Nafta Essays (Examples)

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Political Technical and Legal Environment

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5529138

NAFTA

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was enacted in November of 1993 with the objective to facilitate the free flow of goods, services and labor between the United States, Canada and Mexico. NAFTA was not only used to eliminate tariffs between the relevant countries but it also addressed issues such as transportation, border restrictions, as well as environmental issues between the participating countries Although NAFTA required some tariffs to be dropped immediately others are subject to a fifteen year grace period. NAFTA addresses many other issues than tariffs as well as acts to open protected sectors in agriculture, energy, automotive trade, and textiles. NAFTA also establishes an international agreement on intellectual property rights.

Political Issues

There are several political issues that arouse from the passing of NAFTA. One issue that constantly gains the media's attention is its effects on jobs. For example, labor in Mexico is significantly cheaper…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Levi, M. (2009, February 17). Obama: Economic Crisis May Delay NAFTA Negotiations. Retrieved from CBS News: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-4808338-503544.html

Macrory, P. (2002, September 16). NAFTA. Retrieved from C.D. Howe Institute: http://www.worldtradelaw.net/articles/macrorychapter19.pdf

U.S. - Mexican Chamber of Commerce. (2011, May 19). NAFTA: The Agenda for Sustainable Growth and Competitiveness. Retrieved from Canada: http://www.cvent.com/events/nafta-the-agenda-for-sustainable-growth-and-competitiveness/event-summary-e3e77b143956437d81d59f2df577613d.aspx
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Mollie's Job William Adler's Mollie's

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84704285



Adler reveals that poverty is systemic: a sign of a corrupt system. Mollie James' and Balbina Duque's only chance of extricating themselves from poverty is to inject more political power and energy back into the formation of labor unions. The power of the people to overcome and overthrow corrupt regimes has been proven time and again throughout human history; the struggle is not an easy one but there is no way that Duque or any of her colleagues around the world are going to achieve any upward social mobility within the current system. Besides just the suppression of labor unions and the collusion between the PI and big business, other examples of how systematic and systemic the problem is include the glaring idiocy of the bailouts. The Clinton administration arranged a record-breaking fifty billion dollars to the very people who were creating the problems that James and Duque faced. As…… [Read More]

References

Adler, W.M. (2000). Mollie's Job. New York: Touchstone.
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Economics Market

Words: 2306 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10718187

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Specifically, it will present the pros and cons of NAFTA, and how it will affect the apparel industry, especially in the California and/or Los Angeles market. It will consider such factors as how it affects the job market, manufacturers, contractors, etc.

THE EFFECTS OF NAFTA

The NAFTA agreement has been controversial since it first began in 1992. Many experts felt that the United States would lose a large amount of jobs to Mexico, because of lower wages and fewer trade union restrictions. It created Free Trade between Mexico, Canada, and the United States, and eliminated a large number of tariffs on a sliding scale over the next fifteen years. "On 12 August 1992, the United States, Canada, and Mexico agreed on a plan for free trade that would gradually eliminate tariffs over fifteen years and stimulate trade and investment. hile protecting the 1988 free…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clement, Norris C., et al. North American Economic Integration: Theory and Practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 1999.

Editors. "NAFTA and Workers' Rights and Jobs." Public Citizen.org. 2002. http://www.citizen.org/trade/nafta/jobs/

Gianaris, Nicholas V. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the European Union. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.

Rosenberg, Jerry M. Encyclopedia of the North American Free Trade Agreement, the New American Community, and Latin-American Trade. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995.
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Globalization and the Impact on

Words: 5824 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61296257

For instance the World Trade Organization reports having "allowed First World countries to raise trade barriers protecting their companies, even as we have served as their forum for insisting that Third World countries lower their trade barriers more and more." (WTO,

The truth is that if richer nations were to open their markets to the LDC countries for increase opportunities of export, generated would be approximately $700 billion in additional trade for developing countries. (UNCTAD Trade and Development Report, 1999; in WTO,

The World Trade Organization relates that no known causal link exists between foreign investment and the reduction of poverty as approximately eighty percent of foreign direct investment in "in the form of mergers and acquisitions, little in the form of productive investment that creates jobs and exports."

WORLD ECONOMY in the LAST TWO DECADES

The work entitled: "The North American Integration Regime and Its Implications for the World…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sporleder, Thomas L. And Martin, Larry J. (nd) Economic Perspectives on Competitiveness Under WTO, NAFTA, and FTAA.

Abbott, Frederick M. (1999) the North American Integration Regime and Its Implications for the World Trading System - the NAFTA in the WTO System NYU School of law Online available at http://www.jeanmonnetprogram.org/papers/99/990201.html

Answering the Critics: The Myths and Realities of Trade Liberalization. Business Roundtable. Online available at http://trade.businessroundtable.org/trade_basics/answering_critics.html

Trade Liberalization Statistics (2008) World Trade Organization. Online available at http://www.gatt.org/trastat_e.html
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Diversity Culture and Implications for

Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87988489

The article does not set for itself the objective of tackling cultural differences as a wider concept, but points out to specific challenges of cultural differences.

