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The continued investment of China in U.S. Treasury notes and bonds, as well as the private investment of Chinese wealth in U.S. businesses, helps to fund government and business activities in the U.S., sustaining both social programs and economic growth in the country. This is an incredibly short-term view of the situation, however, and does not take into account the eventuality of China recalling its debt from the United States when it falls due. When this occurs, the United States could find itself in the very uncomfortable position of owing China far more than it can repay, and even making payments on this debt could severely hamper the United States' ability to carry out many of its operations and social programs, and could also place the country's economy at the mercy of foreign whims.
Despite assurances that it will continue to invest in U.S. bonds and securities, China has also…
Barkley, T. & Solomon, D. (2009). "Chinese Convey Concern on Growing U.S. Debt." Wall Street Journal July 29. Accessed 12 May 2010. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124878817147386753.html
Dickson, D. (2010). "China holds more U.S. debt than indicated." Washington Post March 2. Accessed 12 May 2010. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/mar/02/chinas-debt-to-us-treasury-more-than-indicated/
Xin, Z. (2009). "China says committed to U.S., wary on gold." Reuters. Accessed 12 May 2010. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6280K720100309
However these effects have limited implications in the real life, their magnitude will increase exponentially during the next years, provided, of course, that the same trend is preserved in the detriment of reducing the debt. In such case, the now young generation will be faced with the disastrous outcomes of an uncontrolled federal debt.
esides the negative impacts a large debt would have upon the economic and political backgrounds, the future generations ought to be concerned about the means of repaying the country's debts. As such, the next generations have two reasons for concern: facing the economic and political instability and ensuring sufficient profits to pay off the federal debt.
3) Debate on the federal debt
The debt debate revolves around the arguments in favor and against such an increased level of the government debt. The opinions vary based on the speakers' education, personal beliefs, priorities and interests.
Schedules for Federal Debt - Daily, Unaudited, Treasury Direct, October 16, 2007, http://www.treasurydirect.gov/govt/reports/pd/feddebt/feddebt_daily.htm , last accessed on October 17, 2007
Cashell, W.B., the Federal Government Debt: Its size and Economic Significance, CRS Report for the Congress, March 2, 2005, http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:aLXsnXpt6jQJ:www.concordcoalition.org/doc/crs-debt-basics.pdf+economic+effects+of+national+debt&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&client=firefox-a, last accessed on October 17, 2007
NDAC National Debt Debate, Federal Budget, October 2, 2007, http://www.federalbudget.com/debtdebate.html, last accessed on October 17, 2007
Schedules for Federal Debt - Daily, Unaudited, Treasury Direct, October 16, 2007
The 2016 Presidential Campaign and the National Debt
The presidential race between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump has had more than its fair share of scandals -- from Clinton's email server, the "rigged elections" as reported by undercover agents of Project Veritas, and the Clinton Foundation's pay-to-play controversies -- to Trump's lewd comments on women, his own reluctance to publish his taxes, and the nearly $1 billion loss deducted from his 1995 statement. The fact of the matter is that both candidates have been taken through the ringer in the media, both mainstream and alternative. One important issue that each candidate has attempted to address is the national debt, which is growing exponentially under the Obama Administration. Both Clinton and Trump have offered plans on what to do about the national debt. This paper will attempt to discern the facts about each candidate as they relate to the issue of…
Durden, Tyler. "Saudis, China Dump Treasuries; Foreign Central Banks Liquidate a Record $346 Billion in U.S. Paper." Zerohedge, 18 Oct 2016. Web. 20 Oct 2016. http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-10-18/saudis-china-dump-treasuries-foreign-central-banks-liquidate-record-346-billion-us-p
Gandel, Stephen. "Yes, Hillary Clinton's Tax Plan Would Add to the National Debt."
Fortune, 19 Oct 2016. Web. 20 Oct 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/10/19/presidential-debate-clinton-debt/
Hunt, Katie; Rivers, Matt; Shoichet, Catherine. "In China, Duterte announces split with US: 'America has lost'." CNN, 20 Oct 2016. Web. 20 Oct 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2016/10/20/asia/china-philippines-duterte-visit/
Yet, such measures ignore not only debt, but the impact on economic growth, with rescue measures tied to austerity and tax increases. While Adam Davidson's The Other eason Europe is Going Broke attempts to place Europe's economic crises into a debt component and an economic growth component; the reality is that they are one and the same. European economic growth has lagged the U.S. considerably since the early 1970's largely due to government involvement in the European economic model. Heavy spending on the entitlement state, financed by higher tax rates has sapped economic strength from Europe. For the U.S., the sovereign debt crisis in the EU highlights the dangers of an expanding entitlement state, which weakens economic growth through ever increasing drains on the private sector.
The U.S. economic future will be one of slow growth, as with Japan and Europe, as the U.S. debt to GDP ratio increases.…
Davidson, Adam. "The Other Reason Europe is Going Broke." The New
York Times. The New York Times, January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/08/magazine/the-other-reason-europe-is-going-broke.html?pagewanted=all
Fingleton, Eamonn. "The Myth of Japan's Failure." The New York
Times. The New York Times, January 4, 2012. Retrieved January 11. 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/08/opinion/sunday/the-true-story-of-japans-economic-success.html
The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.
The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States…
Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776. Wiley-Blackwell; 3rd
Geiter, Mary K., & Speck, W.A. Colonial America: From Jamestown to Yorktown.
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
MESIC's have been singularly unsuccessful, and have been deemphasized in recent years.
Related to this are: State-sponsored venture capital investments. Countries and regions invest in venture capital funds as Limited Partners, meaning that they have the same or similar financial returns as all other investors in a Fund. In many cases, such state investments require some conditions on the privately-run venture fund. The most popular conditions include:
fixed percentage threshold of investment in the region or country, or certain number of jobs to be generated by their investments, or Attracting a certain multiple of investment from outside the state or region into the fund, or Limiting the venture investments to the types of technologies and industries which are of greatest interest to that state or region.
Examples of the above can include the Indiana Futures Fund, in which the State of Indiana invested $100 million in several venture funds. Among…
Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.
Balzac, M. "Recent Trends in the Research on National Innovation Systems." REPEC. November 26, 2007. http://ideas.repec.org/p/aug/augsbe/0254.html (Accessed November 28, 2007).
Birch, D.L. MIT Program on Neighborhood and Regional Change. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987.
Christensen, C. The Innovator's Dilemma. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995.
Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) was created by George W. Bush in 2004 through an executive order and the congress mandated associated legislation. The ONC is an entity within the US Department of Health and Human Services. The main purpose of the ONC is basically to promote the national health information technology (HIT) infrastructure and oversee its development. In the context of the healthcare providers, the ONC is seen as a close associate to the nationwide push to have electronic health records to the patients in different hospitals all with the aim of curbing errors in the medical field and to do away with paper records.
The mission of the ONC is wide in scope and aimed at meeting the demands of HIT and includes coordination of policies, establishing governance for the eHealth Exchange, strategic planning for the adoption of the health IT as well as health information exchange…
This company has an extensive network that extends into Mexico and beyond to the Panama Canal. This acquisition would therefore give CNR control over rail trade in much of North America. Trade with Latin America is growing, and NAFTA has meant in influx of trade with Mexico. A rail corridor between Mexico and Canada would allow for an increase in trade between the two nations. The current southern extent of CNR's track network runs into central llinois and both meet in St. Louis. There may be only minimal work needed to link the two networks.
