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Culture of Narcissism" By Christopher Lasch
Current paper is a report on 'The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations' written by Christopher Lasch. The book was first published in 1979. The author will focus on why the 1950s were simpler times as compared to modern era. The author will also discuss the theme and topic of the book and critically analyze the depiction of contemporary culture in America by Lash.
The main question of this book was: why it happened that a familiar and serious mental disorder was replaced and dominated by another in United States?. How it emerged that patients having strong symptoms of classic neuroses were reinstated by patients with 'diffuse dissatisfactions'? Why there has been a trend of more and more patients coming with indistinct problem like 'feeling dissatisfied with their lives; feeling that their survival has no reason; with self-esteem and…
Lasch, Christopher. The culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1979
Narcissist Personality Disorder
Examining narcissistic personality disorder (NPD)
What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is commonly termed as 'a continuous pattern of magnificence (fantasies and illusions), desire for praises and lacking compassion'. It is notably described by five key elements as mentioned below:
Illusions of self-importance
An obsession with illusions of huge success, fame, love, beauty and wealth
Faith in being unique / special
Desiring constant praise
Having a sense of entitlement
Jealous of others
Increasingly arrogant / ego-maniac / having attitude problem (Skodol, Bender & Morey, 2014).
Features and symptoms of NPD
NPD (Narcissistic Personality Disorder) are typically indicative of susceptible self-esteem where attention seeking and desiring constant praises are a given, whilst having overt and covert illusions of grandeur. There are troubles in having an identity, intimacy, compassion, self-direction and lastly, certain maladaptive characteristics of antagonism (Skodol, Bender & Morey, 2014).…
Holtzman, N., Vazire, S., & Mehl, M. (2010). Sounds like a narcissist: Behavioral manifestations of narcissism in everyday life. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(4), 478-484. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2010.06.001
Levy, K. (2012).Subtypes, Dimensions, Levels, and Mental States in Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. J. Clin. Psychol., 68(8), 886-897. doi:10.1002/jclp.21893
Links, P.S., & Stockwell, M. (2002).The Role of Couple Therapy in the Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 56(4), 522.
Matusiewicz, A., Hopwood, C., Banducci, A., & Lejuez, C. (2010).The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Personality Disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33(3), 657-685. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.007
Paranoia and Narcissism: Created During Childhood
This paper will study the effects childhood issues can have when it comes to creating someone who is paranoid and narcissistic as an adult. The video watched during class portrays the building blocks that were used to create such personalities in several world famous powers. Hitler, Stalin and Hussein are all examples used in this video to explore how childhood issues and insecurities, combined with problematic parental relationships work together to create adults who are paranoid and narcissistic.
There were three sources used to complete this work.
The video creates a strong base for understanding narcissistic personalities. Adolph Hitler had many insecurities that stemmed from childhood. His anger at Jewish people is interesting considering his own Jewish background. This displays another angle of dysfunction when it comes to parental relationships as the video alludes to the possibility that Hitler was only angry at the…
Depicting a Tyrant: Solzhenitsyn and Klima (accesse 12-11-04)
Narcissistic Personality Disorder -- 6/14/99 -- Sam Vaknin (accessed 12-11-04)
self-psychology approach to narcissistic personality disorder: A nursing reflection.
Donna M. Czuchta Romano
JOURNAL: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Year 2004, Volume 40, Page 20-28.
APA CIAION: Romano, D.M.C (2004). A self-psychology approach to narcissistic personality disorder: A nursing reflection. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care 40(1): 20-28.
What was the major purpose or problem described in this article?
o describe how nurses can use the self-psychology perspective to help people with narcissistic personality disorder, and to help nurses work more effectively with people with narcissistic personality disorder.
What, if any, were the hypotheses or research questions?
he research question is which psychotherapeutic interventions are most useful for nurses working with patients who have narcissistic personality disorder or similar traits. he hypothesis is that Kohut's self-psychology perspective can be effectively applied to narcissism in a nursing context.
2. What sample was used in this research?
Only one case study was used in this…
The author claims that applying the self-psychology framework to the case study of James, her own understanding of narcissistic personality disorder improved, allowing her to have greater empathy with the patient. Unresolved issues of self can lead to outbursts and depression, which are symptoms of underlying feelings of insecurity and vulnerability. Because narcissistic personality disorder patients can be challenging for untrained staff, it is important to help nurses understand how narcissistic personalities function and to have greater empathy in order to help the client to improve.
5. What is your opinion or reaction to this research?
The research questions the efficacy of narcissistic personality disorder as a general psychiatric condition or diagnosis. For example, the author claims that James "insisted on knowing my academic preparation" and was also "not impressed with the . . . years of academic preparation needed to work on the unit," (Romano, 2004, p. 25) as if these concerns were not legitimate or in some way indicative of narcissism. The author also fails to clarify whether the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder was an assumption her own, or how that diagnosis was made otherwise. Also, the research shows that there is in fact an ironic level of narcissism among nurses who dislike their credentials being challenged or questioned by clients who have a right and a responsibility to do so.
My colleague’s discussion centered on narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). From the onset, it would be prudent to point out that as my colleague observes, NPD manifests itself in terms of lack of empathy as well as consideration for other persons. Further, persons with NPD often possess a strong desire for acknowledgement, admiration, and affirmation. This effectively means that such persons could appear rather demanding, selfish, and even manipulative. Towards this end, my colleague is categorical that the disorder could negatively affect romantic, personal, or even professional engagements/relationships. It therefore follows that the relevance of treatment interventions cannot be overstated.
The treatment option that my colleague has assessed is psychotherapy – with the specific kinds of psychotherapy mentioned on this front being inclusive of family or marital therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and psychodynamic therapy. Towards this end, the alternative therapeutic approach that I would suggest is mentalization-based treatment.…
Drozek, R.P. & Uruh, B.T. (2020). Mentalization-Based Treatment for Pathological Narcissism. Journal of Personality Disorders, 34, 177–203.
Ronningstam, E. (2020). Introduction to the Special Issue on Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 34, 1–5.
This is one of the reasons why it can be so damaging in relationships; many without a psychological background are not aware that the traits displayed by sufferers of the disorder are indeed the result of the disorder rather than the personality itself.
According to current estimations, about 0.7-1% of the population suffer from the disorder. The onset of narcissism generally occurs either in infancy, adolescence or early adulthood. Medication is rarely used to treat the disorder, unless it manifests with other conditions as well. Narcissism is generally treated with psychotherapy. Although the prognosis for adult narcissism sufferers is poor, talk therapy does help to integrate them into society and to function better within relationships.
Ashmun, Joanna M. Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD): How to ecognize a Narcissist. 2000. http://www.halcyon.com/jmashmun/npd/
Mayo Clinic. Narcissistic Personality Disorder. 2009. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/narcissistic-personality-disorder/DS00652
Vaknin, Sam. Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) Definition. 2008, Nov. 2. http://www.healthyplace.com/personality-disorders/malignant-self-love/narcissistic-personality-disorder-npd-definition/menu-id-1471/
Ashmun, Joanna M. Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD): How to Recognize a Narcissist. 2000. http://www.halcyon.com/jmashmun/npd/
Mayo Clinic. Narcissistic Personality Disorder. 2009. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/narcissistic-personality-disorder/DS00652
Vaknin, Sam. Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) Definition. 2008, Nov. 2. http://www.healthyplace.com/personality-disorders/malignant-self-love/narcissistic-personality-disorder-npd-definition/menu-id-1471/
Narcissistic leaders are part of society and take on roles that promote at times progress, at other times, chaos. This is because the narcissistic leader only cares about him or herself (Maccoby, 2012). Although such leaders may be useful in certain settings, in others, they can create long-term damage amidst subordinates and followers. Covenant leadership on the other hand generates the highest performance leaders via motivated, high-trust, and committed relationships. These leaders have a good understanding of life through successful integration of ethics and leadership, applying the private and public aspects of life into an integrated whole. The problem with covenant leadership is that it takes time to build such connections, leading to frustration and problems in the short-term. This essay hopes to examine both leadership styles and see how the narcissistic leadership style causes problems and how the covenant leadership style can offer solutions.
