Nazism Essays (Examples)

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Ensured the Success of the Third Reich

Words: 1346 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79663061

Ensured the Success of the Third Reich

Hitler's Nazi economic plan was, until the loss of the war intervened, such a success that foreign economists went so far as to call it a miracle. The Nazi economic framework, which emphasized total employment, total commitment, and the supremacy of big business, relied on a series of radical measures to propel the resurgent nation into a state of military readiness. Several factors contributed to Nazi Germany's economic success, and ultimately to the potential endurance of the Third Reich.

An essential building block of the Nazi state was a satisfied, even energized, working class. That this had to be obtained despite a reduction in luxuries and civil liberties made it a challenging task.

The first step in satisfying the working class was the elimination of one of the worst demons of the Weimar Republic, unemployment. The Third Reich implemented stimulus programs that created…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brady, Robert A. The Spirit and Structure of German Fascism. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1937.

Childs, David. Germany Since 1918. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980.

Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring, The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age: Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989.

Frei, Norbert. National Socialist Rule in Germany. Massachusetts: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1993.
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Politics Nationalist Rebirth During the Inter-War Years

Words: 408 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31361649

Politics

Nationalist Rebirth

During the inter-war years, Nazism strengthened its populist support by emphasizing its nationalist ideology, thus drawing on the German traditions of the 19th century and gaining strength from the disillusion that had set in after the defeat in World War I. Hitler's policies for Germany included the resurgence of a Greater Germany, by instilling the German people with a renewed sense of purpose in order to inspire, "the miracle of Germany's emergence as a nation" (Berwick, 20). This rejuvenated nation would also include Austria and the German-speaking people who had been lost to Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1919. Before 1933, Hitler played on the unjustness of the Versailles Treaty and, between 1933 and 1939 repeatedly claimed that he was reasserting the national rights of Germany, which included the publicly popular issue of territorial claims (Payne, 1995). Therefore, the reoccupation of the Rhineland in 1936, the occupation of…… [Read More]

References

Berwick, M. The Third Reich. London: Wayland Publishers, 1971.

Carsten, F.L. The Rise of Fascism. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1970.

Eatwell, Roger. Fascism: A History. New York: The Penguin Group, 1995.

Mosse, George. The Crisis of German Ideology. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
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Ideological Relationship Between WWI and WWII

Words: 1385 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18232482

ideological relationship between WWI and WWII. The writer explores the ideological relationship between the two wars and then moves into the arena of contrasting the differences between several war germane terms. The comparison includes Fascism and Nazism. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

Should the U.S. launch an attack on Iraq? Nations of the world have been lining up on both sides of this question for the last few weeks. The world is used to divisions when it comes to military action. World War One and World War Two both provided training grounds for the world nations drawing lines in the sand and choosing sides. The World Wars were ideologically related in several ways with the most important ideal being personal freedom.

Each of the world wars stood for freedom. The freedom to choose one's lifestyle and the freedom to choose one's government style and participants were…… [Read More]

References

Axel, Alan. The Complete Idiot's Guide to World War II. Alpha Books (October 23, 1998)

Calvocoressi, Peter. The Penguin History of the Second World War

Penguin USA (Paper);; (February 27, 2001)

Morrow, John. The Great War in the Air: Military Aviation from 1909 to 1921 Smithsonian Institution Press;; (May 1993)
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Film Life Is Beautiful Life

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27729595



Guido is apparently well aware of the power of love and does not hesitate to fight for the concept whenever he gets the chance to do so. He is not embarrassed with the fact that his background prevents people like him from interacting with individuals belonging to the upper social class and demonstrates that strength of character can assist him in getting through uncomfortable situations. Guido constantly uses the encounters he has with Dora, a local school teacher, as a way to declare his appreciation toward the woman. He knows that he risks greatly through stealing her from her engagement party, but he does not care, as he is willing to fight for his goals. While in the work camp, Guido is weakened but he is reluctant to abandon the fight, considering that he influences his son in believing that nothing has changed and their love compensates for the suffering…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Dir. Benigni, Roberto. Life is Beautiful. Miramax Films, 1997.
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Life Is Beautiful Film Happiness

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56750552

He eventually triumphs in this endeavor, making it possible for Giosue to be extremely happy and taking his thoughts away from the unwelcoming landscape they are presented with during their stay in the labor camps.

Ferruccio's response to Guido's question regarding the reason for which the former is able to go to sleep even with the fact the latter is trying to influence him is essential in understanding Guido's attitude in wanting to entertain Dora and Giosue. "I am what I want to be" stands as motivation for everything Guido covers as a means to get to his wife and son. This statement initially assists him in declaring his love for Dora and in taking her away from what seemed to be her inevitable fate. Later on in the movie, it is partly because of Schopenhauer that Guido has little difficulties in making his son believe that the Holocaust is…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Benigni, Roberto. Life is Beautiful. Miramax Films, 1997.
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Education How Was Imperialism One

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 244271



Impression of the Interwar Years

Although with hindsight, it is possible to see how actions could have been taken to keep World War I from occurring, at that time the situation was like a dry forest that just needed a small flame to start the devastating fire. All the countries who were involved with World War I were completely on edge and only needed a small spark to have them make disastrous decisions. Once things were set in motion, they could not stop. Because of this, millions of people lost their lives and the countries, ironically, lost their Empires.

Why was it called the Age of Anxiety?

The war did not only destroy the Empires. It also destroyed many people's hopes and dreams. No longer could individuals rely on their government as a means of strength and support. In addition, a questioning of life's meaning and a loss of religion…… [Read More]

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Termination of the Republican Government in Germany

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16188984

Termination of the Republican Government in Germany in 1933

The last years of the Weimar republic were marked by even more political instability than in the previous years. On March 29, 1930, finance expert Heinrich Bruning had been appointed the successor of Chancellor Muller by Paul von Hindenburg after months of political lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism, based on the emergency powers granted to the Reichsprasident by the constitution, since it had no majority support in the Reichstag. After an unpopular bill to help the Reich's finances had not found the support of the Reichstag, Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based on Article 48 of the constitution. On July 18, 1930, the bill was again invalidated by a slim majority in the Reichstag with the support of the Sozialdemokratische…… [Read More]

By the time Bismarck had to leave the Chancellor's office in 1890, France and Russia were working to forge an alliance in both commercial and military terms. French capital markets were supplying Russian industrialization with the investment that was drying up, not least thanks to Bismarck's intervention, from the German side. The French arms industry looked to provide the Russian armies with modern equipment. Russian officers were lavishly entertained in Paris, and naval squadrons paid much-heralded visits to Le Havre and St. Petersburg. This was the "nightmare" that Bismarck had always feared, posing a threat to Germany's strategic borders in the west and to Austria's existence in the east.

Subsequent German foreign policy initiatives, notably the initiation of a large battle fleet under the naval laws of 1898 and 1900, drove Britain into diplomatic alignment (the Entente) with a Franco-Russian alliance already in the offing at the time of Bismarck's fall. "In 1912 Lord Haldane, then the British Secretary for War, hoped that, given the new correlation of forces, Germany might be willing to sign a naval agreement to limit numbers. In Berlin, however, Haldane met with stiff resistance from Tirpitz and the Kaiser: too much prestige and funds had been invested to retreat and acknowledge defeat. There was to be no arms control."

Intensified by the reign of the far more militaristic Kaiser Wilhelm II, Bismarck's legacy would contribute to the political culture in which Nazism found significant support-bases. As a result, in Germany, as in Japan and Italy, later attempts to extend democracy would succeed in establishing the unstable democracies of the Weimar Republic. Despite advances in industry and science under the Second Reich, Germany retained a despotic aspect to its character, due to
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Nazis' Rise to Power One

Words: 3165 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76659854

In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,

The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."

So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65194469

Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458

Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388

Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
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Protestant German Christian Church Around the Time of the Nazis

Words: 3304 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67648507

World War I and World War II, a great deal of interest has been paid to the German Christian Church and Movement. The focus of this discussion will be on the German Christian Church and movement, specifically the protestant Church (people's church), after WWI and through WWII and the Nazi movement. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the protestant German Christian church's ideology was not a product of Nazi orders or a response to Neo-Pagan influences, but in fact, was derivative of the post WWI culture of German.

Background Info

According to a book entitled Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, the German Christian Movement was composed of Protestants, both clergy and lay people. The author asserts that people that were a part of this movement believed that Nazi Rule was a prime opportunity to spread Christian ideology.

Members of the movement believed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95163662

Baranowski, Shelley. "The 1933 German Protestant Church Elections: Machtpolitik or Accommodatlon?." Church History 49, no. 3 (1980): 298-315. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709

Barnett, Victoria J. Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=79117010

Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford U.S., 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97937045
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Triumph of the Will After

Words: 1568 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98095416

As displayed in the movie, Hitler has put an end to the Depression by bringing German pride back, and by having Germans work again in a prosperous society. This time, the swastika is put next to wheat on banners.

Probably uninspired at a certain moment in editing the film, when Hitler asks various laborers where they are from, Riefenstahl first shows an individual who is from Friesenland, a location of little importance for Germans.

