). SYMLOG Field Theory. Westport, Praeger Publishers.
milestones in my career as well as identify principle actions and advice that assisted me in moving forward in my career. People often are not aware of the difficulties that entail being a career counselor. It requires a myriad of skills of which take time to learn and master. The first major milestone I discuss is the utilization of the Myers-Briggs Test. This test not only helped me identify options for people career-wise, but also categorize them in a way that was easy to discuss and examine.
My next major milestone involved the four phases of assessment. It takes time to evaluate and understand where the client is intellectually and emotionally. By assessing things like education level, preferences, it makes it easier to understand where that person can take their career in relation to their current skills or plans for future skill development. Everything takes time to fully grasp and…
Braunstein-Bercovitz, H. & Lipshits-Braziler, Y. (2015). Career-Planning Beliefs as Predictors of Intentions to Seek Career Counseling. Journal of Career Assessment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072715616129
GOTTFREDSON, S. & GOTTFREDSON, D. (2009). THE LONG-TERM PREDICTIVE UTILITY OF THE BASE EXPECTANCY SCORE. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 32(4), 276-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2311.1993.tb00783.x
Zunker, V. (2015). Career counseling (9th ed.). Cengage Learning.
In my opinion, leaders should be an example for their team regarding work. They should promote increased enthusiasm towards work, in order for their example to be followed by other members of their group.
However, when assessing an individual's leadership potential it is necessary to take into consideration its emotional intelligence level. People's emotional intelligence refers to their ability of understanding motions and feelings and their attitudes and reactions in different situations (Chapman, 2009). The emotional intelligence level reveals how we read people, how we tend to use our emotions, how we understand and manage these emotions, and impressions.
The results of my EIQ 16 test have revealed interesting aspects about myself that I was not really aware of. For example, on the reading people aspect I rated level 3, which means that I am competent in this field. This means that I am normally aware of my feelings and…
1. Bolden, R. et al. (2003). A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Center for Leadership Studies. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
2. Guardian Portrait of the Supervisor (2010). Keirsey. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.keirsey.com/4temps/supervisor.asp .
3. Chapman, a. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm .
Performance Management Model
Program Coordinator of Partners for a Healthy Baby
The Program Coordinator of Partners for a Healthy Baby will have the challenge of implementing a program designed to facilitate positive health, growth, and educational development of teens and their babies. The position requires a strong background in social work, adolescent development, and health-related fields. The Program Coordinator will act both as an educator and a facilitator in conjunction with the performance expectations of this role.
Practices and theories in regards to recruitment and performance evaluation
The character traits required for the Program Coordinator are strong interpersonal skills; the ability to multitask; yet also the ability to evaluate evidence-based research to be able to provide adequate scrutiny of the existing information on teenage pregnancy and to ensure the programming makes optimal use of all available data. The Coordinator will work with the Program Chief to oversee administration-related…
Department of Social Services of Wilson, NC. (2015). Retrieved from:
DSS Success in Schools receives award. (2012). Wilson County. Press Release.
Retrieved from: http://www.wilson-co.com/CivicAlerts.aspx?AID=316&ARC=627
Jung's instrumental role in affirming psychology as a science is downplayed by modern researchers. Yet as the author notes, much of what Jung unearthed in his research and clinical work has bled through to modern clinical psychology. The most obvious implication that Jungian psychology has become part of the mainstream social sciences is the Myers-Briggs test.
However, the concept of the archetype is Jung's. So, too, are issues like extraversion and introversion. Jung is renowned for detailed personality typing, a process that is integral to healing. Typing indicates the quest for self-awareness. Like going backwards, the process of being more aware of the self is often akin to diving into a dark pool.
We Jungian therapists might sometimes be called upon to delve into primitive landscapes ourselves, searching for cultural emblems and icons that match a client's budding self-awareness. The Cambridge Companion to Jung, which contains a plethora of useful…
Gambini, R. (1998). The challenge of backwardness. Chapter 9 in Casement, a. (1998). Post-Jungians Today. p. 149-234. Routledge.
Robertson, R. (2005). Jung and the making of modern psychology. Psychological Perspectives, 48, 1.
Schwartz-Salant, N. (1982). Narcissism and character transformation. pages 133-169
Young-Eisendrath, P. & Dawson, T. (2008). The Cambridge companion to Jung. pages 141-313
Students are required to position their own personal set of values, opinions and convictions in view of the theories and topics justifying them rationally and using a philosophical approach and language taken
Developing Emotional Intelligence (EQ) to build a more effective sales team
Being a salesperson is a demanding job. It demands verbal acuity, a quick grasp of facts and figures, but above all emotional intelligence. The architect of the theory of Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Daniel Goleman, defined the five basic components of the attribute of EI as follows: emotional self-knowledge, emotional self-governance, the ability to independently motivate one's self, the ability to regulate one's own emotions, "recognizing and understanding other people's emotions," and the ability to manage the emotions of others in an effective manner to reach personal goals (Chapman 2009). Enhancing the emotional intelligence skills and competencies of a group of ten sales associates working in a wireless…
Chapman, Alan. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Business Balls. Retrieved October 26, 2010 at http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm
Goleman, Daniel. (2000). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam.
My action plan for choosing a major begins with a couple of points of analysis. I first will be looking at my personality and interests, and then try to align themselves with potential career paths.. From there, I will look at the majors that might be available to help put me on that path. These different things will be done here, but then there are other facets of the action plan. For example, I will begin to envision the different positions in this pathway and the types of companies/industries in which I might want to ply my future trade.
I want to have three major goals. First, I want to gather enough information for me to make an informed decision. A sub-goal that is associated with this is to look at different jobs in my fields of interest, and gather data about career prospects. A second goal will…
BLS.gov (2016). Occupational Employment and wages, May 2015. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 20, 2016 from http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes112031.htm
BSM (2015). Portrait of an ENFP. Personality Page. Retrieved April 20, 2016 from https://www.personalitypage.com/ENFP.html
Pace (2016) Undergraduate majors and minors. Pace University. Retrieved April 20, 2016 from http://www.pace.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/majors
It is used to determine how dependable a candidate is, as well as how organized that individual is. A sample interview question that would competently assess the one's conscientiousness and emotional stability is: can you provide an outline a five-year plan for your professional and financial goals, which would include your acceptance to this position? The way that people choose to organize what it is that they are trying to achieve, and how they would go about doing so, would indicate their conscientiousness.
