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Despite the mixed feelings of many on the issue, however, it seems as though Jeremy loom had his rights restricted very strongly by the NCAA, since there was no correlation between the football that he was playing at the University of Colorado and the skiing-related endorsements that he was receiving payment for. loom may have given up these rights when he enrolled in the University, but it is suspected that he was not aware that these rights were going to leave him. He is not seen as a troublemaker that was simply trying to cause problems for the University, but as an honest and polite young man that wanted to play football and ski.
It just so happens that he got paid for endorsements for one of these things, and was on a college team for the other. It makes sense that college football players could not also play on…
Christianson, Erik. (2004). NCAA statement regarding Jeremy Bloom reinstatement decision. NCAA News Release. Retrieved 14 November 2004. http://www.ncaa.org /releases/miscellaneous/2004/2004081701ms.htm.
Educating Jeremy: Jeremy Bloom tells his side of a losing battle to regain his eligibility with the NCAA, which has decided to make him a one-sport star." (2004). The Sporting News.
Congressional Testimony. (2004). Due process and the NCAA: Mr. Jeremy Bloom.
King, Kelley. (2002). "Taking Off: Jeremy Bloom, a promising wide receiver at Colorado, stepped back from football for a run at his first love, mogul skiing." Sports Illustrated.
As Myles, the issues confronting me in regards to accepting an offer from a Big East or ACC school virtually all pertain to my future, which is stratified into both short-term and long-term goals. The objectives are of course to embark on a professional sports career in which I am able to provide for my family and my progeny -- which is the long-term goal. The short-term goal is to figure out the best way of doing so, which can either involve basketball or baseball, college or getting drafted by a professional team. Since sports is the path I have elected to provide for my family, there are issues of injury and fame to consider. Ideally, the objective is to refrain from sustaining injuries and to involve myself in a program that will gain as much attention as possible to so that I can most effectively market my talents.…
Onyshko v. NCAA
Onyshko v. NCAA pending in the United States District Court for the estern District of Pennsylvania.
Recently, the heightened publicity in regards to the dangers of college sports, specifically football, has raised the question of the degree to which colleges and the NCAA have a responsibility both to warn and protect players on teams from participating institutions. The case of Onyshko v. NCAA currently pending in the courts concerns such allegations. It is the contention of the plaintiff that the NCAA was negligent in both its duty to protect him as a student athlete regarding the risks of traumatic brain injury (TBI), dementia, and other complications associated with repeated head trauma in football and also that the NCAA did not do due diligence in informing coaches how to mitigate the risk of blows to the head and creating rules which decreased the likelihood that athletes…
Defendant NCAA's objections. Onyshko v. NCAA. In the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania Print.
Eddy, C. Onyshko v. NCAA. In the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. Report and recommendation. Print.
Onyshko v. NCAA. In the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania
" (Weatherby & Edmonds, nd) Weatherby & Edmonds (nd) One argument consistently made by individuals that are against paying student-athletes is that the student-athlete receives a free education so in effect they are receiving something for their services. ut examining graduation rats of some universities does not support this statement at all. The following is a list with an accompanying chart showing the graduation rates from several universities across the United States basketball teams.
School asketball Percentage Graduated
Stanford University 100%
University of South California 36%
University of Oregon 33%
Washington State University 33%
Arizona State University 33%
Oregon State University 23%
University of Washington 22%
University of Arizona 15%
University of California-erkley 15% (Weatherby & Edmonds, nd)
Graduation Rates among asketball Athlete Students
Chapter 4: Measuring Results - 4%
Weatherby & Edmonds (nd)
Source: Weatherby & Edmonds (nd)
The rates for athlete-students football players graduation rates do…
Cody, Jason (1997) Getting Paid To Play - Cyburr Online Available at http://Burr.Kent.Edu/Archives/1997/Fall/Ncaa.html
Recent Developments Payment For College Football Players In Nebraska (2002) Online available at http://Www.Law.Harvard.Edu/Students/Orgs/Jol/Vol41_1/Skidmore.Php
Lopiano, Donna (2004)Football Doesn't Need Title IX Protection Wed http://www.womensportsfoundation.org/images/spacer.gif www.womensportsfoundation.org/cgi-bin/iowa/contrib.html?record=3." Online available at; Http://Www.Womensportsfoundation.Org/Cgi-Bin/Iowa/Issues/Rights/Article.Html?Record=131
Pay To Play: Should College Athletes Be Paid? (2005) The Journal Of The Business Law Society Online Available at http://Iblsjournal.Typepad.Com/Illinois_Business_Law_Soc/2005/03/Does_It_ Make_Se.html
The subjects of the study are students, but there was no attempt to randomize the sampling. Instead, the authors chose the schools and the athletic programs within the schools. The students self-selected for participation, which also may have affected the participation rates. Because the schools and athletic programs were involved, the subjects may have been wary of the promise of confidentiality, causing the results to have some bias. Singer, von Thurn and Miller (1995) note that when the data is sensitive, confidentiality assurances can improve the quality of responses. However, the confidentiality promise needs to come from the researcher in order to be completely trustworthy. Thus, the methodology introduced some bias into the study with the design of its confidentiality mechanism, and the researchers introduced bias when they failed to randomize school and program selection.
The independent variable is the prevalence of drug usage. The dependent variables were the NCAA…
Green, G., Uryasz, F., Petr, T. & Bray, C. (2001). NCAA study of substance use and abuse habits of college student athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. Vol. 11 (2001) 51-56.
Hart, C. (1999). Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination. SAGE Publications, Inc.
Singer, E., von Thurn, D. & Miller, E. (1995). Confidentiality assurances and response a quantitative review of the experimental literature. Public Opinion Quarterly. Vol. 59 (1) 66-77.
Since the 1920s, Villanova has been a top contender in the NCAA, rival of other Philadelphia area schools. Yet it was not until 2016 that Villanova really made history. Kris Jenkins’s historic clock-beater shot made this Final Four appearance the most memorable in all of Villanova’s history.
Villanova has in many ways always been a threat, whether as a thorn in the side of top seeds or as a top seed itself. The Wildcats have a lot of superlatives their competitors lack, such as remaining undefeated in non-conference play in 2018, and have been performing remarkably well over the last several seasons. For example, Villanova’s team has defeated more number one seeds than most other teams in the NCAA, and are in the top ten of all NCAA tournament wins overall. The Wildcats seem unstoppable now.
The 2016 victory parade was an emotional occasion, signifying the culmination of hard work…
Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.
The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and…
American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved
June 28, 2009, from http://www.aauw.org . (2004).
Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-
Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).