Hitler presumably wants to put an end to discrimination between classes, as he claims that all German people should consider themselves as their Fuhrer's people. The process he wants to make work in order to unite people is none other than that of work. Hitler's strategies, along with that of Riefenstahl's make it possible for the movie to be a very convincing material. When being combined with political propaganda, art is more effective than it could…… [Read More]

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Origins and Rise of National

Words: 3207 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38157807



Nevertheless, in the immediate period, due to the increasing prosperity, the Republican left started to benefit from the people's trust and this was proven as well by the elections in 1928. Moreover, the coalition formed by the German's people Party with the three Republican parties was undoubtedly considered a change. However, the situation was not to last long and one year afterwards in Germany the first signs of an economic depression have made themselves felt. As a consequence, people started to mistrust the political change they had sustained and that allowed the left-wing and right-wing radicalism to gain legitimacy, a fact which led to tensions of the parties which sustained those currents of thought on the political scene. In this situation, one of the logical measures, which later determined the appearance of Fascism, was that the Socialists, under the pressure of the fear that their sustainers would embrace Communism, became…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Felix GILBERT, The end of the European Era: 1890 to the Present," W.W. Norton Company, New York, 1981 pp. 270;

AJ.P. TAYLOR, "The origins of the Second World War," Oxford university Press, 1999, 246 pp;

Stanley G. PAINE, "Fascism. Comparison and definition', Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1980;

Arthur O. LOVEJOY, "The meaning of Romanticism for the Historian of Ideas," in Franklin L. BAUMER (ed.), "Intellectual Movements in Modern European History,"New York: Macmillan, 1965;
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Economic and Social Effects of

Words: 9045 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41483765

Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.

Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany

Between January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.

. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. "Expulsion of Germans after World War II." Last

updated in 2010. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/38667.

Brezina, Corona. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919: A Primary Source Examination of the Treaty

That Ended World War I. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.
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Escape From Freedom One of

Words: 2981 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37004161

This completely stunts their growth and freedom. The authoritarian and the automaton psychology are seen in Nazism and democracy. Nazism is both an economic and political problem, which has to be understood on psychological grounds. During the Nazi regime in WWI and then once again in WWII, two groups of people existed: there were those who did not give any resistance, but also without supporting the cause and those who were deeply attracted to the new ideology.

This is what can happen when people try to escape their freedom. History shows with numerous examples, including Hitler in the 1930s and 1940s, and even today others throughout the world, how great the disaster can be when humans give their power to someone else. Someone like Hitler can come to power because people lose the ability to exert their own personal strength and fortitude.

In the situation with Hitler, stresses Fromm, there…… [Read More]

Only if man masters society and subordinates the economic machine to the purposes of human happiness and only if he actively participates in the social process, can he overcome what now drives him into despair -- his aloneness and his feeling of powerlessness. Man does not suffer so much from poverty today as he suffers from the fact that he has become a cog in a large machine, and automaton, that his life has become empty and lost its meaning (276).

Therefore is it very important that a person is critical and dares to think independently. he/she must fight against powers outside of his/her self and look for the strong powers that are active within and learn to trust his freedom. For in freedom the power of the self shows itself.

Fromm, Erich. Escape from Freedom. New York: Holt Reinhart, 1941.
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Agree or Expand on a

Words: 1552 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52967024

Europe and Germany had a long anti-Semitic history and Nazism appeared to be the best solution during the 1930s. The masses were vulnerable to being influenced and Hitler was well-acquainted with this concept. Even with the fact that it is difficult to determine his exact interests in wanting to remove Jewish people from Germany and from territories that came to be occupied by Nazis, it is very likely that he was also a victim (at least partly) of anti-Semitic thought that dominated Europe for many centuries before the Holocaust.

Numerous individuals in the contemporary society continue to believe that Jews are responsible for many problems that the world is experiencing. Even with the fact that it would be impossible for another Holocaust to happen, it is worrying to observe how many communities preserved traditional thinking and are reluctant to acknowledge the horrible effect that the Holocaust had on society in…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bartov, Omer, "Defining Enemies, Making Victims: Germans, Jews, and the Holocaust," the American Historical Review, Vol. 103, No. 3 (Jun., 1998), pp. 771-816

Brustein, William L., "Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe Before the Holocaust," (Cambridge University Press, 13.10.2003)

Rittner, Carol Ann, and Roth, John K., "Good News" After Auschwitz?: Christian Faith Within a Post-Holocaust World," (Mercer University Press, 2001)

Spicer, Kevin P., "Antisemitism, Christian Ambivalence, and the Holocaust," (Indiana University Press, 2007)
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Moral Luck by Admitting Defeat He Informs

Words: 1865 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83885316

Moral Luck" by admitting defeat: he informs the reader that he will be assessing "a fundamental problem about moral responsibility to which we possess no satisfactory solution" (450). The problem is essentially one about ethical judgment, and he begins it with an illustration from Kant. Kant's view of the ethical will, in the quotation offered by Nagel at the outset, is one in which goodness is not determined by "what it effects or accomplishes or because of its adequacy to achieve some proposed end" (449). In other words, goodness is to be located in process, rather than in results. The reader may find it ironic, then, that Nagel begins his paper by promising us no solution whatsoever -- in his critique of Kantian ethics, Nagel seemingly requires the reader to measure Nagel's own work as a philosopher by the Kantian criterion, of admiring Nagel's will to philosophize without judging him…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nagel, Thomas. "Moral Luck." In Feinberg, Joel and Shafer-Landau, Russ (eds.) Reason and Responsibility. 12th Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2004.
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Nazi Seizure of Power

Words: 2586 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36496162

Subversion: The Role of Politics and Pressure in the Nazi Rise to Power

Following the end of World War I, the people of Germany felt the consequences of their loss coupled with the reverberations of the American stock market crash. The effects of the Great Depression only trickled down slowly to the small German town of "Thalburg," the fictitious name of a real town whose privacy William Sheridan Allen wishes to protect throughout his work, The Nazi Seizure of Power. Attempting a democratic state in early twentieth century Germany was difficult at best, futile at worst. Using Thalburg as a microcosmic example of German social and political realities, Allen describes the Nazi rise to power as a function and result of divisions among the general populace. "In the wake of defeat came a revolution led by the working class which overthrew the Kaiser and established a republic in Germany," (p.…… [Read More]

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Nazi Party Taking Its Basic

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 696680

Hitler defined Das Volk (The Nation) as the highest creation of a race, and therefore any polluting of that race was an act of betrayal. For many Germans during Weimar, the Jews controlled industry, banking, and suffered less in many ways due to their connections with international finance. Of course, this was just a small portion of Jews, but it became a mythos that many could believe in since it absolved Germany of fault and pointed it at a vast conspiracy. This was really the central core of the message delivered in schools, newspapers, over the radio and, after hearing it again and again, some accepted it as fact. Hitler went as far as declaring that racial conflict against Judaism was vital in order to save Germany: "We may be inhumane, but if we rescue Germany we have achieved the greatest deed in the world. We may work injustice, but…… [Read More]

Nazism needed a scapegoat in order to lay blame for Germany's loss in World War I, the inefficiency of the fiscal system under the Weimar government, and the economic crisis that confronted them throughout the 1920s. The Nazis claimed that the Jews were the greatest threat to the German nation and the Aryan race. Their doctrine, so elaborated in Hitler's Mein Kampf, considered Jews a race of parasites that, throughout history, attached itself to various cultures and ideologies in order to preserve itself. Examples of this were wide and varied, for the Nazis could legitimately find Jews in numerous countries at numerous historical times espousing liberalism, democracy, capitalism, industrialism, Marxism, socialism, and even trade unionism (Ibid., 24; Dawidowicz, 1975).

One very seminal question often arises regarding this vast paranoid conspiracy. How did the Nazi Party manage to convince the German people of its veracity? The idea of a master-race was certainly not something new, there was plenty of literature to support that theory, and anti-Semitism in the form of pogroms existed all over Europe. Hitler defined Das Volk (The Nation) as the highest creation of a race, and therefore any polluting of that race was an act of betrayal. For many Germans during Weimar, the Jews controlled industry, banking, and suffered less in many ways due to their connections with international finance. Of course, this was just a small portion of Jews, but it became a mythos that many could believe in since it absolved Germany of fault and pointed it at a vast conspiracy. This was really the central core of the message delivered in schools, newspapers, over the radio and, after hearing it again and again, some accepted it as fact. Hitler went as far as declaring that racial conflict against Judaism was vital in order to save Germany: "We may be inhumane, but if we rescue Germany we have achieved the greatest deed in the world. We may work injustice, but if we rescue Germany then we have removed the greatest injustice in the world. We may be immoral, but if our people are rescued we have opened the way for morality" (Hitler in: Koenigsberg, 2007, 21).

This fervent hatred was quite unbelievable to many Jews who considered themselves to be "good Germans," who were doctors, lawyers, and professors -- some even in governmental service. Hertha Nathroff, Albert Einstein's niece, wrote in her diary on the Jewish boycott and mounting tensions, "This day is engraved in my heart in flames. To think that such things are still possible in the twentieth century" (Nathroff, 2000, 179). Explaining that even the kindnest gentiles who had been friends and colleagues prior to the 1933 Jewish boycott, Marta Apple, wife of a rabbi in the city
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Hitler Youth A Primary Cultural

Words: 4467 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16663298

Accordingly "the Hitler Youth movement emphasized activism, physical training, NAZI ideology, especially nationalism and racial concepts, and absolute obedience to Hitler and the NAZI Party. Indoctrinating children in National Socialist ideology was a key goal of the NAZI Party. Once Hitler assumed control over the German state, he used the Government to make the Hitler Youth the country's all encompassing youth movement" (HBU1, 1) The racial elements of the Hitler Youth indoctrination were also of critical importance to the Nazi movement as these propelled the aggressive social isolation and abuse of groups such as Jews, gypsies and homosexuals. The Hitler Youth would gain a sense of pride in the propaganda designed to project them as the future leaders of Germany. Essentially granted the right to defy those of any age who differed with the party's values, the Hitler Youth would be primed for a distinct level of enthusiasm based on…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Associated Press (AP). (2005). New Pope Defied Nazis As Teen During WWII. The New York Times. Online at http://bc.edu/research/cjl/meta-elements/texts/cjrelations/topics/new_pope_defied_nazis.htm

The History Place (HP). (1999). The History Place: Hitler Youth. Historyplace.com.

Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU). (1998). German Boys Scouts/Pfadfinderen. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/sco/country/ger/scoutger.ht

Historical Boys' Uniform (HBU1). (1998). Hitler Youth. Historical Boys' Clothing. Online at http://histclo.com/Youth/youth/org/nat/hitler/hitler.htm
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Germans Post World War 2

Words: 3058 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75882937

Germans, Post World War 2

Evil, German attitudes through the Twentieth Century, and humanity

The Second World War has had a terrible impact on society as a whole and it is safe to say that it shaped the way that people perceived the idea of being human and of life in general. Michael Hanake's 2009 motion picture The White Ribbon discusses with regard to a series of events happening in a fictional German village during the era leading to the First World War. While the film discusses ideas that apparently have nothing to do with the Second World War or with the National Socialist ideology, an in-depth analysis would make it possible for someone to find parallels between many of the concepts it contains and values promoted in Nazi Germany.

Overview

Haneke's film provides viewers with the image of an apparently perfectly organized village in which everyone is well-acquainted with…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Schwab, Gabriele. Haunting Legacies: Violent Histories and Transgenerational Trauma. ( Columbia University Press, 13 Aug 2013)

Dir. Michael Haneke, The White Ribbon. Filmladen (Austria) X Verleih AG (Germany), 2009.
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America 1945-1960 the Book the Crucial Decade

Words: 1542 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18579024

America 1945-1960

The book, The Crucial Decade and After: America 1945-1960, published in 1966, is about the transformation of the post-World War II peace into the globalization of the Cold War. It was first written in 1956 and then edited and more sections added in 1966. Much of the material written in 1956 seems incomplete, or unfinished. The 1966 additions attempted to fill in some of the missing holes and unclear thoughts. It is mainly a historical anthology. He gives a greatly detailed account of McCarthyism. Goldman blames McCarthy for creating the cold war through protectionist politics and defensive trade positions of the between the United States. This paper will demonstrate, that while Eric Goldman is valuable as a source of details about the era, his work holds little value as a historical piece of work.

Eric Goldman was a Professor at a Princeton University who had served Mr. Johnson…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldman, Eric Frederick. The crucial decade -- and after; America, 1945-1960. New York, Knopf, 1966 [1960].

History Book Review
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Yiddish as a First Language in Ultra-Orthodox

Words: 3999 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60238313

Yiddish as a first language in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities, compared to the use of local vernacular (for example, Hebrew in Israeli-Based Jews, or English in London and New York-Based Jews): in Hasidic Jews, the use of Yiddish is widespread, whereas in other Jewish groups, the local vernacular is more common.

This paper discusses the reasons behind these differences, and looks at the functions that Yiddish serves in these Hasidic Jew communities. The paper also looks at the effects of outside pressures has on the use of Yiddish, and on issues of identity in general.

The paper also looks at the religious issues related to the use of Yiddish, and at heritage issues in general. The paper also looks in detail at the use of Yiddish as a cultural isolating mechanism, as a way to create barriers between Hasidic Jews and non-Hasidic Jews, and also Hasidic Jews and non-Jews (gentiles).

The…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abraham, J.E. (1985). Perceptions of English Learning in a Hasidic Jewish Sect.

Abrams, D. And Hogg, M.A. (2000). Social Identity: Constructive and Critical.

Belcove-Shalin, J. (1995). New World Hasidim: Ethnographic Studies of Hasidic Jews in America.

Ben-Rafael, E. Language and Social Division -The Case of Israel.
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Albert Speer

Words: 1238 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60282557

Steeped in controversy and tainted by his legacy as Hitler's personal architect and close friend, Albert Speer is a difficult historical figure to portray and to pinpoint. Gitta Sereny explores the life and the mind of this complex man with brilliant insight, historical awareness, and sensitivity, as she examines the surprising moral conflicts that Speer faced later in his life, especially after the Nuremberg trials. As the only member of Hitler's inner circle to be spared from the death penalty, Speer had ample time before his death in 1981 to reflect on his role in Nazi atrocities. Although Speer ostensibly never killed a soul, nor did he outwardly perform any act of violence or hatred, he nevertheless supported and loved the man who ordered the brutal deaths of millions of Jews as well as Catholics, gypsies, and homosexuals. Fascinated by this period in history because of her first-hand experiences during…… [Read More]

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Underground Directed by Emir Kusturica

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77356803



All of the chapters in the book relate to various events in Levi's life, as well as to his passion for chemistry. Surprisingly (when considering the suffering he went through in Auschwitz) Levi only associates a small chapter in the book with his experiences in the death camp. The story is nonetheless sad, and can be regarded as being the most impressive account in the book. All in all, "The Periodic Table" is more of an autobiography than a nonfiction account involving the Holocaust.

In "Vanadium," Levi shortly depicts a series of occurrences speaking about Auschwitz. The author apparently wants to go over the topic as fast as possible, only to return to the beautiful world of chemistry. He does not succeed in doing that however, since the subject slowly but surely grabs hold of him and forces him to go deeper and depict one of the most influential chapters…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Levi, Primo. The Periodic Table. Michael Joseph Ltd., 1985.
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Right of Death and Power

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9569450

Overall, Foucault uses a blend of historical analysis and philosophy as his primary method to answer questions about modern societies.

The primary evidence Foucault uses to justify his comments about human society is how sexuality was viewed in classical times compared to how it is viewed today. He says that governments now regulate sexuality because they have to ensure the longevity and health of their population. Because society now values life more than it did in the past, power is more widespread across the population because of wider sovereignty. Foucault's evidence for this point is not always direct, maybe because his research methods are also not always direct. He says that racism and Nazism are proof that biopolitics now exist. "Nazism was doubtless the most cunning and the most naive (and the former because of the latter) combination of the fantasies of blood and the paraoxysms of a disciplinary power"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Foucault, Michel. "The Right of Death and Power Over Life." History of Sexuality: Vol I.
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Nazi Concentration and Death Camps

Words: 8103 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9321545



The German suffering after the first world war and the humiliation of Germany with other nations gave the Nazis the opportunity to feed hatred of the Jews and at the same time promise that if the People gave in to the Nazi ideology, they would be in the land that would hold them a superior way of life. That the followers of Hitler followed the Ideals as true and that they also created in their own minds the need to eliminate groups of people who disagree like the communists and the Jews was the fundamental cause of the holocaust. Why did it come about? It was argued that while the political climate of the times did not show much promise, Hitler was able to deliver what he promised even if it was based on evil. This gave him ground support. One of the chief supporters of Hitler, and Aman who…… [Read More]

References

Abzug, Robert H. 1985. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi

Concentration Camps. Oxford University Press: New York.

Aroneanu, Eugene; Whissen, Thomas. 1996. Inside the Concentration Camps:

Eyewitness Accounts of Life in Hitler's Death Camps. Praeger: Westport, CT.
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Mein Kampf Is a Chilling

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78908189



The ban on Mein Kampf has become less effective because of the Internet. The Internet allows German citizens to access copies of Mein Kampf online. More importantly, the legal rights to Mein Kampf are controlled by the state of Bavaria. Those rights expire in 2015, at which point the book becomes public domain and may be republished at will. The German government currently faces a controversial decision: whether or not to republish Mein Kampf.

The strongest argument in favor of republishing Mein Kampf is that the book has historical and educational import. Scholars hope to publish annotated copies that clarify key facts and illustrate context. The online copies do not contain any scholastic notes that inform the reader of the false data contained in Hitler's autobiography. Just as Hitler inflated his hatred of the Jews, the autobiographical data is often "inaccurate," ("Mein Kampf: Nazi Germany"). Hitler painted a positive image…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Mein Kampf: Nazi Germany." Spartacus International. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERmein.htm

Paterson, Tony. "German Jews want 'Mein Kampf' Reprinted.'" The Independent. 10 Aug 2009. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 from  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/german-jews-want-mein-kampf-reprinted-1769960.html 

Sautter, Ursula. "Should Mein Kampf be Un-Banned?" Time. 13 Aug 2008. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1831786,00.html

Smith, David Gordon. "Should Germany Republish 'Mein Kampf'?" Spiegel Online. 17 Jul 2007. Retrieved Nov 13, 2009 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,494891,00.html
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Cultural Differences and Symbolic Interpretation

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62559226

In Russia, any display of the swastika would generate a hostile response, just as it does in virtually all other Western cultures and societies simply because of the social context in which it was first introduced in the 20th century.

The Swastika in Buddhist and Hindu Social Culture:

Prior to the 20th century, the swastika was used in various ancient and medieval societies in a manner that had no relation to its subsequent revival and adoption by the Nazis many centuries later (Macionis, 2003). In some respects, it was adopted many different times as a fairly common symbol in so many different societies mainly because of its geometric simplicity and its symmetry. In many Far Eastern societies, particularly among Buddhists and Hindus, the swastika is a symbol that has decorated temples and other culturally significant structures for thousands of years.