A good question to gauge a candidate's agreeableness is: how do you perceive the values of autonomy compare to those of teamwork? This is a trick question, because trust and collaboration is essential to both of these concepts, which candidates should reveal with their answers.
A good question to assess a candidate's level of neuroticism, which can encompass self-conscious, anxious behavior at one end and a sophisticated…
preferences: 1) Introversion-Extroversion; 2) Intuition-Sensation; 3) Thinking-Feeling; 4) Judging-Perceiving
Introversion is the quality of being focused on one's inner world. Extraversion is the quality of being more interested in what is going on outside of oneself. Introverts tend to be more analytical and thoughtful in nature, and less prone to going to parties. Extraverts prefer parties to being alone, and like talking and being around others as much as possible.
Intuition refers to gut instinct. Someone who prefers intuition usually demonstrates the tendency to rely on gut instincts or dreamy perceptions rather than on logic when making decisions. A sensation-oriented person needs hard evidence gathered from their physical senses. An intuitive will say, "I have a good feeling about this person, I will date them." A sensation-driven person will say, "I like her hair, I think I will ask her out."
All persons think and feel. However, the preference for…
The qualities tested by the Myes-Biggs ae also those that often cause clashes between employees, such extovesion vs. intovesion, thinking vs. feeling, judging vs. peceiving, and the tendency to expeiencing the wold though sensing vs. intuition. Taking the test helps someone who is quiet and feels fulfilled woking behind a compute undestand why he o she might see the wold diffeently than someone who is a 'people peson.'
It should be stessed that while pesonality types may be elatively constant thoughout an individual's life, all types must still espond to vaious extenal stessos at times: an intovet will still likely shout 'fie' and sping to action when needed in an emegency, despite a pefeence fo being etiing and eflective. An extovet can lock the doo to study a long and detailed epot on which he o she must make a pesentation. But the question is pefeence: an indicato of "you…
reference: an indicator of "your true preference may be the level of stress or enjoyment in a situation. Where your preferences coincide with the demands of the situation, you may find it quite enjoyable. An extrovert may find it frustrating or stressful if required to work in an introvert style, but enjoyable or energizing if required to work in an extrovert style, and vice versa for an introvert" (Working out, 2010, Team Technology, p.2). At time, managers of teams may need to press members out of their comfort zones to accomplish certain goals and objectives and at other times playing to different team members' strengths may be optimal. Regardless, team member's self-awareness and awareness that not everyone is 'like them' in terms of the way they see the world can optimize team productivity by minimizing conflict and maximizing the use of team member's different skills.
Working out your Myers-Briggs type. (2010). Team Technology. Retrieved February 19, 2010 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/tt/t-articl/myers-briggs-1.htm
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
Personality and Motivation
Most scholarship defines personality as some sort of combination of the emotional, behavioral and attitude patterns for an individual. Different theorists ascribe differing ways the personality is acquired, but there are a few agreed upon ways that help us define a person's personality. For instance, there tend to be five major traits that help define human personality: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness. Over time, different ways of focusing on these attributes help make up ways of describing a person (Lucas and Baird, 2004, pp. 473-85).
One way to measure personality types evolved from the work of psychologist Carl Jung. Using psychological preferences of how people perceive their universe and make decisions, Briggs and Myers developed a way to consider types of personalities based on personality preferences that focus on the manner of human values, experiences, needs and motivations. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a…
Lucas, R. And Barid, B. (2004). Extraversion and Emotional Reactivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 86 (1): 473-85.
Quenk, N. (2009). Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessments. New York: Wiley.
Work and Management
The objective of this study is to compare House's Path-Goal theory of leadership with the Situational Leadership model. This study will make provision of an example or application of the two theories utilizing the writer's work situation.
This study will describe the leadership styled utilized by the writer's boss or other CEO or high level personnel in the work organization. For part two of this study examined is how causes of conflict can be found in the organizational and personal characteristics of those involved in the conflict.
This study will answer as to the similar organizational and personal factors and provide examples using the organization the writer is most familiar with.
For part three of this study, Chapter 17 on Career Management will be examined and the following questions answered: (1) What aspects of9 the New vs. Old Career Paradigms can you relate to your…
Free Personality Test (2014) 16 Personalities. Retrieved from: http://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test Basu, C. (2014) Difference Between Situational Leadership & Path Leadership Theories. Small Business Chronicle. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-situational-leadership-path-leadership-theories-33446.html
Chapter 17: Career Management (pp. 278-0) Career Management: Chapter Objectives, 2007 Cengage Learning Inc.
For example, the fact that I am calm and in control helps me make good decisions based on analyzing the facts of a situation, rather than relying on emotions or factors that cannot be controlled. In my opinion, such characteristics are very important for managers. Also, I am interested in theoretical aspects, in identifying patterns and innovation oriented, which is extremely useful for entrepreneurs. I am logical and critical in work situations, which allows me to correctly assess various situations.
I am systematic, I enjoy making plans, developing schedules and procedures, I have a structured and strategic thinking. These are characteristics that managers must have, given the importance of the planning process within companies. I am interested in identifying the advantages and disadvantages of a situation before making a decision.
However, this type of personality reveals that I must improve my communication skills. This is because I have the tendency…
As a team leade o team membe, it is vital to foste communication and undestanding within the team. Teamwok is the key to a successful poject, whethe the team consists of one supeviso and one woke, o if the team is a lage goup assigned to a paticula task. Team membes can use a vaiety of methods to bette undestand communication in the team setting, as well as finding motivation to do the best wok possible.
