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S. effort must follow certain guidelines in any such efforts, like for example, it must perforce be for the innate purpose of changing, or propping up the regime. It must also deploy large numbers of U.S. ground troops, and it must also involve these troops, as well as large numbers of civilians in the basic political administration of the country. (U.S. Involvement in Nation Building before Iraq) If all three of these criterions are met, then it can be termed as a nation building effort, as it happened in Germany after the World War II was concluded in May 1945, after which the victorious French and British and American and Soviet forces set about occupying particular zones in Germany, and in setting up military governments. (U.S. Involvement in Nation Building before Iraq)
It was in 1947 that the multi-billion dollar 'Marshall Plan' was created, with the purpose of rebuilding and…
Clarke, Richard A. (21 November, 2004) "Book Review of 'What we owe Iraq', a War of Ideas"
The Washington Post Book World. Retrieved at http://www.epic-usa.org/Default.aspx?tabid=1628Accessed 10 November, 2005
Dobbins, James; McGinn, John. G; Crane, Keith; Jones, Seth. G; Lal, Rollie; Rathmell, Andrew;
Swanger, Rachel; Timilsina, Anga. (2003) "America's Role in Nation Building, from Germany to Iraq" Rand Corporation.
Policy Advisement on Efficacy of Nation Building in Iraq
Dear Mr. President and Mr. Secretary of State,
After a decade to examine the consequences of America's decision to invade Iraq -- and engage in a massive nation building effort after successfully ousting the brutal Baath Party dictatorship of Saddam Hussein -- it has become abundantly clear that a war fought under false pretenses can never be productive in a geopolitical sense. As foreign policy scholars have observed in the wake of your predecessor's calamitous course of action, "President Bush said that our goal was a unified, democratic Iraq that could govern itself, sustain itself, defend itself, and serve as an ally in the 'ar on Terror' & #8230; (but) it's apparent that no part of this goal has been achieved, and that the progress made toward them is fleeting" (Babbin, 2012). This is why the administration's current commitment to a…
Babbin, Jed. "Iraq in the Rearview Mirror." American Spectator. 22 Dec 2011: Web. 27
Oct. 2013. .
Brooks, David. "Nation Building Works." New York Times. 30 Aug 2010, A2. Web. 27 Oct.
Building and Nation building in Iraq -- Present and Future Perspectives
Over the course of the current United States administration's involvement in Iraq,
President Bush has paid much lip service to the importance of multilateral action and to forming an international coalition when establishing a democratic regime within the nation, after the ousting of the tyrant Saddam Hussein from power. However, the lack of international support for the Iraqi mission 'Operation Freedom' has forced the U.S. To essentially 'go it alone,' except for the moral and military support of Prime Minister Tony Blair's British forces. France, the traditional gadfly of European politics, has repeatedly condemned U.S. cowboy tactics in the Middle East. The United Nations weapon inspectors failed to find any weapons of mass destruction within Iraq. In light of terrorist activity and the resulting election results in Spain, all events point to decreased international coalition support for United States…
Boyle, Mary. (October 2003). "87 Billion." Common Cause. Retrieved on March 16, 2004 at http://www.commoncause.org/news/default.cfm?ArtID=237
CNN.com. (January 24, 2004). "Budget office projects U.S. deficit to hit $477 billion." Retrieved on March 16, 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/U.S./01/26/budget.deficits.ap/
Vann, Bill. (May 30, 2003). "U.S. prepares military repression in Iraq." World. Retrieved on March 16, 2004 at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2003/may2003/iraq-m30.shtml
This includes putting in place international legal systems, dispute resolution mechanisms as well as cooperative arrangements.14 The call this approach social peace-building or structural peace-building. Such peace-building involves "creating structures -- systems of behavior, institutions, concerted actions -- that support the embodiment or implementation of a peace culture."15
This is what the author's call multi-track diplomacy. It involves individuals who are not normally involved in the peace process, particularly business people or other professionals (e.g., academics, sports teams, etc.). In such a situation, it is important to create structures and systems of behavior, institutions and concerted actions that support the embodiment or implementation of a peace culture. It is about building an economic, military and community infrastructure and providing concrete and realistic avenues through which a new peace system might express itself. Structures are terribly necessary because political peacebuilding cannot accomplish conflict transformation by itself. After all, a signed treaty…
Amanpour, Christiane. "America Remembers, Part II." CNN.com Transcripts. CNN, August 24, 2002. Web. 6 Dec 2011. .
Rubin and Ahmed Rashid. "From Great Game to Grand Bargain: Ending Chaos in Afghanistan and Pakistan." Foreign Affairs, 2008, 30.
Belasco, Amy. United States Congress. Congressional Research Service. Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 2011.
Brzezinski, Zbigniew . "The CIA Intervention in Afghanistan ." Center for Research on Globalisation. Globalresearch.ca, 15 October 2001. Web. 5 Dec 2011. .
He proposed that in this kind of government, it will do away with the tradition of 'monarchy,' likened to the British form of government, wherein powered is concentrated on one individual alone. Moreover, in advocating for the new American government, Madison argued that with the British ruling over the American people, the new government is a better option, the 'lesser evil' of the two: "[t]he bulk of the people will probably prefer the lesser evil of a partition of the Union into three more practicable and energetic Governments" (237).
This argument in the letter was not an unfounded statement. Prior to declaring the new government as the better option for American society, Madison enumerated the numerous problems that emerged from the 'iron hand' that Britain used in ruling its colony (America). From his letter, the rising conflict between Americans and the British became apparent, and the external transition happened as…
Davis, D. And S. Mintz (Eds.). 1998. The boisterous sea of liberty: a documentary history of America from discovery through the Civil War. NY: Oxford University Press.
North Africa Nation Building
Authoritarian regimes in the Middle East and North Africa have been collapsing unexpectedly over the past year, or at least are under severe challenge by their own people for the first time in decades. In Tunisia, the first North African country to overthrow an entrenched dictatorship, the recent elections appear to have been free and fair, resulting in the election of a moderate Islamic government and the other nations of the region will be fortunate indeed if they are able to follow this model. In Libya, the United Nations Security Council has just called for an end to NATO military operations and a transition to democracy with respect for the rule of law and human rights. Moreover, the UN has insisted on respect for human rights in Egypt and a full investigation of recent clashes between Christians and Muslims there. In both Libya and Egypt, the…
The African Union Sends an Observer Mission to Tunisia. African Union Press Release N"133/2011, Addis Ababa, October 20, 2011.
Illy, Ousseni and Omobolaji. "Assessing the Broader Implications of the Middle East Protests: A West African Perspective." Global Economic Governance Programme, April 2011.
Early on in my career I recognized that building coalitions was a highly regarded quality within the federal government, and it became my goal to be respected by both civilian and military leaders. Throughout the course of my career, I have been able to build strong relationships with many outstanding colleagues and have been involved with successful actions at high levels of government which have allowed me ample opportunities to build strong networks and support systems. There are four important examples of coalition building that I would like to discuss here.
The first example was my colleague's recommendation that I be chosen to represent women in the military on a commemorative stamp issued for that purpose. I was surprised and delighted that I had built a strong enough relationship with this colleague to be recommended for this honor. Even though there were hundreds of applicants interviewed, I was…
Another important example of building coalitions comes from my work at the Office of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs. There are many high-level interconnected government relationships that I must deal with daily, and have been working in this job since 1998 at the cabinet level. I hold the title of Senior Civilian Protocol Officer and must communicate both policy and guidance to VA employees throughout the world. In addition to working with these individuals, I also work with Congressional committee staff, White House staff, and those in other governmental organizations, which allows me to learn about and communicate with many different kinds of people on many different levels.