In fact, in Thailand, where both Buddhism and Hinduism are…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, R. (2007). Psychology and Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Myers, D.G., Spencer, S.J. (2004). Social Psychology. Toronto, Canada: McGraw-Hill.
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Camus France WWII France Under

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34790877

Throughout his play, collective devastation is met with personal suffering. It is only when this becomes a shared suffering that it can become a collective way to redemption. The divides of a war now over would give way to this shared experience for all peoples of France, charged with the responsibility of rebuilding.

Indeed, this speaks much to the futility of war itself, as spoke by Camus when he resolves that "all a man could win in the conflict between plague and life was knowledge and memories" (Camus, 262). The viewpoint expressed here is in informed by the severity of World War II and the unprecedented global experience of attempting to be removed from this trauma. In the resolution instigative of this discussion, we can see that Camus holds on to some sense that man is inherently more a good creature than a bad one, and that he is to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camus, Albert. The Plague. 1947. NY: McGraw Hill, 1965.
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Mahler and Strauss Both Gustav

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16372751

In fact, in 1968 Stanley Kubrick chose Strauss's tone poem "Also Sprach Zarathustra" as the theme music for the science fiction film 2001: A Space Odyssey. Strauss's inspiration for the tone poem also happened to be avant garde fellow German philosopher Friedrich Nietzche.

Strauss's and Mahler's willingness to be innovative and creative led to considerable criticism as well as acclaim. The compositions of both Strauss and Mahler are filled with an emotional intensity that reflects the troubled times and political chaos they lived through. Richard Strauss's "Metamorphosen" was purportedly composed as a reaction piece to the Nazi bombings. The emotionality present in the works of both composers places them squarely within the late Romantic tradition.

One of the most noticeable characteristics of a Mahler composition, especially evident in his symphonies, is layering, polyphony, and eclecticism. A Mahler composition wanders through peaks and valleys of different terrains, even shifting key and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coy, David E. "Richard Strauss Biography." 15 Nov 2000. Retrieved Nov 24, 2008 at http://people.unt.edu/~dmeek/dec-straussbio.html

Gustav Mahler." 8Notes.com Retrieved Nov 24, 2008 at  http://www.8notes.com/biographies/mahler.asp 

Richard Strauss." Classical Net. Retrieved Nov 24, 2008 at http://www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/straussr.php

Sadie, Stanley (Ed.) "Gustav Mahler." Classical Music Pages. 2000. Retrieved Nov 24, 2008 at http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/mahler.html
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Unlike Most of Chaplin's Films

Words: 2031 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37692584

It is a humorous take on the time of unrest between the two World Wars, when Germany smarting from the ignominious defeat after the First World War allowed Hitler to take charge. This led to the large scale extermination of the Jewish people. This film is about what might have been if Hitler had a change of heart. This film also underhandedly mentions the Great Depression. In the last speech of the movie, the Charlie Chaplin character, the barber, who is mistaken for Adenoid Hynkel, bemoans greed and the loss of democarcy. This Jewish barber also calls for peace and for soldiers to drop their weapons and fight against those who would enslave them and force them to resort to untold instances of violence. The fact that this film was made in 1940 is remarkable and shows great courage on the part of Chaplin. The war was still five years…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ceausescu. (2008). Ceausescu, Nicolae. Retrieved May 13, 2008, at  http://www.ceausescu.org/ 

Eyewitnesstohistory. (1994). The Forced Suicide of Rommel. Retrieved May 14, 2008, at http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/rommel.htm

IMDB. (2008). The Great Dictator. Retrieved May 13, 2008, at http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0032553/

WrongDiagnosis. (2008). Ptomaine Poisoning. Retrieved May 13, 2008, at http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/p/ptomaine_food_poisoning/intro.htm
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Jewish Women's Response to the

Words: 2820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97565872

52).

The eyes of the women... showed how cruelly one was once again torn from the illusion of a normal middleclass existence.... That more and more each day the Jew was becoming fair game was the devastating realization that underscored every experience of this kind (Kaplan, 1998, p. 52)."

The look of the German woman, on the other hand, became one of increasing masculinity with their sense of superiority, which could not have been achieved without denigrating all things Jewish, including Jewish women. Irene Guenther (2004) writes"

On May 10, 1933, Propaganda Chief Goebbels met with Bella Fromm to discuss a fashion show that was being planned at the racetrack club in Berlin. Fromm, the social columnist for the Vossische Zeitung, one of several newspapers published by Ullstein Verlag, had been staging these shows for quite some time. At their meeting, Goebbels informed Fromm that he was satisfied with her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29226652

Cosner, Shaaron, and Victoria Cosner. Women under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29226652.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102309121

Fox, Jo. Filming Women in the Third Reich / . Oxford: Berg, 2000. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102309122.
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Wiener Werkstatte the Gesamtkunstwerk in

Words: 3692 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71835080

The actual construction was the work of ast (Villa ast). Similar to his previous creation, classicism is captured within the "fluted pillars" and "lateral projections." Numerous ornaments, such as pearl, egg-and-dart, and leaf moldings, are incorporated. Notable sculptures include one by Anton Hanak, above the tall windows on the right side of the house. Hoffmann's geometric motifs are also detected through the verticals and latticework. The furnishings also bear geometric grid patterns. Specific features include square flowers and lozenge patterns with complementary colors of white and black (white and gold is used as well). An overall impression of lightness is also achieved, with high stairwells, freestanding marble columns, and decorative glasswork. Notably, the design of the garden was intended to give off an exclusive impression. The terraces (some semi-cylindrical, some not) and ground level disparities instigate a conservative sense. In contrast, freedom is also employed with the rich modulations of…… [Read More]

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Austria Which Influenced Hitler and

Words: 5425 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6458210

During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany.

With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867, with over 400 new corporations being founded (Pulzer 1964) from 1867 to 1872. This was the age of the Gruender, which meant "entrepreneur," but also came to be associated with financially shaky schemes which resulted in the bursting of a speculative bubble in 1873.

The period of the Liberal government spanned from 1867 to 1879, a period during which Austria lost its power and prestige, unemployment and economic insecurity reigned, and newly-vociferous minorities were exerting their rights to equality in language and culture. In the meantime, Germany seemed to be growing from success to success, as its liberalization engendered national unity and a growth in wealth and military power.

Conservative Ascendancy in Austria

The nature of the conservatives in Austria was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burant, S.R. Hungary: A Country Study. Washington: Library of Congress, 1989.

Campbell, D.P. The SHADOW of the HABSBURGS: MEMORY and NATIONAL IDENTITY in AUSTRIAN POLITICS and EDUCATION 1918-1955. PhD Thesis, College Park: University of Maryland, 2006.

Grandner, M. Conservative Social Politics in Austria, 1880-1890. Working Papaer 94-2, Vienna: University of Vienna, 1994.

Habe, H. Our Love Affair with Germany. New York: Putnam, 1953.
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Stalin Anti-Semitism the Era of

Words: 2316 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93345369

There is a clear sense that Stalin and other officials had differing views and therefore actions, that depended almost entirely on the needs of the nation, as they perceived them, at the time the decisions were made.

Prior to 1948, the Soviet Union's record concerning Jews was mixed. On the one hand, Lenin, the first leader of the Soviet Union, had consistently and vigorously condemned anti-Semitism, and in the late 1920s and 1930s Stalin had acted to stamp out public manifestations of anti-Semitism. (36) on the other hand, Stalin began in the late 1930s to suppress and destroy Jewish cultural activities and institutions. The arrests and show trials of 1936-1938 included an attack upon many leading Jewish communists. Further, government tolerance of popular anti-Semitism no doubt influenced the considerable collaboration of Soviet citizens with the Nazi Holocaust.

Regardless of the overall anti-Semitic stance of the party, and Stalin it was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barbusse, Henri. Stalin: A New World Seen through One Man. Translated by Holland, Vyvyan. New York: Macmillan, 1935.

Brustein, William I. Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe before the Holocaust. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Byrnes, Robert F. "The Climax of Stalinism, 1950-1953" Annals of the American Acedemy of Political and Social Science, 313 (May 1958), 8-11.

Kostyrchenko, Gennadi. Out of the Red Shadows: Anti-Semitism in Stalin's Russia. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1995.
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Downfall the Movie Downfall the

Words: 815 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71551458

He is simply overlooked by the other Hitler fanatics who are so caught up in the mob mentality that was so representative of Nazi Germany. Rather than come to his senses, Hitler would rather scorch the earth, or enact the Demolitions of Reich Territory Decree, which was the mass suicide of the German people who remained during the last few weeks of the war.

In this madness, there was a continual belief that the Germans will still win the war, despite the clear fact that the Soviet Army was already well on its way to taking Berlin.

There was not really another possible outcome, because of the social conditions and the practices of the upcoming Nazi regime within Germany at the time. The mob mentality has swept over Germany, because there were no easy solutions to the problems facing the German people. Economic hardships after World War I had caused…… [Read More]

References

Arbury, J., 2011, "Impact of Nazism on German Society," Essays, Web, http://portal.jarbury.net/essay/nazigermany.html

Hickman, Kennedy, 2012, "Effects of the Treaty of Versailles," World War II Europe: The Road to War, Web, http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.

Hirschbiegel, Oliver, 2004, Downfall, Constantin Film Producktion.

Hirschbiegel, Oliver, 2004, Downfall, Constantin Film Producktion.
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Ethics -- History and Good It Gives

Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65275744

Ethics -- "History and Good." It gives a summary and analysis of the chapter, besides a short introduction on the author and the book.

Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945), German theologian firmly believed that the foundation of ethical behavior lay in the reality of the world and the reality of God -- both being reconciled in the reality of Christ. All his life, he called for "responsible" action against evil and was sharply critical of ethical theories, which avoided such direct action. Bonhoeffer lived and practiced his ethical beliefs by confronting the evil of Hitler's Nazism that he saw rising at close range in his home country. His uncompromising stance against the Nazis ultimately cost him his life when he was arrested in 1943 for his part in a conspiracy against Hitler and was hanged in the weeks before Hitler's own suicide and the end of the Second World War in Europe.…… [Read More]

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U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 3511 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23289174

S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the Rwandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.

Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…… [Read More]

References

Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:

Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm

Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at  http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html 

Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
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Do Heidegger's Political Views Influence His Metaphysical Views

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66357234

Heidegger and Hitler

Proponents of Heidegger's metaphysical viewpoint are reluctant to identify a relationship between it and the opprobrious Nazi regime which Heidegger supported from 1933 to 1945. Critics of Heidegger, however, view the relationship between his metaphysics and his politics as significant. One might well ask, therefore, whether the relationship is real or only apparent -- whether the tenets of National Socialism are found in Heidegger's philosophy, or whether the fact that the two came from one man is merely a coincidence that ultimately means little.

Yet, by the formula of his own analysis (set forth in Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event), one can see that Heidegger's metaphysics cannot be separated from his politics anymore than he himself can be separated from the environment and context in which he came to maturity. But while some scholars view Heidegger's political views as having an impact on his metaphysical views,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Farias, Victor. Heidegger and Nazism. PA: Temple University Press, 1987. Print.

Gillespie, Michael Allen. Hegel, Heidegger, and the Ground of History. IL: University

of Chicago Press, 1984. Print.

Heidegger, Martin. Contributions to Philosophy: Of the Event. IN: Indiana University
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Framing Testimony

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61722409

Auschwitz gave to Promo Levi when he dared to ask the "Why?" question. To be sure, the guard was simply attempting to be cynical and sarcastic rather than reflective or philosophical, but LaCapra is also critical of Claude Lanzmann for failing to ask this question enough in Shoah. All of the Germans who Lanzmann interviewed were either perpetrators of complicit bystanders, and they spent a great deal of time explaining what, where and how the Holocaust happened, while also denying or minimizing their own responsibility. Franz Suchomel, the S.S. guard at Treblinka, was a notable exception to this rule, but Lanzmann interviewed him with a hidden camera after promising to keep his identity anonymous. Almost all of the Jewish survivors described what happened in painful detail, and Lanzmann's preference was to make them literally relive their experiences, but they were not asked why. With a few exceptions the resistance leader…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

LaCapra, Dominick. "Lanzmann's Shoah: "Here There Is No Why." Critical Inquiry, Vol. 23. No. 2, Winter 1997: 231-69.

Levi, Primo. The Drowned and the Saved. NY: Summit Books, 1986.
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Casablanca Rick Blaine

Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47558592

Rick Blaine in Casablanca

Casablanca is the 1942 film that explores how people behave when confronted with the choice to help others regardless of personal attachments. In the film, Rick Blaine runs a cafe, aptly called Rick's Cafe, which serves as a front for an illegal casino in addition to being a safe haven for people that are attempting to flee Morocco and the Nazis that have slowly taken over the city. While some people, like Rick, give the impression that they are trying to stay out of the rising conflict that is arising between French Resistance fighters and Nazis, others' alliances and loyalties will be dictated by the people they work for. In Casablanca, Captain Louis Renault is, at first, indifferent to Rick's businesses, but is pressured into choosing between what is right and what his job requires. While Renault accuses Rick of being a "sentimentalist" and "a man…… [Read More]

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Class and Economic Concerns in the Films

Words: 1764 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10482254

Economic Concerns in Film

Metropolis, Invasion of the Body Snatchers and La Jetee span four decades, although the latter two could be considered examples of Cold War science fiction. Metropolis was set during the Weimar Republic, although certain scenes were eerily prophetic of Nazism, but in reality the city itself could also have been New York or any other urban center of the future. For director Fritz Lang, the city was a symbol of Fordist mass production and mass consumption, with the workers down below brutalized by poverty, hunger and dull, routine, robot-like jobs, while at the same time, the middle and upper classes above were also dehumanized by mindless hedonism and nihilism, or dull, conformist clerical and administrative world. Dehumanization was also a major theme of La Jetee, in which the survivors of a nuclear holocaust live underground, lacking even the basic necessities of food, water and medical care,…… [Read More]

references to these. Only superficially does the world of Santa Mira still resemble an American town, since the main work of its residents had become production and distribution of seed pods, which they distributed to surrounding towns. In this work, they were like a totalitarian hive of worker bees or ants, having only the instinct to survive. Of course, they also had to eliminate any internal dissent by converting everyone in town to creatures like themselves, with Dr. Miles Bennell and his lover Becky Driscoll as the last human holdouts. They attempt to escape, with everyone in town pursuing them, although Miles loses Becky when she falls asleep and turns into one of 'them'. Only at the very end did Miles manage to convince the humans on the outside that they are in grave danger and that the authorities must be called in to deal with Santa Mira before this alien virus spreads completely out of control.

Both Body Snatchers and Metropolis have happy endings, even though these feel more than a bit contrived, while La Jetee is grim from start to finish. Civilization survives in the first two films, even though the real question might be whether such a society should have survived at all. Lang's vision of middle class charity and humanitarianism bringing about a reconciliation of capital and labor looks very unlikely given the extreme divisions presented between the underground and aboveground worlds in that film. Nazism restrained class conflict mainly by abolishing organized labor and leftist political parties, and using police state methods against all dissent, and history shows that the workers only received justice and a fair share of the social pie when they were politically well organized and able to vote. La Jetee does not even make a pretense that civilization is being saved, since what little of it survived the Third World War resembled an underground Nazi concentration camp, with prisoners experimented upon and exterminated to suit the needs of their overlords. Both of these films reflect grimmer European historical circumstances that Body Snatchers, which is certainly a disturbing and creepy film by American standards, but with a Hollywood ending in which the hero saves the day in the end. Although the world of the pod people in Santa Mira still looks like Middle America on the surface, they have all been infected by some alien virus that turns their town into a totalitarian police state run by zombies, robots and clone, lacking human individuality, desires and emotions. In fact, their all-American town was starting to look too much like something in Germany and Russia, which is why it hard to be destroyed in the end.
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Freak Show in From Stage to Page

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35211219

Freak Show

In "From Stage to Page: Franz Kafka, Djuna Barnes, and Modernism's Freak Fictions," Blyn argues, "we can find direct links between Kafka's and Barnes's notoriously opaque fictions and the premier low culture form of their era, the freak show or display of human curiosities," (135). Moreover, the authors' respective engagement with the trope of the freak show serves a distinct political motive: to subvert modernist aesthetics and to ironically predict the twisted horrors of fascism and Nazism. Written prior to the emergence of fascism and Nazism on the world stage, Kafka's body of work and Barnes's too seem prescient in light of their mocking the carnevalesque. Central to Blyn's argument is an understanding of the difference between the carnival and the freak show. The freak show was, for one, a side attraction at a carnival and thus deviant even within the spectacle of the carnival. The freak show…… [Read More]

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Reasons for Conflict

Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74836713

Religion and War

As long as religion has been part of human history, it has been the cause of several kinds of conflict. These conflicts could be minor disagreements between individuals, such as the one regarding a certain point of theology. Arguments could also arise among groups, such as different denominations of Christianity. This is much like the above-mentioned theological differences; only on a wider scale. On a less friendly footing, extreme types of conflict such as intolerance towards other religions and certain social groups is also not unusual among religions. The most extreme form of religious conflict is probably war. Here too, there are many examples, including the Christian Crusades spawned by Constantine and one of his visions. In ancient Old Testament times, the Israelites were constantly battling other nations in the name of their God. A victory would then mean that God has favored them, while a defeat…… [Read More]

References

Abizadeh, A. (2011, May) Hobbes on the Causes of War: A Disagreement Theory. American Political Science Review. 105 (2). Retrieved from: http://profs-polisci.mcgill.ca/

Casimir, A., Nwaoga, C.T., and Ogbozor, C. (2014). Religion, Violence, Poverty and Underdevelopment in West Africa: Issues and Challenges of Boko Haram Phenomenon in Nigeria. Open Journal of Philosophy. 4(1). Retrieved from: http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojpp

Glaser, S. (2012, Apr. 12). State and Religion: Austrian Quaker Nazi Identity in World War II. Thesis retrieved from: http://thesis.haverford.edu/

McCullough, M. (2011, May). "My Brother's Keeper": Civil Religion, Messianic Interventionism, and the Spanish-American War of 1898. Thesis retrieved from: etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/
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Human Rights Universalism and Relativism

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76795277

film A Force More Powerful shows how nonviolent political protest has a universal component. Although the most famous nonviolent movements include those of Gandhi and King, there are many other lesser-known movements that have created meaningful and lasting change without the use of brute force, war, or weapons. These movements began with a commitment to human rights, and were inherently based on improving human rights in their respective locations. In so doing, nonviolent movements have radically altered political paradigms and points-of-view worldwide.