The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van…
Engel, J. (2012, July 16). Penn State should get death penalty. Retrieved from Foxsports.com: http://msn.foxsports.com/collegefootball/story/penn-state-should-lose-football-privileges-dealth-penalty-in-wake-of-freeh-report-child-sex-abuse-071212/
Hamilton, M. (May, 27 2012). Penn State and Catholic Church Child Sex-Abuse Trials Divide Penn. Public. Retrieved from Dailybeast.com: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/05/27/penn-state-and-catholic-church-child-sex-abuse-trials-divide-penn-public.html
Kane, C. (July, 23 2012). Penn State penalties: $60 million fine, 4-year bowl ban. Retrieved from Chicagotribune.com: http://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/college/ct-spt-0724-penn-state -- 20120724,0,6965116.story
Muskal, M. (2012, June 22). Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges. Retrieved from LA Times: Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges
Supplements for Athletes
ipped Fuel © is a weight loss supplement used widely by individuals who are trying to improve their physical and athletic performance (Brown). These capsules are utilized as a method of rapidly burning fat, while quickly gaining muscle; they are popular among athletes because of this. The supplements work in a way that allows the burning of fat -- which is the most difficult part of body shaping -- to occur in a rapid fashion. Desired results are achieved in a limited amount of time, therefore adding to the appeal of this supplement to young athletes who are just beginning their journey through sports and are essentially attempting to make themselves stand out from the hundreds of other athletes. However, the components of these supplements have been of great concern due to their potential undesired effects (Brown). Despite the glorious results that the particular coach at hand…
Brown, E. (2011). What do ripped fuel capsules do? LIVESTRONG. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/401862-what-do-r ipped-fuel-capsules-do/
OneResult. (2012). NCAA Legal and Illegal Supplements. ONERESULT: Look Like an Athlete. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.oneresult.com/articles/supplements/ncaa -legal-and-illegal-supplements
There are a few different benefits that college players might receive from joining the union. The first is that they would see increased bargaining power with the universities. This means that they might have improved access to the revenue that is generated by college football -- with bargaining power they can use that revenue as leverage for better wages. At present, these football players really do not have any meaningful bargaining power. The second benefit that they players might well receive is worker protections. The key shift in this ruling is not the ability to organize but the recognition that the players are employees. As an organized union, these football players will have the ability to influence their conditions of employment, in particular with respect to safety. Football is a dangerous game, and joining a union might give the players better ability to bargain their working conditions to improve…
This is because; there are consortiums of regulations that provide no clear policy. The Colorado Court of Appeals sided with the NCAA. They felt that these rules were within the scope of their authority of controlling the actions of athletes and the college sports. These facts can be used to demonstrate that the policy of coaches breaching their contracts is in compliance with legal guidelines and case precedent. ("Bloom v. National Collegiate Athletic Association")
The biggest challenge against this policy is Law v. NCAA. Under this ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals found that any kind of attempts to restrict a coach's salary is considered to be in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. At the same time, they found that the rule is discriminating against coaches by limiting their salaries and the numbers that can serve on a team. This is supposed to maintain the competitive balance inside the…
"Bloom v. National Collegiate Athletic Association." Find Law, 2012. Web. 8 May 2012
"Kiffin to Coach USC." ESPN, 2010. Web. 8 May 2012
"Title IX Cases." Find Law, 2012. Web. 8 May 2012
Poputto, Josephine. "The NCAA Rules Adoption."Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law. 12.22 (2010): 266 -- 234. Print.
, 2003, p. 3).
The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.
Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.
Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).
NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.
Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.
Sports and Betting
More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a…
Davies, Dick. Spotlight Pofile. http://www.unr.edu/alumni/profile.asp?ID=5 .
A accessed 05-12-2002).
Gopal, Arun; Pettypiece, Shannon. "Michigan considers possibility of NCAA sanctions."
University Wire. March 25, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=University_Wire&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.uwire.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Arun+Gopal+%26amp&title=Michigan+considers+possibility+of+NCAA+sanctions++&date=03%2D25%2D2002&query=athletes+and+gifts+from+agents&maxdoc=50&idx=31.(accessed05-12-2002).
In the past, the NCAA believes the fouled team could gain an advantage by selecting its best shooter from the roster. Now it appears that it's okay, though, for the opposing coach to select the worst shooter.
oth men's and women's committees are placing a more significant emphasis on sportsmanship. A growing number of taunting incidents, along with throwing elbows under the basket, and the charging and blocking incidents are being looked at for further action. Officials have been notified that they should put an emphasis on controlling those situations.
Halpin, T. "NCAA Men's and Women's asketball Rules Committees Announce Rules Changes Including a Focus on Sportsmanship." 6 May 2009. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). 15 September 2009 .
Smith, M. "A New asketball Rule for 2009-2010: What was the NCAA thinking?" 9 June 2009. leacher Report. 15 September 2009 .
Halpin, T. "NCAA Men's and Women's Basketball Rules Committees Announce Rules Changes Including a Focus on Sportsmanship." 6 May 2009. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). 15 September 2009 .
Smith, M. "A New Basketball Rule for 2009-2010: What was the NCAA thinking?" 9 June 2009. Bleacher Report. 15 September 2009 .
Safety Decisions in High School Football
This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the iddell Speed, the iddell evolution, the iddell evolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the iddell VS4 and the Adams A2000. No…
Di Scala, C., S. Scavo Gallagher, and S.E. Schneps. (1997). Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school, Journal of School Health, 67, 384-9.
FACTS About Certified Athletic Trainers and The National Athletic Trainers' Association Retrieved http://www.vata.us/aboutvata/FactsaboutATCS.pdf
International Federation of Sports Medicine, Excessive physical training in children and adolescents, (1991). Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 262-4.
Gerberich, Susan Goodwin, et al., (1983). Concussion incidences and severity in secondary school varsity football players, American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1370-5.
Argument for BBcor Baseball Bats in High School/College
National Federation of State HS Associations
According to the National Federation of State High School Associations, which is the governing body of high school sports (including baseball), with the 2011 season also comes important new bat rules that now match the bat rules of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which is the governing body of collegiate sports (including baseball). (NFSHSA, 2011). It was only about a year ago that the NCAA banned certain 100% composite bats and now the NFSHSA will ensure the same for its players by changing ule 1.3.2, now requiring that any use of a non-wood bat must meet the BBCO (Batted Coefficient of estitution) Standard, a much stricter standard than the previous one in place (NFSHSA, 2011).
Batted coefficient of restitution and analysis
The move towards the stricter standards is based on a the following 3 expectations: That…
NFSHSA (National Federation of State High School Associations). (2011). Retrieved from www.nfhs.org.
NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association). (2011). Retrieved from www.ncaa.org.
In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.
1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.
2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.
3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.
