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7. Wells on Indian eservations
Wells to drilling natural gas are often found on Indian reservations as the respective lands are rich in resources. Historically, debates have emerged based on the undervaluation of the gas extracted, which led to the inhabitants of the region being only limitedly remunerated for the usage of the land and the extraction of the natural gas. The matter has been addressed throughout the years (judiciary trials have even been filed) and the situation is more balanced in the present. Consequently, today, several Indian reservations base much of their economic development on operations of natural gas extraction. The most relevant example in this sense is given by the Blackfeet Indian eservation, which generates income from leasing lands for gas extraction.
The large majority of the drilling operations were centered in the western part of the reservation, but an agreement signed in January 2009 allows the new…
Baker, D., August 4, 2008, the Compromise "Drill Anywhere" Plan, Truth Out, http://www.truthout.org/article/the-compromise-drill-anywhere-plan last accessed on March 26, 2009 -- Truth Out is an independent website, supported only the contributions made by their readers. They did not seek the sponsorship of for-profit organization as their focus was on presenting the facts from an objective standpoint and they also wanted to not become associated with any institution. The ultimate aim of the website is to present the readers with extensive information on various topics of interest and as such assist them in making the most adequate decision. The main areas of interest include social progress, environmental concerns, human rights, healthcare or international relations.
Dentry, E., July 22, 2008, Natural Gas Drilling Hurting Land, Rocky Mountain News, http://www.rockymountainnews.com/news/2008/jul/22/feverish-natural-gas-drilling-has-wreaked-havoc / last accessed on March 26, 2009 -- Rocky Mountain News is in many ways similar to Truth Out, with the main difference that the first only covers a limited geographic zone -- the area in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains. Their news are organized under eight categories, including general news, business news, sports, entertainment, living, outdoor activities, opinions and multimedia. Ed Dentry's article is featured under the outdoors section, under the subcategory of columns and blogs. The article is a presentation of drilling activities for natural gas from the standpoint of those who suffer the negative consequences. Its findings are reliable as they are based on direct research and his conclusions resemble those of other researchers.
Gallun, R.A., Wright, C.J., Nichols, L.M., Stevenson, J.W., 2001, Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Accounting, 4th Edition, PennWell Books -- the work is extremely useful for a generalist understanding of oil and natural gas extraction and the adherent processes. It explains basic notions such as the formation of the natural gas reserves or the history of drilling operations. Its easy-to-read style makes the work accessible to all those interested, be them exports or novices. The downside of the book is however that the consequent revised editions bring in little additional information. In this context then, the book is more suitable for a generalist look at the industry, rather than a specific and modern analysis.
Hurdle, J., March 13, 2009, U.S. Energy Future Hits Snag in Rural Pennsylvania, Truth Out, http://www.truthout.org/031309E last accessed on March 26, 2009
Hydraulic Fracking Issues
There has been a great deal of controversy over the technique called hydraulic fracking, which environmentalists and others have claimed it is a dangerous procedure to extract natural gas from the earth. The industry insists it is safe, and recently the Environmental Protection Agency issued research that indicates fracking can be safely done. hat is hydraulic fracking? Fracking is a procedure in which water is injected under high pressure into a "bedrock formation," which in turn releases natural gas that has been trapped in rock formations (USGS). This paper points out the benefits of hydraulic fracking
Main Body of the Paper on Hydraulic Fracking
Fracking involves a process where water is mixed with chemicals and "fine sands, then pumped at extremely high pressure into the shale rock," which fractures the rock, according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Once the rock below the surface of the…
Environmental Protection Agency. "Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic
Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources." Retrieved November 24, 2015,
From http://www.epa.gov . 2015.
Grace Communications. "Natural Gas Fracking -- Introduction." Retrieved November 24,
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
Liquefied Natural Gas LNG
LNG (liquefied natural gas)
Why using LNG (liquefied natural gas) as a marine fuel is an innovative subject?
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a clean-burning fuel that is obvious, colorless, fragrance-free, noncorrosive, and harmless. One cubic meter of LNG is equal to 600 cubic meters of natural gas at atmospheric pressure, thus providing for better storage ability and easier transporting. LNG is presently less costly than petroleum based-fuels and is expected to stay the lesser price fuel for the probable future. These innate properties create LNG an attractive alternative fuel for concentrated fuel consuming request such as hardwearing trucking, Oil and natural gas borer, browbeat, mining, aquatic, and other manufacturing consumer. It is also a perfect power cause for distant site where contact to natural gas pipelines is restricted. The command for LNG fuel is speed up in the United States because…
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., LNG Alternative Fuel, airproducts.com, n.d, web. Retrieved 29 October 2012 from http://www.airproducts.com/industries/energy/lng/lng-fuel.aspx
Bandemehr, (2012). Reducing Emissions from Ships: AU.S.-Mexico Fuel Switching Demonstration, epa.gov, 23 July 2012, web. Retrieved 29 October 2012 from http://www.epa.gov /oia/fuelswitch.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Future Supply and Demand of Natural Gas
The technology developed in the United States has become available for application in other countries mainly through efforts of major service companies. Until the mid 1990s, Canada's gas production was predominantly from conventional gas formations. This conventional gas filled the available pipeline capacity and unconventional gas resources, which are more difficult to produce, were largely ignored. However, as pipeline capacity was expended and conventional gas production began approaching a peak, market conditions in Canada began to favor development of unconventional gas (Harry, pp88-96) In the recent past, the natural gas markets were fairly predictable; they are now undergoing profound and uncertain changes. Independently, each regional market had developed gradually deposits from the nearest pipeline networks and limiting exchanges between areas. The current trend is marked by greater competition between the available sources and greater flexibility in systems gas. (Tad, pp14-15)
It is apparent…
Ammann, Daniel. The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2009, p16-38.
Andrei Viforeanu, Wayne Wells, Jay W. Hodny. "Passive surface geochemical survey leads to dry gas discoveries," 2003, p44-46.
Bill White. "State's consultant says nation is primed for using Alaska gas." Energy Bulletin, 2005, p15.
Chris Vernon. "UK gas and electricity crisis looming." Energy Bulletin, 2005, p4-6.
Gas Turbine Systems
A gas turbine, also known as a combustion generator, is a kind of inner combustion system. It consists of an upstream revolving compressor coupled to the downstream generator, as well as a combustion chamber amid the two. Power is included in the gas stream inside the combustor, where gas is combined with air as well as then ignited. Inside the high-pressure atmosphere of the combustor, burning of this gas raises the temperature. The various products of this combustion are pushed inside the turbine area. ight there, the higher velocity as well as quantity of the gas movement is redirected via the nozzle across the turbine's rotor blades, moving the generator which drives the compressor as well as, for a few turbines, propels their mechanical outcome. The power given up for the generator originates from the decrease in the heat as well as stress of the exhaust fuel…
Curtis, C.G. (1899). Patent US0635919. Available at: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/0635919.pdf .
Eckardt, D. And Rufli, P. (2002). Advanced Gas Turbine Technology - ABB / BBC Historical Firsts. ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, p. 124, 542-549
Kamps, T. (2005). Model Jet Engines. Traplet Publications.
Kay, A. (2002). German Jet Engine and Gas Turbine Development 1930-1945, Airlife Publishing.
All these factors have added too many variables to the Middle East, an important region for crude oil production" (Xuequan, 2008).
The improved standards of living have contributed significantly to an increase in the population's demands. And to satisfy these demands, with the ultimate scope of registering higher profits, the American corporations have abused the natural resources and are now moving towards the resources in other countries. Two such vital resources are crude oil and natural gas. The situation of gas is quite stable, but that of oil is critical. Based on limited natural resources, a weakening American dollar, speculative operations on the international market, but also the regulations implemented by OPEC and the conflicts in the Middle East, the price of oil has sky rocked - and it is likely to continue its ascendant trajectory.
Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, http://storyofstuff.ethicalbrand.org/last accessed on May…
Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, http://storyofstuff.ethicalbrand.org/last accessed on May 30, 2008
Wallace, E., May 13, 2008, the Reason for High Oil Prices, Business Week, http://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/may2008/bw20080513_720178.htm?campaign_id=rss_topStorieslast accessed on May 30, 2008
Xuequan, M., April 18, 2008, Weak Dollar Not Sole Reason for High Oil Prices, Xinhua News Agency, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/18/content_7999121.html . Ast accessed on May 30, 2008
2004, Why are Oil Prices so High?, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3708951.stmlast accessed on May 30, 2008
Gas-Burning and Wood-Burning Fireplaces
Now that colder weather is bearing down, many people are turning to their fireplaces for warmth and comfort, as they have done for centuries. But while building a fire was once a necessary skill to achieve the glowing warmth of a blaze in the fireplace, modern technology has now made creating a roaring fire as easy as flipping a switch. Homeowners now have the choice between gas-burning and wood-burning fireplaces in their homes, but what are the differences between the two and is there a clear advantage of one over the other?
The essential difference between the two is obvious: the material used to build the fire. Wood-burning fireplaces rely on cured fire logs and kindling, whereas gas fireplaces are filled with fake logs and rely on a connection to a gas line for burning fuel.
Because of the difference between the burning materials, the construction…
"Burning Wood Is More Expensive Than Gas?! " Hearth.com. Retrieved from http://www.hearth.com/econtent/index.php/forums/viewthread/62420/
Guttman, George. "Wood vs. Gas Fireplaces." Sound Home Resource Center. Retrieved from http://www.soundhome.com/article/wood-vs.-gas-fireplaces-and-stoves
Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport
The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…
American Petroleum Institute. (2012). Energy Security. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.api.org.
Barkham, Patrick. (2010).Oil spills: Legacy of the Torrey Canyon. The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk .
Griffin, Catherine. (2013). European Satellite Confirms Arctic Ocean is on Thin Ice, Global
Warming Strikes Again. Science World Report. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.scienceworldreport.com .
P Construction Gas Pipe Line
THE ROLE OF P IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE AKU-TILISI-ERZURUM
The aku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline is a massive project that involves three countries -- Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey. It is a project that is based on the natural gas deposits, of more than one trillion cubic meters, in Azerbaijan's portion of the Caspian Sea, an area known as the Shah-Denz gas field- 12km in width and 30km length of a stripe of the Caspian Sea. The stripe has a depth of 50m on the northern side and 500m on the southern side. The deposit is the biggest gas deposit situated in Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea. This pipeline was constructed being parallel to the aku-Tsibili-Cyehan oil pipeline that runs from Azerbaijan to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The TE pipeline is also known as either South Caucasus (gas) Pipeline or Shah Deniz pipeline.…
Baloghlanov, Elshan. Azerbaijan & New Energy Resources. June 8, 2009. www.azconsulatela.org.
Muttitt, Greg, and James Marriott. Some Common Concerns. Lincolnshire: PLATFORM Campagna per la Riforma della Banca Mondiale, CEE Bankwatch Network,, 2002.
Petersen, Alexandros. "The Case of the East-West Transport Corridor." Integrating Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey with the West, 2007: 1-20.
Shenoy, Bhamy, Gurcan Gulen, and Michelle Michot Foss. "Analysis Suggests Economic Viability of Trans-Caspian Sea Gas Line." The Oil & Gas Journal, 1999: 51-58.
In the GEOMA methodology, carbon dioxide displaces methane within the water lattice which reforms into a more stable state than was present with the methane. While this new technology is still in development, it is very promising (Traufetter, 2007). ecent advances by researchers from Japan, China, India, Canada, Australia, and the United States could result in commercial exploitation of Methane gas within the decade.
Natural gas recovery techniques have come a long way since that first primitive well in Fredonia. Now, a complex and sophisticated process brings natural gas from the field to your home. Exploration for new sources of natural gas has become a highly evolved science. Geologists study the physical structure of a potential site. The scientists can use seismology and magnetometers to develop three dimensional models of the earth using computer programs designed for that purpose. These models allow the geologists to narrow down specific areas that…
Cross-oundary Offshore Oil & Gas Resources
Joint Development Agreements & Frameworks
[Type the company name]
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 3
2. The rule of capture 3
3. The CooperationApproach 4
4. Legal framework to develop trans-boundary offshore O&G resources 5
4.1 Cross-border unitization agreements 6
4.2 Joint Development Agreements (JDA) 6
4.3 National law and its application in Co-operative Agreements 7
4.4 ilateral treaties for trans-boundary oil and gas exploration 7
4.5 The Framework Agreement Approach 9
4.6 The Third Party approach to dispute resolution 10
5. Conclusion 10
Treaties & Conventions 11
Subsea resources such as petroleum and natural gas are important sources of meeting the energy demand of countries. Cross-territory disputes are arising among different countries. Advancement in technology in exploration and extraction of subsea resources has expedited the overall procedure of competitive drilling. This…
Treaties & Conventions
Cross boundary petroleum cooperation between the UK and the Kingdom of Norway 2005
Treaty, Timor Sea. "Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste relating to the Unitization of the Sunrise and Troubadour fields Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra (Dili, 6 March 2003)(1)." Accessed from
U.S-Mexico Trans-boundary hydrocarbons agreement 2012
il and Gas
Development of Two Important Materials in Earth's Early History
According to scientists, Earth began its life 4.6 billion years ago, when cosmic dust collided to form increasingly large particles. These particles, after millions of years of colliding and increasing in mass, eventually formed the Earth, with a mass similar to what it is today (5.9736 x 1024 kg or 5,973,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg) . Soon, the Earth's atmosphere began to form, as well as various minerals within its core. Studying the Earth is a fascinating endeavor, yet one that comprises extensive research and writing. For the purposes of this paper, I will examine two elements that are of vital importance to human life today: oil and gas. In this study, I will thus speak both about the development of the two materials in the Earth's early history-how they developed, what factors contributed to this development, and when this development…
Oil and gas industries also comprise upstream and downstream exploration. The upstream process includes exploration and production and the downstream refers to refining crude oil and gas, distribution of the two and marketing. Some companies may be "fully integrated," meaning they have capabilities for both upstream and downstream interests; others only concentrate on exploration and production and are known as E&P companies. Furthermore, many companies operate nationally and internationally, while others are "independent." This short description of the oil and gas development process is very important because it can show how two natural fuels found in the Earth are utilized to improve our daily lives, for others' financial gain, of course. [16: "Overview of the oil and gas exploration and production process." Environmental Management in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. < http://www.etechinternational.org/new_pdfs/lessImpact/AttAoverview.pdf >. ]
This paper has focused upon the development of the two fuels in the Earth's early history and has discussed oil and gas development, complete with how this development process took place, what factors contributed to it and how long it took. Furthermore, the paper has also analyzed the impact of oil and gas towards humanity and the complex process through which these resources are handled today, thus placing this paper's aim in a larger context and showing the importance of this study.
Oil Offshore and Gas Installations: Safety Culture
The offshore oil and gas installation industry is one of the most notoriously hazardous due to its extreme and remote conditions. Both acute and chronic health and safety issues plague offshore oil and gas industry workers. However, offshore oil and gas installation sites are not more hazardous than other natural resources-related occupational sectors; moreover, the occupational safety in the offshore oil and gas industries are on par with other industries (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011). The same is true for offshore oil and gas installation sites in other countries like the United Kingdom, where it was found that "the sector demonstrates a relatively low lost time injury rate and has, for many years, outperformed a number of comparatively lower hazard industrial sectors (Oil & Gas UK, 2012).