The second textbook excerpt makes reference to distinctive aspects of free trade agreements, including here protectionism, however, contrary to the article, it does not address the aspect of jobs protectionism or the challenges of outsourcing for different countries.

Question 3: There are several things presented as truisms in the first article, however, there are important points that raise questions as well. One of these aspects is the idea that the author proposes of identifying local citizens to help in better understanding local cultures. If by identifying the author refers to actually hiring them, in some cases this is not possible. In some countries, the local citizens do not have the right business approach and sufficiently training them often takes time and may imply higher…… [Read More]

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Economic Advantages for the U S Mexico and

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54410748

economic advantages for the U.S., Mexico, and Canada of signing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?

The most obvious, direct impact of NAFTA upon the three signatory nations is the liberalization of international trade between them all. By doing away with tariffs and other prohibitive trade restrictions, consumers in all three nations can more easily purchase one another's goods at lower prices. Not only was the U.S. able to purchase less expensive goods from Mexico: Mexico likewise experienced an increase in international trade, foreign direct investment, and labor productivity (Iyer 11-12). Canada also saw increased labor productivity and a greater free flow of trade between the two nations but both Mexico and Canada lost jobs in their agricultural sectors while they gained jobs in their manufacturing sectors (Iyer 13). The theory of comparative advantage in trade suggests that when a nation does or makes what it can do 'best,'…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Iyer, L. "To trade or not to trade?" HBS Case Study. 17 Nov 2005.
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Global Discussion Growth of Regional

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1568990

It is likely that the effects of this slowdown will be negligible, therefore.

The Balance of Germany's Trading Partners

Germany maintains an overall trade surplus of approximately a billion dollars, exporting more goods that are produced in Germany than it imports. As the largest European economy with a still-vibrant industrial and manufacturing sector, this trade imbalance is hardly surprising-it is more surprising, in fact, that the surplus is not larger than it currently stands. When it comes to Germany's specific trading partners, there are also few surprises -- the United States is a major importer of German goods, though it exports less to the Germany than do other nations; Spain, France, and Italy also have significant trade relationships with Germany -- all of them are border-sharing neighbors with the country, and all of them also have a trade deficits, importing more German goods than they export back. Given the overall…… [Read More]

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Trade Blocs in the Global

Words: 1489 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77534724

Despite the fact that it is considered to be responsible for the immense inequalities in the economic sector, it also provides the progress for least developed countries and the environment for the maintenance of the developed countries. The existence of trade blocks such as NAFTA or ASEAN are even more reasons to consider globalization as a means of improvement in terms of politics, economic, and social aspects of life.

eferences

ASEAN. N.d. About. 28 September 2011 http://www.asean.org/about_ASEAN.html

Ian Goldin, Kenneth einert. 2006. Globalization for development: trade, finance, aid, igration and policy . World Bank: Palgrave Macmillan, Washington, DC .

D Henwood, 2003. "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 28 September 2011 http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm

D. Held,. 2005. Debating Globalization . Polity Press, Cambridge.

Economic Policy, 20 (1) Spring, 72-84

Woods N. 2000a 'The Challenge to International Institutions'. Primary eading.

D Henwood, "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 13, 2003. 28 September 2011

< http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm??…… [Read More]

References

ASEAN. N.d. About. 28 September 2011 http://www.asean.org/about_ASEAN.html

Ian Goldin, Kenneth Reinert. 2006. Globalization for development: trade, finance, aid, igration and policy . World Bank: Palgrave Macmillan, Washington, DC .

D Henwood, 2003. "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 28 September 2011 http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm

D. Held,. 2005. Debating Globalization . Polity Press, Cambridge.
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Global Business Strategies

Words: 1374 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6586601

Global usiness Strategies

Vincent

The aftermath of World War II has seen the evolution of economic regionalism as a means for fostering foreign trade thereby economic growth of participating countries. Economic regionalism was a conscious attempt to manage the opportunities and constraints created by international economic tie-ups after World War II through institutional arrangements facilitating free flow of goods and services and coordination of foreign economic policies. It embraced free trade areas, customs unions, common markets and economic unions. On the basis of the level of integration the economic regionalism can be differentiated widely, which can be visualized in the form of creation of free trade areas, custom unions, common markets and economic unions. The member countries practice preferential tariffs levying comparatively lower rates of duty on imports of goods among themselves than that from non-member countries. Free trade among the member countries is protected by a schedule of customs…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Marcial, Pedro. "Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America" retrieved at http://wehner.tamu.edu/mgmt.www/NAFTA / spring99 / Groups99 / pedro / final.htm Accessed on 10 April, 2004

Regional Integration in Central America" Retrieved at http://www.itcilo.it/english/actrav/telearn/global/ilo/blokit/cacmin.htm. Accessed on 10 April, 2004