Narcissism has its roots in…
And moreover, Barth summarizes Sennett's book as a discussion of how "eighteenth and nineteenth-century Paris and London" reflected an "erosion of public life through an analysis of middle-class behavior in the theater and on the street."
And Barth adds that Sennett's work "...lacks the terse logic of comparative history," and "makes many excursions into fleeting aspects of culture, yet in its discussion of the theater misses the rise of vaudeville house and music hall as the nursery of a new urban audience." Yes, Barth concludes, Sennett is correct that "public and private behavior changed between the three decades," but instead of documenting those public and private changes, Barth continues, Sennett calls upon (in Sennett's words) "...the expectations of a sophisticated, intelligent general reader."
And if that reader discovers (continuing with Sennett's words as quoted in Barth's essay) "a reasonable analysis of how a malady of modern society has come about,…
Axhausen, K.W. 2000. Geographies of Somewhere: A Review of Urban Literature. Urban Studies 37 (September): 1849-1864.
Barth, Gunther. 1977. Richard Sennett: The Fall of Public Man. American Historical Review
82 (December): 1214-1215.
Berman, Marshall. 1977. Facades at Face Value: The Fall of Public Man. The Nation (August):
Jung's instrumental role in affirming psychology as a science is downplayed by modern researchers. Yet as the author notes, much of what Jung unearthed in his research and clinical work has bled through to modern clinical psychology. The most obvious implication that Jungian psychology has become part of the mainstream social sciences is the Myers-Briggs test.
However, the concept of the archetype is Jung's. So, too, are issues like extraversion and introversion. Jung is renowned for detailed personality typing, a process that is integral to healing. Typing indicates the quest for self-awareness. Like going backwards, the process of being more aware of the self is often akin to diving into a dark pool.
We Jungian therapists might sometimes be called upon to delve into primitive landscapes ourselves, searching for cultural emblems and icons that match a client's budding self-awareness. The Cambridge Companion to Jung, which contains a plethora of useful…
Gambini, R. (1998). The challenge of backwardness. Chapter 9 in Casement, a. (1998). Post-Jungians Today. p. 149-234. Routledge.
Robertson, R. (2005). Jung and the making of modern psychology. Psychological Perspectives, 48, 1.
Schwartz-Salant, N. (1982). Narcissism and character transformation. pages 133-169
Young-Eisendrath, P. & Dawson, T. (2008). The Cambridge companion to Jung. pages 141-313
In the prologue to Jung's (1965) book, Memories, dreams, reflections, he states that life, to him, is like a plant that lives on its rhizome. The real life of the plant is not seen but hidden, rather, in the rhizome.
The part that appears above ground lasts only a single summer. Then it withers away -- an ephemeral apparition. When we think of the unending growth and decay of life and civilizations, we cannot escape the impression of absolute nullity. Yet I have never lost a sense of something that lives and endures underneath the eternal flux. What we see is the blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains.
Jung (1965) goes on to explain that his book about his life has been based on the rhizome of his life -- the interior happenings as opposed to the exciting events of his life -- like traveling -- because it is the…
Casement, Ann. (1998). Post-Jungian today: key papers in contemporary analytical psychology. Routledge.
Dunne, Claire. (2002). Carl Jung: wounded healer of the soul. Continuum International Publishing Group.
Edinger, Edward. (1992). Ego and archetype. Shambhala.
Jung, Carl. (1965). Memories, dreams, reflections. Vintage Book Edition.
" The subject describes how his mother also adamantly refused to consent to the use of Novocain or any other anesthetic when he visited the dentist (despite his pleas and pleas from the dentist) because of her distrust of "chemicals."
There is likely a direct connection between the subject's development of a highly abrasive and uncontrollable on-air persona and the degree to which the subject's control over basic aspects of his life was denied to him throughout his formative years (Casement, 1998; Mitchell & Black, 1995). More specifically, the subject was denied the right to express himself and he was often forced to abide by very conservative rules of proper conduct both in the home and also outside the home, such as by his mother's repeated warning that he was her "representative" outside the home. The self that developed seems to reflect both the explicit absorption of certain ideas from…
Andrews, J.D.W. "Integrating visions of reality: Interpersonal diagnosis and the existential vision." American Psychologist, Vol. 44; (1989): 803-17.
Bagarozzi, D.A. And Anderson, S.A. (1989). Personal, Marital, and Family Myths:
Theoretical Formulations and Clinical Strategies. New York: Norton.
Casement, a. (1998). Post-Jungians Today. Papers in Contemporary Analytical
Clinton's Lewinsky Speech
Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including ichard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), onald eagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's…
Clinton, B. (1998). Monica Lewinsky Speech.
Nixon, R. (1973). Second Watergate Speech.
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
Technology and Society
All print media including books, newspapers and magazines are in deep trouble today thanks to new developments in technology, as are traditional methods of classroom instruction and school curricula. To that extent the Internet can be described as a revolutionary invention that has altered and transformed the way information is presented and conceived. Individuals are learning and creating innovative ways to contribute to relevant knowledge at an excessive speed, and the estern world has become dependent on this technology and also more aware of its negative side. hether the technology in our surroundings is causing human beings to become distracted, affecting our communication skills, or making them stupider is a question that has to be addressed.
This memorandum will describe these issues of trivialization and the 'shallow-ing out' of contemporary American culture, most of which are either as deliberately exaggerated and sensationalized as the Internet itself or…
Corey, G. et al. Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011.
Milliken, J. Brands and Social Media Participation; United Breaks Guitars. Coreographytv, 2010.
Morozov, Evgeny. "Losing Our Minds to the Web." Prospect, June 22, 2010.
social media and increasing access to virtual reality altering or social interactions and expectations? If so, how? If not, then why not?
Just as the internet forever changed how we communicate and how we get out information, social media also has had a profound impact on the way in which we engage socially with one another. For example, Facebook has created an online community of individuals who are able to share pictures, their thoughts, current news and their hopes, fears and joys. With social media were are more in touch and have the power to remain more up-to-date with one another than ever before. However, just because social media provides us with this extreme power and opportunity, doesn't mean that we have to engage in it. Furthermore, just because social media does offer this extreme opportunity to connect and remain in touch, doesn't mean that this particular power of capability…
Jones, H. (2013). Social Media's Affect on Human Interaction. Retrieved from Hastac.org: https://www.hastac.org/blogs/haley117/2013/06/07/social-medias-affect-human-interaction
Kaseteler, J. (2010, May). How Social Media is Influencing Your Behavior. Retrieved from searchengineland.com: http://searchengineland.com/how-social-media-is-influencing-your-behavior-40615
McDaniel, J. (2013, November 20). Social media impacts happiness, research says. Retrieved from tuftsdaily.com: http://www.tuftsdaily.com/features/social-media-impacts-happiness-research-says-1.2848020#.UyxiU_ldVIE
Turgeon, J. (2011, August). How Facebook And Social Media Affect The Minds Of Generation Next. Retrieved from huffingtonpost.com: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/09/how-facebook-and-social-m_n_921905.html#s324841title=Narcissism
Fisher King was a 1991 movie that starred Robin illiams and Jeff Bridges and was directed by Terry Gilliam. The movie provided a unique insight into the world of abnormal psychology. It depicted accurate per trails of a few psychological disorders and psychosis that were brought on by a single stressor for both of the leading roles as well as a plethora of disorders by lesser characters brought on by life. Neither illiams nor Bridges earned grandiose Hollywood awards for their roles and the movie itself did not rake in billions, but it does serve as a very good example of just how delicate human nature is and what can happen to each and every one of us without a moment's notice. At the time of the stressor in this movie, Bridge's character was on top of his game in the world of radio and was about to 'add a…
About.com. "Depression." 2009. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://depression.about.com/cs/brainchem101/a/brainchemistry.htm .