The hazards of working in offshore oil and gas installations…
American Petroleum Institute (2013). The oil and natural gas industry's ongoing commitment to safety. Retrieved online: http://www.api.org/policy-and-issues/policy-items/safety/~/media/6A15AB96288D44569B23217E84D79E13.ashx
"American Petroleum Institute Guide to Reporting Process Safety Events," (n.d.). Version 2.0. Retrieved online: http://www.api.org/environment-health-and-safety/process-safety/process-safety-standards/~/media/files/ehs/health_safety/api_guide_to_report_pses_2_0.ashx
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (n.d.). Safety training in Atlantic Canada's Offshore Oil and Gas Industry. Retrieved online: http://www.capp.ca/getdoc.aspx?DocID=215473
Flin, R., Mearns, K., Fleming, M. & Gordon, R. (1996). Risk perception and safety in the offshore oil and gas industry. Retrieved online: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/othpdf/400-499/oth454.pdf
Shale Gas Analysis
What is shale gas?
According to Alexander et al., (2011), shale gas refers to a natural gas that stored in organic-rich, fine-grained rocks, including shale, laminated siltstone, or mudstone. It contains a mixture of hydrocarbon gases, majorly ethane, and methane. The gases are tightly locked within the pore spaces of the sedimentary rocks. The reservoirs of the shale gas have features such as low impermeability to clay content and, small grain sized contents. The term shale does not focus on a specific rock, but rather the rocks that have fine-grained particles that are smaller than the coarse-grained particles such as siltstone and carbonate rocks among other rocks. The generation of the shale occurs through various processes that include primary and secondary thermogenic degradation alongside biogenic degradation of the organic matter. The occurrence may also occur in a combination of all of the above mechanisms. The formation of…
Alexander, T. et al., 2011. Shale Gas Revolution. Oilfield Review, 23, pp.40 -- 55. Available at: http://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/resources/oilfield_review/ors11/aut11/04_shale_gas_revolution.pdf .
Andrews, I.J., 2013. The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and resource estimation. Report, p.64pp.
Bakshi, V. 2012. Shale gas: a practitioner's guide to shale gas & other unconventional resources. London, United Kingdom: Globe Law and Business.
Berman, A., 2009. What's new in exploration? Shale plays and lower natural gas prices: A time for critical thinking. World Oil, 230, pp. 15 -- 16. Available at: http://www.worldoil.com/Magazine/MAGAZINE_DETAIL.asp?ART_ID=3762&MONTH_YEAR=Jan-2009 .
It was from this lesson that legislators began to understand the need to put away large percentages of their oil profits and to not depend so much on spending that cash flow.
After the recession of the 1980s, Norway drastically re-examined its oil policy from both a fiscal and regulatory perspective. Up into the late 1980s, "foreign oil policy followed what was called a 'purely commercial line.' That is, it was not desirable to declare officially that political evaluation were included in its design," (Austvik 1989, p.1). This lead Norway to be established as a "free rider" within the global oil market. According to research, "As a 'free rider' in the market, Norway was then also in the best possible position; she could increase her production and at the same time reap the price benefits deriving from other counties' production reductions," (Austvik 1989, p.1). The recession of the 1980s lead…
Austvik, Ole Gunnar. 1989, "Norwegian oil and foreign policy." Norwegian Foreign Policy Studies. No. 68. Retrieved July 28, 2009 at http://www.kaldor.no/energy/norwoil1989intro.htm .
Davis, Jerome D. 2006, the Changing World of Oil: An Analysis of Corporate change and Adoption. Ashgate Publishing.
Engebretsen, Marit. 2007, "The Norwegian energy sector and Europe." Norway: Official Site. Retrieved July 27, 2009 at http://www.eu-norway.org/policyareas/energy/.
Erikson, Tore. 2006, "The Norwegian petroleum sector and the Government Pension Fund -- global." Ministry of Finance. Retrieved July 27, 2009 at http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FIN/Statens%20pensjonsfond/The_Norwegian_Petroleum_Sector_te.pdf .
Steam and Gas Turbines
Combining steam and gas turbines into one power generation system has been a tremendous boom for multiple industrial sectors. As Pirsh & Sage (n.d.). point out, "the major advantages advanced for such cycles were the improvement in overall cycle efficiency and the reduction in capital costs," (p. 39). A combined steam and gas turbine provides the best of both worlds by minimizing heat loss and maximizing energy output gains. Energy companies like GE have been actively promoting the use of combined steam and gas turbines; while others like ANSYS have been dedicated to the development of cutting-edge combined turbine systems for use in multiple sectors. In addition to their obvious applications in commercial and private power generation, combined steam and gas turbines also have rich potential for use in naval and maritime situations.
Gas and steam combined turbines are therefore available in a wide range of…
"8.7 Combined Cycles in Stationary Gas Turbine for Power Production," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://web.mit.edu/16.unified/www/SPRING/propulsion/notes/node67.html
Boss, M. (n.d.). Steam turbines for STAG Combined-Cycle power systems. Retrieved online: http://site.ge-energy.com/prod_serv/products/tech_docs/en/downloads/ger3582e.pdf
Brain, M. (n.d.). How power grids work. How Stuff Works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/power1.htm
"Chapter 6: Turbines, Generators, and Power Plants," (n.d.). Energy Story. Retrieved online: http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter06.html
Further, it also means that it will have little or no negative impact on the environment after it degrades. In order for this to occur, the material itself must be made up of "natural" components normally found in the environment. In the world of plastics, those made from natural sources are termed "biopolymers" and are typically made of renewable resources including starch, cellulose, and polyhydroxyalconates or "PHA," produced by microbes). Further, in the near future, other types may also be used, including those derived from specific proteins and pectins.
Although there is little question that the biopolymer plastics are exponentially friendlier to the health of the environment, there are definite drawbacks to their use, including cost as well as use issues. Indeed, most governments balk at the notion of requiring industrial and consumer plastics to be biopolymer-based due to the comparably high cost of their production. According to many, to…
Answers.com. (Staff). "Plastics." Web site. http://www.answers.com/plastic&r=67(accessed 19 April, 2005).
Farrell, M. And N. Goldstein, Unraveling the biodegradable plastics maze. Biocycle, 1995. 36(11): p. 74-79.
IWMB. Integrated Waste Management Board. "Market Status Report: Post Consumer Plastics." California Home. http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/Markets/StatusRpts/Plastic.htm#Global.(Accessed 19 April, 2005).
CIWMB. California Integrated Waste Management Board. http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/Markets/StatusRpts/Plastic.htm#Global
8 billion, and primary metal manufactures, $1.4 billion (Exports pp). Together, these five manufactured product categories accounted for 61% of the state's total exports of goods in for that year (Exports pp).
In dollar terms, the leading manufactured export growth category is transportation equipment, rising $294 million between 1999 to 2003, while others included miscellaneous manufactures, up $248 million, processed foods, up $192 million, and primary metal manufactures, up $171 million (Exports pp). In percentage terms, the fastest growing manufactured export category is fabric mill products, which grew 70%, from $99 million in 1999 to $169 million in 2003, while others included processed foods, up 52%, miscellaneous manufactures, up 48%, and beverages and tobacco products, up 48% (Exports pp).
The Port of Pittsburgh is the largest inland river port in the United States and the 11th largest port of any kind (Water pp). The Port Commission is the central point…
Coal Mining in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/enved/go_with_inspector/coalmine/Coal_Mining_in_Pennsylvania.htm
This is a web page from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection web site. It provides a history of the state's coal mining industry.