Kansas City Southern is affordable for CNR. KSU trades on the New York Stock Exchange and has a market cap of $4.96 billion (MSN Moneycentral, 2010), compared with the $30.77 billion market cap of CNR. Thus, an equity-based purchase can be made. Although CNR does not have an unusual amount of debt for a railroad,…
It is recommended that CNR attempt to merge with or otherwise acquire Kansas City Southern Railway Co. This company has an extensive network that extends into Mexico and beyond to the Panama Canal. This acquisition would therefore give CNR control over rail trade in much of North America. Trade with Latin America is growing, and NAFTA has meant in influx of trade with Mexico. A rail corridor between Mexico and Canada would allow for an increase in trade between the two nations. The current southern extent of CNR's track network runs into central Illinois and both meet in St. Louis. There may be only minimal work needed to link the two networks.
Kansas City Southern is affordable for CNR. KSU trades on the New York Stock Exchange and has a market cap of $4.96 billion (MSN Moneycentral, 2010), compared with the $30.77 billion market cap of CNR. Thus, an equity-based purchase can be made. Although CNR does not have an unusual amount of debt for a railroad, it may wish to mix a heavy portion of equity into the purchase price. For its part, KSU is relatively healthy financially, although it is facing declining earnings and income.
CNR should stay in the freight railway business when it looks for a merger or acquisition. Although there are a number of small railways it could add to its portfolio, it is recommended that the company seek a railway that would allow it to expand its presence in North American trade significantly. KSU allows that, linking Canada with Mexico, and expanding the carriers networks into Texas as well. There are existing links or near links in both the St. Louis area and in Louisiana between the two company's existing networks, which makes the purchase logistically feasible. The market cap of KSU is within the range that CNR can afford with a stock purchase as well. All of these considerations taken into account lead to the conclusion that Kansas City Southern is an ideal purchase for Canadian National Railways.
Macroeconomics -- Inflation
Domestic and national news are constantly talking about the rapid changes and increases in prices of basic commodities today. Prime commodities for a specific economy or country are discussed with the same intensity as changes in the global market prices for important, universal necessities such as oil. Prices of basic commodities are not the only ones susceptible to increasing in value. Services, too, particularly wages, are subjected to increases ultimately driven by union power or collective bargaining agreements between manufacturing companies and corporations and its workforce. Changes in the supply of raw materials used to produce products and commodities and services required to mass produce these products or to provide services on a large scale are the drivers that serve as catalysts to price increases. This increase in prices and costs of products and services over time, respectively, is called inflation (Maunder et al., 2000, p. 147).…
Maunder, P. (2000). Economics Explained. UK: Collins Education.
Tymkiw, C. (2012). "Food prices on the rise as drought worsens." CNN Money Website. Retrieved 23 July 2012. Available at: http://money.cnn.com/2012/07/25/investing/corn-food-prices/index.htm?iid=Popular
External Debt Crisis of Developing Countries
Past studies on external debts have been done for two reasons. First, is that while borrowing from external sources can increase a nation's access to funding, borrowing from internal sources only transfers the existing resources within a country from one party to another, thus, only external borrowing can result in a 'transfer' problem (Keynes, 1929). Second, is that since financial regulatory authorities cannot just print hard currency that is required to repay debt from external sources, only external borrowing is associated with the vulnerabilities that may bring about debt crises. In terms of external debts, most countries don't know who specifically holds their debts, and thus, they categorize all debts from the international market as external, and all debts from internal markets as domestic (ECESAUN, 1999), thus, so-called external debt is, but a poor proxy for the transfer of financial resources between nations.
Chowdhury, A. R. (2001). "External Debt and Growth in Developing Countries; A Sensitivity and Causal Analysis." WIDER Discussion Paper No. 2001/95
Cunningham, R.T. (1993): "The Effects of Debt Burden on Economic Growth in Heavily Indebted Nations," Journal of Economic Development, pp 115-126
ECESAUN, 1999. ISBN: 92-1-121239-1 Finding solutions to the debt problems of developing countries. Chile: United Nations Publications United Nations.
ESCWA, 2008. Consultative Preparatory Meeting For The Follow-Up International Conference On Financing For Development. Doha: Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia United Nations.
U.S. Department of Commerce
South Africa’s population of 50 million enjoys the most sophisticated, mature and productive economy on the African continent today (U.S. commercial service, 2014). The country’s GDP represents approximately 33 percent of the sub-Saharan total and the South African economy has experienced sustained growth of 3.2 percent over the past 5 years (US commercial service, 2014). According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, “The U.S. Commercial Service in South Africa is co-located with the U.S. Consulate General [with the] mission to create jobs in the United States by advancing commercial opportunities in South Africa and strategically assisting firms export U.S. products and services” (U.S. commercial service, 2014, para. 2).
World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) most recent policy review (2008) shows that during the period from 2003 through 2008, the percentage of trade in goods and services to South Africa’s GDP rose from 53.8% to…
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.
Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
The third secondary source we will look at here is Kaiser (2009). Kaiser argues that money has corroded the electoral process in the United States. He gives statistical data on the rising cost of political campaigns as an indication of how money's importance has grown in the last several decades. If the campaigns of all the candidates for President, the House, and the Senate cost less than a billion dollars in 1976, in 2000 it was $2.8 billion (even if adjusted to the inflation), while in 2004 it was $4.2 billion. "This steady increase appears now to be a permanent fixture of our politics," he says (p. 290). Kaiser also gives examples of how money spent by individuals allowed them to win seats in the House or the Senate. For example, John Corzine, a retired investment banker and a Democrat, won a Senate seat from New Jersey in 2000…
Austen-Smith, D. (1993) Information and Influence: Lobbying for Agendas and Votes. American Journal of Political Science, 37(3): 799-833.
Bartels, L.M. (2005) Economic Inequality and Political Representation. Unpublished paper. Retrieved on February 15, 2001, from http://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/economic.pdf
Derek, C., ed. (2002) the Best Elections Money Can Buy. U.S. PIRG Education Fund Report. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/_8MuDgm1AnavpYKIfwgxSA/bestelections10_02.pdf .
Farman, T.W., & Eggen, D. (2010) Republican Congressional Candidates Race Ahead in Fundraising. Washington Post. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/16/AR2010101603236.html
But when the village is being rebuilt, consensus is not easy (Kurup)." This is a pointed criticism of using a U.S. model where the financial sector is doing well (the speculative economy) as opposed to the "real" economy on the street. Dr. Kurup feels that the infrastructural problems that have dogged India for years need to be solved as well so the recovery is even and across the board. He further remarked in the article that "You have to see the context. Just because we were not affected by the crisis, it does not imply we are safe. One has to look at what is the purpose behind the changes. There is a perception if you develop the bond market, infrastructure will develop. Infrastructure will not develop if the bond market alone is developed. In fact, no country in the world, except for partly the U.S., developed infrastructure through the…
Globalization in India." Economy Watch. Economy Watch.com, n.d. Web. 21 Nov 2010.
Comparison Studies." I Watch. Wake Up Call for India, 2010. Web. 22 Nov 2010.
British Age of Austerity and the Debt Crisis
Currently, the United Kingdom is going through a period of intense economic turmoil where the fundamental questions of monetary and fiscal policy are major political issues. As Europe finds it's way through the ongoing sovereign debt crisis, Britons find themselves on the cusp of a recession and their government is enacting unprecedented budgetary cuts to weather the storm. This paper will analyze the macroeconomic policies of the Cameron government in response to the sovereign debt crisis and the associated recession here in the United Kingdom.
Before we can analyze the current situation it is important to define terms. According to the Office for National tatistics (2011), the British government is in the midst of a recession. This is defined as a period of general economic decline, defined usually as a contraction in the GDP for six months (two consecutive quarters) or longer.…
Bartlett, Bruce (2004). Brief Analysis No. 483. National Center for Policy Analysis.