Quicksilver. "The Fisher King: starring Robin Williams and Jeff Bridges." Dir. Terry Gilliam. 1991. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://ipb.quicksilverscreen.com/lofiversion/index.php/t100510.html .
Schizophrenia.com. "Schizophrenia." 2009. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://www.schizophrenia.com/disease.htm .
People are aware of the impact that major stressful events can have on a person's life. In general, society is solicitous of people undergoing major stressors like major illness, divorce, or a death in the family. However, it is interesting to note that, for the individual, small stressors can actually be more significant than major stressors. For example, a friend of mine was fired from her job the day before 9-11. The day of 9-11, when everyone else was so stressed out about the idea of a terrorist attack, she was far more worried about the source of her next paycheck. While she realized, intellectually, that the national impact of 9-11 was certainly greater than the national impact of her being fired, in her life she experienced the loss of her job as a more stressful event. In fact, the most stressful part of 9-11 was that, with its resultant…
hile neither of his parents were substance abusers, they were also normal dogs. It is possible that Brian's abnormal nature as a dog with human qualities may leave him with underlying identity issues, however. These issues may manifest as narcissistic personality disorder in Brian. The character has a strong sense of entitlement and feels superior to others. Yet his outcomes are seldom successful and this may in fact reinforce Brian's underlying feelings of inferiority. The fact that he is superior to other dogs but as a dog is inferior to humans is a potential root cause of narcissism but there is insufficient evidence for a full diagnosis.
Brian's behavior patterns represent abnormality in that he at times finds his drinking becoming an obstacle to achieving his goals, and because his drinking is a mechanism by which to medicate his underlying issues. At no point does the drinking actually help him…
DSM-IV: Narcissistic personality disorder. Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/personality/narcissism.html
DSM-IV: Substance abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/substance/substanceabuse.html
DSM-IV: Substance dependence. Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/substance/substancedependence.html
As a result, the child's threshold for withstanding teen relationship challenges is reduced in future.
These personality traits are especially developed during adolescence because this is the period to which the boy would be defining ideologies behind relationships. It is also during this time that the boy's mental faculties would best comprehend attributes that define the relationship between a man and a woman. When the child is in the age group of 10-12/13, the impact might not be so domineering on the child's development as compared to later stages (14-18) in the life of the child (Livaditis, 2002).
Children brought up by narcissistic mothers are more likely to have a low self-esteem than those brought up by caring mothers. Narcissistic mothers make their children feel bad about themselves, thereby making the boy less confident, especially in his young adult life (between the ages of 13-18) (Chen, 2005). It is…
Chen, J. (2005). Cultivating Resilience in Children from Divorced Families. The Family
Journal, 13(4), 452-455.
Fine, M.A. (2003). Divorce, Childhood. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
" Cultural and social differences, then, between men and women are not so much reflections of differing social roles and expectations as they are reflections of basic genetic differences between men and women..." (Groenhout 51)
3.1. The family
To understand this criticism of feminism and the reaction to the attack on female domesticity, one has to know something about the background that initiated this reaction. This refers especially to the view of the family as a valued institution central to the structure of society that is in decline throughout the world.
A number or critics note how the feminist view and the "new" role of women in society has negatively affected the family. This has resulted as well in many feminists turning against the more radical views of feminism as they feel that they endanger the integrity of the family and family life. As one critic notes, "From the early…
Abrams, Kathryn. "From Autonomy to Agency: Feminist Perspectives on Self-Direction." William and Mary Law Review 40.3 (1999): 805. Questia. 14 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001258482 .
Kozol W. Fracturing Domesticity: Media, Nationalism, and the Question of Feminist Influence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 20, no. 3, 1995.
Benedict, Helen. "Fear of Feminism." The Nation 11 May 1998: 10. Questia. 14 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002286596 .
And how can one predict what other people's reactions will be, anyway?
However, there are some problems with this book, notwithstanding. The first is the title: 9 Things You Simply Must Do to Succeed in Love and Life. Who is one loving -- is it God, one's partner, the world, and humanity -- or one's self? Of course, the more inclusive sense of love becomes apparent over the course of the book and the delineation of the nine 'things' or principles (why not call them principles rather than the vague sounding term 'things') but a more descriptive title would be helpful. Also, what is the meaning of success? Is success gaining material attributes and esteem, or is it more of a combination of a sense of moral purpose and satisfaction? Cloud's principles would suggest this is the case, but it is easy to see many of the principles being used…
Here the man understands his fate and realizes that he will have a difficult time trying to convince others not to follow in his path.
Not all is lost, however. Victor does influence someone in a positive way before he leaves this earth and that person is Robert alton. hile we only see him at the beginning and end of the novel, he is significant to the story because he, too, harbors a desire to know the unknown. Robert is also important because he is the only one through which Victor and his message can live. He tells Margaret that he cannot begin to describe the "sensations on the near prospect of my undertaking... I have often attributed my attachment to, my passionate enthusiasm for, the dangerous mysteries of the ocean to that production of the most imaginative or modern poets" (7). He admits to loving "a belief in the…
Garrett, Martin. Mary Shelley. New York. Oxford University Press, 2002.
Hoobler, Dorothy and Thomas. The Monsters: Mary Shelley and the Curse of Frankenstein. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2006.
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Bantam Books, 1981.
theories listed, the relative deprivation theory and the general strain theory best explain domestic violence, as well as the high rate of recidivism, despite punishment. However, we should mention in the very beginning that each theory listed best explains a certain category of people, generally divided by income and level of education. The two I have selected are a match for the highest percentage of women batterers.
The relative deprivation theory believes that domestic violence occurs when there is a significant difference in the achievements of each of the members of the couple. In general, in my opinion, these tend to be professional achievements and the theory is best exemplified by those couples where the husband is unemployed or having a job that is not satisfying, while the wife is earning much more than him and is the one contributing most to the family budget.
The relative deprivation theory was…
1. Harmon, Patricia Anne. Why do men batter women? Assessing empathy, self-regard and narcissism levels, and attitudes toward women, men's roles and family of origin experiences among middle to upper class male batterers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 6023. U.S.: Univ Microfilms International
2. Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor
Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor. Page 143
Biff, by no means, was him a lazy bum, he had many different jobs before, but did not stay long at any of them, so he was not a dependent user who would wait for others to provide for him, he actually worked. The perception of Willy on Beff's job is evident when he speaks about Biff's recent job as a farm hand with disdain. He demeans the job without caring that it was a means where he would make an honest living. It indicates that no matter the job he would have picked for himself, Willy would not have supported him unless it was the one that brought the glory and reverence to the Lamon family name (Magil 1365-1368).