Gordon, John Steele. "Iron and Steel Industry." Readers Companion to American History. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_046100_ironandsteel.htm
Emissions have dropped at a faster rate in the United States vs. Europe within the past several years precisely because of the shift from coal to natural gas, which has led to an initially dramatic decrease. The rate of decrease will shrink as coal power plants are shut down. However, the goals set by the Obama administration have already been reached, long before the 2020 goal. China remains the key player in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as the United States has made measurable progress. This is in large part due to the dismantling or retrofitting of old coal-fired power plants, as they make the transition to renewable, gas, and mixed-use facilities. The shifts are becoming financially feasible, especially over the long haul. Short-term gains are remarkable, and long-term gains are set to be even more lucrative for the vertically integrated industries. The shift from coal to natural gas does not…
As the situation exists today, driving gasoline and electric hybrid vehicles is still more economical and environmentally sensitive than driving fuel cell cars run on hydrogen. The future may prove otherwise but the reality is that hydrogen has not proven to be the great answer that some have suggested.
IV. Comparing popular press and professional viewpoints
As one might expected, the treatment provided the issue of hydrogen use has received different treatment in the popular press than it has in the professional journals. In the popular press, the emphasis has been on the how the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel would benefit the whole of society. Little attention is provided the technical problems related to the use of hydrogen or the requisite changes that must be made in order to accommodate the changeover to hydrogen. Instead, the popular press tends to point out the environmental and consumer advantages.…
(Editor), Shawna McQueen. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements. Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2008.
Gold, R. "Natural Gas Costs Hurt U.S. Firms." Wall Street Journal 17 February 2004: 2.
Kinaci, A. "Ab initio investigation of FeTi - H System." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2006): 2466-2474.
Liss, William E. Role of Natural Gas in the Future Hydrogen Market. Research. Des Plaines, IL: Hydrogen Energy Systems Center, 2003.
The former might be, 'What specific...' [while] Less structure might be exemplified by: "Please respond to the following in your own words: I....'" (Dereshiwsky, 1999) in addition:
adding some open-ended items such as these to a more traditionally scaled quantifiable survey, such as one with Likert-scaled attitudinal items, and/or "check/off" questions on demographic background variables, is a good way to make the survey "multimethod" in nature. This is because you'd be using that "single" data collection vehicle (survey instrument) to collect your data (responses) in more than one form: quantitative and qualitative! You could ask the same general questions in both forms and then compare the two alternative forms of responses to see if they 'converged,' or agreed, regarding the phenomenon that you are trying to measure via the survey (e.g., attitudes towards school climate). If they do, you can have greater assurance that "there's something real being captured/measured" regarding…
Area Sales of Luxury SUVs in High Gear; Gas Prices Don't Slow Down Affluent Buyers. (2007, April 28). The Washington Times, p. C10. Retrieved April 24, 2008, from Questia database:
For each item identified, explain why the data item is important, and describe the level of detail that would be necessary for the data to be useful.
The major data items that Citizen's Gas should be incorporating into their system include: the number of customers they are working with, the customer rate structure and the heating factors. As far as the number of customers is concerned, this is when the company is estimating future usage among based on current demand. The reason why this data is important, is because it helps executives to determine, how much natural gas they will need to meet customer demand throughout the year. ("20.1 Adapted from CMA Exam," n.d.)
The customer rate structure is when monthly data is collected and sent to managers about changes in revenues. This helps everyone to determine if there are sudden shifts in usage. As a result, the level of…
20.1 Adapted from CMA Exam. (n.d.).
Citizen's Gas. (n.d.).
Microeconomic Effects of an Increase in Gas Prices
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, it is striking how many firms continue to rely on fossil fuels (particularly gas) as a primary means of facilitating operations. The functional inputs of countless organizations in countless industries are at the mercy of gas providers. Transportation mechanisms, factory machinery, construction equipment and climate control systems almost always require a petroleum-based source of fuel. And such operational instruments are absolutely vital to the market success of a myriad of small and large businesses. While some businesses have recently begun to realize and actively combat the drawbacks of this type of critical dependence, the actual market share of such firms is truly miniscule. For the majority of companies, an increase in gas or fuel prices has the potential to cause massive profitability and sales damages. What is more, being that…
Berkmen, P., Ouliaris, S., & Samiei, H. (2005, September). The Structure of the Oil Market and Causes of High Prices. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2005/092105o.htm
Cabedoa, J.D., & Moya, I. (2003). Estimating Fuel Price 'Value at Risk'. Energy Economics, 25 (3), 239-253.
Chevron Corporation. (2005-08, January 1). What Affects Fuel Pricing - Basics of Supply & Demand. Retrieved February 11, 2011, from The Price of Fuel: http://www.thepriceoffuel.com/whataffectsfuelpricing/
Dahl, C. (2001). Analysing Gasoline Demand Elasticities. Energy Economics, 13 (3), 203-210.
structure o the global oil industry b. The structure of the global gas industry.
The integrated oil and gas companies (IOCs) are vertical, tall, or centralized structures where producers refined 100% of their production and then marketed refined products through their retail outlets. Production and distribution was downward. Today many of these IOCs combine verticality with a certain horizontalness with many spreading their tasks over various fields and involved in various simultaneous activities. They operate in many segments, whilst also buying and selling oil and gas to and from other firms. The companies are therefore centralized around a certain core management with specialists in each field clustered in tiers underneath.
The vertical structure denotes uses a hierarchical structure with downward directives and management span of control where underneath tiers are controlled by and responsible to upper levels of management. Again, each of the firms demonstrate this vertical structure in diverse…
Charon Advantages & Disadvantages of the Vertical Functional Organizational Structure
Inkpen, A The Global Oil and Gas Industry -- 2010. Thunderbird.
A large body of literature has treated many different aspects of these influences on Asia, Europe and the United States (Busser & Sadoi, 2003). The importance of the study relates to the current trends taking place in Libya where aggressive steps have been taken in recent years to normalize relations with the international community. For example, Libya opened up its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction to international scrutiny and renounced terrorism as a political tool (Libya, 2010). Moreover, the country's political leadership has been equally forthcoming in its efforts to normalize their relations with Western nations since 2003 (Libya, 2010). More recently, Libya has been removed from the U.S. State Department's list of states that sponsor terrorism in 2006 and in 2008, Libya joined the United Nations as a nonpermanent member on the UN Security Council during the 2008-2009 term (Libya, 2010).
Other signs that clearly point to…
About us. (2010). Mobil. Retrieved from http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/about.aspx .
Al-Waha Oil Company overview. (2010). Al-Waha Oil Company. Retrieved from http://www.
Announcement of oil discovery. (2010, July). National Oil Corporation. Retrieved from http://en.noclibya.com.ly/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1423& ;
" (Schlossberg, 2004)
FERC analyzed while making a review of the electric utility mergers proposition, the transaction being proposed "likely effect" on (1) competition;
(2) rates; and (3) regulation. (Schlossberg, 2004)
There are stated to be "no antitrust exemptions for transactions subject to FERC review and such mergers are regularly reviewed by either the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) or the Division." (Schlossberg, 2004) The Securities and Exchange Commission had previously held jurisdiction for reviewing acquisitions of stock of electric utility companies however, the authority provided under the Public Utilities Holding Company Act of 1935 was repealed in 2005.
