Ncaa Essays (Examples)

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Boost for Women's Athletics but

Words: 3098 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40019638

Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.

The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and ear scholarships" at the level of Division I in NCAA schools, and hence, "it's time to erase all institutional gender discrimination, and that includes bias against boys" (

The College Sports Council (August, 2008) launched a petition drive which was aided by a few Olympic champions; John Naber (four Gold…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved

June 28, 2009, from . (2004).

Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-

Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
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Sports Race Class Gender the

Words: 2881 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17962225

He got nowhere. "Talking to Barnett was like talking to a wall." Neither Tharp nor Barnett recalls Dave Hnida saying anything about sexual harassment. "If I'd have heard that, I'd have jumped down somebody's throat," Barnett says. "Not one time did I ever see or hear about anybody treating her wrong. I don't believe she was sexually harassed. I don't believe our players would do that. They'd be in too much trouble with me." Barnett says he gave one player a "tongue-lashing" for making a vulgar comment to Katie.

Katie, as a sophomore dropped out of school, despite her historical commitment to her education and her desire to play football. After doing so it is reported by her and her father that she endured several years of deep depression which affected her in every way, and yet she eventually found the courage to move forward, went back to a junior college and finally had the courage to return to football as a walk on at New Mexico. "Last August she became the first woman to score in Division I football history when she kicked two PATs in the Lobos' 72-8 rout of Texas State-San Marcos."

Many attest that her case…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Primary Sources

Get This Guy out of Here." The Washington Times, 20 February 2004, C01.

King, Larry, "Interview with Denise Brown; Interview with Katie Hnida." November 28, 2006 CNN Larry King Live: Transcript [online]

Mcrorie, Jessica. "High Schools Face Scrutiny, Lawsuits over Gender Equality in Sports Teams." Curriculum Review.
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Child Abuse and Mass Media

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9227682

As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).

The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van to protest Joe Paterno's firing and not think: Shame on us all. Shame on us for creating a culture where thousands of students are so caught up in idol worship that they can't see how repugnant it is to pine for a man who essentially looked the other way as…… [Read More]


Engel, J. (2012, July 16). Penn State should get death penalty. Retrieved from

Hamilton, M. (May, 27 2012). Penn State and Catholic Church Child Sex-Abuse Trials Divide Penn. Public. Retrieved from 

Kane, C. (July, 23 2012). Penn State penalties: $60 million fine, 4-year bowl ban. Retrieved from -- 20120724,0,6965116.story

Muskal, M. (2012, June 22). Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges. Retrieved from LA Times: Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges
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Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective Annotated Bibliography

Words: 1699 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64934906

Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective

Annotated Bibliography

McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But What Are They Getting?"

Mississippi Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June

This article focuses on college athletes in relation to their contribution in bringing billions. According to the article, college athletes are crucial to the generation of billions within sporting fields through their talents and efforts. This research paper aims to outline benefits of participation in sporting activities by college athletes. It is clear from the article that student athletes enjoy free scholarships, accommodation, meals, and other associated benefits for their participation or skills in different games or leagues. The article is relevant to the research because it offers clear reason why student athletes do not obtain salaries for their talents or participation in the sporting activities. The article is reliable and valid since it constructs its arguments from extensive research. The article is instrumental to researchers doing further studies on the topic (college athletes).

Sack, Allen. "Should college athletes be paid?" Christian Science Monitor 07 Mar. 2008: 9.

MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June 2012.

This article offers clear debate on whether college athletes should get salaries for their efforts and skills in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But What Are They Getting?" Mississippi

Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June 2012.

Tracee, Hamilton. "In college football, everyone cashes in but the players." Washington Post,

The n.d.: Regional Business News. Web. 20 June 2012.
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Supplements for Athletes Ripped Fuel &Copy Is

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84928638

Supplements for Athletes

Ripped Fuel © is a weight loss supplement used widely by individuals who are trying to improve their physical and athletic performance (Brown). These capsules are utilized as a method of rapidly burning fat, while quickly gaining muscle; they are popular among athletes because of this. The supplements work in a way that allows the burning of fat -- which is the most difficult part of body shaping -- to occur in a rapid fashion. Desired results are achieved in a limited amount of time, therefore adding to the appeal of this supplement to young athletes who are just beginning their journey through sports and are essentially attempting to make themselves stand out from the hundreds of other athletes. However, the components of these supplements have been of great concern due to their potential undesired effects (Brown). Despite the glorious results that the particular coach at hand has promised his teenage athlete, Ripped Fuel © has been questioned due to the possible negative consequences that are produced by its ingredients.