Stubbs, Nicole Anne. "Regional Economic Integration: a Comparison of NAFTA and the EU" retrieved at http://depts.washington.edu/canada/nafta / 98chapters / 4stubbsnafta98.htm Accessed on 10 April, 2004
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Business Models Have Be Changing

Words: 2509 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70315581

As, it declined from: 24% (in 1994) to 16% (by 2008). While at the same time, wage increased from $3,814 in 1996 to $7,870 in 2009. The below table is illustrating the overall scope of these changes in income during this time. (Villareal, 2010)

Annual Income Levels in Mexico from 1996 to 2009

Year

Annual Income

1996

$3,814.00

2000

$6,293.00

2004

$7,239.00

2009

$7,870.00

(Villareal, 2010)

These different figures are important, because they are showing how once NAFTA was ratified, is when it would slowly address inequalities inside Mexico. This is an indication that the abandoning of the classical model would have a positive impact on the country. (Villareal, 2010)

Therefore, this is highlighting how there is a causal relationship between the low wages and lack productivity in Mexico in comparison with the U.S. Once the views on trade began to change, is when there was a transformation in these…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Time Spent on Face Book. (2011). Business Insider. Retrieved from: http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-09-26/tech/30203311_1_facebook-aol-search-giant

Bagh, C. (2011). Apple's 3 Product Design Strategies. IB Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/111579/20110211/apple-ceo-steve-jobs-ios-4-2-john-sculley-vertical-integration-product-design-iPad-iPod-iPhone.htm

Brahm, L. (2007). The Art of the Deal in China. Tokyo: Tuttle

Boden, J. (2008). The Wall Behind China's Open Door. Brussels: Academic and Scientific Publishers.
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Globalization Regional Integration Efforts Were

Words: 1013 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10528927



The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was started on January 1989 by Australian Prime Minister ob Hawke when he called for better economic cooperation within the Asia Pacific Region. Currently, the organization has 21 members including, Australia, Japan, Singapore, and United States. At the ogor summit, APEC started discussions regarding the "ogor Goals" which aims to reduce tariffs between zero and five percent in industrialized countries by 2010 and developing countries by 2020 (Wikipedia contributors, 2007). APEC had a combined GDP of $6 trillion in 1998 and 42% of global trade. The main advantages of this organization are deregulation, sharing of technology, and policy certainty ("What is APEC?" n.d.). Some disadvantages include selective policy-making to push the agenda of a specific country using intimidation strategies, increased inequality and poverty, anti-democratism, and high costs with respect to human rights violations and environmental damages (Kelsey, n.d.).

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN" (n.d.) Retrieved 20 April 2007 at http://www.itcilo.it/english/actrav/telearn/global/ilo/blokit/asean.htm

European Union" (n.d.) Retrieved 20 April 2007 at http://experts.about.com/e/e/eu/European_Union.htm

International Organisations - the European Union" (n.d) Retrieved 20 April 2007 at http://oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/milkingit/information/international_orgs/international_orgs_eu.htm

Ahmad, Pengiran Mashor Pengiran (2003). "East Asia Economic Community: Prospects and Implications" Retrieved 20 April 2007 at http://www.aseansec.org/15655.htm
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Mollie's Job Author William Adler

Words: 843 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8566740

Unfortunately, their American dream is more often than not the American nightmare. It does not provide living wages for their families to live on. Their blood, sweat and tears build the companies. The leaders attempt to evade paying the workers their fair share by moving to other states where they can pay less money. This is exactly what Universal Manufacturing does by moving its operations to Mississippi. It goes there to pay less money and avoid the unionization that is the only weapon that the workers have in their struggle to organize and get more money and better working conditions. Mega corporations in the time of globalization do exactly the same thing, but just on a much greater scale in the time of NAFTA when selling out to lowest bidder and making people into commodities that can be sold over international borders has been raised to a high art.

Part…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adler, W.M. (2000). Mollie's job: A story of life and work on the global assembly line. New York, NY:

Scribner.
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Global vs Domestic Supply Chains Intermodal Transportation

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41275483

Logistics Design Alternatives

Intermodal transportation essentially refers to the process of transporting passengers and cargo by means of multiple, inter-linked transportation modes. It capitalizes on the comparative advantage of the individual modes to bring about high productivity at considerably low freight costs. Intermodalism has gained prominence over recent years, and is currently an integral component of international trade and global supply chain management. The U.S. Penal Code (49 USC, Chapter 55, Sec 5501, 1998) presents the government's commitment towards delivering a National International Transportation System that is not only environmentally fit, but also economically efficient and in congruence with ongoing attempts geared at making the U.S. economy more competitive on the global front. According to David Collenette, the former Transport Minister of Canada, intermodal transportation is about efficiency and safety in transportation. Canada and Mexico are among America's leading trade partners; in fact, trade volumes between the three have risen…… [Read More]

References

Dewitt, W. & Clinger, J. (n.d.). Intermodal Freight Transportation. Committee on Intermodal Freight Transport. Retrieved 15th October 2014 from  http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/millennium/00061.pdf 

MIT. (2014). The Export Administration Regulations (EAR). Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved 15th October 2014 from http://osp.mit.edu/compliance/export-controls/the-export-administration-regulations-ear

Weigel, K.J. & Schwartz, J.M. (2009). International Government Contractor: News and Analysis on International Public Procurement and Export Controls. Thomas Reuters, 6(4), 1-9.