Burnham, James B. (2003). Why Ireland Boomed. The Independent Review, Vol. 7, No. 4-537 -- 556
Gwartney, James, Stroup, Richard L. & Lee, Dwight R. (2005). Common Sense Economics. New York, St. Martin's Press
Hauptmeier, Sebastian, Heipertz, Martin & Schuknecht, Ludger (2006). Expenditure Reform in Industrialized Countries: A Case Study Approach. European Central Bank Working Paper No. 634.
Ukrainian bond market, specifically seeking to determine the factors that are restraining its development. The Ukrainian bond market is underdeveloped, with relatively poor liquidity. Several different factors contributing to this are examined.
What we know already is that there is a low level of liquidity in the Ukrainian debt market. This serves to suppress demand for the nation's debt, and it increases the cost of borrowing because low liquidity means higher risk for buyers. We also know that the country's banking sector has also been a contributor to the slow growth of the debt markets. The main issue with the banking sector is that it is a barrier to investors to buying these bonds -- the banks should act as intermediary but does note.
What we need to find out is what other factors are contributing to the overall sluggishness of the Ukrainian debt markets. Some of the specific issues…
5. The data being gathered is from 2000-2010. Some of this might be available online from the above-mentioned sources. If not, these ministries will be contacted to provide the data. Obviously, things might not be running as normal in Ukraine right now. Under normal circumstances it would take weeks to get this data back from government officials there but significant government disruption is occurring and it might take longer under these circumstances. The cost should not be high -- it is not anticipated that anybody will need to fly to Kiev to get this information -- it can all be transmitted via email or registered mail.
6. The research is socially acceptable. There are no human subjects so no worries about informed consent. The study is based on past data, all of it macroeconomic in nature, so current study of this data does not seem to have any ethical implications. Socially, it is valuable to know what the influences on the markets for different financial products are. In this case, with debt restructuring in Ukraine ongoing, understanding the pricing dynamics of Ukrainian debt has high value to existing or potential lenders.
7. The main benefit of this research is to shed light on the drivers of pricing on Ukrainian debt issues. The market is underdeveloped and this research will help to shed light on what policy options can be implemented in order to build and improve this market. The investment community will benefit from this report. The Ukrainian government and people will also benefit, because they will have a more robust market for sovereign debt should the recommendations be adopted -- this will help the country's budget as it will be able to raise capital at lower rates.
Instead, it has been suggested, he was more interested in his significant value to the Russian agents to whom he passed his information on to (Court TV). In short, Hanssen felt an elevated level of importance; one that the FBI was incapable or, in his eyes, unwilling to provide for him. As a consequence, Hanssen became a rather devastating mole within the FBI, and was largely unsuspected -- because of his background -- until his brother-in-law, who also worked for the FBI, discovered large amounts of cash within Hanssen's home.
Although the reasons Hanssen and Ames became double-agents were not identical, precisely what made them ideal moles within their respective organizations was the fact that these reasons were not obvious to those around them. They were more psychological in nature than the most common reasons for treason and betrayal. Ames, simply, wanted to please his wife with the best possible…
Court TV. "Crime Library: Criminal Minds and Methods: the Story." CourtTV.com, 2007. Available:
Court TV. "Crime Library: Criminal Minds and Methods: Switching Teams." CourtTV.com, 2007. Available:
Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank
Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.
Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet…
Since their introduction in the early 2000s, the tax cuts have diminished the nation's tax bill by hundreds of billions every year. Over the next ten years, they are expected to add $3.6 trillion to the debt. Without these cuts, our medium-term budget (say, over the next decade) would be sustainable. As long as new revenues are off-limits, attacking the deficit is equivalent to attacking the functions of government. That gives the anti-deficit argument strong ideological support from small-government advocates. But there are others who are not motivated by anti-government ideology but are misguided nevertheless. The ecovery Act, with a price tag of about $800 billion, was a historically large stimulus, and it was wholly paid for by borrowing. But by 2012 it will add less than 0.5% to the deficit-to-GDP ratio, and nothing to the growth in the debt (it does add to the level of debt, of course;…
Burnstien, Jared. "Rethinking Debt." Democracy Journal. Last modified 2012. http://www.democracyjournal.org/23/rethinking-the-debt.php?page=all
Chicago Format / http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/05/
Jared Burnstien, "Rethinking Debt." Democracy Journal, last modified 2012.
This means that Congressional officials and the White House are reluctant to make the necessary adjustments (in order to address these issues). Instead, they have been utilizing various gimmicks to demonstrate how they are dealing with the problem. During the course of their reelection campaign, they can show how they helped to tackle the federal government's fiscal challenges and increased the number of projects / funding for various programs. It is at this point that they are improving their chances of being reelected. (Kakutani, 2012)
Are they really political solutions in disguise or creating more problems than solutions?
As a result, these actions are creating more problems in the future. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Greenberg (2012) who said, "Congress remains deeply divided about how to deal with the fiscal cliff's combination of automatic government spending reductions and expiring tax cuts, amounting to nearly 5% of…
US National Debt Statistics. (2012). Statistic Brain. Retrieved from: http://www.statisticbrain.com/us-national-debt/
Greenberg, E. (2012). Political Leadership. Biz Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/blog/guest-comment/2012/10/political-leadership-needed-to-avoid.html?page=all
Kakutani, M. (2012). NY Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/08/books/the-price-of-politics-by-bob-woodward.html?pagewanted=all
Using a timeline from the peak of new housing construction to the present day, the following occurred. GDP growth slowed, followed by a three-quarter recession and slow growth has resumed on the other side of that recession. The unemployment rate skyrocketed, more than doubling in a short period of time, and has lingered at high levels for over a year. The rate of inflation fell well below the Fed's target rate, this despite aggressive expansionary monetary policy. The federal government, whose budget had previously oscillated between monthly surpluses and deficits, has been in deficit every single month -- and deeper deficits than every before -- as it has taken several fiscal policy measures to contain the economic damage. This evidence makes the clear case that steps should be taken to avoid a repeat of this housing crisis in the future, since the economic impacts are uniformly negative and in many…
US Census Bureau: New housing starts. Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://www.census.gov/const/startssa.pdf
Bureau of Economic Analysis: Gross Domestic Product. Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://www.bea.gov/national/index.htm#gdp
Bureau of Labor Statistics: Unemployment. Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet-data_tool=latest_numbers&series_id=LNS14
Bureau of Labor Statistics: Consumer Price Index -- all Urban Consumers (all items less food and energy). Retrieved March 8, 2011 from http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost
There are several standpoints to justify this position:
First of all, as mentioned in the Life and Debt documentary, and as stipulated in the legislation, the free zones are not regulated by the Jamaican government
Secondly, this condition leads to the inability of workers to become organized in unions and ask for their rights to be respected
This means that the American contractors, who in effect play the role of employers, minimize all costs, including those with work safety and security, personnel wages and so on; as a parenthesis, the salary of a Jamaican employee in the free zones if of $120 a month
The employees put in extra, unpaid hours and ever work six day weeks. When some of them rebel to ask for more money or the protection of their rights, they are fired.
All the above findings lead to the unfortunate conclusion that the United States of…
Chen, W., 2009, High interest rates -- the road to ruin, The Gleaner, http://www.jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20090222/focus/focus1.html last accessed on April 16, 2010
2010, The World Factbook -- Jamaica, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Where, it will reduce the total amount by $138 billion in ten-year. This is despite, the fact that $950 billion is going to be spent implementing such changes. What this shows, is that when implementing the strengths of the French system with that of the American system, you can have high quality health care services and maintain costs.