Thematic issues like father-son relationships that the author pursues in his writing: Biff and Will's relationship is not only representative of how fathers plan and map out their child's life,…
Bender, David, "Arthur Miller," San Diego CA: Greenhaven Press 1997, 5-6
Corrigan, Robert, "A Collection of Critical Esays" Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice hall, 1969 98-107
Miller, Arthur "Death of a salesman" New York, Penguins 1949, 10-13
Magil, Frank "Death of a Salesman: Master plots" Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Salem, 1976. 1365-1368
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…
Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.
Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258
Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
psychological concepts and principles shape and determine our behavior. They influence how we interact with other people and how we perform in social situations. Psychological factors also play an important part in the workplace.
An actor practices maintenance rehearsal in order to memorize lines. Maintenance rehearsal is great for rote repetition of material that can be quickly forgotten. An actor probably won't need to remember their lines for longer than the specific film or stage production requires. But an actor might be prone to narcissism. Narcissism is a personality disorder characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance. Many actors, especially celebrities, can probably be quite self-absorbed. In fact, the narcissistic need for attention, success, and power goes hand-in-hand with the glamour of the profession.
A musician may also be narcissistic, but the work itself may demand other psychological principles. For example, timbre, or the unique quality of a given sound,…
Mourning and Melancholia," the "father of psychoanalysis" meditated on how the human psyche deals with loss. While melancholia and mourning share many of the same surface traits, the two are very different.
Mourning," he wrote, "is regularly the reaction to the loss of a loved person." Freud believed that the normal way to deal with grief is to mourn and after a period of time, the loss will be overcome. If anything interferes with mourning, the result can be damaging.
Melancholia, on the other hand, is identified by Freud as a pathological illness, which results from an inability to recover from a loss and return to normalcy. Therefore, "the complex of melancholia behaves like an open wound," a wound that will not heal.
Douglas Crimp, an art critic, used Freud's essay in promoting AIDS activism. In 1989, Crimp wrote and essay of his own, titled "Mourning and Militancy" which implied…
Freud's Collected Papers. "Mourning and Melancholia." 1917.
Crimp, Douglas. "Mourning and Militancy." 1989.
Archer, John. The Nature of Grief. 1998.
Manipulation in Never Let Me Go
Manipulation is a relatively dark part of interpersonal relationships that occurs when the manipulator has certain motivations or inner uncertainties. It generally stems from a feeling of insecurity or other forms of unhappiness. The manipulation process is then used to overcome or overshadow these feelings. According to Handelamn (2009, p. 45), "manipulation is not exactly coercion or persuasion or deception." Instead, according to the author, it lies somewhere inbetween the three mentioned actions. This is why manipulation can occur in so many different forms and manifestations. uth's actions in Never Let me Go, for example, take a particularly aggressive aspect when she constantly bullies Kathy and Tommy to do what she wants. By the end of the novel, however, her actions clearly stem from a deep sense of uncertainty based upon the fact that she is a clone rather than a person in her…
Austin, E.J., Farrelly, D., Black, C, and Moore, H. (2007, Jan 26). Emotional Intelligence, Machiavellianism and emotional manipulation: Does EI have a dark side? Personality and Individual Differences. 43. Retrieved from: teamvdf.free.fr/TER%20M1/Emotional%20intelligence%20does%20EI%20have%20a%20dark%20side.pdf
Coxall, M. (2013). Human Manipulation: A Handbook. Spain: Cornelio Books.
Furtner, M.R., Rauthmann, J.F., and Sachse, P. (2011). The Self-Loving Self-Leader: An Examinaition of the Relationship between Self-Leadership and the Dark Triad. Social Behavior and Personality. 39(3). Retrieved from: researchgate.net
Handelman, S. (2009). Thought Manipulation: The Use and Abuse of Psychological Trickery. Santa Barbara, CA: Library of Congress.
Hello, my name is Fadi Awwad. Apologies for the late submission -- for some reason the due date was not showing on my Blackboard! The most recent book I read that really subverted the concept of Freytag's Triangle was probably The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon. In the spring semester 2014, I wrote a research paper on Pynchon for a course on postmodern narrative here at UHV. Pynchon is considered the postmodern novelist par excellence, so it is no surprise that The Crying of Lot 49 subverts traditional narrative structure.
Pynchon's short novel tells the story of a California housewife, Mrs. Oedipa Maas, who is given the duty of being executor for the estate of an ex-lover, Pierce Inverarity, who has just died. The central plot of the novel, however, hinges on whether Oedipa has inadvertently discovered the existence of a vast conspiracy called "The Trystero"…
Discusses the foundations and components of psychoanalysis
People today are familiar with psychoanalysis after its wide rejection as well as adulation for years. Paradoxically, the success realized in the 5th decade, particularly in Europe, divorced it from its core principles. It spread widely but not because of the attention drawn for its therapy methods. It can be said that therapy was duly overshadowed due to its application in other fields. Psychoanalysis is used in sociology, literature, anthropology, mythology, religion and ethnology. Psychoanalysis is applied jointly in three areas: as a way of investigating the mind, particularly the unconscious mind; a neurosis therapy that is inspired by the method above; as an independent discipline which is based on knowledge gotten from the application of investigative methods as well as clinical experiences. Psychoanalytical science is highlighted by Freud in his study Totem and Taboo where he dives into anthropological and…
Abend, S.M. (1979), Unconscious fantasy and theories of cure. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 27:579-596.
Arlow, J.A. (198 1), Theories of pathogenesis. Psychoanal. Quart., 50:488-514.
Grossman, W.I. (1986). Freud and Horney: A Study of Psychoanalytic Models via the Analysis of a Controversy[. The Analytic Press. Retrieved from: http://internationalpsychoanalysis.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/FreudHorney1.pdf
(2008). Psychoanalysis in Theory and Practice. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23240_Chapter_5.pdf
poor leadership, and the effect that it has on organizations. Drawing on academic research into the subject, the traits of poor leadership are identified, and divided into a couple of general categories. These categories have implications for understanding the effect that such leaders have. There are a number of effects that bad leaders have on the organization, including increased turnover, decreased morale, diminished organizational commitment and in the worst cases the entire organization could be at risk. Where the bad leadership manifests at lower levels, departmental performance, competitive advantage and projects are at risk, because both major forms of poor leadership tend to affect morale and organizational outcomes negatively.
The Effect Poor Leadership has on Employees
It stands to reason that if leaders get credit for good performance, and good leaders are lauded for making a positive contribution, that bad leaders should get credit for the work that they do…
Gini, A. & Green, R. (2012). Bad leader/misleaders. Business and Society Review. Vol. 117 (2) 143-154.
Higgs, M. (2009). The good, the bad and the ugly: Leadership and narcissism. Journal of Change Management. Vol. 9 (2) 165-178.
Latson, A. (2014). The real impact of leadership. Professional Safety. Sept 2014. In possession of the author.
Longenecker, C. (2011). Characteristics of really bad bosses. Industrial Management. Sept/Oct 2011, 10-15.
Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm and McKee (2014) focuses on the need to develop "effective leaders and leadership behavior" that can positively impact organizations (p. 63). Their study provides a meta-analysis of the pertinent literature on the subject from the past quarter century, primarily published in The Leadership Quarterly, a journal of scholarly critique, theory, and research. The researchers note that theories of leadership are relatively new to academia, and that approaches to the development of leaders is still being refined by scholars and professionals across the board. The study focuses primarily on issues (both intrapersonal and interpersonal) that relate to developmental leadership, utilizing "multi-source or 360-degree feedback responses" in order to deepen the current state of understanding regarding how leaders are trained and formed (Day et al., 2014, p. 63).