4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
Make sure you get on the right bus,'" stressing the fact that education could make a difference in his life (Get on the right bus, 2010, Enterprise media). Coach K. shows his players that he cares for them as people as well as athletes, as he demands that they keep their grades high as well as show up and try their hardest on the court. Because of his history, he understands the challenging transition some of his players experience in a college environment, but he also does not make excuses for them. "That's why I'm against the rule (that prevents [players] going straight to the NBA)" he says, because he is only interested in players who want to be there -- in college, at Duke, learning as well as playing (Chavez 2008). "I look at myself as a leader who just happens to coach basketball" Krzyzewski (Gregory 2006). Basketball is…
Chavez, Luciana. (2008, July 5). Coach K. And Duke changing recruiting philosophy. Oakland Tribune. Retrieved February 17, 2010 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20080705/ai_n28062133/
Coach K. (2010). Official Website. Retrieved February 17, 2010 at http://coachk.com/
Get on the right bus. (2010). Enterprise media. Retrieved February 17, 2010 at http://www.enterprisemedia.com/product/00490/bus.html
Duke basketball. (2010). Coach K. Official website. Retrieved February 17, 2010 at
His coaching resume includes serving as head coach of the orld Team in 1977, 1978, 1979, 1983, 1994, and 1999, according to www.cstv.com. It also includes the fact that he was the head coach of the Goodwill Games' wrestling team in 1981; his team won the Bronze medal. He retired from coaching in 1997, ESPN writes, because after a dozen knee and back surgeries, he was no longer physically able to get down on the mat in order to "…demonstrate holds and escapes" (ESPN).
In Gable's book, Coaching restling Successfully, he covers many issues that of course revolve around wrestling, but he also delves into subjects that coaches may need to know no matter what sport they are coaching. For example, the skill of communicating is important for a coach, so he recommends starting "in small groups" that a person feels comfortable with. Once a coach's confidence is built up,…
CBS College Sports. "Dan Gable." Retrieved February 20, 2012, from http://www.cstv.com .
Gable, Dan. Coaching Wrestling Successfully. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1999.
Iowa Wrestling Hall of Fame. "Dan Gable, 1977 Iowa Wrestling Hall of Fame Inductee."
Retrieved February 20, 2012, from http://www.iowawrestlinghalloffame.com/inductees/dan-gable.html .
American Higher Education
Higher Education is ading in Deep ater in 2014
Is there anything to celebrate about higher education in the 21st century? hat are the most troubling issues facing America's campuses that have emerged in particular over the past twenty years? These questions cry out for thoughtful, scholarly answers. On the one hand, there are crises related to university finances, student financial programs are bogged down by endless congressional haggling, federal financial backing for important research and development has withered away to a significant extent, and scholarships and grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have not been able to meet the demand of qualified scholars (Thelin, 2013). On the other hand, according to the Knight Foundation Commission, many university presidents (if not most) are admitting that they no longer have control of their NCAA-governed athletics programs, and moreover, deans in medical schools are being urged to…
Barrett, P.M. (2014). In Fake Classes Scandal, UNC Fails Its Athletes -- and Whistleblower.
Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from http://www.businessweek.com .
Barrett, P.M. (2014). The NCAA Will Investigate Fake-Classes Scandal at UNC. Bloomberg
Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
rite to the heads of BCS schools, and to their athletic directors. rite to Fox Sports, who controls $100 million a year television contract for BCS.
Voice your concerns so that all of us are heard. Let it be known that this particular system is no longer an acceptable, tolerable nor fair method in determining bowl matchups or a national champion in NCAA Division-I football.
No author. "Congress to Look Into 'Deeply Flawed' BCS System" ESPN (2005) http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/news/story?id=2245440 (Accessed October 28, 2008)
Barnhart, Tony. "How the BCS orks Now" Atlanta Journal-Constitution. (2008) http://www.ajc.com/sports/content/sports/uga/stories/2008/04/25/bcsworks_0427.html (Accessed October 28, 2008)
Dodd, Dennis. "inners and Losers: BCS Adds a Fifth Bowl" CBS Sports (2004) http://www.sportsline.com/collegefootball/story/7131253 (Accessed October 28, 2008)
Callaghan, Thomas; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason a. "The Bowl Championship Series: A Mathematical Review" Notices of the AMS, Volume 51, No. 8. (2004) pp. 887-893
http://www.ams.org/notices/200408/fea-mucha.pdf (Accessed October 24, 2008)
No author. "Congress to Look Into 'Deeply Flawed' BCS System" ESPN (2005) http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/news/story?id=2245440 (Accessed October 28, 2008)
Barnhart, Tony. "How the BCS Works Now" Atlanta Journal-Constitution. (2008) http://www.ajc.com/sports/content/sports/uga/stories/2008/04/25/bcsworks_0427.html (Accessed October 28, 2008)
Dodd, Dennis. "Winners and Losers: BCS Adds a Fifth Bowl" CBS Sports (2004) http://www.sportsline.com/collegefootball/story/7131253 (Accessed October 28, 2008)
Callaghan, Thomas; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason a. "The Bowl Championship Series: A Mathematical Review" Notices of the AMS, Volume 51, No. 8. (2004) pp. 887-893
marketing strategy a college athletic department. I a couple pages discussing background research a typical college athletic program, a school marketing increasing communities involvement ticket sales.
Most universities have intermural athletic programs. However, there is a wide variation in terms of the funding, success, popularity and approaches between these programs, spanning from Division I powerhouses to relatively noncompetitive Division III schools. Regardless of the nature of the program or the school, athletic programs can be powerful marketing and publicity tools for academic institutions. Alumni donations often increase after a successful season, as do applications from more competitive students. Also, success tends to breed success in athletics: the more successful and highly-promoted the program, the more top athletes will be inclined to apply to the school -- the more top athletes are drawn to the school, the greater the likelihood of athletic success in the future.
For example, when Northern Iowa…
Logue, Andrew. March's madness gives players, program at Northern Iowa a boost. USA Today. August 22, 2010. Available November 21, 2010 at http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/mensbasketball/mvc/2010-08-22-northern-iowa_N.htm
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
Gender and Society
Sexism in the Media: Portrayal of Female Athletes in Media Coverage
Sexist portrayal of men's versus women's athletic events and sporting events has prevailed in the media for some time. Armstrong and Hallmark (1999) note that until very recently, women in profession NCAA Division I women's basketball teams, though popular, had received "virtually no television exposure" during key station segments; women also suffered unfavorable practice times and "hand me down uniforms" (p. 1). Perhaps no other area of media portrayal reveals as much gender inequality as the portrayal of women athletes. This is not because of a lack of interest in female sports necessarily. More and more women are participating in sports formerly considered male only. However the media portrayal or lack of adequate portrayal of women's events has contributed to the perceived lack of enthusiasm and interest in following women's events. The media utilizes sexist attitudes,…
Alexander, S. (1994). "Newspaper coverage of athletics as a function of gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6), 655-662
Armstrong, Richard N; Hallmark, James R. "Gender Equity in Televised Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Championship Broadcasts, 1991-1995). Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 43, 1999.