Health Care ill to Cut Deficit. (2010, March 18). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from Reuters website:
Tired of Waiting for Your Doctor. (2006, November 20). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from MSNC website:
Dutton, P. (2007, August 11). France's Model Health Care System. Retrieved April 12, 2010 from oston.com
Foley, T. (2009, March 8). 5 Questions about French Health Care. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from Change.org website: http://healthcare.change.org/blog/view/5_questions_about_french_health_care
Foy, A. (2009, September 10). Give Me Liberty or Give Me Health Care. Retrieved April 12, 2010 from American…
Health Care Bill to Cut Deficit. (2010, March 18). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from Reuters website:
Tired of Waiting for Your Doctor. (2006, November 20). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from MSNBC website:
Both saving on a microeconomic sense and saving on a macroeconomic sense entail taking he long-term view into perspective for it means surrendering immediate gratification for achieving long-term goals, sometimes -- as in the microeconomic context -- for individuals not rated to us and for the greater good as well as for generations to come.
As Keynesian model shows, the nation can benefit more by placing its focus on domestic activities than on borrowing from foreign countries. By producing government bonds that have high interest rates and, subsequently, by encouraging citizens to invest in the nation's benefit, the nation only helps itself by providing more technology and more opportunity that opens up more room for employment and hence opportunity to slip out of its recession when times are difficult economically. Capital and labor are the basic inputs for goods and services, and the resources for capital and labor comes from…
GAO. National Saving, 2001
Romer, D. (2011) Advanced macroeconomics (3rd ed.), McGraw Hill: U.K.
Nominal Interest rate (I)
To some, that suggests that college is a more viable alternative for many of those who would otherwise have sought jobs in the manufacturing sector previously.
However, there are at least two reasons that such a conclusion may be invalid. First, while many manufacturing jobs have disappeared, many other types of technical jobs opportunities have emerged from numerous new technologies (Klein, 2012). Many of them require vocational degrees and certifications but no college degrees. For many people without specific interests in vocational applications of any college degrees being considered, training programs for these types of jobs is much less expensive, quicker, and more likely to lead to satisfying employment options than a college diploma in a random academic area or one of great intellectual value but few employment prospects outside of academia (Klein, 2012).
Second, vocational training, in general, has changed significantly in the last several decades. Specifically, whereas vocational…
Coy, P. (2009). "The lost generation." Business Week (October 19, 2009): 33-35.
Ewing, J. (2009). "Germany's answer: The apprentice." Business Week (October 19,
Hay, J. (2013). Question of 'Is college worth it?' weighs on local students. The Press
Over the next three and a half years they grew to over $140 billion" (Lewis 2009, p.1). "By 2006 the average Icelandic family was three times as wealthy as it had been in 2003, and virtually all of this new wealth was one way or another tied to the new investment-banking industry," while the real estate market, so vitally necessary to the lifestyle of most Icelanders, also expanded stratospherically. During the period from 2003-2008, "Icelanders amassed debts amounting to 850% of their GDP, compared with 350% in the U.S. (Lewis 2008, p.1).
Iceland's speculation was more feverish than the U.S. because of the relatively modest circumstances of most Icelanders before, which fueled even more enthusiastic spending with easy credit. Furthermore, the fishing industry had always encouraged speculation and borrowing in the face of an uncertain future -- recklessness was part of the culture, despite the age-old nature of this industry.…
Appendix: Iceland. (2009). Monetary bulletin. Sedla Bank. Retrieved November 29, 2009 at http://www.sedlabanki.is/lisalib/getfile.aspx?itemid=4590
Evans-Prichard, Ambrose. (2009). Iceland's krona proves the magic wand as Europe ails.
Telegraph. Retrieved November 29, 2009 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/ambroseevans_pritchard/5912682/Icelands-krona-proves-the-magic-wand-as-Europe-ails.html
Iceland. (2009). Trading Economies. Retrieved November 29, 2009 at http://www.tradingeconomics.com/Economics/GDP-Growth.aspx?Symbol=ISK
Discuss within your Learning Team how and why the U.S.'s deficit, surplus and debt have an effect on the following: The United States' financial reputation on an international level
The United States' fiscal position will have an impact on confidence. This is because the underlying levels of the trade deficit, surplus and the debt will affect consumers and businesses perceptions of the future. When this happens, there will be changes in the overall amounts of economic activity that are occurring. (Masters, 2012)
For example, after the end of World War II, America's debt levels were at 122% of GDP spending. The tremendous amounts of exports overseas (between: 1946 to 1976) set the stage for the country to realize massive trade surpluses. This caused the national debt to decrease from 122% to 40%. During this time, the U.S. became the most dominant economic power in the world. (Masters, 2012)
Amadeo, K. (2012). How the U.S. Debt. About.com. Retrieved from: http://useconomy.about.com /od/fiscalpolicy/p/US_Debt_Deficit.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
role of innovation in determining long-term economic growth and provide three public policies that are likely to encourage innovation. Provide an example of a recent innovation that has the potential to have a significant impact in one or more industries.
he nation needs to experience a situation where its exports are greater than its imports. his causes it to become wealthy and prevents many problems of economic hardship such as unemployment, the output and income in the economy, the price level, and burden of debt, inflation, national discontentment, and market inefficiencies and non-equilibrium that may will be the result of the reverse called a balance of trade deficit. here may also be preference for foreign products as opposed to locally-produced products which results in less of the local products being sold and in increase of their price. Whilst surplus of imports may be good for individual consumers who may end…
The Business Journal Obama vs. Romney on 7 innovation policy issues, 2012. http://www.bizjournals.com/bizjournals/washingtonbureau/2012/09/12/obama-vs.-romney-on-7-innovation.html?page=al
Rising to the Challenge: U.S. Innovation Policy for Global Economy
independent United States shed colonial past begin a direction, politically
Political and Economic Unity
In order to properly understand the methodology employed by the newly independent United States used to effectively shed its colonial past and begin a new direction politically and economically, one must first understand how the country operated on these two fronts as a series of British colonies prior to the waging of the Revolutionary War. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain. The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened (particularly in the years leading up to the revolution) in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save…
The increases in the deficit; are a normal effect and will equalize itself out through an improvement in the total amounts of taxes that are collected. (Schiller, 2010)
For me, these insights are providing greater clarity about what actions must be taken to avert recessions. It is also illustrating how the headlines in the news media about government policies may not be completely accurate (i.e. The problems with the national debt). Instead, this is illustrating how these changes are a necessary outcome. That will help to stabilize the economy and prevent recessions from becoming worse. This is the key for avoiding downward spirals in economic activity and the negative long-term effects it will have on everyone's standard of living. (Schiller, 2010)
What has been happening to consumer confidence over the last six months? What explanation for consumer confidence does the memo give?
In the last six months, consumer confidence has…
The Conference Board's Consumer Confidence Index. (2013). Conference Board. Retrieved from: http://www.conference-board.org/data/consumerconfidence.cfm
The Conference Board Economic Forecast. (2013). Conference Board. Retrieved from: http://www.conference-board.org/pdf_free/economics/2013_05_151.pdf
United States Consumer Confidence. (2013). Trading Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-states/consumer-confidence
Schiller, B. (2010). Essentials of Economics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill / Irwin.
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
Business innovation and enterprise -- Innovation in China
The buzzword of today is represented by the internationalized economic crisis which has commenced from within the American real estate sector and soon expanded to impact all sectors across the entire globe. Before the emergence of the crisis however, the buzzword was that of globalization, understood as the process by which boundaries between states are gradually eliminated and the values, beliefs, cultures and resources of one region can easily transcend to another region.