The fourth and final example of building coalitions comes from 2000, when I led a team of 50 individuals to establish and create the USO Exhibit located in the Pentagon. Now in it's fifth year, the exhibit is viewed by over 100,000 tourists per year, and cost $50,000 to create. During the creation of the exhibit, I coordinated staff policy, maintained focus, and met goals and objectives for the Secretary of Defense. For our performance, my team and I received honor awards; I also received the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Service Award.
The performance that I have continued to give to each organization that I have been involved with throughout my career has helped me to win support for many of my ideas and has created important relationships with many colleagues. Leadership roles are valuable to me, and I ensure that customer complaints are handled properly and new procedures are implemented, as well as ensuring that there is a consensus developed among all of those that are participating in a particular project so that it can run smoothly and be completed on time. By building coalitions I have the opportunity to share my experience and to help others with their skills.
Many argue if Gen. Patton truly made the above remarks, but he had a clear understanding of the importance of logistics. After the Normandy landing that occurred in the year 1944 in August as the allied forced France against Germany offensively, the third Army of General Patton went short of fuel and they had to cut short their advance (Neubauer, 2011).
According to Martin Van Creveld, several operations of the allied in the European theater, in the course of the Second World War, were implemented and frequently cancelled with reasons of logistics. This clearly displayed how logistics can limit the operations of the military if they are not well and managed properly. Operations of the military rely on logistics on all the existing levels, tactical, strategic, and operational. Strategic logistics usually assist the government with information useful in building, projecting and sustaining the power of military over time using its…
Parry, G., & Graves, a. (2008). Build to order: The road to the 5-day car. London: Springer.
Neubauer, R.M. (2011). Business Models in the Area of Logistics: In Search of Hidden Champions, their Business Principles, and Common Industry Misperceptions. Wiesbaden: Gabler.
Zanjirani, R., Asgari, N. & Davarzani, H. (2009). Supply chain and logistics in national, international, and governmental environment: Concepts and models. Heidelberg: Physica
Building Security Evaluation: Baltimore-Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport
Just a couple of decades ago, travelers, visitors and virtually anyone else could walk freely through the nation's airports without being challenged at any point, and security considerations were generally restricted to concerns over possible so-called "skyjackings" to Cuba, but even these were rare. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, though, all of this changed in fundamental ways as airports across the country implemented a wide range of security measures intended to prevent a recurrence of these deadly security breaches. Indeed, today, security at the nation's airports has never been stricter, and despite the time and trouble these initiatives have created for air travelers, most passengers today appear to accept these measures in stride as part of the post-September 11 climate. To determine what security measures have been taken in a specific airport facility, this paper provides an evaluation of…
Facts & figures. (2009). Baltimore/Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport. [Online]. Available: http://www.bwiairport.com/about_bwi/facts_figures/ .
Fire suppression division. (2009). Maryland Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation. [Online]. Available: http://www.marylandaviation.com/content/aboutthemaa/firerescuedept.html.
Ramstack, T. & Lively, T. (2004, January 7). BWI airport police search entering cars; action taken as a Code Orange precaution. The Washington Times, C08.
Wallis, R. (2003). How safe are our skies? Assessing the airlines' response to terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.
In fact, the superficiality of nation-statehood is merely presumed. There is no concrete reason to question the organic nature of the nation-state. The nation-state emerged on the heels of the Enlightenment (Anderson).
Historians cannot escape writing natural histories; writing natural histories is certainly preferable to penning unnatural histories. In Korea, "through the practice of state-sponsored rituals, the building of monuments, and the compilations of official histories, narratives about the collective 'self' were continuously generated," (Em 336 . These are the very same processes of nation-state building as take place anywhere in the world. The process of nation-state and subsequent identity formation is inescapable and therefore natural.
Nation-statehood is still an artifice, though, in the same way that religion can be considered an artifice. In the past, before the term nation-state was used to define and delimit geo-political boundaries, there were two prevailing means of defining groups of people, Anderson notes.…
This was one of the factors that led to the foundation of the EU, as small, less powerful nations united in an effort to gain and hold power in a collective effort (Tyldesley). Therefore, in the "Five Lenses" and especially so in the case of EU, power is in essence the coin of the realm. In other words, without holding a superior position to others, class structure would not really help any coalition, as the ability to leverage into more lucrative relationships would not exist.
Risk- Any coalition is extremely risky; referring back to the earlier elements, there is the possibility of losing power or coming out of the collaborative effort worse off than when the effort was entered into.
Risk being understood, when looking at the coalition that has come to be known as the EU is extremely risky, especially when one considers the turbulent and violent past of…
Borowiec, Andrew. "EU Expansion Sows Doubt About the Future." World and I October 2004: 10.
Brittan, Samuel. "International Economy." 18 3 (2004): 34+.
Cohen, Jean L. The Limits of Marxian Critical Theory. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1982.
Gorvett, Jon. "Now You See it, Now You Don't." The Middle East Nov. 2003: 20+.
66). St. Justinus' was influenced by St. Caster at Coblenz and churches Michaelstadt and Seligenstadt (Fegusson & Spiers p. 220). The columns and roofs are of cultural interest and the massive Gothic choir and its original seating still exist.
St. Justinus' has undergone changes over the years. In 1298 the relics of St. Justinus' were transferred to the mother church St. Margaret who in turn dedicated the church. In 1419 the Antoniter order made numerous altercations to the church including the building of the gothic chancel. In the early 18th century the church added an organ that is mostly intact today (The American Organist). In the 1930s and the 1980s St. Justinus' underwent restoration; today the church belongs to the parish of St. Josef in the Frankfurt district of Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg (aedekers Frankfurt).
4. Krak des Chevaliers, Syria (AD 1144 -- 1250) -- 950…
Albright, W.F. (1936), "Archaeological Exploration and Excavation in Palestine and Syria, 1935," American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 40 (1): 154 -- 167
Baedekers Frankford: a city guide series. Prentice Hall Press, 1987. Print.
Bennett, M. The Hutchinson dictionary of ancient and medieval warfare. Chicago, Il: Helicon Publishing, 1998. Print.
Billings, Malcolm. The Crusades: Five Centuries of Holy Wars. New York: Sterling
Using the Cultural Dimensions Model to analyze the differences in cultures, the sources of potential disconnect can be seen in the wide variation in PDI (Power Distance Index), Individuality (IDV), Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) and long-term orientation (LTO). This graphic is derived using the interactive charting feature on Geert Hofstede's website, which is available to anyone online.
On cultural level alone there are major disconnects between the U.S. And omanian teams. The greatest difference is on the IDV dimension, which shows how the U.S. culture values initiative and individuality much more than their omanian counterparts. This explains the major disconnect in how time and sense of urgency is responsible for the majority of change management initiatives failing (Kirca, Hult, 2009). The article concludes with a model the author defines in Appendix a, yet this does not go far enough to explain and overcome the major differences in cultural mindsets…
Charles R. Franz. (2004). Building a Business Program in Romania: Creating and Sustaining Change. International Journal of Public Administration, 27(11,12), 931-961.
Geert Hofstede, & Robert R. McCrae. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
Hatum, a., Pettigrew, a., & Michelini, J.. (2010). Building Organizational Capabilities to Adapt Under Turmoil. Journal of Change Management, 10(3), 257.
Ahmet H. Kirca, & G. Tomas M. Hult. (2009). Intra-organizational factors and market orientation: effects of national culture. International Marketing Review, 26(6), 633-650.
The sixth point is that they accept credit cards and other cards, so that the customers find it easy to pay for the purchase, and the company also can ensure that they do not end up losing any money due to cheating by the customers. All these points are important and have to be covered within the plans for the new organization of instantwheel.com. Even with this, since this site will be the newest of all sites, it will have a natural disadvantage. To cover this disadvantage up, it would be better to tie up or purchase an organization which has existed for a long time, so that 'a wealth of experience' can be claimed for instantwheel.com.