When developing a team, it is impotant fo the team leade to select membes that will be poductive and pleasant. The team membe selection pocess is among the most impotant duties the team leade will have to pefom as a pat of the team. The team needs to be a positive mix of people with the ight combination of skills that will make the goup successful. Accoding to the BPR Leaning Cente…
references in the MBTI system are based on four basic categories, which in theory affect the way the team member will perform tasks. The first subscale is the extroversion vs. introversion, and is a measurement of how outgoing and sociable someone is. Those who are very extroverted will likely interact openly and willingly with other group members, sharing ideas readily. Introverted team members may be more independent and less open socially. The second subscale is the intuition vs. sensing, which measures how much attention someone pays to their imagination vs. reality. Team members that are very sensing are more likely to focus on practicalities. The third subscale is thinking vs. feeling, which measures
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
Where Will Counseling Take Place?
oundaries for Safety and Security
God's Riches at Christ's Expense
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
This is an overview of the counseling position that I will take when working with clients/parishioners. I realize that this cannot encompass every eventuality that may occur during a counseling session, but it should be comprehensive enough to account for most of the possibilities that present themselves. I acknowledge that this is also the treatise of someone who is going to be practicing as a pastor first and a counselor second, therefore the relationship of a shepherd to his assigned sheep is the most important consideration in all of this. Also, the counseling relationship that a pastor enjoys with a parishioner is not as extensive as that between a patient…
Carlson, Dwight L. 2000. Overcoming hurts and anger. Eugene: Harvest House. ISBN: 0736901965
This book is a real help when dealing with anger. The author gives you steps on how to prevent your anger and deal with past anger in a Christian manner. He gives examples of mishandled anger, biblical principles about anger, and how to handle anger in a Christ-like way.
LaHaye, Tim and Bob Phillips. 2002. Anger is a choice. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN: 0310242835
deductive and empirical strategies used in the construction of structured personality instruments, it is important to denote just what the terms deductive and empirical mean and how they relate to tests specific to psychological purposes. Empirical evidence is that which can be demonstrated or proven, and which ultimately exists in the world. Deductive reasoning is a form of logic wherein individuals establish a basic premise or truth, combine it with others for which there is empirical evidence to validate, and then draw conclusions. This type of reasoning determines conclusions based on a top-down approach to reasoning. These respective strategies, then, which frequently are applied in congruence with one another, are highly important for the makeup of structured personality tests. One may even posit the viewpoint that without such strategies, the results of personality instruments would be virtually useless or inconclusive at best.
Define and Describe Deductive
Therefore, when examining the…
Frisby, C.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
Kwan, K.-L. K., Maestas, M.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
McCrae, R.R., Costa Jr., P.T. (1989). Rotation to maximize the construct validity factors in the NEO personality inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 24: 107 -- 124.
Suzuki, L.A., Prevost, L., Short, E.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
Vocational Assessment Test eview: Myers Briggs Type Indicator
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality assessment that can help guide people to suitable vocations, but which is also useful in other scenarios. It was developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cooks Briggs, from a Jungian psychology perspective. Although they began working on it in the early 1940s, it was first published in 1962. It is a self-report questionnaire, which examines the individual's preferences along different components of personality. It was created for a normal population distribution and can be used for members of any demographics that can process the test, though it is probably most appropriate for late teens and beyond; perhaps ages 14 and up. The MBTI is a multiple-choice test and is written at a 7th grade reading level. It takes approximately 20-30 minutes to administer the test, but the test is not timed and…
Carlyn, M. (1977). An assessment of the Myers Briggs type indicator. Journal of Personality
Assessment, 41(5), 461-473.
Fretwell, C., Lewis, C., & Hannay, M. (2013). Myers-Briggs type indicator, A/B types, and locus of control: where do they intersect? American Journal of Management, 13(3), 57-66.
Lok, C. (2012). Career development: what's your type? Nature, 488, 545-547.
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
RESOLVING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT
Management Theory and Thought: Identifying and Resolving Organizational Conflict
Understanding Individual Preferences
The modern business environment has become more complex and diverse than ever before. Globalization has been driven by technological innovations that allow for greater communication, information sharing, travel, and business networks that span the globe. Employees today expected to handle workloads that push their productivity beyond that of any generation in the past. Furthermore, the complexity and diversity found in this environment often significantly increase the potential for organizational conflict. Teams are now more commonly spread out across geographic locations and often represent individuals from far different backgrounds.
There are many perspectives that can be used to try to build organizational conflict resolution capabilities in an organization and this objective can be viewed from many perspectives. For example, you can try to build conflict resolution skills in the individual,…
Brenner, M., Fairris, D., & Ruser, J. (2004). "Flexible" Work Practices and Occupational Safety and Health: Exploring the Relationship Between Cumulative Trauma Disorders and Workplace Transformation. Industrial Relations, 242-266.
Gherri, B., & Eimer, M. (2011). Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(4), 832-844.
Hunt, G., & Cusella, L. (1983). A field study of listening needs in organizations. Communication Education, 32(4), 393-401.
Terestre, D. (2004, March 26). Talking him down: the crisis negotiator. Retrieved from Police One: http://www.policeone.com/columnists/PoliceMagazine/articles/82818-Talking-him-down-the-crisis-negotiator/
The concept of intelligence and the pactice (and pacticality) of testing fo intelligence has been one of the moe contovesial aeas of psychology and psychometics since the fist tests wee developed and administeed a centuy ago. Fa fom thee being a consensus in the scientific community on exactly what makes up intelligence, the list of chaacteistics that compise intelligence has instead been a matte of exteme and ongoing debate. Measuing intelligence in individuals has found an even geate shae of disageement and contovesy. Even when eseaches ae able to agee on what aspects should be measued to develop an accuate pictue of intelligence, the methods poposed and implemented fo testing these aeas have often been widely disputed. The contovesy suounding intelligence testing eached new heights in the ea of cultual divesity, as it became clea that the standad intelligence tests in use fo the bette pat of the…
references in four categories: introvert/extrovert, intuitive/sensing, thinking/feeling, and perceiving/judging. This test is closely related to both intelligence tests in certain ways, but completely unrelated in others. That is, both intelligence tests reflect the way each individual thinks -- their intellectual strengths and weaknesses -- to some degree. The Myers-Briggs personality type test reveals a great deal about the way an individual thinks and interacts with the world, but it does not predict how efficiently this occurs -- that is the realm of the intelligence tests. Both types of tests can be used to measure someone's capabilities and proclivities to aid in employment placement or in psychological testing, to determine where problems might lie or how they might best be handled.