III. FORESEEAILITY DOCTRINE REHAILITATION
The work of Trujillo (2006) entitled: "State Action Antitrust Exemption Collides with Deregulation: Rehabilitating the Foreeseability Doctrine" states that a capitalist society that has policies which were established for the purpose of regulating "the promotion of competition in traditionally regulated industries such as the electrical market seems counterintuitive.…
Ewing, Saul (2007) FTC Complaint May Seek to Erode 'State Action' Immunity of Utilities. Staying Ahead Bulletin April 2007. Utility Law. Online available at: http://www.saul.com/common/publications/pdf_1285.pdf
Schlossberg, Robert S. (2004) Mergers and Acquisitions: Understanding the Antitrust Issues. American Bar Association 2004. Google, Books Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=JmcoRxfB1OsC
Trujillo, Elizabeth (2006) State Action Antitrust Exemption Collides with Deregulation: Rehabilitating the foreseeability Doctrine. Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law. Online available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4048/is_200601/ai_n16410098/
The spirit of competition also negatively impacted the manner in which employees communicated. The lack of specific definition as well as the highly isolationist company mentality ultimately resulted in a communication breakdown which prevented the effective running of the company.
Knowledge Sharing: Mentoring and cross-training have been declining leading to less knowledge sharing and familiarization opportunities for younger less experienced staff. Section members lack the opportunity to share knowledge and to share in lessons learned. This enforced specialization of employees will ultimately result in poorer results. Cross discipline work is essential in the successful integration and most efficient use of employed experts (Forrester, 1971). It could potentially take months longer to reach a favorable outcome if indeed the most efficient and effective outcome is ever reached at all.
Compartmentalizing of Data and Ideas: There are silos / compartments of information that was not readily communicated across departments (ichmond, 2001). As…
1. Ackoff, R.L. 1981 Creating the Corporate Future. New York: John Wiley, and Son.
2. Ackoff, R.L., & Emery, F. 1972 On Purposeful Systems. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.Beer, Stafford, Brain of the Firm. Harmondsworth: Penguin Press, 1967.
3. Boulding, K.E. 1956 The image, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
4. Churchman, C. 1971 Design of Inquiring Systems. New York: Basic Books.
I-Button Experimental Design Project
Many people often take our environmental temperatures in our homes for granted. A majority of us have automated heating and cooling systems, electric or gas systems for example, that regulate temperature within a range of a roughly a couple of degrees. However, some individuals, either through choice or through necessity, must rely on alternate heating systems such as a wood burning fireplace. The proposed experiment will compare the temperature ranges that are observed by an iButton temperature logger in different heating system designs.
Statement of Need
Heating and cooling costs can be one of the greatest expenses relative to maintaining a house. Furthermore, in the future, these costs could grow substantially as energy prices rise due to the fact that many sources of energy are non-renewable or for the fact that policies may be introduced to greenhouse gas emissions that are driving climate change. Whatever the…
For most of the time since the subject of economics was first studied, the idea of resource constraints has been irrelevant. The world was simply not viewed as a finite place. The concept of resource constraints was limited, more or less, to the consideration of constraints on an individual economy. Adam Smith recognized that all economies would face resource constraints of one type or another. As Snowdon (2003) points out, "to Smith, it was obvious that all economies were faced with resource constraints and that free trade was a policy that would allow any nation to achieve the most efficient allocation of its scarce resources." This notion was built into the Ricardian trade theory and classical economics. It has not been until recent times, however, that the concept of worldwide scarcity has become relevant. The idea of peak oil and a world with seven billion people (or more) has…
Alexandratos, N. (2005). Countries with rapid population growth and resource constraints: Issues of food, agriculture and development. Population and Development Review. Vol. 31 (2) 237-258.
Asheim, G., Buchholz, W., Hartwick, J., Mitra, T. & Withagen, C. (2005). Constant savings rates and quasi-arithmetic population growth under exhaustible resource constraints. CESInfo Working Paper No. 1573
Ellis, K., Cantore, N., Keane, J., Peskett, L., Brown, D. & te Velde, D. (2010). Growth in a carbon constrained global economy. Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=4984&title=growth-carbon-constrained-global-economy
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Natural Gas Supply, Demand and Pricing
Over the past 15 years there has been a significant transformation both in natural gas supply and natural gas consumption. Wellhead price deregulation has permitted natural gas prices to adjust freely to prevailing supply and demand conditions, and open-access transportation has allowed natural gas volumes to move freely from producers to consumers. As a result of industry restructuring, natural gas supply, demand, and prices are now subject to competitive market forces, which are largely responsible for recent efficiency gains in natural gas production.
The weather is the largest single factor affecting natural gas cost and it is also the most difficult to predict ("America's Natural Gas Supply Challenge").
Most utilities use storage as a hedge against higher prices as gas purchased and stored in the summer is typically lower priced than gas purchased during cold winter months. Storage gas can then be used in…
"America's Natural Gas Supply Challenge." American Gas Association. 2004. American Gas
Association. 16 June 2005
"Natural Gas Price in Canada." National Energy Board. 2005. National Energy Board. 16 June
"Individual odor thresholds range from 1 to 13 parts per million. Between 50 and 100 parts per million, it causes mild inflammation on the membrane joining eyeball and eyelid after an hour, loss of smell in two to 15 minutes and can burn the throat" (Lucas, ¶ 4-5). A person can tolerate a maximum concentration of 170 to 330 parts per million for approximately one hour without serious consequences. At 500 parts per million, however, the person loses reasoning and balance and possibly experiences respiratory disturbance. When a person is exposed to 700 to 1,000 parts per million for up to an hour, death may occur within minutes. Emissions In the journal publication, "A Guide to geothermal energy and the environment," Alyssa Kagel, Diana Bates, and Karl Gawell (2007), all of the Geothermal Energy Association, explain that the visible plumes rising from some thermal power plants consists of water vapor…
Natural Resources: The Leading Development Trap
This paper argues that the natural resources trap is the main cause of poverty among billions of people in the poorest countries in the world today.
Paul Collier (2007 p 4), in his famous book, ottom illions, thoroughly explores and discusses the causes behind the grueling poverty of a billion people in the poorest countries. At the outset, he narrows down the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations into tracing the development progress of countries up to this year. This has led to the realization of a billion rich people in separate developed countries against five billion in separate under-developed, developing or non-developing countries. That horrid contrast reflects the 80% of humanity that lives in these stagnant countries and poses the true challenge to all development efforts everywhere. The author emphasizes that these people in these countries are not only "falling behind" but…
Collier, P. (2007). The bottom billions. Parts 1 and 2. Oxford University Press
-. (2015). Improving aid with smarter compassion. An Interview. Oxford Economist:
PovertyCure. Retrieved on April 25, 2015 from http://www.povertycure.org/voices/paul-collier
Durairaj, V. (2007). The bottom billion: why are the poorest countries failing and what can be done about it. Vol 85 # 11, Bulletin of the WHO: World Health Organization. Retrieved on April 22,2015 from http://www.who.it/bulletin/volumes/85/11/07-045229/en/#
Shale Gas eservoirs, esource Estimation and ecoverable Volumes
What is Shale Gas?
Shale gas is best described as rich in organic content and fine-grained (Bustin, 2006). Shale, is however a very broad term, and gas found in any reserve is trapped in the layers of sediment alternating between clastic and sandstone or carbonates. Shale usually denotes fissile mudstone containing mm scale laminations of >50% silts and clays below 1/16mm (1% TOC, high Si%, low clay %, >40m thick, >1000km2, >1km deep, gas window thermal maturity levels, low expulsion potential and have a natural fracture network (Jarvie et al. 2007; Bouhlel and Bryant 2012). Shales, however are very heterogeneous and hence every play needs independent methodologies and estimations. That makes replication of one successful attempt to another play difficult (Khattab 2012).
The analysis of systemic variations in the mudstone architecture is measured on the parasequence scale using Sequence stratigraphy (Passey et…
Advanced Resources International (ARI) (2011). World shale gas resources: an initial assessment of 14 regions outside the United States. Washington, DC: Advanced Resources International Inc.