Unique Selling Position
For any business to be a successful business, the organization has to have a Unique selling position. This means that this particular position sets them apart from other business in…
Dean, Terry. "Don't Re-Invent the Wheel...Improve on it" Retrieved at http://www.xetg.com/articles/others/dont_reinvent_the_wheel.shtml . Accessed on 18 July, 2005
Direct email marketing" Retrieved at http://www.bulkleads4sale.150m.com/googleusd/ . Accessed on 18 July, 2005
F.A.Q. And Site Help" Retrieved at http://www.victoriatire.com/FAQ.html?cart=112167729329171613 . Accessed on 18 July, 2005
Money making sites" Retrieved at http://www.bored.com/categories/paidtoplay/paidtoplay.html . Accessed on 18 July, 2005
Each onion router removes a layer of encryption to uncover routing instructions, and sends the message to the next router where this is repeated. This prevents these intermediary nodes from knowing the origin, destination, and contents of the message.
The predicted solution of the problems related to e-government administration depends on answering the following questions as brainstorming ideas to solve the problem and the features provided by the system or application.
1. An important step for processing of e-Government.
2. To ensure the confidentiality of information such as contracts for military weapons and other by Providing a high level of security as it is based on singing the data by combining multiple key values like user id, date stamp and transaction id which produce an encrypted key utilized and used only internally by the system for authentication and validation of user privileges. This procedure would make it…
Averyt, William. (2005). E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge Age. American Review of Canadian Studies 35(4): 769-770.
Chaffee, a. (2000-08-17). "What is a web application (or "webapp")?"
Cohen, JE. (2000). Examined Lives: Informational Privacy and the Subject as Object. Stanford Law Review 52(5): 1373.
Bourquard, J.A. (2003, March). What's Up with E-Government? Digital Government Isn't a Silver Bullet, but as Part of a Long-Term Plan it May Provide a Means to Reduce State
Citizens of a Stateless Nation
The emergence of stateless nations around the world and their impact on geopolitical issues, both on a regional and a global scale.
With ethnic minorities such as the Basque and Catalonian separatist movements of Spain, the Quebecois of Canada, the Palestinians of the Middle East, and the Kurds of Iraq and Turkey all staking their claim to autonomy through acts of civil protest, shows of electoral strength, and even militarized means, the issue of stateless nations has become a global priority. The currently hostile engagement between Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip, and their Israeli neighbors, demonstrates the consequences of ignoring the identity of culturally and ethnically unique groups. By studying the distinct circumstances underlying each of these four stateless nations, including their claims to sovereignty and grievances with their parent nation, it is possible to formulate effective solutions which may eventually effect the brokering…
"Actually, there is nothing particularly ancient about either the peoples of Europe or their supposed right to political autonomy. The claims to sovereignty that Europe is seeing in Eastern and Central Europe today are a creation of the nineteenth century, an age that combined the romantic political philosophies of ousseau and Hegel with 'scientific' history and Indo-European philology to produce ethnic nationalism. This pseudoscience has destroyed Europe twice and may do so yet again. Europe's peoples have always been far more fluid, complex, and dynamic than the imaginings of modern nationalists" (Geary 13).
One problem with the idea of ethnic 'self-determination' that Geary's book highlights is that it is virtually impossible to draw the line where it ends. "Surely, if Lithuanians or Croats have their own language, their own music, and their own dress, then they have a right to their own parliament and their own army" (Geary 9). But…
Geary, Patrick. The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 2003.
Nations and Nationalism Exist: Comparison of the ork of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson
The objective of this study is to compare the work of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson and to answer as to which argument is the most persuasive for why nations and nationalism exist.
Definition of 'Nation'
Anderson (1991) defines the concept of nation to be such that results in theorists of nationalism being perplexed by three specific paradoxes include: (1) the objective modernity of nations to the historians eye vs. their subjective antiquity in the eyes of nationalists; (2) the formal universality of nationality as a socio-cultural concept -- in the modern world everyone can, should, will 'have a nationality as he or she has a gender vs. The irremediable particularity of its concrete manifestations, such that, by definition, 'Greek' nationality is sui generis; (3) the political power of nationalism vs. their philosophical poverty and even…
Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso.
Geertz, C. (n.d.) The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States.
Hobsbawm (1980) Nations and Nationalism Since 1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laitin, DD (n.d. Identity in Formation: The Russian -- Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad. Cornell University Press. Ithaca and London.
nation-altering event of the 1960s. Specifically it will discuss man's first walk on the moon by astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren, and how it stimulated the nation's growth, made an indelibly positive impression upon America's institutions, and if it/they provide sufficient substance to be incorporated into the future study of America during the 1960s.
MAN ON THE MOON
One of the most important and nation altering events to occur in the 1960s was the Apollo astronaut program, specifically, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren's successful walk on the moon on July 20, 1969.
On July 20, 1969, people around the world watched in awe as Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon. The event symbolized, as Armstrong laconically radioed to earth, a "giant leap for mankind." In fact, the achievement was so overwhelming that a few people refused to believe it actually occurred, claiming that it…
Byrnes, Mark E. Politics and Space: Image Making by NASA. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
Flatow, Ira, "Analysis: Anniversary of First Plans for Going to the Moon." Talk of the Nation Science Friday (NPR). 25 May 2001.
Levins, Harry. "In 1969, the U.S. Won the Cold War Race to the Moon." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 18 July 1999, pp A4.
Public Affairs. "V-2 Rocket." White Sands Missile Range. 2002. 22 March 2003. http://www.wsmr.army.mil/paopage/Pages/V-2.htm
competing ideologies of "A Nation at Risk" and "Goals 2000"
No statement of educational goals and aspirations is objective. All learning methods and goal statements reflect a particular ideology of the educators that construct the methodology. They also reflect the decade's concerns and national obsessions as well as the needs of students. This is not to discount the value of mission statements and guidelines for the nation. It is merely to act as a caveat to the reader, when he or she is reading such prescriptions as "A Nation at Risk" and "Goals 2000." These documents, authored in 1983 and 1998 respectively, are not directives from higher educational powers. Rather, they are both ideological statements that create selective agendas as to what is valuable for children to learn. But to reiterate -- selectivity is not necessarily a critique of the documents -- of course, no child can learn everything.
"A Nation at Risk." (1984) Retrieved 24 Mar 2005 at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/risk.html
Goals 2000. (1998) Retrieved 24 Mar 2005 at http://www.ed.gov/legislation/GOALS2000/TheAct/sec102.html
None of us had ever played rugby so my first mission was to find a coach for the team, which was difficult as few men were eager to train girls. Additionally, I was tasked with securing a field where we could practice and play competitions. I was unanimously elected as captain of the team.
The first season was both exciting and exhausting as it was a real challenge to motivate all the girls to be on the playing field on Saturday mornings and deal with administrative, organization and financial issues. From the second season on, we made progress in playing and competing with other teams for an amateur championship. As the association was doing well, I could focus on organizing new events such as going to Scotland to attend a Six Nations Tournament match and then playing a match against a local team. Our efforts and team spirit enabled us…
Since their issue, the International Organization for Standardization has designated IFCs as being the "construction information standard" for BIM applications (Lyon, 2009, p. 40). Because the same types of needs have been identified in other sectors, the need for standardization in the BIM realm was also well recognized. For instance, according to Lyon (2009, p. 40), "Like CD, BIM will need standardization to share complex information between organizations." ccording to Twati (2008, p. 2), though, this key driver is languishing behind adoption levels in other countries. In this regard, Twati (2008) advises that, "While finances were not a problem for the wealthy country of Libya, it has historically used far less than its available computing capacity. The use of technology in Libya is minimal, regardless of it being one of the wealthiest countries in frica" (p. 1).