Blinde, E.M., Greendorder, S.L., & Shenker, R.J. (1991). "Differential media coverage of men's and women's intercollegiate basketball: Reflection of gender and ideology." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, (2), 98-114
Bryant, J. (1980). "A two-year selective investigation of the female athlete in sport as reported in the paper media." Arena Review, 4, 32-44
. he American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.
2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the P group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.
Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports raumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.
he goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction…
This technical study was intended to measure the in situ force applied to the ACL during load and injury. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterolateral structures (PLS), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were measured in response to 110 N. anterior tibial loading. Changes in knee kinematics associated with ACL deficiency and combined MCL and ACL deficiency were also evaluated. Findings demonstrated that impact is equally shared between the various bone ligaments and anterior bones during tibial loading of the knee leading researchers to conclude that the MCL and osteochondral surfaces may also be at significant risk during ACL injury.
Smith, F., Rosenlund, E., Aune, a., MacLean, J., & Hillis, S. (2004). Subjective functional assessments and the return to competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(3), 279-284.
The objective was to examine return to competitive sport and general recuperation of ligaments within 12 months of ACL reconstruction. A postal questionnaire 43 months after surgery was mailed to 109 selected athlete patients, 77 of whom responded. The Cincinnati sports activity scale (CSAS) and Cincinnati sports function scales were used as instruments. 62 patients had returned to activity 12 months following treatment, whilst 55 patients had regained their former level of ability. 12 patients admitted to major problems, whilst 38 patients were actively involved in sports at least four times a week. Competitive and male patients had higher scores at restoration than did non-athletic and female patients respectively. Results supported the researchers' hypothesis.
Emotional reactions to the onset of injuries as well as a patient's attitude toward the injury itself and the proposed treatment have great impacts on the length of time it will take for the patient to recover (VAN RIJN 2007). Therefore, it is in the medical staff's best interest to maintain the patient in a positive, reinforcing paradigm in order to create an atmosphere of positive goal-orientation so the patient may experience significantly reduced levels of anxiety during post-operative procedures as well as reduced rehabilitation time.
N.A.. (2010). Ligament Injury Recovery. Available: http://www.sportsinjurybulletin.com/archive/ligament-injury.html. Last accessed 17th Nov 2010.
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin, the University of Houston and NASA severed the medically collateral ligaments in the knees of lab rates. Three to seven weeks after the incision mechanical and morphological properties were measured in ligaments, bones and muscles. Ligament testing revealed that there were significant reductions in…
Administrators, professors, and students all need the school to thrive and prosper, so that their reputations and the value of degrees do not suffer in the future, but all have divergent short-term interests and visions.
Please create a metaphor for some higher education organization situation. Share and explain the metaphor.
One example of divergent interest can be seen in intercollegiate athletics. Administrators want teams that attract media attention and generate alumni donations and increase the quality and number of student applicants in the fall. However, the top athletes are not always the most talented students academically, may be given extra academic help to graduate, or not graduate at all. The most recent data was cited as hopeful: "the rate for men's basketball players who graduated within six years...rose from 59% to 61%...Baseball improved from 65% to 66%" (Carey 2007). The fact that only slightly more than half of…
Carey, Jack. (2007, October 3). Overall NCAA rates hold steady. USA Today.
Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/2007-10-03-NCAA-graduation-rates_N.htm
An agreement was reached - in part due to Imus' desire to save face and possibly salvage his career - for the team to meet with Imus. The meeting took place in the New Jersey governor's mansion; in attendance were the Scarlet knights, their coach, four player parents, two grandparents, an aunt, and Stringer's pastor (who served as mediator). Imus brought his wife Deidre.
Kinkhabwala, whose information of course was second-hand (since no media was present), reports that the players wanted to know, "why us?" They spoke of their rough early season (getting beaten big by Duke and UConn), and how their amazing streak during the Big East Tournament lifted them up, only to be shot down by the negativity of Imus' remarks.
Imus apparently told them about his philanthropy work, and his wife reportedly cried. In the end, the players told the media they accepted Imus' apology - no…
Hampp, Andres. (2007). Advertisers take wait-and-see approach to Imus. Advertising Age.
78(47), p. 4.
Kelley, Raina; Starr, Mark; & Conant, Eve. (2007). A Team Stands Tall. Newsweek 149(17),
Kinkhabwala, Aditi. (2007). The Righteous Scarlet Knights. Sports Illustrated 106(7), 16-18.
strong athletic program keeps former students loyal and draws new, more qualified students into the applicant pool.
t present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In viation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GP and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GP through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial viation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.
I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can…
At present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In Aviation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GPA and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GPA through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial Aviation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.
I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can create a program with a high graduation rate and attract athletes with high levels of physical ability and personal character. Ideally, I would like to improve all athletic programs, not simply high-attendance like football and basketball, although these sports are my first love. I would also like to contribute to the development of underrepresented college sports, to enable as many students to participate in competitive intercollegiate athletics as possible.
I seek this degree to give me the necessary technical skills to put my enthusiasm and innate abilities into action, as well as to gain further knowledge of the field of intercollegiate athletics administration. I am confident that this program at the University of Oklahoma, a university with such a proud and patriotic athletic tradition is the ideal place, with the ideal atmosphere, to learn what I need to know in order to be successful in my chosen, future career.
I want to be a psychologist" (Hindo 2004) This seems like an argument to take such a choice away from teen draftees, and prohibit the NBA from recruiting straight from high school. But this is more rhetoric than reality, and although it could be argued that playing professional 'ball' leaves a player ill-prepared for job prospects in the real world, an even worse fate is to play college basketball for four years and leave with no degree, or to leave with a degree but few marketable skills -- and an empty bank account, and no NBA offers.
Ending the 'prep to pro' draft is not simply bad for professional basketball; it is also bad for the players, unless the 'shamaturism' of college-level basketball ends. March Madness is a multi-million dollar enterprise, but everyone profits -- colleges, coaches, networks, even alumni by their school's elevated name and more competitive admission standards…
Dietary Supplement for Athletes or Bodybuilding
Creatine is a dietary supplement that has been popular for more than thirty years amongst athletes and bodybuilders (Feldman 1999: 45). Its alleged benefits include enhancing muscle-building and recovery. The use of dietary supplements, particularly amongst adolescents and young adult athletes has increased in popularity and may even be endorsed by coaches and parents. Creatine is not recommended for young athletes because of questions about the long-term safety of its use, but pressures to 'be the best' have increased as the margin between first-class and second-class athletes grows ever more razor-thin (Dunn et al. 2001).One study found that "62% of adolescent athletes believed supplements improve performance, with 50% consuming dietary supplements" (Dunn et al. 2001). In another study of attitudes of young athletes Dunn (et al. 2001) found widespread acceptance of the use of creatine and belief in its benefits, even amongst athletes who…
Beck TW, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Coburn DW, Malek MH, Cramer JT. (2007). Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein, combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance.
