S. poultry exports to Canada in 2003 are estimated at about $290 million, a 77-percent gain over the pre-NAFTA level." The dairy products have revealed positive trend, prior to the implementation of the Uruguay Round provisions the Canadian fluid milk sales was insignificant, "the execution of the Uruguay Round provisions one year after NAFTA saw Canada's import control regime switch from a scheme of import quotas to a trade free quota system, the switch over was responsible for the protection of the Canada's fluid milk production." The trade quotas were eliminated for fluid milk and dairy products, including yogurt, powdered whey, specialty creams, dairy spreads, ice cream and ice cream novelties, cheeses, butter and margarine. As per the quota elimination system, major provision of NAFTA, low duty rates were imposed on the imports, the imposition of the duty was "up to the limit, and to higher rates over the limit." Irrespective of the imposition of the "high tariff rates on over-quota volumes and the creation of certain value-added dairy products that were either excluded from the list of products to which a TRQ would apply or have been developed since the conversion from quotas to TRQs" (Teresa, 2002), the exports of dairy and dairy-containing products from United States to Canada have registered a phenomenal growth of 300%. According to analysts, the exports of such products from United States to Canada stood at USD 76 million in 1994, after eight years the exports rose to USD 255 million.
Conclusion: Light on Concerns
The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and NAFTA represented "the era of a supra-constitution, a limiting framework which not only binds Canada with its southern neighbors, but limits democracy at home by prioritizing and protecting market dominance and the rights of property holders and investors." The trade agreements in particular NAFTA has been key to the economic integration, "without proposing significant modifying structures of political governance, have argued that FTAs lead inevitably to customs unions, common markets and ultimately effective political unions" (Anne, 2003). Prior to the approval and promulgation of NAFTA, the analysts criticized the sluggish and dull approach of the Canadian government towards formation of economic and trade association with United States in a manner that both the country are able to facilitate and secure their national objective through mutual economic gain and easy trade transit. The analysts viewed that, "the Canadians don't understand what they signed; in twenty years, they will be sucked into the U.S. economy" (Teresa, 2002). The critics have warned that that implementation of NAFTA has able responsible for the creation of North American Common Market. The market research has transpired that...
The NAFTA is expected to result into the formation of single North American economy, "free trade tends towards a full customs union and economic union as a matter of internal logic" (Anne, 2003). The agreement is expected to place Canada under obligation to develop political and military coherence with United States. The NAFTA has developed great concerns at parallel irrespective of the gains and access to the particular goods, "the logic of the integration process unleashed by the agreement and its predecessor, the Canadian-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, poses new challenges for the citizens of Canada and a warning for other peoples contemplating whether to join a Free Trade Area of the Americas." The external political factors have resulted in complication of the bilateral relationship between U.S. And Canada, unfortunately NAFTA has failed to deliver and resolve the issues and concerns related to the political ideology and foreign policies of the respective countries. According to reports, "a multi-lateralist and pluralistic Canada is confronted with unilateralist, interventionist and aggressive neighbor, the super power is extremely sensitive and reactive towards real and alleged threats to its security and interests." The concerns related to the NAFTA are based upon the derived relation between the political differences and economic consequences, and the resolution of such concerns is possible through eradication of the "political autonomy and divergence" (Teresa, 2002).
Jackson, Andrew. From Leaps of Faith to Lapses of Logic: Assessing a Decade of Free Trade. Canadian Labor Congress. 1999.
Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and U.S., Globalization, Neo-conservatism and the Canadian State. University of Toronto Press. 2002.
Hurtig, Mel. The Vanishing Country: Is it Too Late to Save Canada. McClelland and Stewart Publication. 2002. pp. 52-53
Campbell, Matthew. Pulling Apart: the Deterioration of Employment and income in North America under Free Trade. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. 1999. pp. 100.
Kerstetter, Riches. Wealth Inequality in Canada. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. 2002. pp. 165-167.
Gutierrez-Haces, Teresa. Smart Border and Security Perimeter in Canada. Voices of Mexico. 2002.
Golub, Stephanie. North America beyond NAFTA: Sovereignty, Identity and Security in Canada-U.S. Relations. Canadian-American Public Policy No. 52. 2002. Canadian-American Center. University of Maine Publication.
Golden, Anne. Building a new partnership. The Globe and Mail Publication. March 2003. pp. A11.
Thomas. Security and Prosperity: The Dynamics of a New Canada-United…
The (international debt) crisis offers various faces to the observer according to the nature of the issues involved -- be they purely financial, political, economic and social, or structural -- and according to the role of the actors involved in these issues -- be they debtor countries, multilateral development agencies, creditor governments, or commercial banks." (Kaufman, "Banking And Currency Crises And Systemic Risk: Lessons From Recent Events") World Banks Trade requires
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S. attributed to NAFTA. Figure 1: Rise in the Business Investment (adapted from "NAFTA -- Myth…," ¶ 1). Myth #2: NAFTA has cost the U.S. jobs. Fact: U.S. employment rose from 110.8 million people in 1993 to 137.6 million in 2007, an increase of 24%. The average unemployment rate was 5.1% in the period 1994-2007, compared to 7.1% during the period 1980-1993. ("NAFTA -- Myth…," ¶ 2) Figure 2 reflects U.S. Employment Increases
" (Economic Policy Institute Brief, 2001) While all U.S. states lost jobs the following specific outcomes are stated by the Economic Policy Institute: The 1 million job opportunities lost nationwide are distributed among all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Those affected most in terms of total jobs displaced include: California (-123,995), Texas (-72,257), Michigan (-63,148), New York (-51,582), Ohio (-49,886), Illinois (-47,701), Pennsylvania (-44,173), Florida (-39,987), Indiana (-35,157), North
NAFTA and U.S. Business Many analysts warn that those who were impressed by the growth of the U.S. economy and its manufacturing sector during the 1990's when both boomed even as trade deficits rose and believe that the dollar's role as anchor of the world economy will allow deficits to climb even higher should consider America's trade performance, especially with the rising import penetration rates, resulting in the decline of domestic
The measure implemented is still highly prejudiced and does little to spur economic growth or to regulate trade in an open and effective manner, and as such should be easily defeated by a Panel review. Part C The need to create accountability, transparency, and to eliminate corruption is a compelling interest of governments and business alike, and the WTO and GATT were certainly not meant to help perpetuate corruption. This does