Building Information Modeling Implementations in Different Countries
Based on its proven efficacy in…
A recent example concerning the uptake of BIM in the United Kingdom is a public-private initiative intended to facilitate the design and development process using building information modeling applications. The project has been implemented at Niven Architects in a joint effort with Teesside University to promote developments in the use of BIM for building design and construction (Laing, 2012). According to this reporter, "Niven Architects has begun a two-year knowledge transfer partnership (KTP) with the university on building information modelling (BIM) as part of a Government and private sector scheme to improve businesses" (Laing, 2012, p. 32). In this case, Niven Architects is developing an innovative approach to modeling building information using these applications to help all stakeholders better understand what part they play in the process and what is expected from them in terms of support. In this regard, Laing (2012, p. 32) advises that, "When it comes to construction, instead of trying to interpret generic 2D drawings, the contractor has access to all of the information they need about every part of the project from the BIM model. We want all our consultants to move forward with us in BIM and will help them with their BIM implementation strategies as part of the KTP, which will support design and construction in the region." Of particular interest was the technique described by the architectural firm in which they expect to develop a virtual rendering of buildings that would provide clientele with the ability to actually walk through third-dimensionally projected buildings to get a better feel for what the space and built environment will look like when completed. According to Laing (2012, p. 32), Nivens "hopes to use Teesside University's 'Cave', a high-quality, immersive virtual environment and gaming facility, which would allow clients to physically 'walk into' and experience their new building before it is built." The project leader, Professor Nashwan Dawood, director of Teesside University's Technology Futures research institute, enthused that, "BIM can save time, energy and money. One of the problems in construction is the element of having to 'suck it and see'. You start to do the work and then suddenly there are problems" (2012, p.32).
In sharp contract, the introduction of the BIM applications has provided practitioners with the ability to render buildings in ways that allow every nook and cranny to be examined in detail, and in cost effective ways. In sum, "We can simulate the processes in advance on a computer screen in 3D, work out how things are going to be done and communicate this with the supply chain. It enables companies to virtually iron out problems before they happen" (Laing, 2012 at p. 32). These highly desirable attributes make BIM applications indispensable tools in modern construction projects, including the Libyan construction sector which is discussed further below.
Validation of the Strategy for Construction and Infrastructure Sector Organisations in the Libya Construction Sector
Reason 4: The Great Awakening awakened old cultural reminders of the reasons that the Puritans had left England, and the state-run Church of England, to found the colonies long ago.
Reason 5: England was making 'noise' about abolishing the slave trade, which the Southern colonists were profoundly opposed to, as they believed this would mark the end of their agriculturally-based way of life.
Reason 6: The rise of individualism, inspired partly by the Awakening and also the increased popularity of the philosophy of John Locke, was another contribution to the growing sense of discontent amongst the colonists.
All of these factors contributed to the rebellion. However, the old cliche about the drive of 'no taxation without representation' continues to be valid. Of all of the reasons, Reason 3 seems to be the driving factor, because it struck at the heart of conflicts over American government as well as American economic…
Confidence is a somewhat abstract concept that can be studied from an array of different academics disciplines or perspectives and is relevant to nearly any course of study or profession or any stage of life. Depending on your individual goals and what you wish to achieve in life, it is not only important to work to build confidence in yourself, but it is equally important to understand how you and others build or recognize confidence in other people or systems. For example, you may intuitively feel confident in someone else's decision making ability based on personal heuristics, however these heuristics may not accurately reflect the ideal decisions; the confidence bestowed upon another individual might not be deserved and it is important to recognize any biases that could be present.
Thus developing a basic understanding of confidence can be useful on many levels, not only to build your own, but to…
Anderson, L. (2006). BUILDING CONFIDENCE IN CREATIVITY: MBA STUDENTS. Marketing Educaiton Review, 91-97.
Andrews, L. (2004). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Watts.
Bang, D., Fusaroli, R., Tylen, K., Oslen, K., Latham, P., Lau, J., . . . Bahrami, B. (2014). Does interaction matter? Testing whether a confidence heuristic can replace interaction in collective decision-making. Consciousness and Cognition, 13-23.
Blaszcynski, C., & Green, D. (2010). Speaking Off the Cuff: Strategies and Activities for Developing Presentation Confidence. Journal of Applied Research for Business, 1-6.
Citizens in the region's poorest countries, Paraguay and Honduras, make just above $4,000 per year, while those in the wealthiest countries, Chile and Mexico, make almost $15,000. The institutional legacy in the region is one clouded by inequality and corruption. In its brief on the region, the World Bank emphasizes the role of institutional development to alleviate poverty among vulnerable groups, a result in part of the lasting legacy of inequality due to colonial influences.
Asia. This region ranges widely from very poor nations such as Nepal (GDPpc of $1,100) to very wealthy nations like ingapore ($51,600). Because colonial dominance of this region was carried out by a relatively few European settlers, it was ultimately incomplete, leaving many of the region's own institutions intact or enhanced. The World Bank's comments on how governments across the region are reacting to the recent economic turndown are in line with an expectation that…
Sources of Economic Growth in China, 1952-1998. Issues in Political Economy, Vol 17.
World Bank. (2009). Regional Briefs. www.WorldBank.org. December 13, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/ .
Relation Between IPRI and GDP Per Capita by Region
Source: International Property Rights Index, 2009. (http://internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/UserFiles/File/ex4_9relationbtwniprigdpbyreg.pdf).
First Edict of Iacolesamun
I, the Great Priests of Priests and King of Kings, solemnly charge you my people beneath the gaze of the RE the Immortal God, the Sun and Light, by whose all-seeing eyes the world is held -- it is He who set me upon the holy throne, to be His voice and His incarnation to you. I speak to you with the authority of the son of RE, and the lawful Bridegroom of the Priestess of GA the Mother and the Earth. I who am at the head of the priesthood speak to you of truth. For seven years I have traveled the world, following the wisdom of my Father RE. At the Delphic temples I was given His edict, which I pass unto you.
From this day forth, let no law be written in stone, for the laws of God are carved upon the hearts…
POMOTE INNOVATION IN A TEAM ENVIONMENT
Promoting Innovation in a Team Environment
Promoting Innovation in a Team Environment
Change and innovation forces in the furniture retail business include the digital revolution. The scope of cheaper computing techniques is moving towards implementation of fundamental dimension on companies due to enabling companies and deployment of computational resources where big firms had major entry barriers. Companies in the furniture business across the world have lower operating costs, increased IT capabilities coupled with improvement of business models and creation of better services and products at lower prices. The second driving force is the use of social media within the society. Digital technology is progressively becoming a significant application within different functions of business, society, and life (Ancona & Bresman, 2013).
Furniture business today is becoming inconceivable in the absence of the internet where countless software tools are used in managing modern enterprises. More…
Ancona, D., Bresman, H., (2013). X-Teams: How To Build Teams That Lead, Innovate, And Succeed. New York: Harvard Business Press.
Jordan, A., & Lenschow, A., (2009). Innovation in Environmental Policy? Integrating the Environment for Sustainability. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Mumford, M.D. (2011). Handbook of Organizational Creativity. New York: Academic Press.
Ohio Capitol Building
Discuss the overall design of the building. Upon what earlier buildings or styles was the design of this structure based? hy is that significant?
According to those who helped to construct the building, the Ohio Capitol was intended to be a building that was designed simplistically, to reflect the refinement and simple nature of the people in the state (Gilkey 1902,-page 651). The Ohio Capitol Building's design is based upon Greek and Roman architecture. It has been considered a premier example of Greek revival architecture which became popular during the 19th century in the United States and Europe (Gilkey 1902,-page 652). The structure was designed before the United States Capitol building and thus does not have the round dome that most capitol buildings have, although that structure too was designed after Grecian and Roman architecture. Subsequent additions to the building, either because of the need for additional…
Gilkey, Elliott Howard et. al. (1901). The Ohio Hundred Year Book: a Hand-book of the Public
Men and Public. Taylor: Columbus, OH.
"The Ohio Statehouse." (2012).