Aplin, A.C. Fleet, A.J. & Macquaker, J.H.S. (1999). Muds and Mudstones: physical and fluid flow properties. Geol. Soc. Lon. Spec. Pub. Vol. 158, p.1-8.
Bouhlel, A.M. & Bryant, I. (2012). An Effective Approach to Unconventional Resource Exploration in the Middle East. SPE152455.
British Geographical Survey (BGS) (2013). The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and resource estimation. Department of Energy and Climate Change
The information gathered from testing the two houses shows how radon can be present in the homes anywhere. The gas affects the house without regard to the houses age, the economic situation of the occupants, or any other factors. Since only two houses were checked, truly accurate results for the area as a whole cannot be calculated due to the small population size. The occupants of the homes had no knowledge of the radon levels in their homes nor had they ever had them tested. Luckily the levels were too low to cause any serious effects. Out of the two women, only one had any knowledge of radon and the seriousness it; but even with the knowledge she had never tested or had tested the home.
Awareness must be made to alert the public to this issue and availability to test equipment for lower income families provided. Lung cancer from…
Cancer.gov. (2010). "Radon and Cancer: Questions and Answers" Retrieved on April 19, 2010
From http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/radon eHow.com. (2010). "Identification" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://www.ehow.com/about_4672754_symptoms-radon-poisoning.html
EPA.org. (2010). "A Citizens Guide to Radon" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov /radon/pubs/citguide.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Hybrid vs. Gas Powered Cars
Currently, global warming and a shrinking natural resource base are two of the greatest headaches for governments and regulators alike the world over. The price of gas in the U.S., for instance, almost doubled over the last decade, from $1.86 in 2004 to $3.62 on average in the first half of 2014; and given that more than half of the country's oil consumption is taken up by motor vehicles, one question looms -- what will the situation on our roads be like when our oil reserves can no longer sustain our consumption needs? Then there is the even greater problem of greenhouse emissions and global warming. The transport sector accounts for approximately 17%-18% of total CO2 emission globally, and automakers have been under intense pressure to roll out emission-free automobiles, and thereby reduce the damage resulting from the Greenhouse effect. More and more regulators are…
IIHS. (2014). Hybrid Models have Lower Injury Odds than their Conventional Counterparts. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Retrieved 5 November 2014 from http://www.iihs.org/iihs/news/desktopnews/hybrid-models-have-lower-injury-odds-than-their-conventional-counterparts
Markel, T. & Simpson, A. (2006). Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology. WEVA Journal, 1(1), 1-8.
Pavan, R.S. (2013). A Review on Hybrid Vehicles. International Journal of Research and Engineering and Technology, 2(5), 59-64.
Reddy, S.S. & Tharun, K.S. (2013). Eco-Friendly Vehicle: Hybrid Electric Vehicle. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 4(4), 957-960.
The political situation in the Middle East is extremely volatile. The political situation in the Middle East can have a dramatic impact on oil supplies. However, threats to the oil supply are beginning to emerge outside of the region as well. For instance, there are political situation beginning to arise in Russia, Venezuela, and Nigeria (Federal Reserve, 2004). Political instability can disrupt the supply of oil from a particular region.
eather can also take a toll on the production and distribution of oil and oil products. For instance, hurricane Katrina disrupted oil production in the Gulf of Mexico. This caused a temporary shortage until the services could be restored. There are other external factors that can effect oil prices that are beyond the control of the companies.
Oil futures represent clamed to oil to be delivered at a specified price and at a specified date and location. If the price…
Federal Reserve. (2004). Oil and the Economy. Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke at the Distinguished Lecture Series, Darton College, Albany, Georgia. October 21, 2004. Retrieved July 26, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/boardDocs/speeches/2004/20041021/default.htm
Harrison, M. (2006). BP pins oil price rise on speculators. April 26, 2006. The London
Independent. Retrieved July 27, 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060426/ai_n16230189 .
Kaufman, R., Dees, S., Karadeloglou, P., and Sanches, M. (2007).
Personal Introduction and Research Interests
My background is certainly not unique or even rare, at least for many South Africans. When I was born, apartheid was still the law of the land in South Africa and I was classified as "colored" (i.e., neither white nor black) and commonly referred to as "hotnots" (i.e., bastards). As a result, our family was forced to first live in a tiny apartment on the outskirts of Cape Town called Woodstock, or more commonly the "mixed slums." When Woodstock became overcrowded, our family was forcibly relocated to the desert-like Cape Flats, 25 miles further from Cape Town. Because these actions were sanctioned by the government and were therefore "legal," I simply accepted what was happening as a part of the natural course of things. Over time, however, these and other racially motivated incidents during this formative period in my life convinced me that the status…
I have two observations- one small but interesting and one for which I would like a response.
The first- you have transposed the authors names as Ingram and Schneider- in deed this is small but important - you will want to cite them as Schneider and Ingram going forward- as I said - small but important
Next I think you can develop your response to item 3 regarding your research interest.(my research interest is African-American women in the gas and oil field and how minority set aside programs fail them)
You have made a few claims that public policy is weak and that public policy fails- What is the weakness you have identified? How are you understanding failure? What kind of policies are you including in these statements and what is the connection to your research? I ask that you spend a bit more time on this section and…
Auer, M. R. (2014). Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms: The Principled
Optimism of Elinor Ostrom. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(4), 265-
271. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19390459.2014.941177 ?
Baytop, C. M. (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Programs to Improve Educational
Future of Renewable Energies
hile the reliance of the United States on natural resources and fossil fuels must give way to renewable and sustainable resources at some point, the ability to change to new technologies is not yet here and further efforts are needed to make the United States both energy-independent and free of fossil fuels.
The USA is one of the greatest countries in the world. This is not just because of its superpower in terms of policing the entire globe, but also being with an extensive source and use of the natural resources. ith the use of these natural resources, the country has been able to feed its population. This population is one of the greatest and is continually growing even with an annual admission of over 700,000 people from other countries. ith the use of the resources, the country developed a strong capacity before the world wars…
CEF. "Alternative Energy Sources - Solar, Wind, Geothermal, Biomass, Ocean And Other
Energy Sources." Conserve Energy Future. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 May 2017.
Cubbage, Frederick Jay O'Laughlin, and M. Nils Peterson. Natural Resource Policy. New York,
NY: Waveland Press, 2016
How global warming induced natural resource shortages will cause violent conflict in the Middle East
Background on Climate Change
Implications for the Middle East
Global warming, or climate change, is no longer begging the question of when the effects of this phenomenon will begin to unfold; rather the changes in the climate are already being witnessed. There are many at risk populations all over the world. Many of these populations already are dealing with food and/or water shortages which will only become more problematic in the near future. Once resources become scarcer and exceed the carrying capacity of the local or regional population then this will introduce a new level of conflict that has the potential to easily become violent. There are few mitigation strategies that can help this point. Migration is always an option, but regional areas will be affected in similar ways. This analysis…
Britanica. (N.d.). Greenhouse Effect. Retrieved from Answers: http://www.answers.com/topic/greenhouse-effect
Brown, O., & Crawford, A. (2009). Rising temperatures, rising tensions: climate change and the risk of violent conflict in the Middle East. Retrieved from IISD: http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/rising_temps_middle_east.pdf
Clayton, M. (2007, March 22). Global boom in coal power - and emissions. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0322/p01s04-wogi.html
CO2 Now. (2011, November 16). Earth's CO2 Home Page. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from CO2 Now.