This study is particularly helpful because of its approach to the need for youth leadership training and development. The subject is…
Baumeister, R., Campbell, J., Krueger, J., Vohs, K. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1): 1-44.
Day, D., Fleenor, J., Atwater, L., Sturm, R., McKee, R. (2014). Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25 years of research and theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25: 63-82.
Den, H., Deanne, N., & Belschak, F. D. (2012). When Does Transformational Leadership Enhance Employee Proactive Behavior? The Role of Autonomy and Role Breadth Self-Efficacy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), 194-202.
Gage, R., Thapa, B. (2012). Volunteer Motivations and Constraints among College
Searching for One's Self
The rigors and difficulty associated with finding the self-presented by Robert Thurman and Azar Nafisi contrast with the idea of selfhood presented by Jean Twenge in markedly different ways. This fact is underscored all the more clearly by reading Thurman's "Wisdom," Nafisi's "Selections from Reading Lolita in Tehran" and Twenge's "An Army of One: Me." Specifically, Thurman and Nafisi are actually concerned with an exploration of the self to discover a unique identity within an individual. Twenge, on the other hand, is writing about the self in relation to the concept of selfishness, and largely posits the notion that the preoccupation with the self that typifies contemporary society is innately limiting in this regard. Quite simply, there is no difficulty associated with the sort of selfish selfhood that Twenge writes about, whereas such difficulties dominate the writings of Thurman and Nafisis because they are about finding…
1. What are the barriers that keep men from seeking counseling or therapy? What can break those barriers?
One of the barriers that keeps men from seeking counseling is masculinity itself. Sometimes referred to as toxic masculinity, this aspect of being a man involves the ego and the need for the man to feel that he is strong, capable of figuring out his own problems, and able to overcome adversity through resilience. From an early age, boys go through rituals that lead up to their coming of age moment, that defining moment when they believe that they have entered into manhood. To admit in one’s adulthood that he is in need of counseling can almost seem like a shock to one’s sense of masculinity (Kupers, 2005).
Not all men are going to be susceptible to this shock, but those who are will need support and understanding if they are to…
Jane, J. S., Oltmanns, T. F., South, S. C., & Turkheimer, E. (2007). Gender bias in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: An item response theory analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 166.
Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Konarski, R. (1998). Components of Burnout, Resources, and Gender?Related Differences 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(12), 1088-1106.
Glomb, T. M., Richman, W. L., Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F., Schneider, K. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 309-328.
Dorak, M. T., & Karpuzoglu, E. (2012). Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: an inadequately addressed issue. Frontiers in genetics, 3, 268.
Maas, A. H., & Appelman, Y. E. (2010). Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Netherlands Heart Journal, 18(12), 598-603.
Small Arms Survey. (2016). A Gendered Analysis of Violent Deaths. Small Arms Survey Research Notes • Number 63. Retrieved from http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/H-Research_Notes/SAS-Research-Note-63.pdf
Thompson, A. E., Hart, J., Stefaniak, S., & Harvey, C. (2018). Exploring heterosexual adults’ endorsement of the sexual double standard among initiators of consensually nonmonogamous relationship behaviors. Sex Roles, 79(3-4), 228-238.
American Psychological Association. (2016). Self-Esteem Gender Gap More Pronounced in Western Countries. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2016/01/self-esteem-gender
However, the reader might probably be disappointed at the lack of assignment of responsibility to any living being. Again, the author of this essay thinks that the book buying public who provides the author with the ability to make a living deserves better.
This portrayal of McCourt's father is further analyzed in the book by Helena Schneider. She has an entire chapter dedicated to McCourt's father. She quotes one of McCourt's interviews where he cites an extract from the book where he likens his paper in an Irish parody of the Holy Trinity. He said his father had one in the morning with the paper, then one at night with stories and prayers and then he said that the one reeking of whiskey comes home and wants them to die for Ireland (Schneider 6). The father is a complex figure who is just too proud to ask anyone for financial…
Doyle, Danny and Terence Folan, eds. The Gold Sun of Irish Freedom: 1798 in Song and Story. Dublin: O'Brien Press, 1998.
"Frank McCourt: A Writer Risen from the Ashes." Academy of Achievement. Academy of Achievement, Jul 29, 2009. 10 Apr 2010. .
Grossman, Lev. "Frank McCourt, Author of Angela's Ashes, Dies." Time Jul. 19, 2009:
This author used them to see how Kurt Vonnegut is post-modernist.
Barry begins in number one by asking how authors discover postmodernist themes and attitudes. In the observation, postmodernists foreground fiction which might be said to exemplify the notion of the 'disappearance of the real' in which shifting postmodern identities are seen. For number three, there is use of parody, pastiche and allusion. For number four, there is foreground irony for number five narcissism. For number six, the distinction between the high and low cultures is challenged and highlighted in the texts in which they work as hybrid blends of the two.
In other words, Barry maintains that taking the action out of the "real world" and into an imaginary one that creates and facilitates the postmodern. This would explain the convergence in Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse Five of so many seemingly contradictory elements, from the violence of war to sexual…
Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory
(Beginnings). 2nd ed. New York: Manchester University Press, 2002.
Bonin, Sonja. "Farewell, Hello, Mr. Vonnegut." Atlantic Review. Atlantic Review, 26
April 2007. Web. 4 May 2010. .
Mazzucchelli on behalf of Asterios (or Ignazio in abstentia) asks in words and graphics whether dividing lives into dualities and opposites is simply easier for than accepting "a sphere of possibilities." As Asterios states as he bends his head over his cigarettes, which are an unusual addiction for such a structured person, "It's just a convenient organizing principle." "As long as one doesn't mistake the system for reality," answers Ignazio. Although Asterios believes that he can handle the human tendency to simplify and sever, it is this division that breaks his emotional attachment with Hana, causing their relationship to dry up with neglect and boredom.
The scenes of disharmony between Hana and Asterios are text- and graphic-filled and colorful and morphing. In exaggerated graphics that portray how each person is thinking, Mazzuchelli shows how individuals build walls around themselves and become introverted as they are placed on the defensive and…
Goldmund and Narcissus respect each other, but they are two very different people, and the former is a student and the latter a teacher. They also feel that one is dangerous to the other. Narcissus takes care of Goldmund, and the polarity between the two becomes clearer over time. It is Narcissus who is the ascetic, the thinker; he does not accept that love is going to come into his life, regardless that he truly loves Goldmund. On the other hand, Goldmund, a man of outwardly love, sees his love unreturned. How can a man of the mind and a man of emotion and spirit find equality and friendship? Narcissus says to disappoint Goldmund: "It is not our aim to merge into one another, but to understand one another, to see and appreciate the other as he is: the other's contradiction and complement." Nor does Narcissus take Goldmund seriously, since he is not a deep thinker.
Goldmund travels for a number of years and gets his fill of life and women. When he returns, Narcissus once again relates the distinction between the two men. Goldmund always had "a dislike of the abstract," thinking in images, but "thinking has nothing to do with images, but with concepts and formulas. Exactly there, where the images end, philosophy begins." If Goldmund had instead become a thinker, he would have become a mystic, and mystics "are all unhappy people." Rather, Goldmund becomes an artist, which pleases Narcissus: "Be yourself, try to fulfill yourself," Narcissus says, to reach perfection. Goldmund leaves one more time and returns a broken man. Narcissus now says: "Let me now tell you, how deeply I love you, how much you always have been to me, how rich you made my life," and kisses him. Goldmund responds: "I have always loved you, Narcissus, half my life has been an attempt to attract you." Narcissus cares for his friend, until he dies. "Goldmund's last words burned in his heart like fire." Similarly, Asterios returns to Hana, and the two sit quietly together, at one and at peace.