Guests of the Nation
Frank O'Connor's writing frequently deals with the issues of everyday violence which people have to engage in, whether they want to or not. Some people commit crimes because they believe that they have no choice. Other people kill in the name of religion. One of the most universally acceptable reasons for widespread acts of murder is nationalism. Two political factions, if not more, fight against one another in order that their perspective becomes accepted by the other population. For soldiers, particularly those who are members of the lower infantry ranks, they are given orders which must be carried out. If a soldier is told to kill, then he must continue killing until he is given an order to stop. It is a fact that soldiers are ordered to kill other human beings for reasons which may not be clear to them, which they may not even…
Korner, S. (2008). Frank O'Connor's 'Guests of the Nation.' 21st Century Socialism.
O'Brien, E. (2007). Guests of a nation; geists of a nation. New Hibernia Review. 11(3). 114-30.
O'Connor, F. (1987). Guests of the nation. Poolbeg Press: Dublin, Ireland.
Renner, S. (1990). The theme of hidden powers: fate vs. human responsibility. Studies in Short
Often a writer goes about the process of adapting a story from one type of media to another certain components of the original story have to be altered. This is particularly true when adapting a book into a screenplay and then into a film, all the more so when that novel has gained a great deal of financial and critical success. The difficulty of this process is that the adaptation forces a medium where the reader has to utilize their own imagination and modifies the work into a format where the director and actors choose how the words are to be interpreted. It is a far less personal experience because the film version will have someone else's vision of the story instead of a creation of the images between reader and author. The interpretation is also dependant on the culture of the interpreter. In looking at the film…
Al-Aswany, Alaa. The Yacoubian Building. Harper Perennial. 2002. Print.
"Egypt Debates Controversial Film." BBC News. 2006. Web. May 16, 2011.
Lake, Eli. "Protest Erupts in Egypt Over a Gay Movie." The New York Sun. 2006. Print.
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
..the stimulus plan calls for laying 3,000 miles of new transmission lines -- considered crucial for moving wind and solar power to different corners of the country" (LaMonica 2008). This sets a shining example for the nation for the need to make current and future structures environmentally sustainable.
Even if prices of fossil fuels decline, there are also other pressures that increase public awareness about the need for green housing -- finite timber resources, increasing overpopulation, and also the expansion of the densely populated developing world in China and India will make green building a continued priority on an international level.
The sad rise of asthma due to mold and other allergies contained in sick buildings may make a green building that can reduce mold, mildew and other build-up a necessity rather than a debatable luxury for many home owners in the future.
The current administration is working to bring…
Del Percio, Stephen. (2008, March 28). Green building in crisis. Green buildings NYC.
Retrieved March 9, 2009 at http://www.greenbuildingsnyc.com/2008/03/18/green-building-in-crisis-bear-stearns-meltdown-may-drown-beer-belly-building/
Homeowner affordability and stability plan. (2009, February 9). Department of the Treasury.
Retrieved March 9, 2009 at http://www.treas.gov/press/releases/tg33.htm
UN Security Council
Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…
AG/RES. 2333 (XXXVII-O/07) Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)," adopted at the fourth plenary session (June 5, 2007); ASEAN Regional Forum,
Charter of the United Nations, chp. VIII, art. 52.
Fawcett, p. 3; UN Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council debate on the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security New York, 6 November 2007.
The African nation of Angola is poised for a major change in its economic and social development. However, the nation will need programs for prevention, care, and treatment of there biggest threat - HIV / AIDS. ith the current ceasefire between the Angolan government and the UNITA rebels, the country must address its greatest problem HIV / AIDS. "The death of insurgent leader Jonas Savimbi in 2002 and a subsequent cease-fire with UNITA may bode well for the country." (Angola) But the process of fighting the horrible disease takes money. This report focuses on the African nation of Angola and some possible financial solution to the constant healthcare threat from AIDS. Even after twenty-seven years of civil war, Angola as a nation has an opportunity today to transform its future. But the war on Aids will take a concerted effort by the Government of Angola, international donors, and the…
Angola. Ed. Central Intelligence Agency. CIA. 24 Apr. 2004 http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ao.html .
Unknown. "ANGOLA: Funding shortfall threatens recovery programs." IRIN News Org (2004).
Weekly Round Up. Ed. United Nations. United Nations. 24 Apr. 2004 http://www.cidi.org/humanitarian/irin/safrica/00b/0002.html .
Green Building Laws
Green Building and Green etrofitting
The department of Federal Environmental Executive defines green building like this: Elevating the competence by which the built structures consume energy, equipment and water along with decreasing the adverse effects on health of human beings including the surroundings by improved structure, maintenance, procedure, operation, choice of a better site and elimination of waste. The subsequent section explains the current guiding principles for retrofitting and green building (Columbia University, 2005).
Established Green Building Guidelines
The aim of United States Green Building Council (USGBC) is to improve the infrastructure and quality of work while constructing buildings which are environment friendly, lucrative, hale and hearty to work and live in (Columbia University, 2005). LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) given by USGBC is usually thought to be the finest power in green building (Brown et al., 2002).
LEED was established by USGBC in 1999…
"New York's Tax Credit Beats Lawsuit, Announces Recipients." Environmental Building News. July 2003. Retrieved on April 19th, 2011 from
"Your #1 Suggested New York Energy $martSM Program." New York Energy Smart. Retrieved on April 19th, 2011 from http://www.getenergysmart.org/GES.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=Energy_Efficiency_for_the_Building_you_own
Brown, Elizabeth, Quinlan, Patrick, Sachs, Harvey, Williams, Daniel. "Tax Credits for Energy Efficiency and Green Building; Opportunities for State Action." American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. March 2002.
Challis, Simon. "Insurer Calls for Tough Rules on Pollution.." PlanetArk World Environmental News. June 9, 2002. Reuters News Service, 2003.
Additionally, The U.S. Green Building Council is a non-profit organization that provides certification for officially 'green' structures. The Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy provide information about Energy Star products in their website, including a list of products that can go into the refurbishment or construction of a greener home, such as energy-efficient windows.
The role of the Internet and any global alliances in green home building
The U.S. Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency both advocate the use of green improvements, as well as building materials on their websites. The orld Green Building Council is an international organization that provides links to green builders and organizations around the world with a commitment to sustainability.
On a more practical level, using the Internet can be an effective tool to segment a target market for green structures, either on the web page of a real estate agency, or…
Lefkowitz, Marc. (2009, April 6). Rebirth of green building. Green City Blue Lake.
Retrieved April 19, 2009 at http://www.gcbl.org/blog/marc-lefkowitz/rebirth-green-building
U.S. Green Building Council. (2009). Official Website. Retrieved April 19, 2009 at http://www.usgbc.org/
World Green Building Council. (2009). Retrieved April 19, 2009 at http://www.worldgbc.org/
Building new green homes and making existing unsold homes green is the core of such a strategy, as applied to the housing market today. Green building can refer to a wide range of industry practices, spanning from simply installing energy-efficient windows, doors, and light bulbs to reduce environmental wastage and enhance customer value to more radical ideas like solar power, or constructing entire apartment units that require the use of environmentally-friendly cleaning products. hile adding value through 'greening' a building can be added at any stage of the building's lifecycle, "from design and construction, to renovation and deconstruction. However, the most significant benefits can be obtained if the design and construction team takes an integrated approach from the earliest stages of a building project" (hy build green, 2009, EPA).