Nonviolent political movements have changed the discourse of human rights, allowing for a fusion of universalist and relativist approaches. For example, the Gandhi movement was unique to India and the needs of the subcontinent. Without diverging from the fundamental tenets of Indian morality and worldview, Gandhi nevertheless created a universal movement based on the ultimate view that all human beings are equal and that colonialism is erroneously based…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A Force More Powerful. {Feature Film}

Campbell, Patricia J., MacKinnon, Aran, and Stevens, Christy R. An Introduction to Global Studies. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
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The Globalization Phenomenon

Words: 1170 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34009438

The phenomenon of globalization is a very controversial one, as some people are against it despite the fact that they are aware that the process is unavoidable. From the early ages people have felt the need to socialize and civilizations have been absorbed into one another. The process of globalization has both advantages and disadvantages, but, people are dedicated to making it happen regardless to the consequences that their actions have.
The human race started building civilization several millennia ago, and, from there on, humans have become addicted to it. It is in the human nature to constantly seek for advancement and to interact with others. One of the main disadvantages that civilization poses, however, is that is provides better grounds for evil to develop. Crimes are taken to a whole new level in the modern world. Another disadvantage that globalization brings is the fact that vices are also advancing…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Hopkins, A.G. "Globalization in World History" .
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[1] Hopkins, A.G. "Globalization in World History" .
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Hannah Arendt Jews and Politics

Words: 3522 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90404573



The economy of the totalitarian state must be effectively directed with only so much control that the system can be directed effectively; it must obtain growth and combat economic problems to the best of its ability so as to ensure political, social and economic stability.

Conversely, Arendt argues that "the totalitarian dictator regards the natural and industrial riches of each country & #8230; as a source of loot and a means of preparing the next step of aggressive expansion."

Arendt thus labels the totalitarian economy as a war economy, but it is not necessary for a totalitarian leader to adopt such an economy as such economies finance expansionistic foreign policies and totalitarianism does not have to have an international focus; rather it must have a national focus. Arendt is too specific on this point and is once again directly attacking Hitler rather than discussing the realities of totalitarianism. Totalitarianism does…… [Read More]

References

Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. London: Andre Deutsch, 1951.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew, and Carl Friedrich. Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.

Dennett, Bruce, and Stephen Dixon. Key Features of Modern History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

McCallum, Anne. Germany: 1918-1945 . Port Melbourne: Rigby Heinemann, 1992.
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Conflict on Various Levels Is

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88239712

The same might be said for those who committed torture in the Nazi camps.

Importantly, Austin et al. (2004, p. 161) note that both violence and non-violence are cumulative in nature. It is therefore important to recognize that the existence of violence perpetuates further violence, while the same is true for non-violence. This is also an important recognition in the international sphere.

Schelling (1960, p. 53) notes that international violence an also be manifest in terms of the concept of "limited war." This means that short conflicts could result when agreements cannot be reached within a certain amount of time. On the other hand, the limited war also requires some degree of mutual recognition or acquiescence. Once war begins, negotiation and communication among adversaries become difficult. The recent situation and Egypt and the current situation in Libya appear to be cases in point for this assertion.

Finally, in international relations,…… [Read More]

References

Baldwin, D.A. (2002). Power and International Relations. Handbook of International Relations, editors Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. And Simmons, B.A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE

Schelling, T. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Barak, G. (2003). Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding, Sage Publications.

Azar, E. (1990) the Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases. Bookfield, VT: Gower Pub. Co.
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Niebuhr Reinhold Niebuhr if There

Words: 1456 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30816663

" (Bains)

World War II had a tremendous impact on Reinhold Niebuhr and his theological thinking. In light of the actions of Hitler and the Japanese, his "Christian Realism" theory forced him to re-examine many of his previous views on the world. Niebuhr severed all socialist connections after Hitler and Stalin signed a non-aggression pact in 1939 and was a staunch supporter of America's entry into the war. He viewed sin as part of the world, felt it was more important to have justice in the world than universal love, felt the pacifist movement was unable to stop sin in the world, and that power could be balanced by power. He criticized the members of the pacifist movement for using intellectual arguments to respond to real threats. He claimed that the pacifist and non-interventionists "…shrouded the conflict in an ambiguity that operatively established a 'moral equivalency' between Nazism and the…… [Read More]

References

Bains, David R. "Conduits of Faith: Reinhold Niebuhr's Liturgical Thought." Church

History 73.01 (2004): 168. Print.

Berke, Matthew. "Print Edition | First Things." Home | First Things. 03 Mar. 2000. Web

01 Mar. 2011.
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Reducing Citizen Complaints a Growing

Words: 3696 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49002943

g. A Police Office in a large metropolitan area like New York will have different duties and dangers than a County Sheriff in a rural Oklahoma area) (Barlow, 2000).

Rightly so, modern society has a certain level of expectations for its military and law enforcement branches. While it is known that both must, at times, deal with the underside of society, it is also assumed that the group will rise above base and animalistic reactions and upload both the law and a sense of compassion -- coupled with self-preservation and safety. Officers are often in danger of infectious disease, motor vehicle fatalities, apprehension of persons under substance abuse, and line of duty deaths are not uncommon. For instance, approximately 200 police officers die per year in the United States, with over half of those deaths from direct assaults from suspects or criminals (Robert, 2008). Still, individuals are sociologically drawn to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Amnesty International, (2007), Amnesty International Report 2007. Cited in:

http://archive.amnesty.org/report2007/

Baker, T. (2005), Effective Police Leadership, Looseleaf Law Books.

Barlow, D. (2000). Police in a Multicultural Society. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
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Stephen Ambrose's 1994 Book D-Day

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69030188



Ambrose condemns the political system in Germany because it presented soldiers with little options in time of warfare. Germans were not allowed to act in accordance to their own thinking in critical times, as they were always required to respond to orders, regardless of the irrationality of those respective orders. The writer uses Germany's totalitarian system as proof that Americans were superior. In his opinion, the fact that they were free to express themselves any time they had the chance to do so rendered Americans more capable of emerging successful from a series of events that took place on June 6, 1944. In spite of the fact that Ambrose nonetheless managed to produce an accurate history book relating to the landings in Normandy, his writing would have probably been more convincing if he were to describe German troops to the same degree to which he described Americans.

It is almost…… [Read More]

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History of Popular Nationalism Wiebe

Words: 894 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74893054

But Nazism was, in fact, an internationalist movement of expansion, much like the expansionist aims of the Soviet state. Similarly, what is most feared today is not Islamic nationalism, but rather Islamic fundamentalist internationalism, the result of the Arab Muslim world's "shallow-rooted, kleptocratic" authorities that preside over disenfranchised "impoverished Moslem populations" with little sense of national loyalty (Wiebe 204). In his conclusion, Wiebe argues for a weaker nation state with more deeply-rooted local and less expansionistic ties as the antidote to the negative effects of nationalism.

At the end of Wiebe's preface to his book, he writes: "my hope is not that you will come to like nationalism -- I am not its advocate -- but that you will come to see it as so thoroughly human that no simple judgment does it justice" (Wiebe xvii). However, while Wiebe may be fair in reproaching most American's poor sense of history…… [Read More]

Reference

Wiebe, Robert. Who we are: A history of popular nationalism. Princeton: Princeton

University Press, 2001.
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United States Still the World's

Words: 3011 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27607486



Models of Media and Politics

A review of media / political models sheds some light on why the United States' cultural themes have been such a dominant dynamic in Europe, among other global venues. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe (the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model") is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven (Hallin, et al., 2004 90). The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics (Hallin 87).

The North Atlantic or Democratic Corporatist model, according to Mark a. Baker II encompasses Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the "Low Countries" and Scandinavia, and can be broken down into three…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arango, Tim, 2008, 'World Falls for American Media, Even as it Sours on America. The New York Times, Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from  http://www.nytimes.com .

Artz, Lee, and Kamalipour, Yahya, 2007, the Media Globe: Trends in International Mass Media. Rowman & Littlefield: Landham, MD.

Baker, Mark a., 2010, 'Hallin & Mancini, the North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model by: Mark a. Baker II', Global Media. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://globalmediastudies.blogspot.com.

Hallin, Daniel C., and Mancini, Paolo, 2004, Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge University Press: New York.
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Visiting the Holocaust Museum it

Words: 1808 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33879681

However, seeing those bags of shaved prisoner hair, I came to understand how much of the impetus for the Holocaust was financial. Hitler may have had an irrational, psychotic hatred of Jews, but the Holocaust could not have occurred with the systemic dehumanization of a group of people. The Nazis harvested Jews for body parts. They used their bones for fertilizer and, as proven by the bags of hair, used their hair to upholster furniture. It was death for profit.

The fact that it was death for profit makes me concerned that genocide could occur in the United States. Right now, especially in border states, illegal immigrants are routinely exploited as a source of cheap labor, while people vehemently argue against offering them citizenship. There is a huge amount of racial animosity towards Mexicans and South Americans, especially in these border states. Furthermore, like post-World War I Germany, the United…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Background." Nowhere to Turn: Plight of German Jews in Nazi Germany, 1933-1941.

Minnesota State University, 2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2010.

"Holocaust Denial." Jewish Virtual Library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise,

2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2010.
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Bedford Ave All the World's

Words: 2491 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92985517

it's been fun, but I don't really know anyone here. I don't really do the bar scene, and that's pretty much what everyone else who lives in my building does. So I guess it's time to look for somewhere else."

Required: A Little Extra Green

Although those living in Manhattan would probably still think of the neighborhood as a bargain, by a more objective standard (and during a recession), the rents are certainly not conducive to anyone without a firm standing in the upper ranges of the middle class.