Globalization has impacted all aspects of life, from the means in which one spends their leisure time to the means in which one completes their professional tasks. Globalization has generated effects on all fields of life, from politics, to economics and culture.
Within the business community, globalization has translated into a myriad of impacts. For once, the phenomenon allowed economic agents to transcend boundaries and benefit from the comparative…
Ashton, A., 2010, 7 technologies where China has the U.S. beat, GreenBiz, http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2010/12/07/7-technologies-where-china-has-us-beat last accessed on November 8, 2011
Chang-Rong, K., Fu-Yu, L., 2011, Cultural innovation industry exports talent to China, Want China Times, http://www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subclass-cnt.aspx?cid=1504&MainCatID=15&id=20110207000010 last accessed on November 8, 2011
Li, W., 2011, Applying Grey relational analysis to evaluate the factors affecting innovation capability: evidence from Chinese high-tech industries, Canadian Social Science, Vol. 7, No. 3
Lin, C.Y., 2007, Factors affecting innovation in logistics technologies for logistics service providers in China, Journal of Technology Management in China, Vol. 2, No. 1
, 2011). Instead, they just avoid voting altogether, because they feel as though their vote will not matter. To increase the national level of participation and interest when it comes up to politics and public policy, changes will have to be made to the existing system that will get people excited about politics again. If they do not feel they can really make a difference and help changes things for the better, what incentive do they have to do anything related to politics? If the public policies will not be changed to help those who are really struggling, what reason is there to get involved and expend that energy that could be used for something else? People built this county, but many feel it has been taken over by a select few. Unless they see a real way to get it back, they are not going to put in the…
Losco, Joseph (2010). AmGov. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Schmidt, Barbara a.; Bardes, Mack C.; Shelley, Steffen W. (2011). American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials (2011 -- 2012 Student ed.). Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order
This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.
As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.
IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…
Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1
The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002 http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#
Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan: http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html
Forming a ank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations
Forming and Expanding a ank Holding Company
Financial Holding Company Requirements
Capital uilding Options for ank Holding Companies
Pros and Cons of Forming a ank Holding Company
Stocks and Governance
Corporate Governance and anking Law
The Role of ank and Holding Company Audit Committees
Data Gathering Method
Database of Study
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Forming a ank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations
This research paper describes the process of forming a bank holding company in the United States. The behavior of a bank holding company is strongly linked to the success of the banks it holds. Therefore, if business leaders can pinpoint how to set up a successful holding structure, they may have a better chance of successfully progressing their business.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Statement of the Problem
Over the past few decades,…
Adams, Renee. Mehran, Hamid. (April 2003). Is Corporate Governance Different for Bank Holding Companies? Economic Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 1.
Bankers Online. (2003). Regulation Y. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.bankersonline.com/regs/225/225-82.html .
Baxter, Thomas. (March, 2003). Governing the Financial or Bank Holding Company: How Legal Infrastructure Can Facilitate Consolidated Risk Management. Federal Reserve Bank of New York: March 2003, Volume 9, Number 3.
Clodfelter, Mark. (February 27, 2003). U.S. Department of State.
What this shows is how the current financial crisis / recession have placed a drag on both programs that are facing severe challenges from the large numbers of uninsured. Where, the lack of health insurance is indirectly forcing people to turn to both programs, once their condition becomes so severe that it can no longer be ignored. At which point, the costs increase to treat these people which causes the overall levels of the national debt to increase.
However, the current recession is also having a direct impact on both entitlement programs. This is because a large number of aby oomers are approaching retirement age, which means that many will often look to both programs as way to supplement their income and health insurance. Then, when you combine this with the fact that the current recession is causing incomes to decline and health insurance premiums to increase, means that…
Annuity. 2010. Free Dictionary. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/annuity , accessed 7 May 2010.
Estimating the Number of Uninsured. 2009. Medical News Today. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/161577.php , accessed 7 May 2010.
Life Expectancy. 2004. Office of National Statistics. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=881 , accessed 7 May 2010.
Senate Lifts Debt Ceiling by $1.2 Trillion. Fox News. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/01/28/senate-lifts-federal-debt-ceiling-trillion/ , accessed 7 May 2010.
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell
Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita
Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN
Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
1). hat must be done? Notwithstanding any decision on taxes, Odland insists that government spending must be cut.
Meanwhile a January, 2013 article in the respected Guardian publication shows that the federal debt ceiling has gone up from "…an unimaginable $14.3 trillion" in August, 2012, to "$16.394tn as part of a package agreed then" (Rogers, 2013). The debt ceiling has not received a great deal of attention in the past but recently Republicans have demanded that the hite House agree to severe cuts in the federal budget in return for their willingness to agree to a raise in the debt ceiling. It is what some writers have called a "manufactured crisis" in ashington -- conservatives trying to force the hand of Obama -- but meantime are the Democrats the worst budget managers when it comes to raising the debt ceiling? Not really, Rogers explains. Republican presidents have raised the debt…
Amadeo, K. (2013). The U.S. Debt and How it Got So Big. About.com. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://useconomy.about.com .
Blodget, H. (2012). Here's the Biggest Problem in the American Economy. Business Insider. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://www.businessinsider.com .
Odland, S. (2012). My Top 10 Economic Worries. Forbes. Retrieved June 2, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com .
Rogers, S. (2013). U.S. debt ceiling: how big is it and how has it changed. The Guardian.
ECB can be successful at emulating the stategic model set foth by the Geman Bundesbank. The discussion will focus on the fact that the ECB is facing diffeent poblems as it is still in the developmental phases. The investigation will seek to detemine whethe the tools of the Bundesbank can povide suppot fo the ECB in achieving economic stability in the Euopean Monetay Union.
Reseach about this paticula topic is impotant because the Euopean Union is expected to expand in the yeas to come. In addition, many membes of the Euopean Union have opted to have a single cuency. This means that economic stability is even moe essential in ensue that the Euopean Monetay System is economically efficient.
The methodology fo this eseach will encompass seveal foms. Fistly, the eseach will contain backgound infomation about the ECB and the Bundesbank. In addition, the eseach will contain a liteatue eview to…
Quantitative easing is a fiscal policy where the United States Federal Reserve buys long-term assets, usually securitized by mortgages and also U.S. treasuries. This is done with the main aim of decreasing the long-term interest rates. Low interests also favor the individual investors. This is an advantage to the American economy as it has plenty of investments coming into the country (Cochrane, 2011). Quantitative Easing was used to stimulate the economy following the "Great Recession." At the start of the financial crisis, the European Central Bank did not decrease its rates. However, when the Lehman Brothers' institution collapsed, the ECB cut its key interest rates to historic low levels. In the period between October 2008 and May 2009, the rate was reduced to 1%. In particular, the positive impact of this monetary policy was that it boosted economic activity by stimulating the banks and financial institutions to lend and…
Frankfurter landed on the Harvard law faculty, thanks to a financial contribution to Harvard by Felix Warburg and Paul Warburg..." (Viereck, 1932; as cited by Mullins, 1984)
In the "Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and anking Influence" as cited by The World Newsstand publication is that chart one "...reveals the linear connection between the Rothschilds and the ank of England, and the London banking houses which ultimately control the Federal Reserve anks through their stockholdings of bank stock and their subsidiary firms in New York. The two principal Rothschild representatives in New York, J.P. Morgan Co., and Kuhn, Loeb & Co. were the firms which set up the Jekyll Island Conference at which the Federal Reserve Act was drafted, who directed the subsequent successful campaign to have the plan enacted into law by Congress, and who purchased the controlling amounts of stock in the Federal Reserve ank of…
French, Douglas E. (1994) Separating Money and the State, Part I: Eighty Years of Destruction" October 1994. Online available at http://www.fff.org/freedom/1094e.asp .