Customers, worried about the long-term health of the U.S. economy and the planet, can see their self-interest and the interest of…
Kotelnikov, Vadim. (2009). Value innovation. 1000 ventures. Retrieved March 27, 2009
New residential sales in February 2009. (2009). U.S. Department of housing and Urban
Development (HUD). Retrieved March 27, 2009
There has been considerable negative propaganda about the U.N. In recent times that has portrayed the organization as a bureaucratic "white elephant" and suggestions have even been made to do away with it altogether. John Bolton, who until recently was the U.S. Permanent epresentative at the UN, once famously remarked: "The [U.N.] Secretariat building in New York has 38 stories. If you lost ten stories today, it wouldn't make a bit of difference;" and many people in the U.S. tend to agree with him. No doubt, improvement in the performance of the United Nations may well be called for, since no orgainization is perfect. However, to my mind, it would be an extremely unwise and short-sighted step to curtail the activities of the United Nations. In fact, we need to expand the United Nations so that it can carry out the enormous tasks of maintaining global peace, reducing poverty, supporting…
About the ITU." (2007). International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/aboutitu/index.html
Global Issues on the UN Agenda." (2007). The United Nations Official Website. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/issues/
International cooperation for an enabling environment for sustainable development." (2001).
Report of the Secretary-General: Commission on Sustainable Development. Retrieved on April 24, 2007 at http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/cn17/2001/ecn172001-5.pdf
Once all countries, big, small, rich and poor, realize that their greater good lies in maintaining global peace without any "ifs and buts" they can join forces to reform the UN and make it a more effective body.
Charter of the United Nations." United Nations' Official ebsite. 2007. March 10, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html
Holmes, Kim R. "New orld Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs. 46: 2, 1993. pp: 323-340
Kant, Immanuel. "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch." 1795. Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Mallaby, Sebastian. "Bound to Fail." Newsweek International, March 5, 2007 issue. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17311792/site/newsweek/
Slavin, Barbara and Bill Nichols. "Bolton a 'guided missile.'" USA TODAY. 11/30/2003. March 10, 2007 http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2003-11-30-bolton-usat_x.htm
The Charter of the United Nations was signed by the representatives of 50 countries on June 26, 1945; the start of its preamble states: "e the peoples of the United Nations [are] determined to save…
Charter of the United Nations." United Nations' Official Website. 2007. March 10, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html
Holmes, Kim R. "New World Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs. 46: 2, 1993. pp: 323-340
Kant, Immanuel. "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch." 1795. Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Mallaby, Sebastian. "Bound to Fail." Newsweek International, March 5, 2007 issue. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17311792/site/newsweek/
Gradually, over the eight years since it was first instated, as Kosovo's Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) were established "UNMIK has moved back from an executive role to one of monitoring and support to local institutions. UNMIK, in its present form, is now into its final chapter before status resolution" ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009). Customs, banking regulation, and general governmental functions are some of the other responsibilities assumed by local authorities since the establishment of UN control. However, the UNMIK Department of Justice (DOJ) continues to prosecute serious crimes, "including cases of corruption, terrorism, war crimes and March 2004 riot cases" and other cases that are the fall-out of the type of longstanding ethnic rivalries that precipitated UN intervention and the creation of UNMIK in the first place ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009).
Although the UN has declared UNMIK as success, in recent years, Kosovo state authorities have begun…
"Ban Ki-moon: Kosovo wants to discontinue UNMIK mission." New Kosovo Report.
March 19, 2009. March 31, 2009.
"UNMIK -- at a glance." UN Website. 1999. March 31, 2009.
Sabmiller Brewer Company
The building of the SABMiller as one of the largest and most competitive companies not only in Africa but also all over the world is an outcome of several factors relating to management competencies and resourcefulness in tackling serious market challenges (Stone, 2001). The growth of SABMiller has taken an increasing expansion and acquisition of potential markets in addition to well-organized market strategies (Hoskison, 2004). From London to South Africa for the first time, establishing itself amidst political and economic challenges, SABMiller has then proved beyond reasonable doubts its ability to construct huge market base and stability. It has not only established itself in Africa, Asia, but also all over Europe the North and South America. Its ability to deal with financial challenges is indeed exceptional explaining its tolerance against financial and market crises (Babor, 2010).
This case study seeks to analyze the impact of proper management…
Hoskisson, P. (2004). China economic review's China business guide 2006. Hong Kong, China Economic Review Publishing.
BABOR, T. (2010). Alcohol no ordinary commodity: research and public policy. Oxford, Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551149.001.0001 .
IRELAND, R.D., HOSKISSON, R.E., & HITT, M.A. (2008). Understanding business strategy: concepts and cases. Mason, OH. South-Western Cengage Learning.
SOUTHERN AFRICA REPORT ASSOCIATION (JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA). (1983). Southern Africa report. Johannesburg, Southern Africa Report Association.
United Nations (OCHA)
U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
United Nations Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
OCHA forms a significant part of the United Nations secretariat, which contributes remarkably in matters concerning human welfare across the globe. OCHA's responsibility is key to activities that relate to the saving of human life and interventions of various humans aids that come in handy during natural and man-made disasters. It is a part of the United Nations organization that forms a network, which connects various humanitarian actors in times of emergencies. OCHA has a policy development that distinctly defines its core functions as supporting effective humanitarian aid, saving life, and reducing suffering (OCHA, 2012).
The roles and responsibilities of OCHA cannot be sidelined from the core values and mission of the United Nations body. The mission is to:
Gather humanitarian efforts form different national actors across the globe…
Teng'o, D., & Khan, F.A. (31st March, 2012). Humanitarian response to IDP influx in KP. Humanitarian Bulletin: Pakistan. 3(1). Pp 2-7.
OCHA. (2012). Coordination. OCHA. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from http://
He understood, "The greatest real way of making a strong intelligence of efficacy is through mastery involvements" (p. 3).
Person Environment Occupation model
The PEO model (Broome, 2009) is a famous and recognized conceptual model and model of exercise inside Canadian occupational therapy. It bids groundwork for managing valuation and interference through all practice surroundings and customer inhabitants. The planned device is able to transport the PEO model to life in the process of a humble and cheap instrument that can bring clinicians a real-world theoretical foundation for their clinical procedure. The circle instrument performs as a vehicle for unfolding what occupational therapy is about, describing the foci, and what the clinician can offer to the client.
Figure 2: Person Environment Occupation model
The PEO model that aims for the best fit to enhance occupational performance can be used to guide the occupational therapy process. This procedure, as…
Alter, K. (2006). Fueling the Engines: A Role For Occupational Therapy in Promoting Healthy Life. Occupational Therapy in Healthcare, 21(3).
Broome, K. (2009). A literature review applying the Pearson Environment Occupation Model. Scandanavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 3(12), 16.
Fisher, G.S. (2008). A Model of Occupational Empowerment for Marginalized Populations. Occupational Therapy in Healthcare, 22(1).
Gupta, J., & Sabata, D. (2010). Maximizing Occupational Performance of Older Workers: Applying the Person-Environment-Occupation Model. AOTA Continuing Education Article, 15(7), 12-15.
SWOT Analysis of the U.S. Economy economy has historically been the strongest economy in the world. The economy boasts leadership in areas such as innovation, entrepreneurship, higher education, communications infrastructure, capital markets, and business management (Porter et al., 2016). These aspects make the U.S. economy an envy of many countries around the world. In addition, the economy has demonstrated quite impressive recovery since the devastating 2008/2009 recession. Despite these strengths, the economy has been deteriorating in the last one decade or so, with many of the economic indicators declining to disturbing levels. Indeed, the competitiveness of the economy has been eroding since the late 1990s (Porter et al., 2016). There has been reduced growth in economic output, productivity, investment, and employment. Per capita and household income have declined or stagnated, small businesses have been struggling, startups have been lagging, and inequality has increased. Also, there have been weaknesses in areas…
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…
History of the Peloponessian War, Thucydides
Herodotus, Translations of the Histories, by A. de Selincourt
Hobbes, Thomas. "Of Commonwealth." Leviathan. Ed. Nelle Fuller. New York:
Everyman's Library, 1973.