J Strength Cond Res, 21:100-104.
Buford, Thomas W. (et al. 2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand:
creatine supplementation and exercise. Retrieved:
rule of the NBA states that draft prospects must be "19 years old or have completed their freshman year of college" (Zeger, 2012, "hat is a 'one and done'?). This rule was passed because of concerns that players were not emotionally and physically mature enough to cope with the pressures of professional sports. A year in college was intended to provide young players with the additional support of college basketball coaches and at least some semblance of time to make up their minds before making a commitment to life as a professional athlete. Through college, an athlete allegedly gains knowledge about other professions and subjects outside of sports, however briefly. This way, if a career in the NBA does not work out, he has more to 'fall back on' than had he gone straight from high school to the NBA. Not all basketball players can expect careers as illustrious as…
Zeger, Charlie. "What is a 'one and done?'" About.com. [11 Apr 2012]
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
Personal Values in Sports
As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve…
Baby, B. (2016). Art Briles, Baylor officially part ways in wake of sexual assault scandal --
SportsDay. SportsDay. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://sportsday.dallasnews.com/college-sports/collegesports/2016/06/24/art-briles-baylor-officially-part-ways-wake-sexual-assault-scandal
Biography. (2016). Tim Duncan Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://www.biography.com/people/tim-duncan-40996
CBS. (2016). The Penn State Scandal - CBS News. CBSNews.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016,
Justification is an important part of the game and a number of fans say that if a team's defense cannot stop the opposite team from launching a drive into the end zone, they are worthy of being given the loss. In spite of everything, it could have just as simply gone the other way. Unmistakably it is to a team's difficulty to misplace the coin toss and have to deal with catastrophic consequences in case they fail, but supporters of defensive football claim that it is a genuine way to decide the game. The NCAA and the CFL work in the perfect way, according to followers of equal-opportunity overtime; every team is arranged an equal number of possessions ahead of the winner being determined. If, though the primary team to have the ball scores and the second team does not, it is game over. In case the first team does…
Easton, S., & Rockerbie, D. Overtime! Rules and Incentives in the National Hockey League. Journal of Sports Economics, Vol6, 2005.
Fort, Rodney and James Quirk. Optimal Competitive Balance in a Season Ticket League Working Paper. 2009. Print.
Longley, Neil and Swaminathan Sankaran. The Incentive Effects of Overtime Rules in Professional Hockey. Journal of Sports Economics Vol. 8 No. 5, 2007. Print
N.F.L. Ponders Changing How Overtime Is Played. New York Times, Section D, Page 5. 2003. Print
According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).
Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).
"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:
Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN
Politics.Com. Cited in:
Winning teams are in the news, both on a local and national level (Frank 2004). This then serves as an unprecedented spotlight for national advertising. In 1984, Boston College saw a 12% increase in applications after winning the Orange Bowl (Frank 2004). This win was not any average win. It was an extremely close and exciting game that ending with a miracle passes from Doug Flutie that finished off the game. This excitement and the subsequent media coverage of the game afterwards created a firestorm that provided Boston college with free national advertising. This advertising serves not only to generate more students, but also as a way to increase alumni donations. When a school's name is present in daily or weekly national media, the alumni are constantly reminded of their school and the success it is attaining in the field of athletics. This reminder serves as a powerful marketing tool…
Frank, Robert H. (2004). Challenging the myth. Knight Foundation. Retrieved 23 Oct 2009 at http://www.knightfoundation.org/dotAsset/131763.pdf
Medema, Samantha. (1008). Alumni donations increase. The Retriever Weekly. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at http://www.retrieverweekly.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=3937&edition_id=106&format=html
Larimore, David. (2007). Non-economic societal impacts of intercollegiate athletics. The Sports Journal. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/non-economic-societal-impacts-intercollegiate-athletics
Porto, Brian L. (2003). A New Season: Using Title IX to Reform College Sports. Greenwood Publishing Group.
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database:
In approaching sports marketing, many advocate what is called the 'JOBS' approach: hat 'job' is the product doing -- what fundamental problem is your customer trying to solve? hat objectives do your customers use to evaluate solutions? hat barriers limit your customers' ability to use your solution? hat solutions do your customers consider? The problem might be a perceived lack of purpose in life or 'respect' -- which may cause many fans to identify heavily with local sports teams, for example. Objectives might be entertainment, a feeling of fan identification with a player or a team, or enjoying a rivalry between two teams. Barriers might be cost, a feeling that the players are overly market-driven and don't care about the fans, and solutions might include increased interactivity between fans and players, ideally through an online format (Poe 2009).
Online interaction and connectivity will be vital to sports marketing of the…
"ABA" Hoopedia: NBA. May 22, 2009.
Abrams, Jonathan. Talk to the Newsroom: N.B.A. Reporter. The New York Times.
May 11, 2009. May 22, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/11/business/media/11askthetimes.html?pagewanted=all
In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.
Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike…
A toasted my favorite strawberry Pop Tarts, carefully cut them into quarters like my precision would protect me from something, and sipped regular Coke.
Garbage in, garbage out, sis," said my brother. "Carrie, girl, your energy is going to totally crap out halfway through practice, if you eat like that." I didn't care that much. Yeah, I'd probably have half a snack bag of corn chips for lunch, throw the rest away and say I was fat, try to pretend I was fashionably dieting like the pretty girls, and then feel like wet rag after doing wind sprints with my hockey stick after school. But I never saw my body as a carefully sculpted, inhuman machine, capable of perfection like my brother. My legs were just a vehicle to get my life to Point a and Point B, as best as it could. I think deep inside, I had learned…
However, these studies did not separate the effects of ephedrine from that of caffeine and so more intense research is awaited in this direction. [Robert a] it is to be noted that caffeine and ephedrine work synergistically which could be dangerous in patients with pre-existing cardiac or blood pressure abnormalities. Caffeine affects the adenosine-mediated dilation of blood vessels by antagonizing its receptors. The resulting increased availability of free adenosine monophosphate furthers the activity of ephedrine and catecholamine stimulation resulting in reduced cardiac refractory periods and increased cardiac output and consequently elevated blood pressure. [Charles N. Krome]
It is necessary to look into the inherent risks associated with the use of ephedrine. Ephedrine has a very high percentage of adverse reactions compared to all other herbal supplements. As reported by ent et al. (2003), ephedrine alone accounts for around 64% of all adverse medical reactions due to herbal products. This in…
Daniel Ari Kapner, 'Infofacts Resources: Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses," Accessed 26th April 2008, Available at, http://www.higheredcenter.org/pubs/factsheets/energy-drinks.html
Michael P. Schaefer, Jay Smith, Diane L. Dahm and Matthew C. Sorenson, 'Ephedra Use in a Select group of Adolescent Athletes'. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 5, 407-414, available at http://www.jssm.org/vol5/n3/6/v5n3-6pdf.pdf
3) Robert a. Robergs1, Tommy Boone2, Donna Lockner3, "Exercise Physiologists Should not Recommend the Use of Ephedrine and Related Compounds as Ergogenic Aids or Stimulants for Increased Weight Loss," Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, Volume 6 Number 4 November 2003, available at http://faculty.css.edu/tboone2/asep/RobergsV2.doc
4) Charles N. Krome, 'Cardiac Arrhythmia in a Professional Football Player. Was Ephedrine to Blame?' The physician and Sportsmedicine Vol31, No 12, Dec 2003.