Mullins, Eustace (1982) Historical Beginnings...The Federal Reserve "The London Connection." The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1982. Online available at http://www.apfn.org/apfn/reserve.htm.
Nathaniel Wright Stephenson (1930) Nelson W. Aldrich, A Leader in American Politics, Scribners, N.Y. 1930.
Charles A. Lindbergh, Sr. (1913) Banking, Currency and the Money Trust, 1913, p. 131
S. National Debt Clock, 2011).
Too, sometimes when recession hits, deficits rise, and with less economic activity in progressive economies that count on economic activity, deficit spending must occur in order to continue to provide needed goods and services. There are two major factors at work within the U.S. economy, though -- and in essence the global economy since fiscal policies are so tied together in the modern age. Deficit spending is real, but at the amount of money (e.g. $15 trillion) is so vast and in so many complex areas (foreign countries, bonds, projects, etc.) that it is difficult to express and define except as a number. Since it has little meaning for most people, there is little impetus for change -- "it has worked in the past, it will go up and down later." Second, programs are funded based on yearly cycles; it is wasteful to fund a…
Hamilton, J. (2010). The U.S. Economy. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Parenti, M. (2011). Democracy for the Few. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
U.S. Mint. (2011). Information on Money. USMINT.GOV. Retrieved from: http://www.usmint.gov/mint_programs/american_eagles/index.cfm?flash=no&action=American_Eagle_Gold
U.S. National Debt Clock. (December 2011). Outstanding Public Debt. Retrieved from:
Boom in Busts: Good or Bad?
There are several pros and cons in the bankruptcy legislation issues. In the current European systems, entrepreneurs forced to file for bankruptcy protection carry business failures and associated debts for years, may be liable to criminal charges and may even be driven to suicide by crushing failure and ongoing debt (Peng, 2014, p. 145). Those consequences and the "fear of failure" rampant in Europe causes some entrepreneurs to abandon their ideas without ever trying to develop them. The "advantage" of the current system, however, favors the creditors because creditors are still supposed to get paid; the money owed to them does have to be simply written off as losses (Peng, 2014, p. 145). The American system, which gives bankrupt entrepreneurs two options -- either complete liquidation and walking away from debt or restructuring to renegotiate with/pay creditors according to court-approved schedules -- also has…
Carroll, L., & Youngman, C. (2015, September 21). Fact-checking claims about Donald Trump's four bankruptcies. Retrieved March 20, 2016 from www.Politifact.com: http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2015/sep/21/carly-fiorina/trumps-four-bankruptcies/
Crum, B. (2013). Saving the Euro at the Cost of Democracy? . Journal of common market studies, 51(4), 614-630.
Peng, M. W. (2014). Global strategic management, 3rd edition. England: South-Western Cengage Learning.
While some states agreed with the approach decided by President at the time George Bush, other states would have opted for a more peaceful approach. Otherwise put, the seed of these international political conflicts was represented by the War on Terrorism, or the violent response of the Bush Administration to the terrorist attacks on September 11. The national opinions were also diverse, with some groups voicing their concern that the WOT was merely a pretense to invade the rich-in-oil Afghanistan and Iraq (Shah, 2007), whilst others sought refuge, peace, security or even revenge in the endeavor. egardless of the stand taken by each individual, fact remains that the War on Terror has generated numerous effects upon the national economy.
Gary North (2006) is rather cynical relative to the War on Terror and argues that it is being led by the same organization which ran the unsuccessful war on drugs --…
Dolfman, M.L., Wasser, S.F., June 2004, 9/11 and the New York City Economy: A Borough-to-Borough Analysis, Monthly Labor Review
Makinen, G., 2002, Report for Congress: The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment, Federation of American Scientists, Retrieved from www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31617.pdf on April 22, 2009
North, G., April 1, 2006, War on Terrorism's Economic Effects, Economic Edge, http://econedge.org/01/war-on-terrorisms-economic-effects / last accessed on April 23, 2009
O'Rourke, M., Spring 2005, The Impact of the "War on Terrorism" on Internal Conflicts, The Ploughshares Monitor, http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/monitor/monm05d.htm last accessed on April 23, 2009
Critically for the long-term economic situation, it meant many Japanese firms were lumbered with massive debts, affecting their ability for capital investment. It also meant credit became very difficult to obtain, due to the beleaguered situation of the banks; even now the official interest rate is at 0% and have been for several years, and despite this credit is still difficult to obtain
Overall, this has led to the phenomenon known as the "lost decade"; economic expansion came to a total halt in Japan during the 1990s. The impact on everyday life has been rather muted, however. Unemployment runs reasonably high, but not at crisis levels (the official figure is a little under 5%, but this is a considerable underestimate - the real level is probably around twice that). This has combined with the traditional Japanese emphasis on frugality and saving (saving money is a cultural habit in Japan) to…
"Barack Obama-san." 16 December 2008. Wall Street Journal Online. 25 May 2009 .
Barber, W.J. "The Economics of Keynes' General Theory." Barber, W.J. A History of Economic Thought. Penguin Books, 1967. 227-251.
Davidson, P. "KEYNES'S SERIOUS MONETARY THEORY:." 2007. New York University. 25 May 2009 .
Eggertsson, Gauti B. "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online: liquidity trap." 2008. Dictionary of Economics. 25 May 2009 .
Over the last several years, the total amounts of spending for the federal government has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because of the high trade deficits and national debt is having an impact on how various services are delivered. In the case of Justice Department, they have been facing drastic cuts. The reason why is from officials using the funds they are receiving to provide generous benefits for employees. ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011)
A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a DOJ Inspector General's report. They found that there is rampant waste inside the agency (with them spending $16 per muffin for a breakfast gathering and $600 thousand for event planning services). ("Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ," 2011) These elements are illustrating how these kinds of reports are leading to a reduction in spending and…
Budget Cuts Should Start with DOJ. (2011). TPM Muckraker. Retrieved from: http://tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com/2011/09/grassley_budget_cuts_should_start_with_dojs_16_muffins.php
Cost Control. (2012). Reference for Business. Retrieved from: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Cos-Des/Cost-Control.html
Department of Justice FY 2013 Budget. (2012). DOJ. Retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2012/February/12-ag-205.html
DOJ Cuts Will Impact Public Safety. (2011). 10 News. Retrieved from: http://www.10news.com/news/29881532/detail.html
Health Care Reform Federal Deficit
The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit
The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.
Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).
The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…
1. Eakin, Douglas and Michael Ramlet. (2010) "Health Care Reform is Likely to Widen Budget Deficits -- Not Reduce Them." Health Affairs, 29, no.6:1136-1141. Eakin and Ramlet examine the underpinnings of the Congressional Budget Office's projection that enacting the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will decrease deficits, and conclude that it is built on a shaky foundation of omitted costs, premiums shifted from other entitlements, and politically dubious spending cuts and revenue increases. A more comprehensive and realistic projection suggests that the new reform law will raise the deficit by more than $500 billion during the first ten years and by nearly $1.5 trillion in the following decade. This is an excellent article with regards to my article, written by two policy commentators at the forefront of their field. This article shows expertise in medical economics and offers compelling, clear arguments for the increase in the federal deficit due to the massive spending on entitlements as a result of passing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. They project deficits, opposing the Congressional Budget Office, through their insightful analysis.