Ripped Fuel © contains an herb called ephedrine (Brown). This works by immediately tightening the individual's blood vessels in order to reduce the amount of blood that…… [Read More]


Brown, E. (2011). What do ripped fuel capsules do? LIVESTRONG. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from ipped-fuel-capsules-do/

OneResult. (2012). NCAA Legal and Illegal Supplements. ONERESULT: Look Like an Athlete. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from  -legal-and-illegal-supplements
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Basketball Game Coverage Sports if I Were

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82191722

Basketball Game Coverage


If I were to imagine myself as a sports journalist covering a basketball game, I would want to provide coverage for games that take place during "March Madness," a term used to describe a competition among NCAA universities for champion standing. March Madness is an annual event that is as much of a sports tradition as it is a media and journalism tradition.

Covering a game in NCAA March Madness was very exciting and required substantial preparations. It was necessary for me to acquire a press pass. I had to get permission or the "go ahead" from my supervisor to proceed with covering the game. I had to prepare a proposal for travel and hotel expenses. I additionally needed to borrow or purchase or otherwise acquire (legally) the materials I needed to write the story. I covered a Division I Men's Basketball game between Syracuse and Ohio State. I continued my preparation of game coverage by researching each team and their histories. I watched as much as game and practice footage I could locate. I read a lot of background information in print, online, and through other media sources. I also consulted with fans and fan…… [Read More]


National Sports Journalism Center. (2013). Home. Indiana University, Web, Available from: . 2013 March 10.

Sherman, G. (2011). How sports journalists learned to go for the hard tackle. New York Magazine, Web, Available from: 2013 March 10.

TheJayJones. (2013). Home. One Click Sports Now -- Sports Journalism, Web, Available from: 2013 March 10.
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Unionizing College Football

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13489560


There are a few different benefits that college players might receive from joining the union. The first is that they would see increased bargaining power with the universities. This means that they might have improved access to the revenue that is generated by college football -- with bargaining power they can use that revenue as leverage for better wages. At present, these football players really do not have any meaningful bargaining power. The second benefit that they players might well receive is worker protections. The key shift in this ruling is not the ability to organize but the recognition that the players are employees. As an organized union, these football players will have the ability to influence their conditions of employment, in particular with respect to safety. Football is a dangerous game, and joining a union might give the players better ability to bargain their working conditions to improve safety, something in which they have essentially no voice right now.

There are definitely drawbacks as well to unionization. The first is that the ruling only applies to one single school, so players joining a union at Northwestern might find that this affects their ability to play -- the school…… [Read More]

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Troubled by a Large Number

Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52456807

This is because; there are consortiums of regulations that provide no clear policy. The Colorado Court of Appeals sided with the NCAA. They felt that these rules were within the scope of their authority of controlling the actions of athletes and the college sports. These facts can be used to demonstrate that the policy of coaches breaching their contracts is in compliance with legal guidelines and case precedent. ("Bloom v. National Collegiate Athletic Association")

The biggest challenge against this policy is Law v. NCAA. Under this ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals found that any kind of attempts to restrict a coach's salary is considered to be in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. At the same time, they found that the rule is discriminating against coaches by limiting their salaries and the numbers that can serve on a team. This is supposed to maintain the competitive balance inside the NCAA. However, the court found that the biggest beneficiary is the NCAA (who is reducing their costs dramatically). This can be used to show how there is case precedent, giving coaches the power to earn more money. As a result, if a coach opts out of their contract (using this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Bloom v. National Collegiate Athletic Association." Find Law, 2012. Web. 8 May 2012 < >

"Kiffin to Coach USC." ESPN, 2010. Web. 8 May 2012

"Title IX Cases." Find Law, 2012. Web. 8 May 2012

Poputto, Josephine. "The NCAA Rules Adoption."Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law. 12.22 (2010): 266 -- 234. Print.
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Legal Implications of Steroid Use

Words: 1711 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88637779

, 2003, p. 3).


The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.… [Read More]


Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.

Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).

NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.

Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
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Sports and Betting

Words: 2592 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20627805

sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.

Sports and Betting

More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a Republican attorney. Soccer parents talk goalies and the high school jocks talk about steroids and scholarships (McDonald 1998).

Sports and betting have gone hand in hand for centuries throughout the world. People in the United States have been gambling on sports since there has been organized sports, and some claim…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davies, Dick. Spotlight Pofile.

A accessed 05-12-2002).

Gopal, Arun; Pettypiece, Shannon. "Michigan considers possibility of NCAA sanctions."

University Wire. March 25, 2002.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Arun+Gopal+%26amp&title=Michigan+considers+possibility+of+NCAA+sanctions++&date=03%2D25%2D2002&query=athletes+and+gifts+from+agents&maxdoc=50&idx=31.(accessed05-12-2002).
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Rules & Regs Of College

Words: 388 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38226137

In the past, the NCAA believes the fouled team could gain an advantage by selecting its best shooter from the roster. Now it appears that it's okay, though, for the opposing coach to select the worst shooter.