Figure 2: Comedy and Tragedy (iStock photo)
orks Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108245926
Beal, Becky, and Charlene ilson. "2 'Chicks Dig Scars'." Understanding Lifestyle Sport: Consumption, Identity, and Difference. London: Routledge, 2004. 31-54.
Drehs, ayne. (2007, Nov. 30).The Professional Athlete as Target: 'Am I Next?' abc NES. 4 Dec 2007 http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/story?id=3940887&page=1
Getting it rite; Athletes Maintain Personal Blogs to Break News, Express Opinions Connect with Their Loyal Fan Bases." The ashington Times 12 May 2007: C01.
A iStockphoto. (2007). 4 Dec 2007
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108245926
Beal, Becky, and Charlene Wilson. "2 'Chicks Dig Scars'." Understanding Lifestyle Sport: Consumption, Identity, and Difference. London: Routledge, 2004. 31-54.
Drehs, Wayne. (2007, Nov. 30).The Professional Athlete as Target: 'Am I Next?' abc NEWS. 4 Dec 2007 http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/story?id=3940887&page=1
Getting it Write; Athletes Maintain Personal Blogs to Break News, Express Opinions Connect with Their Loyal Fan Bases." The Washington Times 12 May 2007: C01.
A iStockphoto. (2007). 4 Dec 2007
3. Limitation of individual model - synergies obtained by combining strategic analyses models
All analysis models presented in the previous chapter represent useful but not exhaustive methods of deciding the future of a company or its products.
As there is no perfect model, the joint usage of them might bring most value to the company.
Ansoff analysis generally assumes that diversification will bring higher returns when higher levels of risks are undertaken (diversifying the market and/or the product), should not be practically used by itself, as it does not say anything about a company's capacity of venturing in new markets or sustaining the development of new products, as it also does not say anything about the acceptance of the new product on the existent market and/or of the existent products on new markets.
Therefore, other analysis that will take into consideration both internal and external variables of a company (like…
Adams, J. (2005), Analyze your Company using SWOTs, Supply House Times, Vol. 48, Issue 7, p. 26-28
Ansoff, I.H. (1957), Strategies for diversification, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 35, No. 2, p. 113-124
Ansoff, I.H. (1989), Corporate Strategy, Rev. Ed., Penguin, Harmondsworth
Bennett, a.R. (1994), Business Planning: Can the Health Service Move from Strategy into Action?, Journal of Management in Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 2
Many top recruits did not flourish and become great players.
The player's union has opposed salary caps vigorously, but even players might benefit. Yes, they might not make A-od salaries. But there would be less pressure from fans and owners to perform at an unrealistic level. Baseball is attempting to transition into a kinder, gentler era, with less emphasis on using drugs to perform at a high level. Instating a salary cap would be excellent P for the sport, and improving the image of baseball and its players would be good for the game and good for the teams. And ultimately, elevating the image and level of play of teams, rather than the fortunes of a few 'star' players, is the true spirit of the game.
deMause, Neil. (2006). Baseball between the numbers: Why everything you know about the game is wrong. Excerpt available at ESNP July 23, 2011…
deMause, Neil. (2006). Baseball between the numbers: Why everything you know about the game is wrong. Excerpt available at ESNP July 23, 2011 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=betweenthenumbers/salarycap/060405
How salary caps changed sports. (2010). Investopedia. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://financialedge.investopedia.com/financial-edge/0910/How-Salary-Caps-Changed-Sports.aspx
Kendrick, Scott. (2009). Salary cap in baseball? Keep dreaming. About.com.
Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://baseball.about.com/b/2008/12/31/salary-cap-in-baseball-keep-dreaming.htm
Internet & Electronic Marketing
Website & Business Model
Target Market & Consumer Behavior
Building & Maintaining Customer elationships
F. ecommendations for Website Improvement
Pace University is a comprehensive non-profit university that offers its educational services to online students and to the more traditional brick-and-mortar student. As the university competes with global universities, the web presence must convey the value and quality of the education as well as enable the student to make an effective impact on the professional or academic world. The career services center at the university is one of the best at providing Co-op job services to its undergraduate population, the ability to find these positions is available online through the university's joint venture with the Experience Network.
Pace has delivered value to its customers by providing the opportunity to leverage either the online or brick-and-mortar education into an internship at a major company…
Comegys, C., Hannula, M. & nen, J.V.i. 2006, "Longitudinal comparison of Finnish and U.S. online shopping behaviour among university students: The five-stage buying decision process," Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 336.
Garvey, M.J. 2002, "University heed its learning experience," InformationWeek,, no. 899, pp. 26.
Mastacan, A.M. 2009, "Current Trends in Internet Marketing," Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition,, no. 1, pp. 48.
Muirhead, W.D. 2000, "Online education in schools," The International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 315.
In 1996 Westinghouse/CS bought Infinity radio broadcasting and outdoor advertising group for $4.7 billion, a deal that was largely the result of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The Telecommunications Act heavily deregulated the media industry and allowed a company to significantly increase the amount radio stations it could own. In 1997, Viacom dealt its educational, professional and reference publishing businesses to Pearson for $4.6 billion, and retains Simon & Schuster. In 1999, CS bought King World Productions, the leading television program syndicator at that time, for $2.5 billion. On September 7, 1999, Viacom and CS announced their merger, a $50 billion deal. This was the largest media merger of that era, which came one-month after the FCC approved duopolies. Under this merger, the new Viacom had 33 television stations, eclipsing the FCC's 35% ownership cap. This cap was based on the amount of stations one company owns that reach 35%…
America Online. (2005). AOL.com. Retrieved October 2, 2005 at http://www.corp.aol.com/ .
Bloomberg News. (2005). Viacom Explains Slip into Units. Retrieved October 4, 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/06/business/media/06viacom.html .