2. Marmor, Theodore, Jonathan Oberlander, and Joseph White. (2009) "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." Ann Intern Med. 150:485-489. Controlling the costs of medical care has long been an elusive goal in U.S. health policy. This article examines the options for health care cost control under the Obama administration. The authors argue that the administration's approach to health reform offers some potential for cost control but also embraces many strategies that are not likely to be successful. Lessons the United States can learn from other countries' experiences in constraining medical care spending are then explored. This article offers evidence for the lack of cost containment in the Obama administrations' plans for health reform. It gives a good analysis of the international scene in health care as well.
3. Collins, Sara, Michelle M. Doty, Karen Davis, Cathy Schoen, Alyssa L. Holmgren, and Alice Ho. (2004) "The Affordability Crisis in Health Care." Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey. Published in 2004, The Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, conducted from September 2003 -- January 2004, presents new and timely information on where the American public stands on solutions to reform the health care system. The survey finds widespread support for federal efforts to extend health insurance to more people, as well as a widely held belief that the financing of health care should continue to be a shared responsibility among individuals, employers, and the government. The survey also uncovered potential reasons for such strong support for health care reform. Among the insured and the uninsured alike, there is concern that health care security in the United States is eroding. People are experiencing reductions in insurance coverage that are threatening their financial security.
4. Etheridge, Lynn (1984) "An Aging Society and the Federal Deficit." The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 521-543. This article serves as early warning sign of the deficit battles to come. It argues that the conflict between the growing needs of an aging society and a federal budget which cannot afford its current commitments has become one of the nation's most difficult government policy dilemmas. Assistance for the elderly through Social Security, Medicare, and other programs-is already the federal government's largest fiscal responsibility. In 1985 these programs will require nearly half of all domestic program spending an estimated $256 billion. The future costs of these commitments will rise rapidly well into the next century, accounting-with national defense and interest costs-for virtually all of the spending increases in the projected $200 to $300 billion deficits. Etheridge asserts that the decisions about the nation's assistance to the elderly -- and about reaffirmation, reform, and/or retrenchment of these commitments-will thus be central to the coming budget debates.
Federal Government's Impact on the Rise of Student Loans
On the surface, student loans seem like such a beneficial and risk-free government program that there appears to be no reason to object to them. After all, the purpose of federally subsidized student loans is to give students who might not otherwise have a chance to get a post- high school education the chance to get that education. College degrees, vocational certificates, and graduate degrees all expand a person's earning potential, and, theoretically increase the likelihood that the person will elevate, not only his or her own financial status, but also the status of his immediate family. Therefore, the federal government subsidizing student loans seems like an efficient and responsible use of government money. However, further investigation suggests that student loans may simply be a way of shifting a tax burden into groups that are basically tax-immune. Therefore, the appropriate policy…
The American tea party
The Tea Party is a populist movement that promotes several conservative values which include the following;
Limitations on the authority of the U.S. federal government
eduction of government spending and the national debt
eduction of personal and corporate taxes
This is a party that has been known over the historical moments to pull frustrated and concerned Americans together to protest against excessive government spending coupled with increased debt burden. This conservative group has it that the government's growing involvement in business and indulgence in individual freedom is a deviation from conservative values.
Since its inception to date, the mission of the Tea Party Coalition has been to organize and launch in a rapid response fashion special nationwide projects that will help to advance the goal of a return to a constitutionally limited government that does not go overboard, through whichever arm to disenfranchise the…
David W. Koeller, (1999). The Boston Tea Party 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/teaparty.html
Eye Witness to History, (2002). The Boston Tea Party, 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/teaparty.htm
James L. Roark et.al. Eds. The American Promise: A History of the United States. Fourth Ed.
Vol I. Bedford/St. Martin's: New York.
When debt becomes a multiple of GDP, then responsible government is not being undertaken.
16- 3) a. The equilibrium is .016 dollars per peso.
b. If the Philippine government set the exchange rate at 50 peso, they would need to sell 20 pesos per month, because supply would be 60 and demand would be 80.
16-7) a) A country would want an overvalued currency if they were a net importer of goods. This would make foreign goods cheaper. The policy would cause harm to that country's exporters.
b) A country would want an undervalued currency in order to facilitate exports. This would cause harm to importers, other countries who want to sell their goods in that market, and to their own citizens traveling abroad.
16-9) a) The exchange rate would be the equilibrium point. In this case, $0.90 dollars per euro.
b) If there is no intervention, the new equilibrium…
Economic Implications of Tax Cut
ith Clinton set to make tax cuts part of her platform for the 2016 election campaign, the implications of a tax cut on the U.S. economy are something to consider (Meckler). However, the fact that the political elite are using "tax cuts" as a stumping platform should indicate exactly how much "impact" that would really have on the economy. Considering the history of the U.S. economy, the system of state-sponsored usury that exists, the tight control of the Fed over interest rates (the control of which effects the economy a great deal more than "tax cuts" -- a point which will be discussed in this paper), the trillions of dollars of debt currently being carried by taxpayers, and the relationship between the financing giants of all Street and the political staples of ashington who supposedly represent "Main Street" but in reality represent the vested interests…
Durden, Tyler. "All of ZeroHedge." ZeroHedge. 13 July 2015. Web.
Gale, William G., Samwick, Andrew A. "Effects of Income Tax Changes on Economic
Growth." Economic Studies at Brookings. September 2014. Web.
Johnston, David. "Tax Cuts Can Do More Harm Than Good." AlJazeera America. 18
These actions, along with the ones taken to address the various economic issues that are facing the government and the country, will help to sway favorable opinions towards Labor. Where, the party will be seen as one that was able to transform itself in the aftermath of the expenses scandal. This is significant because in the world of politics perceptions are the reality. If rown can change the focus and perceptions towards Labor favorably by addressing these issues, he will have been able to successfully transform his party. Over the course of time, this will help to make the political and economic system more responsive to the will of the people.
irch, Anthony. The ritish System of Government. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.
Cowell, Alan. "ritain Wonders if More Elections Equal More Democracy." NY Times. 18 Mar.2007. Web. 5 May 2010.
Morris, Nigel. "Voters turn against War in Afghanistan." Independent.…
Birch, Anthony. The British System of Government. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.
Cowell, Alan. "Britain Wonders if More Elections Equal More Democracy." NY Times. 18 Mar.2007. Web. 5 May 2010.
Morris, Nigel. "Voters turn against War in Afghanistan." Independent. 28 July. 2009. Web. 5 May 2010.
Young, Toby. "Conservative Party Rise Confirmed." Daily Telegraph. 29 Apr. 2010. Web. 5 May 2010.
5% unemployment figure, 7.6% inflation ratio, and $4.5 trillion in debt, Guatemala is forced to rely on external factors to survive.
National exports are coffee, sugar, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, meat, apparel, petroleum, electricity and the 9/11 events in the United States have severely impacted tourist trade.
Venezuela is a federal republic with over 24 million citizens, 67% of which live in poverty and 14% are unemployed.
The GDP is made up primarily of services with petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, and agricultural products composing the primary exports. Tourism is impacted negatively by the events of terrorism and the typical 587,000 visitors each year has dwindled considerably.
ECLAC's annual calendar reflects multiple meetings, lectures, educational workshops, conferences, seminars, and training sessions. Nowhere is there found a work initiative, a concerted on-site initiative or focused fund raiser, or any effort of measurable practicality.