These issues lead to what could be some major ethical issues with both types of test. Given the fact that some bias is inherent to even the most carefully designed test, the use of either (or both) intelligence or personality tests to determine suitability for employment could be viewed as ethically unacceptable in terms of discriminatory practices. Online testing is somewhat less fraught with ethical considerations, as it is (or should be) assumed that tehse tests are not fully accurate measures and are taken more for reasons of personal enjoyment. The fact that many tests try to sell you things, or claim to be incredibly accurate, does diminish the harmlessness somewhat, but our culture should know no to trust everything on the web.
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Measurement and Statistics
Intelligence: Definition and assessment
Two major interpretations of intelligence exist -- the concept of 'general intelligence,' which is often pitted against the concept of 'multiple intelligences.' For many years, it was though that only one kind of intelligence existed, known as the 'g-factor,' or general intelligence. "In recent decades, psychologists have devoted much effort to isolating that general factor, which is abbreviated g, from the other aspects of cognitive ability gauged in mental tests" (Gottfredson 2010). However, some researchers such as Howard Gardner have attempted to reframe the g-factor and advocate that intelligence is a multi-faceted concept.
Intelligence tests are often contrasted against personality tests, in which different characteristics are viewed to exist as unrelated to one another. For example, in a standard Myers-Briggs personality test, a person can be 'extroverted' and a 'judging' type or 'introverted' and a 'judging' type. Different personality characteristics do not necessarily…
Achievement tests. (2011). Institute of Mental Measurements. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://www.unl.edu/buros/bimm/html/index01.html
Becker, Kirt. (2003). History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. Houghton-Mifflin.
Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.assess.nelson.com/pdf/sb5-asb1.pdf
Gilman, Linda. (2001). Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Intelligence Theory.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter is a well-established psychological instrument commonly used by human resources professionals to assess applicant or employee strengths and optimal placement strategies. Although "there is little information available to support the validity of the KTS-II," it nevertheless can be used to "identify work environments congruent with one's personality," (Kelly & Jugovic, 2001, p. 49). Therefore, the test can demonstrate not necessarily aptitude at tasks but how well an individual might fit into a specific organizational culture. The test is typically a fee-based service offered through psychologists or human resources departments, but a free sample assessment is available on the company's website. The free sample test is brief, consisting of about fifty questions with simple binary responses.
My results on the Kiersey Temperament Sorter indicate that I fall within the Idealist categories. However, there are four types of Idealists and the free assessment does not narrow down which of…
Akyeampong, K.O., et al. (2014). The relationship between temperament and changes in cultural competency among undergraduate students. Undergraduate Research Symposium, Mankato, MN, April 21, 2014.
Kelly, K.R. & Jugovic, H. (2001). Concurrent validity of the online version of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter. Journal of Career Assessment 9(1)
Management of Stress and Tension
Goals-- What do you wish to complete?
The answer to attain a postgraduate degree can develop into a very long journey. For me, the contending aspects of time and financial resources constantly appeared to present problems and control the situation. In truth, it would be considerably much easier to provide every single argument present against returning to institution at this time. One can say that numerous considerable life-changing occasions experienced just recently would be cause or motive enough to put off the commencement of the Master's of Business Administration (MBA) program. Concerns associated with household loss and task modification can be made use of as proof in support of delay. Financial pressures can likewise exist yet an additional motive that the moment in time, endeavor, and cost needed for an MBA would not be a required use of resources. Nonetheless, regardless of every one of…
Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Inc.. (2011). What are archetypes. Retrieved from http://www.capt.org/discover-your-archetypes/about-archetypes.htm
Cohen, B. (2001, April 21). Average Salary for First Year Accountants. Retrieved from eHow Money: http://www.ehow.com/info_8271661_average-salary-firstyear-accountants.html
Curtis, J. (2009). Life change stress test. WebMD. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/hw-popup/life-change-stress-test
Hansen, R.S. (n.d.). The Master of Business Administration: Is the MBA Worth the Time, Effort, and Cost? Retrieved from Quint Careers: http://www.quintcareers.com/MBA_degree.html
Conversely when respondents see the risk as being controllable and to an extent observable, the factor of interest would inversely correlate to the knowledge of risk axis while clustering on the controllable vs. uncontrollable risk vertical axis, settling into the region of the quadrant where motorcycles, fireworks and alcohol accidents are. Again this is an approximation yet is the strength of psychometrics overall and the use of orthogonality to enforce validity and reliability is shown in this example.
In terms of communication of risk statement, it's clear from psychometrics that the more known a risk can become with credible, third-party data that accurately portrays its true threat in conjunction with an accurate measure of how controllable a risk is or not, equitability and individuality of risk, and the risk not being globally catastrophic would minimize risks as analyzed using the psychometric paradigm as defined in Figure 1 and throughout the…
Myers-Briggs Foundation (2006) - Overview of the personality programs and the basics of their testing programs, accessed from the Internet on September 1, 2006 from location:
Slovic (1987) - Perception of Risk., Science Magazine. Volume 236. April 17, 1987.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Individual Psychological Testing in the Workplace
Faced with an ever increasing competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. Every organization wants to ensure that they hire the right person. Job applicants may submit an effective resume and perform well during an interview, but they usually highlight only positive attributes. Psychological testing has been identified as one way of ensuring that the business picks an applicant who is a perfect fit for the position and actually can do the work required. Physiological tests have been validated by experts as a very good indicator of an applicant's working style. Testing potential employees can increase the chances that a company chooses the right person for a job, reduce turnover and their by lower training costs.