Yevdokimov, Y.V. (n.d.). Measuring Economic / benefits of Intermodal Transportation. Mississippi State University. Retrieved 17th October 2014 from  http://ncit.msstate.edu/PDF/7-Measuring-Economic-Benefits-of-IntermodalTransportation.pdf
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Regional Economic Integration in Which

Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92482321

Using web marketing strategies combined with educational initiatives -- such as downloadable podcasts and educational websites with a marketing and advertising component might be one way to capitalize upon this trend (Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America, 2004, UCLA).

hat potential impact does the most important trade bloc have on the marketing and business strategies of Apple Computer and general website marketing?

Mercosur has taken a hostile attitude, in general, to large estern companies. It believes such companies are profiting off of less-developed nations and prevent such nations from fully entering the developed world as global players. This reflects, to some extent, the attitude of the citizens of the nations of Mercosur countries. Deemphasizing the 'Americanness' of Apple might be necessary in Brazil, in contrast to nations where the American quality of a product might have more cache.

Does this trade bloc represent primarily economic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Trade blocs, neoliberalism, and the quality of life in Latin America. (2004, June 16). UCLA

Conference: Mercosur, NAFTA, and the Free Trade Area of the America.

Retrieved January 25, 2009 at http://www.international.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=12060

Brazil
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Human Resource Management Is a

Words: 1405 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21247406

The current trend in trade agreements has demanded a reevaluation of such change that is likely to remain an aspect of IHM for its entirety. "International law clearly delineates that companies have human rights responsibilities, although some of the specific responsibilities are ambiguous." (Aaronson, 2003, p. 63) Significant lawsuits against U.S., UK and Canadian Multinational organizations has made it clear that if business and government are not willing to police themselves, on issues of universal human rights, such as labor policy and political and social intimidation through the workplace then the international communities will do so independently through amendments and amalgamations to trade agreements.

Scullion reiterates the importance of the issue of International HM in the second edition of Human esource Management: A critical Text, edited by John Story. In this section Scullion elaborates on the ideas that were introduced in the first edition by the same author and editor.…… [Read More]

References

Aaronson, S.A. (2003, Spring). Courting International Business: What Are the Human Rights Obligations of Global Capitalism?. The International Economy, 17, 63.

Briscoe, D.R., & Schuler, R.S. (2004). International Human Resource Management: Policies & Practices for the Global Enterprise. New York: Routledge.

Caligiuri, P., & Santo, V.D. (2001). Global Competence: What Is it, and Can it Be Developed through Global Assignments?. Human Resource Planning, 24(3), 27.

Scullion, H. (2000) "International Human Resource Management" in Human Resource Management: A Critical Text Second Edition. J. Story editor. Stamford CN: Cengage Learning Business Press. 288-313.
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Less Economic Integration With the United States

Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84399412

Less Economic Integration Within the United States

Over the last several decades, the total amount of trade between the United States and Canada has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the two nations share a common boarder that has encouraged both of them to trade more with each other. As time has evolved, this relationship has continued to increase exponentially with the two becoming increasingly interconnected based upon NAFTA. This has helped to fuel large amounts of natural resources that are exported from Canada into the U.S. Where, America has considerable demand for raw materials to meet the needs of: manufacturers, businesses and consumers. (Schwanen, 2005, pp. 309 -- 406) Evidence of this can be seen by looking than the below table, as this illustrates the total amounts of trade between both nations from 1996 to 2010.

Annualized Trade Figures between the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Canada GDP Growth Rate. (2011). Trading Economics. Retrieved from:  http://www.tradingeconomics.com/canada/gdp-growth 

Chinese Think Tank. (2011). Mercopress. Retrieved from:  http://en.mercopress.com/2011/04/08/chinese-think-tank-forecasts-bric-countries-to-overtake-the-us-economy-by-2015 

Peru. (2011). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from:   https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/pe.html 

Trade in Goods with Canada. (2011). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from:  http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c1220.html
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Export Companies in Mexico by

Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22661711

Latin America is as such seeking to decrease its interregional dependence and develop more relationships with the better developed economies of the globe. It nevertheless remains sensitive to the international economic crisis and the debt crisis in the Euro-zone (Inter-American Development Bank, 2011).