Mazzucchelli, David. Asterios Polyp. New York: Pantheon, 2009
An empty self wishes for nothing more than to e guided and taken care of, easy prey for an abuse therapist, or even one who is not intentionally abusive but is not trained to recognize and understand the underlying issues. Wide and varied research supports Cushman's theory on this point, proving that decontextualization of the individual, the devaluation of the patience, a belief in the universality of a therapeutic technology and the encouragement of idealization can all lead to therapeutic abuse (608). Cushman compares patients who are exploited by life-style therapy to people who are victimized by cults. Their empty selves make them susceptible to feeling "transformed" because they cannot see themselves within a larger communal matrix. Cushman argues that a main component of preventing this kind of abuse is part of what he is after in writing this article -- straightforward talk about life-style solutions and their possible dangers.…
Cushman, P. (1990). "Why the Self is Empty: Toward a historically Situated Psychology." American Psychologist. Vol. 45 (5), 599-611. doi: 003-066X/90
171). On the other hand, men are sometimes depicted in the opposite stance: as overtly dominant. The difference between the "willing subordination" and the cocky gaze is that the former is a pose formally reserved for females whereas the latter epitomizes male social roles of dominance and political control. The individual who gazes directly at the viewer is confident and in control, whereas the individual who bears his or her behind and looks away from the viewer is saying "take me, do what you want with me." Interestingly, Bardo discovers a racial and age disparity among the images. African-American males are more likely to be shown in a dominant role, whereas young males are more likely to be represented as submissive (p. 192).
Thus, Bardo explores the language of visual imagery through a direct discussion of the male body. hereas the female body has been the de facto tableau on…
Bardo, Susan. "Beauty (Re)Discovers the Male Body." In the Male Body: A New Look at Men in Public and in Private. Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 1st edition (July 15, 2000)
The much-promised value of social networks is then an illusion, with benefits that could easily be attained through other means.
A second aspect of why social networks have such a negative social impact is because it creates a fertile environment for cyber bullying and abuse that many are too cowardly to do in person (Meredith, 2010). Cyber-bulling is often anonymous, concerted across multiple people in a group targeting an outsider, and faceless, yet vicious in its verbal attacks and threats of violence (Meredith, 2010). The point of cyberbuylling is to ostracize someone and also make them feel terrible so they will leave a school, university or workplace permanently. What is very troubling about this type of behavior is the fact that spreads and becomes commonplace across groups; in effect there is a proliferation of hate that occurs because everyone can stay anonymous (Meredith, 2010). Cyberbullying is reason enough to not…
James Bennett, Mark Owers, Michael Pitt, & Michael Tucker. (2010). Workplace impact of social networking. Property Management, 28(3), 138-148.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Di Cagno, D., & Sciubba, E.. (2010). Trust, trustworthiness and social networks: Playing a trust game when networks are formed in the lab. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 75(2), 156.
Hathi, S.. (2008). BILLIONS LOST FROM SOCIAL NETWORKING. Strategic Communication Management, 12(2), 9.
Social modeling has therefore been floated to be a factor in the basic etiology of self cutting and other studies also indicate that many teens engage in the act as a result of their peers being engaged in the same act as outline by Nock and Prinstein (2005).There is therefore a strong warning that group counseling of persons who take part in this act should be avoided as a result of the contagion effect (Walsh, 2006). This in other words cancels the possibility of Steven receiving counseling at the same time for their problems. They can however be exposed to activities such as regulation of their emotions (Lieberman, 2004; oss, et. al., 2009).
I do believe that there are various issues that affect the youth of the contemporary society. It is therefore important that the various technological changes as well as social-economic changes have adverse effects in their…
American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., rev.) Washington DC: Author.
Dulit, R., Fryer, M., Leon, A., Brodsky, B., & Frances, A. (1994) Clinical correlates of self-mutilation in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(9), 1305-1311.
Gardner, A.R., & Gardner, A.J. (1975). Self-mutilation, obsessionality and narcissism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 127-132.
Kaplan, H. And Johnson, R. (1992) Relationships between circumstances surrounding initial illicit drug use and escalation of drug use: moderating effects of gender and early adolescent experiences. In Vulnerability to Drug Abuse (eds M. Glantz and E.W. Pickens) pp 299-358.
She is in the stereotypical subservient housemaid role, and she does not divulge her sexual identity either.
Sexual knowledge is also intimately equated with death in Turn of the Screw. The title suggests at once the screws in a coffin but also the sexual act. The governess sees ghosts instead of fulfilling her desire to have sex with the father of the children she hawks over. hile the governess seems assertive at times, brave enough to look into the eyes of a stranger and a ghost, she is also too timid to directly confront the father of the children. His request that she never contact him seems ridiculous, given Flora and Miles are his children. The fact that the governess obeys the orders at all shows that she lacks the internal conviction and self-confidence to assert herself. Feminist theories of identity formation therefore lend a considerable amount of insight into…
James, Henry. Turn of the Screw. Biblios. 2010.
Norton, R. (1999). "Henry James's the Turn of the Screw," Gay History and Literature, 1971, 1999, updated 20 June 2008 .
Parkinson, E.J. "Apparitionists vs. Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948." Chapter 3 in the Turn of the Screw: A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898-1979. Retrieved online: http://www.turnofthescrew.com/ch3.htm
Frequent virtual meetings at the onset of the change team would be required to create a sense of teamwork and also to clarify roles. The virtual team can take full advantage of technologies that enable collaboration. By keeping in mind the core vision and its underlying values, a virtual change team can be every bit as effective as a live one.
Hay, I. (n.d.). Transformational leadership. etrieved online: http://www.leadingtoday.org/weleadinlearning/transformationalleadership.htm
Lim, J.Y. (n.d.). Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in Sport Organizations. etrieved online: http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/transformational-leadership-organizational-culture-and-organizational-effectiveness-sport-or
Yukl, G.A. (2002). Leading change in organizations. etrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:3HhW9jlhnmMJ:www.hss.doe.gov/deprep/archive/oversight/OrgCultureList/YuklOnCulture.pdf+yukl+functional+change&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShM_w6gqSrEzWZ-uUX-v-AkxkiiFJutzoFrD6O2zj5Hu1zrCbgTzEL33_cpW5nN-aMhYqy_2HLWsdJVQq5fbn9wNqxrJTZlpnMXKi283D4M4IGnfc1QgUBErPwk7Khr-5zne&sig=AHIEtb3ujTiWDQkDjiKKZZD-jvFmpeTyw
Yukl, G.A. (2008). The importance of flexible leadership. etrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:0ZB72AcLc6kJ:www.kaplandevries.com/images/uploads/Importance_of_FL_SIOP08Yukl.pdf+multiple-linkage+model:+yulk&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiDSwYcHX-gcBwH_QGKITxVgh5HmHfX5IYnSzMaPH0DDnOa5andwhqokJYcLSMmJ1-IUf0ZB9VPF0ib9x-tJseuG8kScir9-yK0zgNN073O-nAtAGysTtLJGXIQ6ua_aOYoBD&sig=AHIEtbQbvVU6LmhLhTJcWpWDpnUytxw1Q
Yukl, G.A. (2010). Leadership in Organizations. Prentice-Hall.