Specific Psychological Testing used in the Workplace
Personality tests are self-report measures…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National
Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association
American Psychological Association. (2011). Rights and responsibilities of test takers:
guidelines and expectations. American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved June
(Humans are often called 'social animals'). However, the test construct acknowledged the fact that no one is perfectly social or asocial but a mix of both characteristics. Extroversion and introversion are not necessarily either/or qualities, which has been one of the critiques of the Myers-Brigg assessment. In future forms of this extroversion inventory, creating a typology of different types of introversion and extroversion would be useful. For example, some people are very extroverted with friends, but are more socially reserved in a work context. Others are very introverted in the sense that they like to be alone, but can still 'get by' in social environments and perform like extroverts. It is also possible to be very confident speaking in public to large groups of people, but to feel more uncomfortable one-on-one, in personal social contexts.
Additionally, positive forms of sociability -- such as compassion -- and negative forms -- such…
DISC assessment. (2010). DISC homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.churchangeldisc.com/definitionofdisc.html
Measuring the big five personality factors. (2010). Department of Psychology. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#where
Myers, Isabel Briggs & Peter B. Myers (1995). Gifts differing. Mountain View, CA: Davies-
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.
Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.
Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446
Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.
In my opinion, finding a problem in such a case study is strictly related to whether you agree with the LMX theory or not. In this sense, stimulating a certain part of your personnel may be considered efficient or less efficient, in which case there may be a problem.
However, there several issues that should be discussing when referring to the way Jim is applying the LMX theory. First of all, the permanent and main reason for which he is using the in-group personnel is that he "doesn't have to do it himself" or because he is reticent about stepping up front. This doesn't seem to me to be a leader-like attitude. Using in-group people for certain jobs should be directed towards increasing the overall efficiency rather than covering up for yourself as leader.
The second thing that should be discussed is related to compensation and…
This section has used some of the explanations presented at
The personality of individuals, without a doubt, can have an influence on several things they partake in. One particular aspect that they can impact is the career and life decisions undertaken by an individual. In accordance to the Jung Typology Personality Test, my personality type is ESFJ, which is Extravert, Sensing, Feeling, and Judging. One of the aspects I have learned regarding my personality is that I revel in being in charge. Individuals with ESFJ as their personality type are able to perceive problems in a clear manner and thereafter delegate tasks easily. In addition, such individuals are eager to offer assistance and also expect others to reciprocate the same. This influences my career in that ESFJ personality types have a preference and tend to take part in occupations that encompasses plenty of direct interactions with other individuals, for instance clients and other members of staff. It also encompasses career…
Social Media Trends: Health Psychology
One of the most notable trends in recent years is the rise in interest in the field of popular psychology. People conduct personality tests on themselves, engage in self-diagnosis, and simplify psychological conditions (both common and uncommon) and apply them to their daily lives. The ubiquity of the Internet has made this even more accessible. Although self-help books have been best sellers for more than a hundred years, and even 19th century magazines printed personality self-quizzes, the ease of taking and scoring them online has caused an explosion of self-analysis (Bisceglio, 2017). Although some of the quizzes are clearly silly, others, like online versions of the Myers-Briggs, are also used in a serious setting as a method of analyzing prospective employees. “In-depth psychological assessments like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator began popping up in the first half of the 20th century for the purpose of scanning…
The open communication and team objectives will make the COA team realize high energy, renewed commitment to the change process, and openness. In this stage, the FHA team has adopted the change, and requires leadership to sustain the drive. At this stage, an effective leadership style to maintain the drive to change is the management by objectives (Bridges & Bridges, 2009). This leadership style drives people to connect to the objectives of the change process and to the change plan. I would also motivate the team by recognizing the effort in the change process to avoid complacency.
Key Elements in the Leadership Organizational Change Process
The leadership model created in the change process was accentuated with smart-power or the model of visionary leadership. In this model, organizational and project team communication was achieved by adopting the principals of strategic control, balance of constraint and creativity, transfer of information,…
Bridges, W. & Bridges, S. (2009). Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. 3rd ed., Da Capo Lifelong Books.
Kondalkar, V.G. (2010). Organization Effectiveness and Change Management. PHI Learning.
Martini, P.H. (2008). Toward an Integrated Model of Visionary Leadership: A Multilevel Study. Regent University, Proquest, AAT 3340923.
Nieuwenhuizen, C. & Rossouw, D. (2008). Business Management: A Contemporary Approach. Cape Town, South Africa; Juta & Co.
Personality and Personalistic Leadership: An Assessment of Team Management for the 21st Century usiness Team Environment
Contemporary studies on emerging new principles on the nature of the culture of the business environment and team management within organizations led to the development of what is termed as "personalistic leadership." This new term and concept refers to the prevailing use of personal relations and strategies that aim to build stronger social bonds between leader and members, as well as among members of an organization. Personalistic leadership arises from the development of diversity among members of an organization; it is in this change in the business environment that made personal and social relationships important within business organizations (uhler, 2004). In this kind of leadership, it is also vital that leaders/managers must be able to adapt strategies and methods which reflect the flexibility or adaptability of the leader to changes within the business environment…
Antonakis, J. (2003). Why "emotional intelligence" does not predict leadership effectiveness: a comment on Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11, no. 4. pp. 355-361.
Buhler, P. February 2004. Managing in the new millenium. Supervision, vol. 65, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 12121885.
Douglas, M. (2003). Servant-leadership: an emerging supervisory model. Supervision, vol. 64, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 9036904.
Dulewicz, V. And M. Higgs. 2003. Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis. pp. 193-210.
We can compare the healthcare workplace to what is seen by a person when he/she looks through a kaleidoscope: since there are numerous different patterns that appear as the moments pass by. The shortage of nurses which has been publicized widely and the high turnover rates amongst the nurses are some of the unwanted patterns which have occurred. The dependence of healthcare institutions on the nurse-managers for the retention and recruitment of nurses is steadily increasing (Contino, 2004).