As it has been previously mentioned, the Latin American countries are characterized by specific traits, which make it difficult to conduct integrated analyses. The same can be said about Mexico, where different traits are also observed. Based on these traits, Tecnologico de Menterrey has developed four specific models for regional development. The models, created based on strong theoretical background and adapted to the Mexican realities, refer to the following:

Model 1: Technology Parks for the high value employment to employ high numbers of non-research and non-scientific staffs, but specialized staffs for high-value activities

Model 2: Technology Parks for the attraction and development of business. These entities will…… [Read More]

References:

(2011). Latin American registers strong export growth in 2011. Inter-American Development Bank.  http://www.iadb.org/en/news/news-releases/2011-12-19/latin-american-export-growth-reaches-26-in-2011,9787.html  accessed on October 1, 2012

(2011). Models of technology parks. Tecnologico de Monterrey. http://www.itesm.edu/wps/wcm/connect/ITESM/Tecnologico+de+Monterrey/English/Entrepreneurship/Technology+Parks+Network/Models+of+Technology+Parks / accessed on October 1, 2012

(2012). The world factbook -- Mexico. Central Intelligence Agency.   https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/mx.html  accessed on October 1, 2012
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Border Crossing Rules and Regulations

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78125648

Economic entities can be influenced by the area they are located in, with the entities positioned in the vicinity of economic blocks like NAFTA or the European Union being advantaged and thus more likely to engage in trade. People in North America and those in Western Europe are advantaged because of their position, meaning that the trade business they get involved in is normally more intense in comparison to the trade performed by economic entities that reside further away from economic blocks.

Security has always been a crucial matter when it came to freight transportation. However, this topic has not been given special attention until the 9/11 events, which marked the beginning of great changes in transportation policies. It previously seemed perfectly normal to check freights for illegal substances, undocumented immigrants, and piracy. Even with that, the World Trade Center events brought forward a new set of security concerns. The…… [Read More]

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Wal-Mart Read Attach File Wal-Mart

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27448688

However, Switzerland has moved very slowly as a nation in accepting new cultures and outsiders. Swiss citizenship is nearly impossible to obtain. The nation is dependent upon a small, closely-knit band of citizen-soldiers for its defense. Socially, women were only given the right to vote in Switzerland in the second half of the 20th century, well after other nations. In other words, an American business manager must be prepared for a slower pace of decision making than he or she is accustomed (20th century, 2011, Swiss orld.org). hile typically American corporate mission statements reflect a 5-10-year framework, in Switzerland, companies take an even longer point-of-view, and are even more resistant to organizational change (Adler 2001: 23).

Certain stereotypes that al-Mart might confront in Switzerland might relate to the perception of Americans as overly focused on optimism and a false sense of teamwork. One common observation of Americans by foreigners is…… [Read More]

Work Cited

20th century. (2011). Swiss World.org. Retrieved February 15, 2011 at http://www.swissworld.org/en/history/the_20th_century/general_overview/

Adler, N. (2001). International dimensions of organizational behavior. 5th ed.

South-Western.

Doing business in Switzerland, 2011, World Business Culture: Swiss Business Structure.
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International Visit General Electric's Corporate

Words: 3646 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74622565

Other tools frequently used in this approach are positioning surveys and moving-average trend following trading rules. Fund managers regularly use these patterns to take informed decisions for short-term investments (Exchange ate Forecast, 2010).

Exchange rate risk affects both revenues and costs, which in turn affects a company's marketing, production, and financial decisions (Shapiro, n.d.). If a company's revenues are down then they might find themselves with less money to produce and market their product or service. If a company cannot produce or market their product or service they will probably not remain in business for very long. This is why it is so important to make financial decisions based upon a good model for forecasting exchange rates. A company's bottom line and ultimately their continued success rely heavily on their capability to have enough money to produce products and market them. A company that has no money to manufacture and…… [Read More]

References

2011 New design solar water heater. (2011). Retreived from http://www.alibaba.com/product-

gs/504296912/2011_New_design_solar_water_heater.html

Boyabatl, O. & Toktay, L.B. (2004). Operational Hedging: A Review with Discussion.

Retrieved from  http://www.prism.gatech.edu/~bt71/articles/pompaper.pdf
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North America Free Trade Agreement

Words: 2431 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14074809

North American Free Trade Agreement

President Clinton signed the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act-NAFTA on December 8th, 1993. Canada and Mexico soon followed suit and the North American Free Trade Agreement became active from January 1st 2004 and thus became the first comprehensive free trade agreement among major industrial nations and a developing a country. (A dynamic macroeconomic analysis of NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement -- Economic Perspectives) Thus NAFTA was launched in January 1994, and thereby The North American Free Trade Agreement became the largest free trade area in the world. (Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement)

NAFTA created the world's largest free trade zone, which had coverage of around 360 million people and an annual investment and trade in terms of C$500 billion. (Key Economic events: 1994- North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Creating the World's Largest Free Trade Area) This agreement…… [Read More]

References

Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement. June 10, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/nafta-alena/menu-en.asp Accessed on 17 November 2004

Castenada, Jorge G; Heredia, Carlos. The wrong free-trade deal? - North American Free Trade Agreement. March 1993. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1453/is_n3_v40/ai_13609465 Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Creating a trade bloc than won't block justice, freedom - North American Free Trade Agreement and Mexico - Editorial - Cover Story. April 16, 1993. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_n24_v29/ai_13685906 Accessed on 16 November, 2004