Defined formally as “efforts to promote economic, social, and political reconstruction and reconciliation after internal conflicts,” peace building is a necessary and integral component of Catholic Social Teaching (CST) (Sullivan & Pagnucco, 2014, p. 113). In fact, from a CST perspective, peace building is a more meaningful and expansive project integrated into Christian ethics and identity. CST engages partners at various levels, including government organizations and the private sector, to usher in a new and transformed world. Partnering with a wide range of actors and stakeholders makes peace building highly complex and potentially problematic, particularly when conflicts of interest may arise. While some peace building activities can seem straightforward in their approach, philosophy, and implementation, many reveal the fissures deep within a society that prevent the efficacy of intervention.
The Church has always been oriented towards social justice. Therefore, peace building must be one of the cornerstones of Church action.…
As a result, not only are foreign markets changing to adapt to the Chinese marketplace needs, the Chinese marketplace, and consumer, are likewise adapting and changing to meet the needs of the global market. For instance, the economic boom in China's urban areas is creating a new consumer culture where the consumer has more disposable income to work with. This itself has effected consumer preferences and patterns within the Chinese marketplace. The general result is that a more sophisticated Chinese consumer is emerging and foreign companies need to market to their sophisticated needs while at the same time marketing to the general population's needs.
Therefore, the most effective way for a company to build a strong brand name in the rapidly emerging Chinese market is to adapt itself to the rapidly changing Chinese culture. To do this, it is important that the foreign company create a local presence and thus…
Apadu, K., and Sevgin, E. (1991): "Success and Failure of Japanese Companies' Export Ventures in High-Tech Industries," International Marketing Review. Vol. 8, No. 2, p.p. 66-76.
Armstrong, E. (2002): "Communication's Starring Role and Standard Chartered Bank," Strategic Communication Management. Vol. 6, No. 4, p.p. 10-13.
Ayala, J. And Lain, R. (1996): "China's Consumer Market: A Huge Opportunity to Fail?," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 3, p.p. 56-72.
Ayala, J., Lai, R. Mok, B. et. al. (1996): "Winning China's Consumer Market in the 21st Century," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 2, p.p. 178-181.
railroad industrialized America, a Track That Unified a Nation
How the railroad industrialized America
In the nineteenth century, the railroad system of the United States of America came to life. The systems' sole purpose was to transport people and goods across the country. Railroad system in the country began on the East and moved westwards. The move to the west resulted in development of towns, which further made the system branch to meet other regions in the state. These resulted in a web like rail system over the country. These had an impact on the life, culture and the way of life for the people of America. The railroad system in America in the nineteenth century interconnected various societies. The railroad systems at that time decreased work time since people were able to travel easier. People were able to travel great distances with the invention of the railroad system.
William Thomas, 2011 . "Railroads and the Making of Modern America." Railroads.unl.edu.
John F. Stover, 1997. "American railroads.," Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press
Albro Martin., 1992. "Railroads triumphant: the growth, rejection, and rebirth of a vital American force." New York: Oxford University Press.
H. Roger Grant and Charles W. Bohi., 1978. "The Country Railroad Station in America."
There is the story of the closet homosexual and his forbidden love affair with a soldier; the skirt-chasing aristocrat who ends up alienating his family and friends because he refused to grow up; and numerous romantic tales and troubles, including the rocky relationship Taha has with his girlfriend Bosnaina.
Although there are definitely some soap opera-like plot points in this movie, the deeper message is about the way class divisions can so significantly affect people's lives. The rich are no happier than the poor, because all of them are slaves to the expectations of their own class. All of the characters seem to feel trapped in an a frustrating and unhappy existence, which is ultimately a reflection of their lack of freedom to shape their own lives because their class status has already shaped their lives for them.
This is a very long film (over three hours) but it needs…
Globalisation leading cultural damage exploitation uderdeveloped nations peoples." It include (a) Definitions "Globalisation" (b) Logic linking globalisation free market processes liberal creed.
Negative effect of globalization to under developed countries
Globalization has been a widely discussed topic among various authors, economics and business analysts and its' from the studies and research that the essay has been built on.
First the essay will explain what globalization is and some of the characteristics of globalization; secondly essay will try and relate globalization to free market process and the liberal creed after which it explains why social responsibilities need to be integrated to the economic policies of a country, thereafter the essay embark on the topic of study and looks at the negative impact of globalization in under developed countries and the way it has caused irreparable damage to this countries' environment, society and culture without even closing the gap in terms of…
Amaladoss, M. (1999)"Towards Global Community," in Globalization and its Victims as Seen by the Victims, Idem, ed., New Delhi: ISPCK,, 217-32.
Anthuvan, V.L., (2000) "Globalization - Disturbing Facts & Shocking Insights," in Vaiharai, Vol.5, no. 1 5-19.
Arokiasamy, S., 2000) "Globalization in the Light of Church's Social Teaching," Vaiharai, Vo.5, no.1 (49-65.
A.G. Hopkins, (2004), "Globalization in World History." Norton. aksd[ s pp. 4-8
assembly reform at the United Nations
Ever since the Cold War ended there have been so many problems the world has been faced with; this includes new threats to its peace and stability also. National and international conflicts based on historical, social, economic, ethnic and other factors, pose an extensive threat to the world causing greater instability. These problems are coupled with the problems of an explosive population increase, poverty, and environmental degradation affecting the entire planet. This is international environment the United Nations has to play an important role in to fulfill its responsibilities effectively in implementing the new reforms in all aspects. [CF Publications: What Future for the UN? A Prelude to the 58th UN General Assembly]
Financial eform of the United Nations
The financial reform of the United Nations is one of the most serious issues that they face at present. Japan is one country that has…
At the Plenary Meeting of the 58th General Assembly on the Follow-up to the Outcome of the Millennium Summit (Item 60) and the Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization (Item 10), 6 October 2003, available at http://www.un.int/japan/statements/haraguchi031006.html , accessed on: March 31, 2004
CFR Publications: What Future for the UN? A Prelude to the 58th UN General Assembly, available at http://www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6251,accessed on: March 31, 2004
Culture and Education, available at http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/un/pamph2000/reform.html , accessed on: March 31, 2004
United Nations OnLine Position Paper, available at http://www.unol.org/pospapers/ppeu.html, accessed on: March 31, 2004
Non-Profit and for-Profit Ethical and Liability Issues
This paper examines the ethical and liability issues that non-profit corporations and for-profit businesses face, and compares them.
Non-Profit Corporations and For-Profit Business: Comparison of the Ethical and Liability Issues that are Faced by Both There have been a lot of scandals lately regarding large for-profit businesses. These scandals stem from both ethical and legal issues. Many of these scandals have resulted in lawsuits and even criminal proceedings against those who have been involved with them. The true extent of corporate liability is just beginning to be seen in our society. We are watching the large corporations of this country ever more closely now, in order to make sure that they are acting in an ethical manner. The corporations, for their part, are being extra careful in their actions and words, fully aware of the liability that they are under should anything they…
WHEN MANAGED CARE FAILS TO CARE:[METRO Edition] (Jan 8, 2000).
Roanoke Times & World News p. A9 Roanoke Retrieved October 6, 2003, from ProQuest database. (Accession no.:47787202).