There are a number of routes through which the critical care nurses have become the leaders. Most of these routes don't have any educational or managerial training as a part of the process. There is a need for effective strategies for the care leaders who provide critical care in order to inspire the staff and manage the departmental operations in an effective manner to get positive results. One of the strategies…
Adams, J., Erickson, J., Jones, D., & Paulo, L. (2009). An evidence-based structure for transformative nurse executive practice, Nursing Administration Quarterly, 33(4), 280-87
Advisory Board Web site. (2004). Available at: http://www.advisory.com .
Ales, B.J. (1995). Mastering the art of delegation. Nurs Manage. August; 26: 32A, 32E.
American Organization of Nurse Executives (2005). AONE Nurse Executive Competencies. Nurse Leader, 3(1), 15-22.
The next three categories deal with the lack of information: 4) lack of information about the career decision-making process, itself; 5) lack of information about one's own capabilities, personal traits or interests; 6) lack of information about occupations and what work is involved and the type of work available; and 7) lack of information about ways of obtaining career information. The final three categories deal with the inconsistent information that students receive that make decision-making difficult: 8) inconsistent information due to unreliable sources;
9) inconsistent information due to internal conflicts, such personal identity and 10) insistent information due to external conflicts with significant others.
Once students have had a an opportunity to learn more about their personal traits in relationship to careers and the type of positions available, they want to actually have an opportunity to learn more right from the source. However, even at community schools, only two percent…
God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.
Types of Cognitive Processes
The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.
Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)
Judgment -- (Thinking…
Barrett, L., Sorensen, R. & Hartung, T. (1985). Personality Type Factors of Faculty and Students Implications for Agricultural College Teaching. NACTA, 1-5.
Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.
Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17
Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.
IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…
Bates, Steve. (2002). Personality counts: psychological tests can help peg the job applicants best suited for certain jobs. HR Magazine. Feb. 2002
Flynn, Gillian. (2002). A legal examination of testing. Workforce. June 2002
Newitz, Annalee. (2000). The personality paradox. Industry Stand. October, 2000.
A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.
In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.
Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…
Taking from Maharishi Vedic Science, the Unified Field chart described above asserts that because pure consciousness, the home of all the Laws of Nature, is the most fundamental level of all material creation, including human psychology development, the integration of pure consciousness into all aspects of the individual should maintain the moral development. This phenomenon is confirmed in previous research studies on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. This section describes another chart, called a Richo Akshare chart, which provides further illumination of this phenomenon.
In Maharishi Vedic Science, Richo Akshare charts show how the essence of all the disciplines of modern science are located within the structure of the Richo Akshare verse of Rk Veda. Maharishi (1995) explains that the fundamental Laws of Nature comming from the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness are accountable for the whole material creation.
According to Maharishi (1997), the Richo Akshare verse explains that all knowledge exists in Transcendental Consciousness, the Unified Field of all the Laws of Nature, responsible for everything in the universe. Individuals who lack access to Transcendental Consciousness do not get support from the Laws of Nature. Those who can practice Transcendental Consciousness gain enlightenment and full supported by Nature Law.
Cindy said she could see herself managing a fashion boutique, makeup studio, or retail store. This would use her flair for design, knowledge of business, and also her astute knowledge of people. Although she might need some additional education in beginning her own business, this would not be as extensive as going back to school, which Cindy feared she would have to do, to remain competitive in the working world.
Application of data to client
Cindy is a 'people person' at heart. Hopefully, this forced career change will be the proverbial blessing in disguise and allow her to explore previously hidden internal aspects of her vocational self. Although Cindy was frequently called upon to show leadership of other administrative personnel, she was often relegated to a supportive capacity at her previous place of employment. At the helm of her own business, in an occupation she loved, this would not be…
Bolles, Richard. (2009). What color is your parachute? Ten Speed Press.
Keirsey, David. (1987). Portraits of Temperament. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.
Shavik, Andrea. (2002). Passing synchometric tests. How to books.
Straker, David (2008). . Changing minds: In detail. Syque Press.
Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories
What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain…
American Psychological Association (2015). Personality. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/topics/personality/
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The Big Five personality dimensions. About Education. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/bigfive.htm
"General Strengths and Limitations of Trait Perspectives," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/trait-perspectives-on-personality-79/general-strengths-and-limitations-of-trait-perspectives-312-12847/
McAdams, D.P. & Pals, J.L. (2006). A new Big Five. American Psychologist 61(3): 204-217.
The first flow of influence is disarming, the process of omitting any signs of power or control on the part of the seller. Second is liking, or how rapport is established and relationships are trigger with strangers. Third is distinctiveness, which refers to the degree that the seller's approach differs from others to which the buyer has been exposed.
Williams (1998) suggests that firms who want to move from traditional transaction oriented selling to relationship building must look closely at all aspects of sales management including recruitment, training, remuneration and sales planning. Conti and Cron (1998) state that the field sales force must be particularly involved in targeting individual customers, implementing relationship-specific offerings, and evaluating relationship outcomes for relationship selling to be effective. To accomplish those objectives, they suggest a planning framework that includes criteria that are conducive to collaborative relationships. The key criteria include; 1) the customer's business philosophy…
Alessandra, Tony & Barrera, Rick. (1993). Collaborative Selling: How to Gain the Competitive Advantage in Sales. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Anderson, Rolph E. (1996). Personal selling and sales management in the new millennium. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 16 (4), 17-32.
Boorom, Michael L., Goolsby, Jerry R. & Ramsey, Rosemary P. (1998). Relational communication traits and their effect on adaptiveness and sales performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (1), 16-30.
Borys, Bryan & Jemison, David B. (1989). Hybrid arrangements as strategic alliances: theoretical issues in organizational combinations. Academy of Management Review, 14 (2), 234- 249.