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov /climatechange' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The enclosed project contains a summary of operations for Kinder Morgan's Earnings, Cost of Capital, Target Multiples, and various assumptions that were used to construct pro forma financial statements and valuation summaries.
The natural gas industry has changed dramatically, and is much more open to competition and choice. Wellhead prices are no longer regulated; meaning the price of natural gas is dependent on supply and demand interactions. Interstate pipelines no longer take ownership of the natural gas commodity; instead they offer only the transportation component, which is still under federal regulation.
There are about 160 pipeline companies in the United States, operating over 300,000 miles of pipe. Of this, 180,000 miles consist of interstate pipelines. This pipeline capacity is capable of transporting over 148 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of gas per day from producing regions to consuming regions?, and 123 natural gas storage operators, which control…
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…
"Globalization and Energy Supply: Strategic Risk in the 21st Century."
A Deloitte Research Viewpoint. May 2004.
Harris, Martha Caldwell. "The Globalization of Energy Markets."
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…
Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/
IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzm6pvHPSGo
Johnson, Keith. (August 10, 2009.) "Blown Away: Wind Power Makes Electricity Cheaper in Texas." Retrieved April 28, 2011 from the Wall Street Journal at http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2009/08/10/blown-away-wind-power-makes-electricity-cheaper-in-texas/
Kobayashi, Teruo. (December, 2005.) "Progress of Electric Railways in Japan." Japan Railway and Transport Review issue 42. Pp 62-69. Retrieved from http://jrtr.net/jrtr42/pdf/s62_kob.pdf
Loftin, Josh. (April 18, 2011.) "Home renewable energy for focus of Utah conference." Retrieved April 27, 2011 from Business Week at http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9MM3JV80.htm
Establishment Energy Cooperation
Establishment of Energy Cooperation System East Asia
The economic growth and its sustainability of any developing and developed country are dependent on the basis of its energy requirements (Lincoln, 2004). The countries in East Asian region are also no exception. The energy requirements of the region are swelling with the increased focus on its development. The regional focus has also established grounds for the political and industry leaders to focus on the requirements and prepare their countries for future energy needs. The region is also dependent on the energy imports especially the fuel for energy including oil and gas. The increasing energy production requirements are also creating an issue for the local governments to manage the energy prices within the affordable range of its consumers.
The local cooperation among various countries in the region is affected by the political and territorial issues. However the regional cooperation organizations…
Dent, C.M. (2008). East Asian Regionalism. USA: Routledge.
Dincer, I., & Rosen, M.A. (2012). Exergy: energy, environment and sustainable development. USA: Elsevier.
Economides, M.J., & Wood, D.A. (2009). The state of natural gas. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 1(1), 1-13.
Fujita, M., Kuroiwa, I., & Kumagai, S. (Eds.). (2011). The Economics of East Asian Integration: A Comprehensive Introduction to Regional Issues. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Energy prices went up again in 2008. Drillers created 29,000 jobs for the people. And State and local governments offered $240 million worth of taxes (Sapien 2009). And modern technology was there to realize the dream.
When asked about the initiative's threat to human health, the DEP at first assured all sectors that TDS were not generally considered a major risk. In 2008 alone, at least 4,000 new oil and gas wells were drilled. The frenzy sidestepped the greater and graver responsibility of disposal of huge wastewater. The new oil and gas wells produce approximately 9 million gallons of wastewater a day in Pennsylvania alone. This volume was expected to increase to at least 19 million this year. This volume is greater than that what all of the State's waterways combined can safely absorb, DEP itself says. ut in the wake of continued complaints and apprehensions, it advised consumers to…
Legera, Laura. Hazards Posed by Natural Gas Drilling Not Always Underground. The Sheranton Times Tribune: hetimes-tribune.com, 2010. Retrieved on May 3, 2011
Lustgarten, Abrahm. Is New York's Marcellus Shale too Hot to Handle? ProPublica:
ProPublica, Inc., 2009. Retrieved on April 18, 2011 from http://www.propublica.org/articles/is_the-marcellus-shale-too-hot-to-handle-1109
An American who spent sometime in Germany recounted his experience [Will Higher Gasoline Prices Inspire Lifestyle Changes, 2001] of energy prices in that country, "When I lived in Germany, the price of gasoline went from the equivalent of $2.50 per gallon to $3.25 per gallon over night. The Bundesregierung had added another $0.75/gallon gas tax, in addition to the existing $2.00 per gallon gas tax. (That's right: $2.75 out of every $3.25 per gallon was Federal taxes.)," He remembered the effect on prices on his use of transport, "I used the public transport system, easily the best in the world."
This is the direction our country will have to go too. Do we allow this country to be totally dependent on imported oil? Should we keep gasoline prices low to prevent development of alternatives or take necessary steps now to create a change in the present Gas Guzzling life style?…
Roberts, P., Bad Sports, Harper's Magazine. April 2001
Snead, M.C. And Martinez, R.D., Energy Prices and the Oklahoma Economy, Center for Applied Economic Research, Oklahoma State University, September 2004
Yetiv, S.A., America benefits from high oil prices, retrieved from Internet on 21st May 2006, http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060206/news_mz1e6yetiv.html , February 6, 2006
March 2006. On the Internet at http://www.prdomain.com/companies/S/Siemens/newsreleases/20063229659.htm.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007
4. Ishii, Jun. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbine Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001. Center for the Study of Energy Markets. March 2004
5. MINERAL RESOURCE SITUATION of HUNGARY. Hungarian Geological Survey - 2002. On the Internet at http://www.mgsz.hu/english/mineral/mineral_3.html.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007
Alcoa's Hungary operation ships first order of turbine airfoils. 2006. On the Internet at http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Alcoa's+Hungary+operation+ships+first+order+of+turbine+airfoils-a0153762888.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007
Alcoa's Hungary Operation Ships First Order of Turbine Airfoils. usiness Wire. August 29, 2006. On the Internet at http://www.alcoa.com/global/en/news/news_detail.asp?newsYear=2006&pageID=20060829005060en.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007
Siemens to supply turbomachinery equipment for the oil and gas industry. March 2006. On the Internet at http://www.prdomain.com/companies/S/Siemens/newsreleases/20063229659.htm.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007
Ishii, Jun. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbine Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001. Center for the Study of Energy Markets. March 2004
1. Alcoa's Hungary operation ships first order of turbine airfoils. 2006. On the Internet at http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Alcoa 's+Hungary+operation+ships+first+order+of+turbine+airfoils-a0153762888.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007
2. Alcoa's Hungary Operation Ships First Order of Turbine Airfoils. Business Wire. August 29, 2006. On the Internet at http://www.alcoa.com/global/en/news/news_detail.asp?newsYear=2006&pageID=20060829005060en.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007
3. Siemens to supply turbomachinery equipment for the oil and gas industry. March 2006. On the Internet at http://www.prdomain.com/companies/S/Siemens/newsreleases/20063229659.htm.Last retrieved on February 5, 2007
4. Ishii, Jun. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbine Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001. Center for the Study of Energy Markets. March 2004
Ultra Long-Term Perspectives World Energy
Energy is a very important part of our lives and the world that we live in today. It has always been important since the time that the humans used to do all their work by themselves to the times when they started using animals and even today when we make use of the energy sources around us to produce energy such as electricity.
Today our main source of energy are the fossils fuels that won't last forever as, they take millions of years to form and very little time to get used as a source of energy. One of the very important concerns of today's time is the speed with which we are consuming these fossil fuels and how it will be very difficult for us to keep up with the increased demand which is expected to double by 2050 as the population is expected…
European Renewable Energy Council EREC. (2010). Re-thinking 2050 - A 100% renewable energy vision of EU. Retrieved from http://www.erec.org/media/publications/re-thinking-2050.html
Jess, A. (2010). What might be the energy demand and energy mix to reconcile the world's pursuit of welfare and happiness with the necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere? Energy Policy, 38(8), 4663 -- 4678. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510003009
Khatib, H. (2011). IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 39(5), 2507 -- 2511. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511000930
Khatib, H. (2012). IEA World Energy Outlook 2011 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 48, 737 -- 743. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421512005149
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…
Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed
27 December 2011,
Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27
Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines
Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction…
Alternative Fuels Data Center. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site.