Hay, I. (n.d.). Transformational leadership. Retrieved online: http://www.leadingtoday.org/weleadinlearning/transformationalleadership.htm
Lim, J.Y. (n.d.). Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in Sport Organizations. Retrieved online: http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/transformational-leadership-organizational-culture-and-organizational-effectiveness-sport-or
Yukl, G.A. (2002). Leading change in organizations. Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:3HhW9jlhnmMJ:www.hss.doe.gov/deprep/archive/oversight/OrgCultureList/YuklOnCulture.pdf+yukl+functional+change&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShM_w6gqSrEzWZ-uUX-v-AkxkiiFJutzoFrD6O2zRj5Hu1zrCbgTzEL33_cpW5nN-aMhYqy_2HLWsdJVQq5fbn9wNRqxrJTZlpnMXKi283D4M4IGnfc1QgUBErPwk7KRhr-5zne&sig=AHIEtbR3ujTiWDQkDjiKKZZD-jvFmpeTyw
Yukl, G.A. (2008). The importance of flexible leadership. Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:0ZB72AcLc6kJ:www.kaplandevries.com/images/uploads/Importance_of_FL_SIOP08Yukl.pdf+multiple-linkage+model:+yulk&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiDSwYcHX-gcBwH_QGKITxVgh5HmHfX5IYnSzMaRPH0DDnOa5andwhqokJYcLSRMmJ1-IUf0ZB9VPF0ib9x-tJseuG8kScir9-yK0zgNN073O-nAtAGysTtLJGXIQ6ua_aOYoBD&sig=AHIEtbQbvVU6LmhLhTJRcWpWDpnUytxw1Q
In this example, morality is decided by the gain, pleasure, and other self-interest of the individual donning the ring. Such individuals would more than likely obtain this gain by committing illicit activities, such as robbing a bank, but use their winnings for fairly self-absorbed means to further their consumption of whatever suits their fancy. Houses, cars, women and other material items would more than likely be procured, for the simple fact that the individual is sating his own personal desires. In this case there is no need to act ethically, since the bearer of the ring is outside of the judgment (both literally and figuratively) of others, whose morals no longer apply to that individual.
The Rashomon effect describes the degree of subjectivity involved in the recollection of a memory, and is what is attributed to the fact that different people may recall the same incident with conflicting descriptions of…
1. Singer, Peter. How Are We To Live? (1995). New York: Prometheus Books
43). To that comment, Tennyson is believed to have replied that the poem is "The embodiment of my own belief that the Godlike life is with man and for man" (Brunner, p. 43).
In critiquing the Palace of Art Brunner offers common-sense substance that some previous critics had avoided. He claims that the poem demonstrates "to live in art…is to live for selfish delight" and living in selfish delight is not "Godlike" but instead it is like living in hellish mode. The truth about Tennyson is that he is rarely satisfied with "mere accurate observations of states of mind," Brunner continues (p. 43). Brunner should know, and certainly does, that Tennyson's refusal to be satisfied with mere observations is not unique to him, or to poets. Creative artists in all mediums are rarely satisfied with the status quo or with doing what is expected.
Result of the Problem / Discussion…
Brunner, Larry. "I Sit as God'? Aestheticism and Repentance in Tennyson's 'The
Palace of Art.'" Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature, Vol. 56 (2003).
Cronin, Richard. "The Palace of Art and Tennyson's Cambridge." Oxford Journals,
XLIII (3), 195-210.
U.S. Foreign Policy
TAT and the orschach
In the world of psychology there are several projective techniques that were created through both the Freudian and the Neo-Freudian Theories. These projective techniques continue to gain verified research support as each moves closer to being seen as a standardized research techniques. "For the purpose of individual trauma treatment and outcome evaluation, the benefits of performance-based methods such as the orschach test and the Thematic Apperception Test have been numerously stressed in the literature." (Inoue, 2009, p. 181) Unfortunely, they may still be subjective and open to many interpretations. Because of the possibility of mixed results, the majority of the psychologists that use these tools incorporate them into a mix of tests that provide information about an individual as opposed to using the projective techniques alone to make an assessment. This essay aims to focus on two of these techniques, Thematic Apperception…
Inoue, Naomi. (2009). "Evaluation Of An EMDR Treatment Outcome Using The Rorschach, The TAT, And The IES-R: A Case Study Of A Human-Caused Trauma Survivor." Rorschachiana, Vol. 30(2), 2009. pp. 180-218 [DOI: 10.1027/1192-5604.30.2.180].
Meyer, Gregory J., John E. Kurtz. (2006). "Advancing Personality Assessment Terminology: Time to Retire 'Objective' and 'Projective' As Personality Test Descriptors." Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 87(3), 2006. pp. 223-225. [10.1207/s15327752jpa8703_01].
Suite 101. (2009). "A Brief History of Inkblot Tests." Retrieved December 5, 2009, from Suite 101 at: http://psychology.suite101.com/article.cfm/a_brief_history_of_inkblot_tests
The sales person is driven by their target, as to fail to meet the target would not only be financially costly but embarrassing. The second target, the hard-to-achieve target -- is something that the salesperson can take pride in achieving. Attaining this target means more for the success and improvement it represents than for the payout that comes along with it.
The third component is the Top Performer incentive. For some sales staff, this may not serve as significant motivation as they may not feel as though they are in contention. For those high-performing staff members, however, this award gives the opportunity for bragging rights -- fulfillment of the ego. This can be powerful motivator for sales people. This incentive will work for the strong sales people, so while the others may not push themselves to attain it, all of the best sales people will and in doing so they…
Parents Magazine (2008):
I am Toddler, Hear me Roar: Learning to Live With and Love Your Toddler"
The Terrible Twos: A Preview of the Teenage Years
Angry. Opinionated. Possessing a unique will and capabilities. Ready to explore the world, regardless of whether his or her parents think he or she is ready to do so. Although this description may seem to fit the profile of the typical adolescent, it is also a fair description of toddlers as well. Toddlerhood is the first major stage of childhood development when children are learning how to test their limits and stretch and grow as people by taking risks. As any parent knows, every toddler's favorite word is a decided 'no,' usually uttered in a very loud and declarative tone! Parents are often frustrated during this period of their child's development, as they strike a balance between encouraging the toddler's independence while still striving…
There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.
Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…
Astrain, Luis Nunez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Trans. Meic Stephens. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675920 .
Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128 .
This does not suggest that one assimilate the ideas of another without having first contemplated those ideas at length, rounded them with individual ideas, expectations, experiences and theories before adopting those ideas and holding the originator of the ideas as a source of ideological guidance.
Engels is described by social researcher Dudley Knowles (2002) as a "Hegelian (20)." As mentioned earlier, Engels took a position in favor of Hegel when the philosopher was coming under fire from the university philosophy professor where Engels attended university. As has been previously mentioned, again, and from the positions Engels took and his manner of expressing his positions that were counter authority and anti-authority in nature, it leaves open to speculation Engels' motivation in backing Hegel; was it sincere agreement in philosophy, or his tendency to follow his young and somewhat immature tendencies to thwart the sitting authority? Given that Engels took a journalistic…
Carver, Terrell. 2003. Engels. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101596231.Internet . Accessed 15 April 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6761544
Engels, Frederick. 1902. The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State. Translated by Untermann, Ernest. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr. Book online. Available from Questia,
The earth lay white under the night sky."(Kawabata, 1) This opening phrase of the novel is very revealing: the hero comes from the intimacy of darkness (the tunnel) into the open blankness of the Snow Country. The setting thus translates the sense of innocence but also that of emptiness and loneliness.
Camus' Stranger also hints at solitude and alienation even from the title. Mersault is already a famous literary character, the modern alien in society. The main difference between him and Shimamura is the fact that the latter has a Romantic bent towards fantasy and a narcissism that keeps him locked in his own world. The common trait that they share is their permanent sense of anxiety. Mersault, unlike Shimamura, is literally afraid of the people that surround him. Incapable of empathy, Mersault feels like a complete stranger not only because he cannot connect with the others but because he…
Camus, Albert. The Stranger. New York, Vintage, 1954.