Facts Cloud Attempt to 'Celebrate' NAFTA 10th Anniversary Signing Ceremony.
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Business Creation in Canada

Words: 2755 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72677155

Canada International Trade

International trade accounts for a dominant share of the Canadian economy, led by exports of natural resources. Exports accounted for approximately 25% of Canada's GDP in 2010. Agricultural, energy, forestry and mining exports accounted for about 58% of total exports. Machinery, equipment, automotive products and other manufactured goods accounted for a further 38% of exports. The United States is by far its largest trading partner, accounting for about 75% of exports and 51% of imports (followed by China 11% and Mexico 5%.) Canada's combined exports and imports ranked 8th among all nations. Canada recorded a positive balance of trade overall in 2010: exports C$407B and imports C$ 406B. Canada enjoyed a substantial positive balance of trade with the United States in 2007 and 2008, but slipped into the red in 2009 and 2010. (See Exhibit 1) (CIA, 2010)

Among the world's wealthiest nations, Canada has the ninth…… [Read More]

References

CIA World Fact Book, (2010). Retrieved March 17, 2011 from  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ 

Dung, T., (1998), "Exchange Rate Determination" Wright State University. Retrieved March 17, 2011 from  http://www.wright.edu/~tdung/Lec_and_excer_on_Exchange_rate_determination.pdf 

Encylopedia of the Nations, (2010). Retrieved March 17, 2011 from www.nationsencylopedia.com/economics/Canada-International-trade.html#ixzz1Gn4sLCd2

Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, "The NAFTA's Impact." Retrieved March 17, 2011 from http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/nafta-alena/nafta5_section04.aspx?lang=en
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Miguel Sahagun Mexico Regional Leader

Words: 7688 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67853101



Mexico's Trade Strategy

Mexico has pursued a three-dimensional trade strategy perhaps more diligently than even the United States according to Schott (Studer & Wise, 2007). Mexico has been an active participant in multilateral talks since its GATT accession in 1986 and was the host country for the special Summit of the Americas in Monterrey and for the hemispheric trade talks in Puebla. Mexico is perhaps most famous as the instigator of NAFTA as well as many other FTAs with countries around the world including key industrial markets such as the European Union (EU, The European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and Japan. In addition, Mexico entered in FTAs with olivia, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, The G3 (Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela), Honduras, Israel and Nicaragua during the period January 1995 to June 2001 (Schott in Studer & Wise, 2007). It is important to emphasize that Mexico has many more FTAs…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, 1988. Basel Convention. Retrieved from:  http://www.basel.int/ 

Bown, C.P. (2009). U.S. -- China Trade Conflicts and the Future of the WTO. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 33 (1), winter/spring 2009, pp. 27-48.

Bown, C.P & McCulloch (2005). U.S. Trade Policy Toward China: Discrimination and its Implications.

China and Mercosur: Perpectives for Bilateral Trade (2007). China Programme 11 (7). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. Retrieved from: http://ictsd.org/i/news/bridges/3164/
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Current Conflict Between Mexico and United States

Words: 1455 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61261737

Student please request a revision. I was waiting tohear back from you on answer to my questions. Will go ahead in next 20 minutes and finish paper as is. And send it to you then.

At present, although the United States and Mexico are embraced in an atmosphere of cooperation that is unprecedented, there are still potential areas of conflict that could chill relations between the two countries if they are not handled with great diplomacy. The tricky part here for President Bush, Mexican President Fox and other leaders is that these issues are more about perception than they are based on reality. The two major issues that come up the most are directly related to one another. These two issues, trade and immigration also touch on other politically sensitive issues which include environmental concerns, worker conditions, economic parity, political freedom, and governmental control.

ow, nearly nine years afters its…… [Read More]

New York, Hyperion Books. 1993

Staten, C.L. The Mexico/USA Border; The Gathering Storm. May 28, 1997. Chicago, IL.

November 11, 2002 http://www.emergency.com/mexusa97.htm
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Global Business Planning for Spain

Words: 3203 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91361095

People and services are not easily moved among the various countries. Although securing work and permits in the United States for Mexican and Canadian immigrants, NAFTA has also caused considerable concern in terms of legislation.

This is particularly the case in Canadian lawmaking. Several disputes resulted from NAFTA trading activities in the country. Such disputes for example include gasoline additives and possible related health concerns and nerve damage (Weintraub, 2004). Canada was also engaged in a long dispute regarding a 27% duty on softwood imports to Canada. This lasted for years before it was finally resolved in 2006. Significantly however, the decision was not ratified by either Canada or the United States (Weintraub, 2004). According to the U.S. Court of International Trade, imposing the duty was contrary to the United States law.