United States in the United Nations
hen the United Nations was first formed, it was done with noble ideas and motives. Indeed, many of the actions and deeds executed or supported by the United Nations over the years have mostly been positive and productive. However, there has been a consistent and startling degradation. It has gotten to the point where the United Nations and its member states aside from the United States have gotten into the game of talking down to the United States for something of things it has done with the United Nations itself is implicitly or explicitly condoning some depraved actions and/or there are member states that are engaging in some questionable if not unconscionable behavior. hile the United Nations has and still serves a good purpose, there are some patterns and behaviors going on from the body itself and/or its member states that need to change…
Bayefsky, Anne. "You Can't Make It Up. UN Names Democratic Israel As World'S Top Human Rights Violator -- Fox News." Fox News. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Booker, Christopher. "Climate Change: This Is the Worst Scientific Scandal of Our Generation." Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Matthews, Christopher. "United Nations Diplomat Corruption Case Presents Challenges." WSJ. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
OHCHR. "UN Human Rights Council Recommends Suspension Of Libya." Ohchr.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Across the nation, states are setting tough new education standards, defining what students should know and be able to do. To help students meet these standards -- and to measure their progress in doing so -- states are also designing and implementing new standards-based assessment systems.States and districts use two types of interrelated standards: those that specify the content (what students should know or be able to do at different points in their education), and those that specify the academic achievement standards (how well they should be able to do it). Ideally, academic achievement standards indicate what is required to meet content standards (for example, essay, mathematical proof, scientific experiment, project or exam), as well as the quality of achievement that is deemed acceptable (for example, achieving a certain level of proficiency). This report will discusses standards-based assessments, along with the grading criteria, reporting tools, and report forms…
No Child Left Behind Issue Brief: A Guide to Standards-Based Assessment. Retrived July 15, 2005 from
Although Rotberg states that elections are not first priority but constitutions and elections to encourage democracy are very important. It is more important according to Rotberg that strength is given to nation states prior to failure as it is much easier to attempt revival from this point instead of after failure and collapse. He cites 'outside support' as being 'conditional on monetary and fiscal streamlining' with 'renewed attention to good governance, with reforms of land tenure systems and strict adherence to the rule of law" taking place. Nothing that endures can be accomplished in a short period of time. It is very important that failure of many of these states is prevented but it is also costly. These places ethnic cleansing and famines result in the newly failed states with terrorist groups taking hold.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
While Rothberg's appointed facts are certainly factual yet the policies being used to…
National Security Strategy of the United States of America (2002) as cited by Stewart Patrick 2002 September p. online available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html .
Patrick, Stewart (2002) Weak States and Global Threats: Fact or Fiction? Online available at http://www.twq.com/06spring/docs/06spring_patrick.pdf .
Rotberg, 2002) The New Nature of a Nation-State Failure Online available at http://www.twq.com/02Summer/Rotberg.pdf
Critique and Review of Rotberg (2002) "The New Nature of a Nation-State Failure"
Because transportation infrastructure and services are important components of the urban system, they need to be sustainable and contribute to economic growth rather than harm the people that rely on them for their livelihoods. According to Asri and Hidayat (2005), "The expansion of social and economic activities has resulted in rising pollution and environmental degradation following the economic crisis in Jakarta Metropolitan area where environmental regulations were largely disregarded" (p. 1792). Taken together, these issues represent a growing public health threat that requires informed solutions, and these issues are discussed further below at they relate to the aims and objectives of the study.
Aims and Objectives
This research has an aim and several objectives. The aim of this research is to find out how the pollution levels occurred in several main roads in Jakarta and explore some strategies to reduce carbon pollution levels by using some schemes and scenarios. These…
Asri, D. U & Hidayat, B 2005. Current transportation issues in Jakarta and its impact on environment. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 5, 1792
Barth Boriboonsomsin. 2009. Real-World CO2 Impacts of Traffic Congestion. (ONLINE)
Available at: http://www.uctc.net/papers/846.pdf (Accessed 18 May 2012)
The European actions against the natives were in error, because they were committed by Protestant Christians, who, unlike Catholics or savages, should have known better and responded with higher forms of faith and feeling. The Indian atrocities were seen as inevitable, the result of "undesigned provocation" (even though esley acknowledges that the settlers are interlopers) rather than a response in defense of their land (ard, 1872).
Thus, although the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights may proclaim religious separation from all churches, America was actually founded by individuals seeking to create what today we would call a theocracy. Despite early amicable relations with the natives, eventually conflicts over territory caused the two populations to be hostile. The violence that ensued was justified by the religious rhetoric and beliefs of the Puritans, as they strove to create a New Jerusalem in a land that was inhabited by people whose civilization…
Atkins, Scott Eric. (2008) "Pilgrims and puritans." American Studies at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/puritan/purhist.html
Native Americans of North America." (2007). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://encarta.msn.com
Religious tolerance in Colonial America (2008). Geocites. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/crownac/religious_tolerance.htm
Ward, Nathanial. (1647). "Against toleration." E-text of American History Told by Contemporaries. Vol. 1. pp. 393-96. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://personal.pitnet.net/primarysources/ward.html
These are some of the changes that have greatly blurred the boundaries observed by the institution of marriage (Wood, 2011, p. 31).
7. Better family life
With an increase in the rates of cohabitation, there has been an improvement in the family life. People in cohabitation have the same chances of having children these days as married couples. In the past, cohabitation was thought to be a trial period before the couple opts to get married. These days the number of married couples having children is the same as that of cohabiting couples. The survey for the past year has recorded that 38% of the couples have children and these rates are the same as the couples in cohabitation (Wu, 2000, p. 20).
There are a less number of people these days who believe in the institution of marriage. There is an increase in the belief that the children must…
Barlow, a. (2005). Cohabitation, Marriage and the Law: Social Change and Legal Reform in the 21st Century. Hart Pub.
Cochrane, G.M. (2010). Do We Need a Cohabitation Agreement: Understanding How a Legal Contract Can Strengthen Your Life Together? John Wiley and Sons.
Great Britain: Law Commission. (2006). Cohabitation: the financial consequences of relationship breakdown; a consultation paper (overview), Issue 179 of Consultation paper. The Stationery Office.
Nazio, T. (2008). Cohabitation, Family and Society: European Experiences, Volume 36 of Routledge Advances in Sociology Series. Routledge.
Rising Poverty and Homelessness
NOT TO E IGNORED
Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families, Children and Homelessness
Census ureau (2010) reported that, for the three consecutive years, the number of people living in poverty has been increasing and reached 46.2 million or 15% of the total population. Overall poverty rate for all U.S. families went up from 9.8% in 2007 to 11.7% in 2010. Recession in the late 2007 has strongly cut through all ages, both genders and all race-ethnic groups. ut the most severely affected are young families, headed by adults under 30, with one or more children. This condition is seen to assert long-lasting negative effects of children's cognitive achievement, education, nutrition and physical and mental health as well as social behavior. These developments are likely to have long-term consequences on the nation's economy and social future U.S. Census ureau). ut professionals and parents can buffer these…
Aratani, Y. (2009). Homeless children and youth. National Center for Children and Poverty: Columbia University. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_888.html
Ascend (2012). Two generation, one future. The Aspen Institute: Family Economic
Security Program. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/pubs.ascend-Report-022012.pdf
Conrad N. Hilton Foundation (2012). Supporting homeless young children and their parents. The National Center on Family Homelessness: familyhomelessness.org.
A study of e-government initiatives in Canada by Ayert, for example, found that, "Each department valued its own information system, its own database, and its own information culture. Malevolence was not involved; rather, the systemic goal was perceived through the departmental filter" (770). Moreover, despite mandates from the government's top authorities to develop seamless e-governmental systems and approaches to deliver services in an online setting, governmental departments engaged in a series of "turf battles" in order to protect their computer systems. In this regard, Ayert adds that, "Senior managers continued to hoard information and protect their own department's system. They declined to participate intensively with their peers in other departments, thus effectively ending the possibility of creating a new organizational culture cutting across departments" (770). In these types of environments, the cost savings that can be achieved using e-government techniques are not realized and the costs of administering governmental operations…
Averyt, William. 2005, "E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge Age," American Review of Canadian Studies 35(4): 769-770.
Bourquard, Jo Anne, 2003, March, "What's Up with E-Government? Digital Government Isn't a Silver Bullet, but as Part of a Long-Term Plan It May Provide a Means to Reduce State
Spending." State Legislatures 29(3): 24-25.
Davidsson, Robert, 2008, April, "Welcome to the E-Government Library of the Future-Today."