Kawabata, Yasunari. Snow Country and Thousand Cranes. New York: Knopf, 1958
The Third Reich will be that new civilization, with the "proper" race having achieved its rightful pre-eminence.
Allan Bullock points out that Hitler was not interested in economics and instead insisted on the supremacy of politics over economics. As early as 1923, Hitler was saying that the nation could not solve its problems until "the German people understands that one can conduct politics only when one has the support of power" (cited by Bullock 402).
Hitler's rise to power was certainly aided by his ability to speak to and incite the passions of a crowd, but part of his desire for power might be attributed to the fact that he was very limited in terms of human relations on a one-to-one basis. Many saw Hitler as beset by narcissism while also having no friends. hile offering a number of caveats, Fritz Redlich characterizes Hitler as a narcissist on the following…
Bullock, Alan. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.
Knoebel, Edgar E. Classics of Western Thought, Volume III: The Modern World. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988.
Redlich, Fritz. Hitler: Diagnosis of a Destructive Prophet. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
She looked up at every person who passed within her vicinity, some of whom had not even noticed her. The observer was not able to identify anything about her likely occupation or the circumstances that lead to her choosing this particular coffee shop, except that her confusion at the counter suggested that it was not part of her daily routine.
The Unavailable Woman:
Another woman entered the coffee shop. She had apparently not been caught in the rain because she was completely dry and her umbrella was still neatly wrapped in its case. Her hair was longer than the previous subject, but instead of allowing it to swing out when she changed her physical orientation, she moved in a much less exaggerated motion that did not impart any inertia to her hair. Instead of repeatedly preening her hair away from her face, she allowed it to cover her ears and…
Many young people voted for Reagan as he represented rebellion against the authority figures in society but was a rebellion characterized by valiance and effectuated through skillful communication. The approval rating of Reagan was approximately 42% when 1982 began but dropped to the record low 35% later that same year. The U.S. entered a recession. If one is to set their focus upon obtaining a chance at being the President of the United States, then that individual must take a political stance and hold a view that is somewhat differential from the opposing party. In the case of Ronald Reagan, who had been a democrat for most of his life, it was the democratic party that he must debate against in the attempt to establish a better public platform that the opposing candidate. Ronald Reagan may be viewed as a 'come-lately' at the time he entered the political scene at…
Jordan, C. (2003) Movies and the Reagan Presidency: Success and Ethics. Praeger June, 2003.
McChesney, R.W. And Nichols, J. (2002) Our Media, Not Theirs: The Democratic Struggle against Corporate Media. Seven Stories Press, 2002.
Curry, Tom (2004) Ronald Reagan, 1911-2004: An Indefatibable optimist who set American on a Consdervative Course: MSNBC Online avaialble at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3638299/
Kashani, Tony (2004) Hollywood as an Agent of Hegemony: The War Film. Dissendent Voice Online available at http://www.dissidentvoice.org/Aug04/Kashani0807.htm
They are, never taking anything for granted; never being over-confident ("over positive"), of course never being "obstinate" (for that is a truly shameful attitude to take in any personal or social circumstance); and never being egotistic (self-love, or narcissism is akin to egotism, and in Confucian thought it is repugnant).
In Book IX (28) the Master says that "he that is really Good can never be unhappy." That doesn't mean one supposes that the truly jen person, the very Good person, goes around with a smile all the time and everything always goes right. It just means, the sense of being at peace comes when one achieves a level of goodness in life, and peace in this context relates to happiness, not to overt joy or ebullience.
Book XII offers a great deal of information about Goodness, jen. Ritual plays a pivotal role here, as the Master insists that sticking…
Whaley, Arthur. The Analects of Confucius. New York: Random House, 1938.
Mildred tries to imitate the economical management in her own family. Like in Faye's case, whose marriage had been a "business arrangement," her own marriage to Monty has the same business character: Mildred chooses Monty for his relations that could help her daughter to make the most of her musical talent. Also, Mildred's other attempt in getting a husband for money is telling for the way she is constantly selling or trying to sell herself, and not only her prettiness, but also her cooking talents. The analogy between her career as a waitress, and then a restaurant manager, trying to sell food and the way Mildred tries to sell herself as a wife to ally Burgan, using the same cooking talents as a weapon, is striking. It is here that we most clearly detect the parallel between private life and mass economy. Love, like in est's book, is nothing else…
Cain, James. Mildred Pierce. New York: Alfred A Knopf Inc., 1941
Jurca, Catherine White Diaspora: The Suburb and the Twentieth Century American Novel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001
West, Nathanael. The Day of the Locust. New York: New Directions, 1950
I think I want to go into nursing but I am not 100% sure yet. ight now, I am just taking basic gen ed classes since this is my first year in school -- I did take a couple of classes this past summer. Most adolescents I know in my neighborhood have graduated already as well." Georgia stated she was still 'feeling out' her identity, which is common in adolescence. She was willing to be independent enough to pay for her own college, which suggests a desire to 'stand on her own two feet' despite the fact that she still lives at home.
Georgia also noted that she does not contribute to the family income and that her father is a biopharma executive. Her desire to enter nursing could reflect her exposure to this field of work at home. However, she saw her decision not to attend a four-year college…
Santrock, Jack. (2011). Life-span development. (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Gail Godwin's "Dream Children" and Tobias Wolff's "The Liar" are both stories about escapism. In "Dream Children" a woman whose baby was stillborn and who may have had a hysterectomy because of it finds solace in out-of-body experiences and dreams. Her escapism is harmless, and yet it deeply disturbs her neighbor and worries her husband. Likewise, James's compulsive fibbing in "The Liar" is not intended to hurt anyone, but the behavior gravely disturbs his mother. James lies to create alternative realities, just like Mrs. McNair uses astral travel. The two short stories are told from different points-of-view: "The Liar" in first person and "Dream Children" in third. However, the tales share a considerable amount in common including characterization, resolution, and theme. Both Godwin and Wolff show how escapism is a natural human response to painful life situations.
Godwin and Wolff are both Southern writers; both were born in Alabama but…
Godwin, G. "Dream Children." In American Short Story Masterpieces.
Wolff, T. "The Liar." In American Short Story Masterpieces.
Interestingly enough, one of the themes in the post-modernism period of American history has been the reexamination of the "real America," particularly the moral, ethical and sexual changes that have evolved since the turn of the century. This has not been a new theme, nor has it been relegated to non-fiction. At the beginning of the 20th century, American novelists were expanding the role fiction took by examining high and low life in society. Edith harton, for instance, found tremendous hypocrisy within the ranks of the Eastern elite in terms of morality and sexuality and in Sister Carrie, Theodore Dreiser portrayed a country girl who moved to the big city of Chicago to become a "kept woman," relinquishing her American morals for the pleasures of the flesh. Similarly, even in the stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, and Ernest Hemingway there are notions and reexaminations of…
Bales, R. (2001). Social Interaction Systmes: Theory and Measurment. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Berthrong, J. (2004). Love, Lust and Sex- A Christian Perspective. Buddhist-Christian Studies, 24(2), 3-22.
Gosine, M. (2010). Whatever Happened to the Real America. Boston: Pearson.
Smith, J. (1996, March). The Christian View of Sex: A Time for Apologetics, not Apologies. Retrieved July 2011, from Cathlic Education Research Center: http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/sexuality/se0004.html
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.