Columbia Journalism Review. (2005). Viacom Corporate Timeline. Retrieved October 1, 2005 at http://www.cjr.org/tools/owners/viacom-timeline.asp .
Goldsmith, J. (2005). Viacom Looks to the Future. Retrieved October 4, 2005 at http://www.variety.com/article/ur1117929452?cs=1&5=h&p=0 .
Modeling and Mental Practice
There has been much research regarding modeling (also called observational learning) and mental practice, also -- and perhaps more commonly -- known as imagery. Mental practice is also known as mental rehearsal and visuo-motor rehearsal, although these terms are much less commonly used in the literature assessed here. The current research question is:
Does modeling, when combined with mental practice and physical practice, have a grater effect than the combination of mental practice and physical practice on the learning of a novel motor skill?
The literature accessed tends not to make much distinction between modeling and mental practice, and it tends also not to assess the addition of these factor as an intensifier per se of the physical learning of a motor skill, or at least, does not quantify the impact precisely. However, previous research into motor skills vis-a-vis modeling and mental practice does point the…
Glisky, M.L., Williams, J.M., & Kihlstrom, J.F. (1996). Internal and external mental imagery perspectives and performance on two tasks. Journal of Sport Behavior, 19(1), 3+. Retrieved November 14, 2005, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ; d=5002278837
Jax, S.A., Rosenbaum, D.A., Vaughan, J., & Meulenbroek, R.G. (2003). Computational motor control and human factors: Modeling movements in real and possible environments. Human Factors, 45(1), 5+. Retrieved November 14, 2005, from Questia database:
20). Distractions, whether a simple as a cell phone or as complex as an interpersonal relationship, not only keep one out of the present, as Wooden argues, but also distance the individual from the team as a whole by dividing the individual's attention (Collins, 2012, p. 22). Though a seemingly minor point, the importance of shutting out distraction is highlighted by Wooden's belief that it is team cohesion which unites and multiplies the individual players' abilities. Furthermore, the ability to stay alert, present, and engaged with the team can serve to alleviate the anxiety that arises from competition, because the individual will better function as a seamless element of the team, rather than a lone actor attempting to force him or herself into the flow of the game (Collins, 2012, p. 22).
Because of Wooden's straightforward style and the way he manages to pair down the findings of peer-reviewed research…
Adam, D.C., & Gordon, a.B. (2009). Coaching knowledge and success: Going beyond athletic experiences. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32(4), 419-437.
Collins, K. 2012. Strategies fur using pop culture in sport psychology and coaching education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 83(8), 20-22,31,
Forck, M. 2010. Lessons from a legend. Professional safety, 55(9), 20-21.
Hansen, B., Wade, G., & Hamel, T. (2003). Successful coaches' views on motivation and motivational strategies. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 74(8), 44-
Goal! The Dream Begins
Summary of Plot
The movie begins by showing a young Hispanic man working in Los Angeles both with his father as a landscaper and in a restaurant. The young man has played soccer on the streets of Los Angeles and in the parks since he was a child, but he has never taken the incredible skill he has acquired farther than local city leagues. His father is of the belief that people of their background and station in life should not dream of becoming something that they are not. The father thinks that Santiago, the young man, should work as the father has all of his life. Santiago is able, with the help of his grandmother, to travel to Newcastle, England to try out for their soccer team.
Through a lot of difficulty (another player becomes jealous and smashes his inhaler, he is stuck on the…
Jeffries, M., Barrelle, M., Huffam, M., & Stepper, D. (Producers), Cannon, D. (Diector). (2005). Goal! The dream begins [Motion Picture]. United States: Touchstone Pictures.
Santillan, J. (1998). The patriarchal system: The exclusion of women in medical case studies. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~squiroga/santill.HTM
ead the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure. Select three of the violations discussed in the document. Explain the violation, including its U.S. Code, use examples from your own career or the document, and discuss the possible fines / imprisonment for the violation.
Three possible violations of the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure include: bribery, fraud and gambling / other contest guidelines. In the case of bribery, the guide forbids anyone from taking kickbacks or money for special favors. In general, this can cost the government between $400 thousand and $1 million for every $115 thousand that is earned illegally. Under Section 18 U.S.C. § 201(c)(1)(B) (2003) it says that these practices, "Forbids any public official from accepting anything of value in exchange for an official act to be performed, or because of any official act already performed. Violations of this law can merit fines, imprisonment for up to 2 years,…
Encyclopedia of Unethical Failure. (2007). Department of Defense.
Bruce, A. (1998). Motivating Employees. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Nemeth, C. (2011). Private Security and the Law. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
Social Sciences in Education
The development and specialization of the various fields in the social sciences started with the establishment of sociology as an academic discipline in the 19th century. The architects of this early discipline include Max Weber, Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. Over time, the social sciences have broadened to include other disciplines looking at human life through in a variety of contexts, including anthropology, economics, political science, history, psychology, communication and linguistics.
There are two broadly-defined schools of thought in the contemporary understanding of social sciences. A positivist interpretation of the social sciences utilizes the scientific method in the study of human society. An interpretivist social scientist tends to utilize analysis, written deconstruction, and contextualization to examine theoretical linkages. One of the more notable tendencies of contemporary social science practice have been researchers who use hybrid styles, techniques, and methodologies in their work to look at their…
Jacoby, Sanford M. (2005). "Social Science in Europe, Japan, and the United States" Comparative Labor, Law, and Policy Journal. Vol. 23:819
National Council for the Social Studies. (2009). "About National Council for the Social Studies." Retrieved from: http://www.socialstudies.org/about
Hess, Diana. (2001) "Teaching Students to Discuss Controversial Public Issues" Social Studies Development Center. Retrieved from: http://www.indiana.edu/~ssdc/cpidig.htm
Vessuri, Hebe. (2000). "Ethical Challenges for the Social Sciences on the Threshold of the 21st Century." Current Sociology 50, no. 1 135-150.
Coca-Cola's PowerAde is one of the primary rivals of PepsiCo's Gatorade in the sports beverage market. Gatorade is the most popular sports beverage drink "with sales of 553 million cases last year" (PowerAde seeks to gain zero-calorie consumers to rival Gatorade, 2011, Sports Business Daily). However, PowerAde has undertaken some aggressive moves to position itself ahead of its rivals. In 2011, PowerAde replaced another of its rivals, Vitamin Water "on the sidelines of 88 NCAA non-football championships, including baseball and basketball, giving it wide-ranging marketing rights" (PowerAde seeks to gain zero-calorie consumers to rival Gatorade, 2011, Sports Business Daily). PowerAde sales have tripled in the last ten years, showing Coca-Cola's ability to expand its marketing outreach in this area.