Other problems include the fact that Canada has lost more than 10,000 companies to foreign takeovers since NAFTA…… [Read More]

References

CIA. (2010). CIA -- the World Factbook -- France. Retrieved February 16, 2010 from   https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/fr.html 

Dow Jones Sustainability Index. (n.d.). Retrieved January 10,2010 from http://www.sustainability-index.com/

Glass, a. (n.d.) World Economy Vertical vs. Horizontal FDI. Department of Economics,

Texas a&M University. Retrieved February, 22, 2010, from  http://econweb.tamu.edu/aglass/VerticalVsHorizontalFDI.pdf
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Expropriation and Compensation of Foreign

Words: 6406 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7725717

The State is just taking back its rightful property under the contractual obligations of the agreement signed between the host State and the foreign investor who' assets are being seized in the expropriation. Another cause for direct expropriation is the concept that the State will in some way gain financially, socially, or economically from the expropriate assets beyond their value of compensation. If a particular investment can generate more positive results in the hands of the State, it is legal to file expropriation proceedings if the full value of compensation is covered as determine by an international tribunal.

In the European Union, direct expropriations are most common. Based on a common peace and favorable diplomatic relations between the countries within the European Union, there is little need for many investors to worry about unlawful and forceful expropriation, as seen in developing or communist nations. Some investors may invest within a…… [Read More]

References

Dolzer, Rudolf & Schruer, Cristoph. (2008). Principles of International Investment Law. Oxford University Press.

Edsall, Rachel D. (2007). Indirect expropriation under NAFTA and DRCAFTA: potential inconsistencies in the treatment of state public welfare regulations. Boston University Law Review. Vol 86:931-962.

Hober, Kaj. (2007). Investment Arbitration in Eastern Europe: In Search of a Definition of Expropriation. Juris Publishing Inc.

Merriam-Webster. (1998). Collegiate Dictionary. 1 oth ed. Merriam Webster Publishing.
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Salinas Pri Carlos Salinas De

Words: 6480 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47465403

This, of course, would represent one aspect of the resentment served to Salinas. The other aspect would be the significant impact of the economic crisis and the continued devaluation of the Peso. These things reflected on the ineptitude of a party seldom challenged as it should have been.

To most, the failures effecting the whole of the nation had marked the need for a hastening of democratic reform, which would in turn reflect quite negatively on the candidacy of the PRI candidate. In an article dated to 1988, it was characterized thusly, with report stating that "the Institutional Revolutionary Party on Sunday designated Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the budget and planning secretary in the present government, to be its presidential nominee. Getting the nomination is tantamount to being named president. The PRI, as the party is universally called here after its Spanish initials, has ruled Mexico for six decades. As…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Associated Press (AP). (1987). Inflation up 159% in Mexico. The Dallas Morning News.

Bruhn, K. (1997). Taking on Goliath: The emergence of a New Left Party and the Struggle. Penn State Press.

Camin, H.A. & Meyer, L. (1993). In the shadow of the Mexican Revolution.

Daria, J. & Santamaria, D. (2006). Oaxaca Under a State of Repression. The Narco News Bulletin. Online at  http://www.narconews.com/Issue40/article1672.html
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Nature of U S -mexican Trade Relations it Is

Words: 4198 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37626195

nature of U.S.-Mexican trade relations, it is difficult indeed not to think of the statement of Mexican President Porfirio Diaz at the turn of the last century, "Poor Mexico, so far from God, and so close to the United States." For Mexico does continue to seem to occupy a benighted position vis-a-vis its richer and more powerful neighbor to the north, a position that is in no small measure defined and continually recreated by the nature and mechanisms of international trade between the two nations. This paper examines the nature of the trade relations between the United States and Mexico in the light of several classical economics theories and models as well as in respect to recent developments in the wake of the 1992 signing of the NAFTA accord and the last decade's worth of increasing globalization.

Economic Theories and Models

We begin by discussing and summarizing some of the…… [Read More]

References

Danaher, K. & Burbach, R. (eds.) (2000). Globalize this!: The battle against The World Trade Organization. Los Angeles: Community Archives Publications.

Esty, D. (1994). Greening the GATT: Trade, environment, and the future. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.

http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ355/choi/ho.

http://internationalecon.com/v1.0/ch60/60c110.html
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International Business and the Regions

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1146501

International Business and the egions

In the era of globalization, the primary scope of agencies, institutions and players across the world seems the creation of a free international market place. The efforts so far made have however been insufficient to create such a market place, but impressive successes were observed in terms of the creation of regional market places. In other words, the modern day economic society has managed to support and concretize its efforts in the direction of regional economic development.

egional economic integration

egional economic development is virtually understood as a context in which countries in the same global region direct their endeavors in the sense of creating an economically integrated region. They virtually focus on free trade and migration of goods, people, commodities, technologies and capitals and they strive to reduce the barriers between the respective economies. Jacques Pelkmans (2006) defines economic integration as "the elimination of…… [Read More]

References:

Buckley, P.J., Clegg, J., Forsans, N., Reilly, Increasing the size of the 'country': regional economic integration and foreign direct investment in a globalized world economy, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3265/is_3_41/ai_n28873065 / last accessed on May 27, 2011

Czinkota, M.C., Ronkainen, I.A., 2007, International marketing, 8th edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0324317026

Day, B., The NAFTA Nightmare, Multinational Monitor,  http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1992/10/mm1092_10.html  last accessed on May 27, 2011

Dodge, D.., 2003, Economic integration in North America, Bank of Canada http://www.bankofcanada.ca/2003/08/speeches/economic-integration-north-america-2 / last accessed on May 27, 2011
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Canada Globalization and Canadian Free

Words: 2902 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27964127

The cost to its economy is greater than just lost opportunity as it extends to further damage the credibility of a relationship which the public views as suspect, in accordance with Campbell's estimation.