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/persintro.html
Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20170787
Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: https://randallnf.wordpress.com/2014/08/21/cross-cultural-personality-research/
Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/assessment_theories/#.VjZkw1TnUV4
gifted middle school students and the efficacy of the instruction provided by their teachers is entitled A synthesis of research on psychological types of gifted adolescents, which was written by Ugur Sak. One of the particular benefits of this article was the many recommendations directly related to instruction of gifted students which was offered based upon the findings of the studies conducted, which were synthesized results of 14 studies that had been coded with 19 different samples. In total, there were 5,723 gifted participants in middle and high school that were evaluated for personality types and inherent proclivities inherent within them based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. One of the potential gaps in this type of population sample can be attributed to the fact that since the studies were synthesized and came from published articles, books technical reports and unpublished dissertations, there may have been unforeseen variables in their results…
Brighton, C., Hertberg, H., Moon, T., Tomlinson, C., Callahan, C. (2005). The feasibility of high-end learning in a diverse middle school. National Research Center of the Gifted and Talented. Retrieve from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt/reports/rm05210/rm05210.pdf
Callahan, C., Tomlinson, C., Hunsaker, S., Bland, L., Moon, T. (1995). Instruments and evaluation designs used in gifted programs. National Research Center of the Gifted And Talented. Retrieved from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt/reports/rm95132/rm95132.pdf
Callahan, C., Hunsaker, S., Adams, C., Moore, S., Bland, L. (1995). Instruments used in the identification of gifted and talented students. National Research Center of the Gifted and Talented. Retrieved from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt/reports/rm95130/rm95130.pdf
Sak, U. (2004). A synthesis of research on psychological types of gifted adolescents. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education 15 (2) 70-79. Retrieved from http://www.sengifted.org/articles_social/Sak_SynthesisOfResearchOnPsychologicalTypes.shtml
Table 2 -- Correlation of Character Traits with Handwriting (Hull and Montgomery)
Shape of riting
Upward Sloping Line
Upward Sloping Line
Firmness of Line
Lateral narrowness of m's and n's
Heavy bars on t's
Length of bars on t's
Length of bars on t's compensating
Closed as and o's
Now, we jump to 1954, with a study by Lorr, Lepine, and Goldner entitled, "A Factor Analysis of Some Handwriting Characteristics." Initially, the authors are open minded about the subject, citing that one of the difficulties has been the lack of proper measurement regarding graphological characteristics. In addition, since different types of pedagogy exist when teaching writing, it is difficult to compare students without solid factors.
In this study, a group of 200 right-handed graduate psychology students with a…
Bayne, R. And F. O'Neill. (1988). "Handwriting and Personality: A Test of Some Expert
Graphologists' Judgments." Guidance and Assessment Review. 4 (1): 1-3.
Beyerstein, B. (2008). "How Graphology Fools People." Qackwatch. Cited in:
How do you define leadership?
Leadership can be defined as the position of guiding and empowering others to achieve mutually beneficial goals. Depending on the specific scenario, leadership manifests in multiple forms and dimensions. Some leaders act as mere managers, delegating authority to team members while providing a cohesive vision for the future. Other leaders are more thoroughly visionary or charismatic, and rely on other people to be in charge of the practical aspects of management. All leaders share in common a sense of vision and purpose, and a desire to mentor and guide with the goal of effecting positive change.
Why are you excited about being a leader?
I am excited about being a leader because I have a lot of energy and passion to share, and leadership allows me to transfer that energy and passion into something constructive and tangible. A position of leadership allows me to…
"The Art and Science of Leadership." Retrieved online: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leader.html
Filson, B. (2005). 25 Leadership maxims. Retrieved online: http://www.actionleadership.com/Leadership_Article_Detail.cfm?ArticleID=52
"Gap Analysis," (n.d.). Mind Tools. Retrieved online: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/gap-analysis.htm
Hughes, R., Ginnett, R., & Curphy, G. (2012). Leadership Enhancing the Lessons of Experience (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
" (Asgari and Silong, 2008)
Asgari and Silong states that there were two primary objectives of the study reported which were those of:
(1) assessing the impact of six dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors -- contribution and affect -- on citizenship behavior; and (2) to test the mediating impact of the LMX on the transformational leadership behaviors-citizenship relationship." (Asgari and Silong, 2008)
It is reported that the subjects of the study were full-time employees and managers working in the educational organization in the country of Iran. This survey included 220 respondents. Data is reported as having been collected "...on a structured questionnaire containing standard scales of transformational leadership behaviors, LMX, and organizational citizenship behaviors. After establishing the psychometric properties of the scales, hypotheses were tested through statistical analysis of the data." (Asgari and Silong, 2008) Results are stated to indicate that "...dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors are more likely to…
Asgari, Ali and Silong, Abu Daud (2008) The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership Behaviors, Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. European Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 6 No. 4 (2008).
Atwater, L.E., Roush, P., & Fischtal, A. (1995). The influence of upward feedback on self and follower ratings of leadership. Personnel Psychology, 48, 35-59.
Atwater, L.E., Waldman, D.A., Atwater, D., & Cartier, P. (2000). An upward feedback field experiment: supervisors' cynicism, reactions, and commitment to subordinates. Personnel Psychology, 53 (2), 275-298.
Avolio, B.J., & Howell, J.M. (1992). The impact of leadership behavior and leader-follower personality match on satisfaction and unit performance. In K.E. Clark, M.B. Clark & D.P. Campbell (Eds.), Impact of Leadership (pp. 223-235). Greensboro, North Carolina: Center for Creative Leadership
Dell and the Failed Hard Drive in a New Laptop
During the December, 2010 sales at BestBuy, the deals on the Dell laptops were just too good to pass up. I bought one on impulse, reasoning my laptop running Windows 3.1 was a dinosaur and would not be able to keep up with the applications I was going to need to run doing this semester. For the first two weeks, the system ran perfectly, and then on the eleventh day, it died. Just quit working, the hard drive had crashed, right after I had loaded all my application on it. Incredulous, I had to pull myself from continually rebooting it until the realization set in": it was completely dead.
Analysis of Technical Support
Having saved the materials from the package, I immediately went online on my parents' laptop and typed in my serial number, reporting the system broken.…
Fox, S.. (2009, September). Tech Support by Forum, Phone, and Replicant. PC World, 27(9), 5.