PowerAde has positioned itself as a lower-cost alternative to Gatorade, offering the same electrolyte replenishment at a lower price. But overall, Coca-Cola does not…
Keep playing campaign. (2008). Marketing case studies. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at http://marketing-case-studies.blogspot.com/2008/05/keep-playing-campaign.html
McWilliams, Jeremiah. (2011). Gatorade spin-offs amp up sports drink battle. The Atlanta
Constitution. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at http://www.ajc.com/business/gatorade-spin-offs-amp-797817.html
McWilliams, Jeremiah. (2011). PowerAde, Gatorade go after youth market. The Atlanta
Product Placement in Console Games
A growing body of research confirms that one of the best ways to reach male consumers aged 18 to 34 years is to place products in console games. Originally, game developers paid advertisers to include their products in games to lend them authenticity and realism, but advertisers are now paying game developers to have their products placed in popular console games. The introduction of online gaming series has created additional opportunities for product placement and current trends indicate that advertisers will be exploiting this marketing tool even more in the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning product placement in console games, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
The introduction of video games such as "Pong" as home entertainment systems more than 30 years ago created an entire…
Andrews, A. (2009, April 1). Amanda Andrews on media: Getting in on the game. Marketing,
Christensen, J. (2009). Global experience industries: The business of the experience economy.
Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press.
Salary Cap ? Now Please !
The Steroid era is over, hooray! Now what? Well, Major League aseball, time to catch up with the world of sports. It is time for a salary cap on player earnings. America is in the middle of a recession, unemployment continues to rise and Major League aseball must change with the times. Without shrewd decision making, now, on the part of aseballs' owners, baseball will lose fans. Fans of the game, too long disenfranchised, by eight work stoppages, the most recent nullifying an entire playoffs and World Series. Fans subjected, no matter how willingly, to widespread abuse of steroids, Human Growth Hormone and amphetamines. These same fans will not continue to pour their increasingly slim entertainment budgets into a sport dominated by the few, big spenders, only occasionally challenged by a lesser market. A product of this ilk is ultimately unsustainable. When a fans'…
Erowid. Federal Definition of Anabolic Steroids (2005). .
Maske, Mark. "After the Strike, Baseball's Disgusted Fans Decide to Strike Back." Washington post 30 April 1995: A01.
Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .
-- . Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .
Friday Night Lights: A Town, a Team and a Dream, by H.G. issinger. Specifically, it will discuss the philosophical, psychological, social, and ethical views from the book, in regards to life, sports, coaching, and the students/players. Football in Odessa is the only reason most people live, and "Friday Night Lights" vividly shows the petty small town bigotry, small mindedness, and mentalities that create a culture out of football, and create life or death drama over winning or losing.
FRIDAY NIGHT LIGHTS
Friday Night Lights" is the story of Odessa, a small town in Texas, and the importance high school football plays in the community. The author writes about the town, "You drive into Odessa the first time and become immersed in a land so vast, so relentless, that something swells up inside, something that makes you feel powerless and insignificant" (issinger xi). Clearly, this is not just a book about…
Bissinger, H.G. Friday Night Lights: A Town, a Team, and a Dream. Reading, MA: Perseus Publishing, 1990.
evidence and analysis: "The national guardsmen violated the Students right of assembly at Kent State University on May 4, 1970." The paper will describe the evidences and circumstances of May 4, 1970 in details, the analysis and the observation of the relative facts will be included in the paper so that the readers can gain effective information regarding the day in which the nation lost four lives. The paper will initially describe the Kent State University, its formation and the relative subjects, which the university offers to the students.
THE INTRODUCTION OF THE UNIVERSITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE:
Kent State University, among top colleges and universities, offers educational opportunities ranging from certificate programs, associate's, bachelor's, master's, educational specialist and doctoral degrees. Kent State, located in Northeast Ohio, is the second largest among Ohio universities. Kent State, regarded as one of the nation's top 90 public research universities, serves more than 36,000…
As retrieved from The May 4th Deaths: Kent State 30 Years Ago by Murray Polner http://www.antiwar.com/orig/polner.php?articleid=1856 On May 18,2004
As retrieved from THE MAY 4 SHOOTINGS AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY: THE SEARCH FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY BY JERRY M. LEWIS and THOMAS R. HENSLEY http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/LEWIHEN.htm. On May 18,2004
As retrieved at http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/lewihen.htm. THE MAY 4 SHOOTINGS AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY: THE SEARCH FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY BY JERRY M. LEWIS and THOMAS R. HENSLEY On May 18,2004
As retrieved from May 4th, 1970 - General Information
John Wooden's Pyramid Of Success In Business
"Wooden has been called the greatest college coach in history thanks to a long list of accomplishments, including a record 10 NCAA Men's Basketball Championship titles. But for him, it's not about the number of wins and losses: It's about how the game is played," says Kristen Edelhauser of Entrepreneur (Edelhauser, 2007, 1). He was truly one of the greatest coaches that ever lived, not only for his victories but also for his stance on leadership within the competitive sport. His design for successful leadership comes from his pyramid of success, which was tinkered with over generations of his experience in the coaching world. Yet, today this pyramid can live on within the business context, as parts of it can be used in order to create the greatest success within modern business aspects.
John Wooden's Pyramid of Success includes 15 steps…
Adler, Lou. (2005). Recruiting and John Wooden's pyramid of success. ERE. Web. http://www.ere.net/2005/12/02/recruiting-and-john-woodens-pyramid-of-success/
Coach John Wooden. (2013). Wooden on leadership. Pyramid. Web. http://www.coachwooden.com/pyramidpdf.pdf
Edelhauser, Kristen. (2007). John Wooden's pyramid still standing. Entrepreneur. Web. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/176282
Norwood, Robyn. (2010). John Wooden's pyramid stands the test of time. Los Angeles Times. Web. http://articles.latimes.com/2010/jun/13/sports/la-sp-wooden-pyramid-20100613-21
Coaching vs. playing: What is the difference?
One of the paradoxes of coaching is that many great players have gone on to become mediocre or ineffectual coaches while many mediocre or ineffectual players of the game went on to become great coaches. Coaching requires different skills than playing. Of course, the coach like the player must understand the mechanics of the sport and have an understanding of physical conditioning and mental preparation for competition. However, a player generally only has to worry about what 'works for him' -- for his body, his position, and his current place on the team. A coach, in contrast, must have a 'macro' understanding of the entire team and the constellation of personalities that make up the unit. A coach must also be a psychologist and have good interpersonal skills as well as have knowledge of tactics and strategy. What works to motivate one player…
Farmer, S. (2013). Coaching in college and coaching in the NFL is the same, only way different.
LA Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.latimes.com/2013/dec/10/sports/la-sp-college-nfl-coaches-20131211
Holmes, B. (2013). Brad Stevens was drawn back to basketball. The Boston Globe.