The oversight of international regulation is undertaken by the orld Trade Organization, which brings the globe's free trade partners together to broker affairs of economic cooperation or contract. However, this has proved to be an agency with too diluted a focus to effectively maintain balance between such partners as Canada and the U.S. Campbell addresses most of the regulatory differences between the two nations as being historical and incidental in some ways, indicating that perhaps the inconsistencies are simply in need of concentrated attention. This notion accounts for the 2005 launch of a Trilateral Regulatory Commission, partnering Canada, the U.S. And Mexico in an agreement to acknowledge a central forum for regulation of trade discrepancies. Though its…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

AFX. (2006). WTO Rules Against Canada in Lumber Dispute with U.S.

Forbes. Online at http://www.forbes.com/markets/feeds/afx/2006/04/03/afx2644053.html

Anderson, a.D.M. (1995). Seeking Common Ground Canada-U.S. Trade Dispute Settlement Policies in the Nineties. San Francisco: Westview Press.

Campbell, B. (2006). Canada-U.S. Relations: Paul Martin's Dilemma. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
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Trade Act of 1974 on Euro Exchange

Words: 5980 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94103994

Trade Act of 1974 on Euro exchange rates?

Free Trade has been a key agenda for the past three presidents. In an expanding global market, tariffs and trade policies are more important today than they have been in the past. More and more countries are forming alliances such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asian Alliance, and the European Union (EU). These trade agreements are meant to level the playing for all countries, both industrialized and emerging countries.

President Bush's trade policy is aimed at helping to generate American jobs, open markets to American products, and provide economic growth. Sometimes massive increases in imports can have a devastating effect on U.S. industries. [This has been the case for the U.S. steel Industry and is the issue addressed in Section 203 (B) (1) of the Trade Act of 1974. Foreign steel makers have had the luxury of government…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arnold, James. Steel sector stares into the abyss. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm. Accessed April,

2002

Arnold, James. Steel spat could mean wider worries. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
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William Renwick The Content of

Words: 5769 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76841378

The biosphere consists of all living organisms on the planet. The atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere function collectively to provide he environment which sustains the biosphere. These four spheres interact to create ecological systems. These ecosystems, as they are called, are groups of organisms and the nonliving environment which they exist in.

In the process of living and working in an area, people modify the landscape to suit their purposes or tastes. These are called cultural landscapes. Many geographers maintain that the entire surface of the earth constitutes a cultural landscape, as humans have changed the face of the planet to such a great degree. Some geographers also put forth environmentalist theories, which emphasize the role of the environment in human life. The interaction between humans and the environment is a circular effect- environment affects human life and culture, while humans alter and transform the environment. Geographers have studied the ways…… [Read More]

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Zapatistas the Essence of Zapatista Philosophy and

Words: 1757 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92037103

Zapatistas

The essence of Zapatista philosophy and action is the discovery of a new order of revolution. In the wake of failures of other socialist movements from Lenin to in Russia to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, the small group of Mayan farmers in southwestern Mexico contend not only with reconstructing revolutionary tactics but also with the massive opposition from dominant governments, including those in Mexico and the United States. Governments that continually uphold the principles of capitalism will find in the Zapatistas an idealistic, hopeless cause of swimming against the tide of globalization. Even before the ratification of the North American Free trade Agreement (NAFTA), Mexicans struggled with political and economic oppression. The indigenous peoples of Mexico, like the Mayan nations of Chiapas, fared worst. Lowest on the scale of economical, social, and political power, these individuals hearkened to the voice of their martyred namesake Zapata, who was murdered on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

De Angelis, Massimo. "Globalization, New Internationalism and the Zapatistas." Capital and Class 70 (2000): 9-35.

Mills, C. Wright. "The Sociological Imagination." The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959.

Harvey, Neil. "Globalisation and resistance in post-cold war Mexico: difference, citizenship and biodiversity conflicts in Chiapas." Third World Quarterly 22 (2001): 1045-1061.
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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
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Diffusion of Innovation Diffusion Research

Words: 3226 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67275597

Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.

Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics

Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses

Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.

UL: http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/world/berlinwallfall.rev.html

Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe

Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1972 in Review." (January 1973). UPI.Com.

Retrieved from: http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1972/1972-Election/12305688736666-2/#title

Butterworth, T. (May 24, 2007). Fifteen People Who Changed The World. Forbes.

Retrieved from:  http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/23/people-changed-world-tech-07rev_cz_tb_0524changers.html