Eto, Joseph. 1996. The Past, Present, and Future of U.S. Utility Demand-Side Management Programs.
Imperial College. Environmental Planning and Management. Imperial College Press.
Moreover, it is highly unlikely that such a clause would apply in the case of a tort dispute, because the likely plaintiffs in a tort lawsuit would be people who were injured by a misuse of the Technology, rather than any party involved in the contract negotiations. When there is no choice of law provision, the courts look at several different factors to determine which law to apply and whether a court has jurisdiction. In contract disputes, the courts look at the place of contracting, the place where the negotiating took place, where the contract will be performed, the location of the subject matter, and the citizenship and place of business of the parties. In tort cases, the courts look at where the injury occurred, where the conduct causing the injury occurred, citizenship and place of business of the parties, and the place where the relationship between the parties occurred.…
Counsel Journal 71 (Oct. 2004): 402.
Office of Domestic Fianance. "Overview." Terrorism Risk Insurance Program. 2008. Department of the Treasury. 18 Aug. 2008 http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/domestic-finance/financial-institution/terrorism-insurance/ .
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C.S. 2000e.
Thomas states that she never forgets 'where she came from.' She serves on numerous community boards including the Charlotte Mecklenburg Housing Partnership and the Women's Intercultural Exchange. As a golden life member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated, Thomas says that the need to be a member of something 'greater than herself' has always been an integral part of her character. She strives to better the community and to better herself through her many charitable efforts.
Thomas is testimony to the power of education and the ability to use one's natural talents for the good of others. Through education, Thomas has continually advanced in her vocational life, bolstering her credentials and framework of knowledge. She has a technical grasp of the power industry with 'people smarts' honed through personal experience and the academic study of management. She has made a passionate commitment to diversity part of her work life, through…
Utilities such as water, natural gas, and electricity are considered lifelines for the United States and its economy. Are they vulnerable to terrorist attacks or natural disasters? How can they be protected and secured?
Importance of Infrastructure
Critical infrastructures, such as telecommunications, energy, banking and finance, transportation, water systems and emergency services are the foundations of modern society. They support and maintain the economic operation and activities of our communities and help to maintain the functions, security, safety and stability of society. Our economy, national defence, and quality of life are increasingly reliant upon certain critical infrastructures.
As technology advances, more and more critical infrastructures become increasingly interconnected. More specifically, there is a heavy dependence on critical infrastructures at multiple levels within the supply chain of any good or service (Haimes, 2005). Any disruptions in the supply chain may cause profound cascading effect to other critical infrastructures. A…
Federal Highway Administration and Cambridge Systematics Inc., (2005) "An Initial Assessment of Freight Bottlenecks on Highways," Federal Highway Administration, Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
John Moteff and Paul Parfomak. (2004) Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets: Definition and Identification
Massoud Amin. (2002). Toward Secure and Resilient Interdependent Infrastructures. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 8:67
Robert G. Spulak and Jessica G. Turnley. (2005) Theoretical Perspectives of Terrorist Enemies as Networks. JSOU Press
Latin America is as such seeking to decrease its interregional dependence and develop more relationships with the better developed economies of the globe. It nevertheless remains sensitive to the international economic crisis and the debt crisis in the Euro-zone (Inter-American Development Bank, 2011).
As it has been previously mentioned, the Latin American countries are characterized by specific traits, which make it difficult to conduct integrated analyses. The same can be said about Mexico, where different traits are also observed. Based on these traits, Tecnologico de Menterrey has developed four specific models for regional development. The models, created based on strong theoretical background and adapted to the Mexican realities, refer to the following:
Model 1: Technology Parks for the high value employment to employ high numbers of non-research and non-scientific staffs, but specialized staffs for high-value activities
Model 2: Technology Parks for the attraction and development of business. These entities will…
(2011). Latin American registers strong export growth in 2011. Inter-American Development Bank. http://www.iadb.org/en/news/news-releases/2011-12-19/latin-american-export-growth-reaches-26-in-2011,9787.html accessed on October 1, 2012
(2011). Models of technology parks. Tecnologico de Monterrey. http://www.itesm.edu/wps/wcm/connect/ITESM/Tecnologico+de+Monterrey/English/Entrepreneurship/Technology+Parks+Network/Models+of+Technology+Parks / accessed on October 1, 2012
(2012). The world factbook -- Mexico. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html accessed on October 1, 2012
The purpose of the take-or-pay clause is to allocate the respective risks of the production and sales of natural gas between buyers and sellers.
According to Gaille, "The seller bears the risk of production. To compensate seller for that risk, buyer agrees to take, or pay for if not taken, a minimum quantity of gas. The buyer bears the risk of market demand. The take-or-pay clause ensures that if the demand for gas goes down, seller will still receive the price for the contract quantity delivered each year."
Although there are other salient risks involved, the two main risks hedged against are the two described above.
188.8.131.52 Transfer of volume risk. According to Meyer, Myers, Kolbe, Leonard and Baker, "Take-or-pay contracts are often signed in transportation industries precisely to shift risk of revenue variances away from the suppliers who have sunk costs in the right-of-way to the suppliers of the…
1. Executive summary
While the extraction of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing is a decade- long practice, of late, it has witnessed immense development owing to advancements in the area of horizontal drilling which enables gas and oil operators to now harness earlier- unprofitable natural gas reserves within rock formations. Extant extraction- related policies combine state-federal alliances and voluntary endeavors by private organizations. More unprejudiced, scientific studies providing details on how fracturing and extraction potentially affect environmental media like water and air are essential, in addition to those focusing on natural gas surges’ long- term effects on local societies. Primary models and hypotheses may offer a basis to reasonably discuss possible effects.
Maintenance of the current state of affairs with regard to free market rules and governmental policies will potentially continually check short- run public expenses; however, it will not contribute sufficiently to furthering response to concerns regarding…
Pacific Oil-Strategic Plan
Pacific Oil Startegic Plan
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN-OGANIZATIONAL STATEGY
ISK Management PLAN
esponding of isk management Process
Evolution of isk Management
Policies and Procedures
152011 Identified isks
Pacific Oil-Strategic Plan
This paper presents a strategic plan or Pacific Oil. The paper starts with organizational background consisting of business mission, vision and the corporate values. The nature of the business of Pacific Oil has been clearly identified with some highlights on the business divisions operating in the oil industry. An environmental scan has been performed in order to have a clear insight into the circumstances in which the Pacific Oil is operating. This environmental scan for Pacific Oil is accompanied by a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities & Threats) Analysis. Strengths and weaknesses of Pacific Oil relate to internal organizational environment while opportunities and threats relate to external environment of…
Canales, James E.; Kibble, Barbara D.; Terk, Natasha, 2008. "One Step Beyond Strategic Planning." Foundation News & Commentary, Vol.41 Issue.
Hay, Robert D., 2009. Strategic management in organizations, Westport: Greenwood Press.
llison, Michael & Kaye, Jude, 2010. "Why Plan?" Strategic Planning for Organizations, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Polyack, Jolene, 2009. " Organizations Need Marketing Strategies To Meet Goals." Business Journal -- Serving Fresno & the Central San Joaquin Valley, Issue 322490.
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…
Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).
"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.
Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.
Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.