According to the…
Altimir, Oscar & Sourrouille, Juan. Measuring Levels of Living in Latin America -- an Overview of Main Problems. The World Bank -- Working Paper no. 3. World Bank. Washington, D.C. 1980. Benson Collection. HC 59.7 a 47, 1980 LAC. (6)
Altimir, Oscar. The Extent of Poverty in Latin America. World Bank Staff Working Papers - Number 522. The World Bank. Washington, D.C. March 1982. (4-6)
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique & Faletto, Enzo. Depend ncia e Desenvolvimento na America Latina. Zahar Editores. Sao Paulo, 1970-73. Benson Collection HC 125 C3413 LAC. (1-3)
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. Dependency Revisited. Institute of Latin American Studies - the University of Texas at Austin. Austin, 1973. Benson Collection HC 125 C34162 LAC. (1)
Causes of Financial Crisis
Ireland developed high growth rates based on rapid expansion of credit and a buildup of personal debt fueled by rising property prices (Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it?). This lead to risky bank lending practices. Banks also engaged in short-term borrowing from wholesale money markets causing increased risk appetite. Supervisors and regulators failed to identify and act on the emerging risks. Where construction was a large part of the employment and economy, it caused high unemployment rates and major bank losses in a bubble burst when household income could not afford to pay mortgage debt. Property value decreased making it harder to recover the mortgage value for banks. In turn, it created difficulty for the banks to pay back the short-term borrowing to the wholesale money markets. Where risks were not identified, no plans were put in place…
Ireland's economic crisis: how did it happen and what is being done about it? 22 Feb 2012. article retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/economy/irelands_economic_crisis/index_en.htm . 1 Mar 2014.
Long, Stephen. Explainer: Behind the Cyprus financial crisis. 22 Mar 2013. article retrieved from http://www.ace.net.au/news/2013-03-22/explainer-behind-the-cyprus-financial-crisis/4588736. 1 Mar 2014.
Pettinger, Tejuan. Portugal Economic Crisis. 4 Dec 2012. article retrieved from http://www.economichelp.org/blog/6423/economics/portugal-economic-crisis. Mar 2014.
Q&A: Greece's financial crisis explained. 26 Mar 2010. article retrieved from http:www.cnn.com/2010/Business/02/10/greek.debt.ganda/index.html. 1 Mar 2014.
These different elements are important, because they are highlighting how governments can place severe restrictions, on the way various revenues are spent. (Ruppel, 2010, pp. 32 -- 42)
Alternatives for the Public Administrator
Therefore, all public administrators need to understand how to adjust to these different challenges in the future. This means that they must know how to do more with less. One possible way that this could be accomplished is by outsourcing certain city services to private corporations. If they could offer to do the same job for less money, this could help public managers to adjust to changes that are taking place from these sharp cuts. At the same time, the government could also form strategic alliances with nonprofit organizations and charities. In this case, they could see if some of the funds for delivering different services would help to support these organizations. At which point, the two…
Knoller, M. (2011). National Debt Tops $14 Trillion. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20027090-503544.html
Ruppel, W. (2010). Fund Accounting Fundamentals. Wiley GAAP for Governments 2010. (pp. 32 -- 42). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Solutions for the Future
Even a quick look at budget documents for the next few decades indicate a system burdened with exploding costs of Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare; the latter the powder keg of the debt explosion. A reform of Medicare in which there is "only $1 in Medicare taxes for every $3 in benefits likely to be received in retirement" (Appelbaum & Gebeloff 6) must be a Congressional and Presidential priority. eturning the program to a role of insurance rather than a direct coverage program would be a start; Paul yan's proposal of premium support is a working model. Social Security must also be strengthened with common sense adjustments in payroll tax collection and age eligibility.
Those are the entitlement reforms however; these changes also forego the numerous tax expenditures which increase the government tab. The earned income tax credit, home mortgage deduction, and education credits are tax…
Appelbaum, B. & Gebeloff, Robert. "Even Critics of Safety Net Increasingly Depend on it." The New York Times. The New York Times, February 11, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/us/even-critics-of-safety-net-increasingly-depend-on-it.html
Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues
Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In the case of the Department of Defense, this can mean that periodic reviews could occur that can have an impact upon a host of different spending programs. At the same time, various assessments will take place with Secretary of Defense. Where, they will review the size and necessity of the various bases / personnel. A good example of this can be seen when the Secretary of Defense will recommend various base closures and force adjustments. As politics and changes in the Department's needs / availability of funds will affect what programs are going to receive the most appropriate amount of revenues.
Analyze the Economic Conditions that Affect Revenue Projections
The economic conditions will play a major role in determining how…
Base Closure List. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7834939/ns/us_news
The Numbers. (2010). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved from: http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/briefing-book/background/numbers/revenue.cfm
Bender, B. (2010). Spending Critic Brown. Boston Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2010/04/08/spending_critic_brown_backs_mass_weapons_bid/
Dupy, T. (2010). Defense Secretary Wants Spending Cuts. Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tina-dupuy/defense-secretary-wants-d_b_571906.html
Public Budgeting Process
The options for financing President Bush's plan to partially privatize Social Security might well be as unworkable as his plan to cut taxes five times, while increasing defense spending by starting two wars in the Middle East -- to say nothing of his other ambitious, but underfunded, plans such as No Child Left Behind. On the face of it, the near-term prospects for national solvency in any form of Social Security privatization -- especially in the undertaxed, overspent configuration of the current U.S. budget -- conform to the old adage, slim to none. A quick glance at the figures even during the pre-tax-cut, economic boom times of the middle of the Clinton presidency foreshadow the potential for disaster lurking in Social Security privatization. At that time, U.S. national debt amounted to "not $5 trillion as our politicians tell us -- it is between $14 and $17 trillion!"…
Lamm, Richard D. (1996) The new agenda. Vital Speeches of the Day, July 1, 62 (18).
Mallaby, Sebastian. (2004) Bush's ungrounded vision. The Washington Post, November 8. Retrieved 25 November 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Montagne, Renee. (2004) Analysis: How Social Security privatization might work, Morning Edition (NPR) transcript, November 11. Retrieved 25 November 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Strope, Leigh. (2004) Bush Moves to Privatize Social Security. AP Online, November 11. Retrieved 25 November 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Over-consumption is driven by a desire to look and act in accordance with social norms. Those who opt for a simpler, less materialistic lifestyle may be branded as hippies or near-outcasts. Shopping in malls or online is easy and has reached hobby status for some Americans. For instance, teenagers in American suburbs often spend their weekends in the mall, and hordes of people flock to stores during clearance sales.
While over-consumption is in large part caused by advertising and a "keeping up with the Joneses" mentality, increased prosperity in our society has also led to a wave of compulsive spending and over-consumption. Over-consumption is a result of a selfish, me-driven mentality on which American culture was founded. However, selfishness is also a result of over-consumption. The causes and consequences of rampant consumerism are similar: emotional, psychological, and spiritual malaise.
Over-consumption is a form of addiction and it is, therefore, akin…
Military Needs to Step Down
General Creighton Abrams said, "There must be within our Army, a sense of purpose. There must be a willingness to march a little farther, to carry a heavier load, to step out into the dark and the unknown for the safety and well-being of others (United States)." U.S. military troops are indeed marching farther and farther, expanding into different nations at this very moment: Afghanistan, Egypt, Indonesia, Columbia, Japan, and 58 other countries. However, this isn't what Abrams had in mind. In total, there are 255,065 U.S. military personnel deployed worldwide (Sivitz). But who assigned the U.S. military the task of serving as an international police force? For years, U.S. political and military strategists have conceived a fraudulent justification for increased military deployment that they call "The Global War on Terrorism." Did someone call them for immediate help? Did someone give them the right to…