A 1000-foot apartment at Bedford and Third, for example, boasts "recent renovation" at $2,900 a month.

Whatever might be left over after rent might be spent at Antidote Chocolate. One particularly interesting aspect of the fact that this chain has moved into the neighborhood is that most of its stores reside in far-pricier and more established neighborhoods.

This suggests not only…… [Read More]

References

Antidote Chocolate. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.antidotechoco.com/flavors.php

Duane Reade Cracks the Secret to Williamsburg Success: Beer! (2011). Retrieved from http://ny.curbed.com/archives/2011/01/14/duane_reade_cracks_the_secret_to_williamsburg_success_beer.php#reader_comments

Free Williamsburg. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.freewilliamsburg.com/bars/archives/bedford_avenue_stop/

Hotpads.com. (2011). Retrieved from http://hotpads.com/apartments/Bedford-Avenue-and-N-3rd-Street-Brooklyn-NY-11211 -- 1rjevj0kynq3v#lat=40.715583&lon=-73.960139&zoom=20&previewId=1rjevj0kynq3v&previewType=listing&detailsOpen=true&listingTypes=rental, sublet, room, corporate&loan=30,0.0525,0
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French Scholars Delves Deeply Into

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54826128

A few days later the judge (Jean-Jacques Gomez) ordered Yahoo to "take all measure of a nature to dissuade and to render impossible all consultation…of the online sale of Nazi objects…or any other site or service that constitutes an apology of Nazism or a contestation of Nazi crimes" (p. 138).

The response from Yahoo co-founder Jerry Yang was that the French court does not have jurisdiction over an American company; "Asking us to filter access to our content according to the nationality of an internaut is very naive" (p. 138). Basically Yang was saying we won't obey your order and become a censor. The worst part of this for Yahoo was the media exposure; headlines had "Yahoo" and "Nazi" in the same sentence was a public relations disaster for Yahoo. When Yahoo decided to remove all Nazi-related materials (except anti-Nazi items) from its pages that still didn't put the controversy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Le Menestrel, Marc, Hunter, Mark, and de Bettignies, Henri-Claude. (2002). Internet e-ethics

In Confrontation with an Activists' Agenda: Yahoo! On Trial. Journal of Business Ethics,

Vol. 39, 135-144.
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Nuanced Face of Zionism it

Words: 4726 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91472133

Rather, it was more a question of magical thinking: Ben-Gurion wanted a place for Jews and his desire was sufficiently strong that it blinded him to the nature of Palestinian self-definition and identity.

Another point that I will examine in greater detail later that would change Ben-Gurion's views towards Arab nationalism was that he could not, in the 1930s predict the extent of the Holocaust. The death of so many Jews so quickly would rewrite the equation -- for Ben-Gurion as well as others -- of the relationship between Jews and Arabs.

At the same time that Ben-Gurion was pushing to create an increasingly powerful economic base of Jewish workers and employers, Lockman writes, he was at the same time denying the legitimacy of Palestinians claims to Arab nationalistic authority and strongly arguing that Jews had a far stronger claim to the land. This is perhaps the best-known understanding of…… [Read More]

Judea Pearl. "Early Zionists and Arabs," in Middle East Quarterly, Fall 2008, p. 75.

Martin Gilbert. Israel: A History. London: Black Swan, 1998, p. 16.

Colin Shindler. A History of Modern Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 12.
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U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 3090 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8617183

President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.

In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation Rolling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).

Richard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…… [Read More]

References

An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.

Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html

The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at  http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp 

Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
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Meg Whitman CEO Ebay Meg

Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39449010

These are best portrayed as the desires for "attracting more customers; expanding the goods traded on the site; spreading eBay to more global markets; making the user experience more fun, exciting and easier; and acquiring Internet companies to become a full-service retailer" (Change Competence Business Case). On the other hand, the chief executive officer was able to make the people believe in these goals, and work hard to support the company in reaching them. Even as early as the recruiting and selection processes, Whitman argues that they look for energetic people who are easily integrated and motivated by the company's mission. Ultimately, all employees see Whitman as a model worth following, as, through the force of example, she "makes you want to do the right thing" (Change Competence Business Case).

The superior managerial skills of Meg Whitman have proven their worth in numerous corporate endeavors, but even more so in…… [Read More]

References:

Van Wagner, K., 2009, Transformational Leadership, About, http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/transformational.htm last accessed on November 20, 2009

2009, Transactional Leadership, Changing Minds,  http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm  last accessed on November 20, 2009

Change Competence Business Case -- Meg Whitman, CEO of eBay
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Aryan Nation Although Not the

Words: 2442 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97141798

The Aryan Nations Web site describes Redfearin as "an individual of cunning mind, violent tendencies and radical outlook who aided in the evolution of the Aryan Nations worldview as the organization moved into a future which was very different than that perhaps originally envisioned by the Aryan activists of past generations."

Aryan Nations as a Terrorist Organization

Setbacks since the 1990s has largely left the Aryan Nations a "shadow of its former self," (Hoffman 2006, 110). However small its membership might be relative to the population as a whole, the Aryan Nations remains a formidable force. The organization's Web site indicates a slight ideological change, towards more radical and violent approaches to creating a constant state of "revolution" to dismantle the current social and political order (Aryan Nations). The Aryan Nations remains committed to racial purification but "it is prerequisite and indeed necessary that 'the System' be disrupted and broken…… [Read More]

References

Al-Khattar, Aref M. 2003. Religion and Terrorism; An Interfaith Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Aryan Nations. http://www.aryan-nations.org / (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).

Borgeson, Kevin, and Valeri, Robin. 2009. Terrorism in America. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Aryan Nation." http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/anation.htm (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
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Politics Herz 1957 Surmises That

Words: 1838 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44634847

However, she concludes that the effect of PMCs, as a whole, cannot be determined by this one example. Supply in the current PMC market has a tendency to self-perpetuate. As more PMCs enter the market, new threats are developed that the firms provide protection against. "Moreover, demand does not penalize firms that service 'illegitimate;' clients in general. Consequently, the number of actors who can wield control over the use of force is limited mainly by their ability to pay." (605). This results in a draining of current security institutions resources. Their security coverage is worsened. By increasing the availability of military force, more actors are involved in conflict and less reason is needed to contest existing institutions, destabilizing nations.

Conclusion:

Herz (1957) was correct in his understanding that the territorial states of yesteryear are forever changed. Sovereignty in today's world is tenuous at best. International law has been created to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arquilla, J. & Ronfeldt, D. "Cyberwar is Coming!" Comparative Stategy. 12.2. (Spring 1993): 141-165.

Herz, J. "Rise and Demise of the Territorial State." World Politics 9.4. (Jul 1957): 473-493.

Homer-Dixon, T. "The Rise of Complex Terrorism." Foreign Policy. 128. (Jan-Feb 2002): 52-62.

Leander, a. "The Market for Force and Public Security: The Destabilizing Consequences of Private Military Companies." Journal of Peace Research. 42.5. (2005): 605-622.
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Immigration and Society Views From

Words: 3458 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92184928

Alien Nation is organized onto fifteen chapters, divided into three parts:

(1) Introduction;

Part I: Truth: (2) the View from the Tenth Circle; (3) the Pincers; (4) How Did it Happen? (5) Why Did it Happen? (6) So What?

Part II: Consequences: (7) Immigration Has Consequences: Economics; (8) Immigration Has (More) Consequences: Economics II; (9) Immigration Has Consequences: Cultural, Social, Environmental...; (10) Immigration Has Consequences: Political Power; (11) Immigration Has Consequences: A Less Perfect Union; (12) Immigration Has Consequences: The War against the Nation-State; (13) Doing the Right Thing? The Morality of Immigration;

Part III: Shipwreck and Salvage: (14) What, Then, Is to Be Done? (15) Conclusion: The Bowels of Christ?

Brimelow commences his book by seeking the genesis of the immigration problem and finds that it is linked to the massacres conducted by totalitarian regimes. To better explain, the author of Alien Nation… believes that the rulers of the…… [Read More]

References:

Brimelow, P., 1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, Random House

Lind, M., 1995, the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution, Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group

Reilly, J.J., the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Forth American Republic, http://www.johnreilly.info/tna.htm last accessed on September 1, 2009

1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, National Vanguard Magazine, Edition of November-December, No. 115
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Plato Republic- His Plan Fo

Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60071273



Plato's work is idealistic and, as such, some of the rationale behind many of the conclusions he draws on do not necessarily have a logical or practical motivation. Nevertheless, they are logically tied to most of the assumptions he makes in his work, which is why his conclusions could, ideally, be transposed into the society he had projected. The most important conclusion of his work may be that each part of society is closely related and coordinated with all the others. This is why issues such as education and general knowledge will need to be customized so as to best fit the needs of society and to support the governing infrastructure.… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Danzig, Gabriel, "Rhetoric and the Ring: Herodotus and Plato on the Story of Gyges as a Politically Expedient Tale," Greece & Rome journal, Volume 55, Issue 02, October 2008, Cambridge University Press, 18 August 2008, pp.169-192

2. Dillon, Ariel. 2004. Education in Plato's Republic. Presented at the Santa Clara University Student Ethics Research Conference May 26, 2004. On the Internet at http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/submitted/dillon/education_plato_republic.html. Last retrieved on August 24, 2009

3. Popper, Karl. 2002. The Poverty of Historicism. Routledge, 2nd edition.

4. Claeys, Gregory; Sargent, Lyman Tower. 1999. Utopian Reader. New York University Press.
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Picasso's Psyche as Seen Through

Words: 1854 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28928856

The objectification of the female form in The
Studio illustrates how as a mode of this period his increasing openness to
more traditional curvature and anatomy would merge with cubism to produce
an utterly unique but decipherable perspective on human sexuality.
Accordingly, "these appearances in works such as Woman in an Armchair
and its related studies are mere snippets of anatomy within a Cubist
framework, yet they signal Picasso's uneasiness with Cubism." (Fitzgerald,
49) The uneasiness would not eliminate its presence but show cubism in the
light of surrealist themes. Its garish and unsettling proportions become
ultimately more organic and shocking in this way. To Picasso, this was not
a goal, but an acceptable end to art conducted appropriately. So he would
indicate "when, one day, someone said apropos of nothing in particular that
there can be no sense of shame in art, he answered that painting could
paint anything,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Fitzgerald, M.C. (1996). Making Modernism. University of California
Press.