Mies, G.. (2009, January). ON YOUR SIDE. PC World, 27(1), 34.
Erik Rhey. (2007, August). Q & A Secrets of the Call Center Guy; Abby David, a technical support expert at Dell's call center in Hyderabad, India, discusses the ins and outs of helping Americans fix their computers. PC Magazine, 26(15), 20.
Scales in esearch
Measurement And Scaling
The role of scales in research
If someone is asked: "on a scale of 1-10, did you like that new movie," their response is meaningless unless it is clear that 1 means 'I didn't like at all,' that 5 means 'I thought it was okay,' and 10 means 'I loved it.' On a scale of 1-100, 10 is a not very positive response, while on a scale of 1-10, 10 is a very positive response. Before he or she begins accumulating data, a savvy researcher must create an effective, scaled response designed to measure the information that will be amassed and that will yield meaningful results.
But simply assigning a value of 1-10 alone is not scaling. Statistical analysis is required to ensure that analyzing the population sample's responses are accurate (Trochim, 2006, General issues in scaling). Three major types of uni-dimensional scaling methods…
Trochim, W. (2006). General issues in scaling. Social Research Methods. Retrieved:
Trochim, W. (2006). Guttman scaling. Social Research Methods. Retrieved:
Managing Tools for Effectiveness
The BSC or Balanced Scorecard strategy tool allows managers to monitor and evaluate their staff and how their actions produce effects. A BSC includes a focused approach to organization's clearly defined goal-oriented strategy, a tight, narrow range of data to be monitored, and a blend of both financial and non-financial data (Balanced Scorecard Institute, 2011). This allows the manager to utilized a closed-loop control mechanism with which to better and more accurately identify the effectiveness of his or her staff. What is important is that the measures used within the BSC be chosen well so that the information provided is worthwhile and valuable (Kellermans, Floyd, Veiga, Matherne, 2013).
Therefore selection and evaluation criteria should be chosen with utmost care and priority given to those data which have a direct and correlating impact on the manager's own aims in terms of directing his or her team to…
Archer, N., Ghasemzadeh, F. (2007). Project portfolio selection and management. In P.W. Morris and J. Pinto (Eds), The Wiley guide to project, program and portfolio management. NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Balanced Scorecard Institute. (2011). What is the balanced scorecard? Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20140620093448/http://2gc.eu/files/2GC-FAQ1-What_is_a_Balanced_Scorecard_140616.pdf
Cooper, R., Edgett, S. (2012). Best practices in the idea-to-launch process and its governance. Research-Technology Management, 55(2): 43-54.
Deloitte. (2010). Rachel Argaman: An environment for people [Video]. Philadelphia,
Another interesting aspect of this book is that the authors present differing ideas about leadership, draw some conclusions, but allow the reader to draw their own conclusions, as well. Thus, they acknowledge there are many differing attitudes about leadership and how it functions, and that while some theories may be outmoded, they are all relevant in a discussion of modern leadership. In essence, the authors have researched numerous studies, research, and theories about leadership, and gathered them all together for the reader to assess and process. Instead of dealing with numerous reports and assessments, the authors bring them all together in one document, making serious leadership theory study much easier for the reader.
The authors do not rely on old data, however. They present the newest concepts in leadership, as well, such a "e-leadership," a development of the rapidly changing digital age, women's rise in leadership roles, and even more…
Antonakis, John, Anna T. Cianciolo, and Robert J. Sternberg. The Nature of Leadership: Reptiles, Mammals, and the Challenge of becoming a Great Leader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 2004.
They make good leaders, because they can make impartial decisions, and will not back down after they have made a decision. They are more concerned with external forces, and so, they are attracted to products, goods, and services, rather than the internal motivations for these items. In other words, they are consumers and they like material goods.
ESTJ's like to bring things to closure quickly and effectively, and they may even overlook some information or input if it seems as if it might impede closure in some way. They engage in primary thinking, which helps create their desire for regimen and discipline. They like being in charge and directing others, as well. They are down to earth, and do not like to be phony. They make friends easily, and usually have many friends in their lives.
Some famous ESTJ's include Harry S. Truman, Lyndon B. Johnson, George W. Bush, Carrie…
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…
Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.
"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.
Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.
Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
What is Public Administration?
Marc Holzer -- in the good company of thousands of colleagues in public administration and business -- embraced the box. The box serves to as a frame to our thinking, acts as scaffolding to our decision-making, and serves our innate tendency as human beings to create meaningful patterns from our experience. And how better to improve on the box, than to further divide it into four boxes -- each of which represents the tensions we experience regarding whatever we have put into the box. The box is familiar as it serves many disciplines. Economists may love the box more than any other group, save management consultants. That said, quadrants are a useful heuristic, and I utilize that attribute here in my version as applied to public administration and the management of non-profits.
The four quadrants I describe are, on the vertical axis,…
Buckingham, M. And Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break All the Rules. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Follett, M.P. (1996). The giving of orders. In Shafritz, J.M. & Ott, J.S. (Eds.). Classics of organization theory (pp.156-162). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Gulick, Luther. 1937. Notes on the Theory of Organization. In Papers on the Science of Administration, edited by Luther Gulick and Lydal Urwick. New York. Institute of Public
Administration, Columbia University.
H personality," H executives show some distinct interpersonal traits, in comparison to executives in other fields of specialty. "H executives score much higher in traits such as empathy and consideration for others, according to the data. They tend to be more intuitive, and have a deeper understanding of how others see the world" (Flander 2008: 1). This makes intuitive sense given they are effectively in the 'business' of people, whether it is in recruitment, resolving differences, or any of the other modern functions of H. Also, most indicators suggest that individuals working in H tend to be less competitive and more intent upon building harmony within the work environment. The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument found that while most effective vice-presidents of companies prefer to settle conflict with a 'win-win' outcome, H executives are less likely to press the issue to such as extent that the ideas of others are overridden…
Flander, S. (2008). The HR personality. LRP Publications.