Flint, L. (2007). Pablo Picasso. Guggenheim Museum. Online at
http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/show-
full/piece/?search=Pablo%20Picasso&page=2&f=People&cr=10
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Nationalism Gender and the Nation

Words: 5424 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31370211

But help is on the way. A Belgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.

The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004

Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at: http://www.iub.edu/~reeiweb/events/2005/graffpaper.pdf

Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004

Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at: http://humanityinaction.org/docs/Reports/2007_Reports_P oland/Dizard_Korte_Z
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Economic and Trade Development the

Words: 2664 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3379747

(Buchanan, 72)

The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…… [Read More]

References

Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.

Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.

Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.

DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,
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Psychological Way of Looking at

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38464983

Certain people might blame this on the high number of immigrants coming into the country and working for less money or stealing in order to sustain themselves.

Racism is harmful for both the oppressor, and the oppressed. Racism can be both physical and nonphysical. When people are physically harassed because of a racism-based reason, it results in victims with physical wounds. On the other hand, when people are suffering nonphysical wounds, it means that their lives are being affected through the fact that they are frequently discriminated. Discrimination poses threats like unemployment and poorer education.

People tend to feel that they should be more privileged than others that recently entered their country. Also, people tend to believe that the fact that those of the same color with them are majority makes them better than those that have a different skin color and form a minority.

Evolution has only proved that…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Charles Quist-Adade, "What Is 'Race' and What Is 'Racism'?," New African, No. 450, April 2006

2. George M. Fredrickson, "Racism: A Short History," Princeton University Press, 2002.

3. Graham Richards, "Race, Racism, and Psychology: Towards a Reflexive History," Routledge, 1997.

4. Jean Lau Chin, "The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination: Racisim in America," Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.
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Chrisopher Brownings Ordinary Men Cristopher

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64223012

Himmler himself came up with an explanation for those who could not obey orders, in spite of their unconditioned obedience, so that their comrades and the rest of the population get a message of a condition in their mental health, rather than a disobedience dictated by their human nature.

Almost a century and a half after the official abolition of slavery of the U.S., a comparison comes to mind. The way the human mind works when it is motivated to see a fellow human lacking it's the most basic element: humanity, in conditions of war and peace appear to be the same. Those who accepted and practiced slavery world wide were coming from different backgrounds and many of them were educated people. They used slaves and never stopped to ask themselves what gave them the right to see them as sub-humans. The comparison between the causes of slavery and those…… [Read More]

Browning's reflections on those few men who stepped out right from the beginning or later, after having shot a few people, show that, as expected, he finds the Nazi propaganda very effective up to a point. Those who were unable to start shooting or to resume shooting, even two decades later, could only testify that they were repulsed by the act. Browning concludes: The absence of such does not mean that their revulsion did not have its origins in the humane instincts that Nazism radically opposed and sought to overcome. But the men themselves did not seem to be conscious of the contradiction between their feelings and the essence of the regime they seved. Beeing too weak to continue shooting, of course, posed problems for the "productivity" and morale of the battalion, but it did not challenge basic police discipline or the authority of the regime in general (Browning, 74). Himmler himself came up with an explanation for those who could not obey orders, in spite of their unconditioned obedience, so that their comrades and the rest of the population get a message of a condition in their mental health, rather than a disobedience dictated by their human nature.

Almost a century and a half after the official abolition of slavery of the U.S., a comparison comes to mind. The way the human mind works when it is motivated to see a fellow human lacking it's the most basic element: humanity, in conditions of war and peace appear to be the same. Those who accepted and practiced slavery world wide were coming from different backgrounds and many of them were educated people. They used slaves and never stopped to ask themselves what gave them the right to see them as sub-humans. The comparison between the causes of slavery and those of mass executions in the case of the Order Police battalions are, of course, stretched and disregarding the most important element of all: the war. On the other hand, the overwhelming majority of the members of the reserve Police battalions 101 safely returned home after having done their "jobs" successfully. No one held them on the point of a gun and the front line war psychology cannot apply.

Browning, Christopher R. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. HarperCollins 1998.
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Nazis Define and Discuss the

Words: 2390 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81306412

The authorities in charge of Lodz sought to completely separate the Jewish population from the non-Jewish population. Business were marked with the nationality and ethnic identity of the proprietors, which made it easier for Germans to target Jewish-owned stores and Jews were required to wear arm bands and forbidden to leave their houses between 5:00pm and 8:00am. In fact, Lodz was the first area to institute the armbands that would distinguish Jews from non-Jews. Jews could not use public transportation, public parks, or work at non-Jewish businesses. Furthermore, Jewish property was pillaged and taken, with official sanction. If the Jews abandoned any real property, that property went into receivership. Jews were prohibited from withdrawing substantial sums of money from their bank accounts or from keeping substantial sums of money in their homes. The government confiscated raw materials from Jewish workshops and prohibited them from engaging in certain trades. People began…… [Read More]

References

Bauer, Y. (2000). Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Browning, C. (1992). The path to genocide: essays on launching the final solution. Cambridge:

Browning, C. (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution. Omaha:(University of Nebraska Press.

Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. (2007). The Lodz ghetto. Retrieved February
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Jewish Holocaust the History and

Words: 2231 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28856369



According to prisoners who job it was to remove the bodies and transport them to the crematoria afterwards, the screams started as soon as the pellets were deposited into the hole. They recount that the victims were usually arranged into a massive pyramid shape with the strongest and most desperate individuals near the top. Often, the walls would have to be cleaned in between uses to remove the blood left by fingers scraped bloody by people trying, in vain, to claw their way out of the rooms (Levin, 1993).

At the death camps, the strongest prisoners were used to perform the most disgusting work of removing dead bodies and operating the crematoria; this was their only alternative to being gassed or shot themselves. Camps without crematoria used large open burning pits similar to the execution pits employed before widespread use of gas chambers. Sometimes, a prisoner on such work details…… [Read More]

References

Guttenplan, D. (2001). The Holocaust on Trial. New York: W.W. Norton.

Kershaw, I. (2000). Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis. New York: W.W. Norton.

Levin, N. (1993). The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933-

1945. New York: Schocken Books.
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Wax Likeness of Hitler Art

Words: 2161 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53450097



Hitler was a good leader who sacrificed his life for the German people.

Open answer: negative assessment only.

Open answer: not only a negative assessment.

Israeli and German Students' Reactions to a Dictatorial Regime

Israeli

German

Reaction

Support the dictatorial regime

Indifferent to the dictatorial regime

Resist the dictatorial regime

Israeli and German Students' Views on the Frequency of Discussions About the Holocaust

Israeli

German

There are too many discussions.

There are sufficient discussions.

There are not enough discussions.

There is no/hardly any discussion.

Israeli and German Students' Views on the Possible Rise of Nazism in Germany

Israeli

German

There is no chance that someone like Hitler

41% will rise to power again in Germany. The Germans have learned a lesson from their history.

I do not believe that someone like Hitler

41% will take power again in Germany; the Germans have learned from their history, but I cannot be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006600449

Ezell, Elizabeth D., Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Edward a. Tiryakian. "National Identity Issues in the New German Elites: A Study of German University Students." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 44.4 (2003): 280+. Questia. 1 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006600449.

Marzynski, Marian. A Jew Among Germans. Film documentary, 2005. PBS: online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/germans/view/,retrieved 1 Dec. 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008550817

Shamai, Shmuel, Eran Yardeni, and Benjamin Klages. "Multicultural Education: Israeli and German Adolescents' Knowledge and Views regarding the Holocaust." Adolescence 39.156 (2004): 765+. Questia. 1 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008550817.
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Brutal Peace Chapter Seven Chapter

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 375752

But despite the rhetorical agreement amongst all of the occupying Allied powers, de-Nazification in Eastern vs. Western Germany had a very different character. Soviets were less interested in prosecuting war criminals and more interested in eliminating all individuals and aspects of culture deemed counterrevolutionary (Mazower 238). Destroying German capitalism and private ownership of agriculture was the priority, not feeding the hungry or finding former Nazis. However, Western de-Nazification was hardly superior -- it was done on a case-by-case basis, did not exclude former Nazis from public life, and most Germans believed that lower-level officials were prosecuted, while those really responsible for war crimes were set free in the American zone (Mazower 239). Interestingly enough, the French were probably the most successful in their de-Nazification efforts, given that they focused on German youth, and changing German culture more than former Nazis (Mazower 240).

Massive financial outlays, meager social changes, and "back-pedaling"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mazower, Mark. Dark Continent. New York: Vintage, 2000.