Both men's and women's committees are placing a more significant emphasis on sportsmanship. A growing number of taunting incidents, along with throwing elbows under the basket, and the charging and blocking incidents are being looked at for further action. Officials have been notified that they should put an emphasis on controlling those situations.

(Associated Press)… [Read More]


Halpin, T. "NCAA Men's and Women's Basketball Rules Committees Announce Rules Changes Including a Focus on Sportsmanship." 6 May 2009. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). 15 September 2009 .

Smith, M. "A New Basketball Rule for 2009-2010: What was the NCAA thinking?" 9 June 2009. Bleacher Report. 15 September 2009 < >.
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Fundamentals of Social Sciences

Words: 5347 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84621325

Safety Decisions in High School Football

This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the Riddell Speed, the Riddell Revolution, the Riddell Revolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the Riddell VSR4 and the Adams A2000. No correlation exists between safety and the price of a helmet. The Adams 2000 is the lowest rated helmet, but it costs $200. The four-star high-rated Schutt DNA costs $170.

It is important to note that the Riddell VSR4 -- the second-lowest-rated helmet -- was the most commonly worn helmet in…… [Read More]


Di Scala, C., S. Scavo Gallagher, and S.E. Schneps. (1997). Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school, Journal of School Health, 67, 384-9.

FACTS About Certified Athletic Trainers and The National Athletic Trainers' Association Retrieved

International Federation of Sports Medicine, Excessive physical training in children and adolescents, (1991). Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 262-4.

Gerberich, Susan Goodwin, et al., (1983). Concussion incidences and severity in secondary school varsity football players, American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1370-5.
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Use of Metal Bat in High School College Baseball

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62335734

Argument for BBcor Baseball Bats in High School/College

National Federation of State HS Associations

According to the National Federation of State High School Associations, which is the governing body of high school sports (including baseball), with the 2011 season also comes important new bat rules that now match the bat rules of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which is the governing body of collegiate sports (including baseball). (NFSHSA, 2011). It was only about a year ago that the NCAA banned certain 100% composite bats and now the NFSHSA will ensure the same for its players by changing Rule 1.3.2, now requiring that any use of a non-wood bat must meet the BBCOR (Batted Coefficient of Restitution) Standard, a much stricter standard than the previous one in place (NFSHSA, 2011).

Batted coefficient of restitution and analysis

The move towards the stricter standards is based on a the following 3 expectations: That these stricter standards will (1) Provide for greater comparability in performance with wood bats which are still highly encouraged throughout baseball; (2) Lessen risk of injuries; (3) Raise the level of play and performance; and (4) Provide for better teaching opportunities (NFSHSA, 2011). The switch to the BBCOR standards is…… [Read More]


NFSHSA (National Federation of State High School Associations). (2011). Retrieved from

NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association). (2011). Retrieved from
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American Disabilities Act American's With

Words: 7288 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45502422

(Schall, 1998)

In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.


In the context of Title 3 there are two notable exceptions to the physical alteration mandate (Stowe, 2000). Historical buildings such as are reported on the national register of historic buildings and landmarks may abstain from changes to their structure or facade which would in some way be detrimental to…… [Read More]


1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.

2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.

3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.

4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
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Dangers of Aluminum Bats

Words: 2298 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59872985

Dangers of Aluminum Bats

When asked about the use of aluminum bats, high school baseball coach, Gene Schultz, said he knew that because of the durability of metal that they were going to last, but he did not think that they would take over the high school baseball scene as they have (High pp). Personally, Schultz said he would like to see high school ball do what the college have done and go back to "good 'ol wood ... cracked bats, broken bat singles and inside pitches are all part of true baseball" (High pp). According to Schultz, metal bats have certainly increased the offense in high school baseball, but if they were really good for the sport, then the Major Leagues would be using them (High pp). He adds that bunts have gone for doubles, inside pitches for home runs, and a 95-pound freshman can hit a baseball 350+ feet (High pp). Schultz said he was surprised that more high school pitchers are not injured by the "liner" up the middle, and believes that metal bats have turned baseball into a high scoring game, rather than a strategic battle (High pp). When asked if he would like to see…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Coffey, Wayne. "Scrape metal: Pols, parents & players going to bat for wood"

Daily News.

Dreyfuss, Ira. "Are Wood Bats Safer Than Aluminum?" Associated Press Online.

November 11, 2002. Retrieved October 25, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
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Rhetoric in Should College Athletes Be Paid

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90414579


In "Should College Athletes Be Paid?" Allen Sack argues that colleges and universities are exploiting their athletes but that they should still not get paid. A professor at the University of New Haven and a former college football player for Notre Dame, Sack has also written a book on the subject called Counterfeit Amateurism: An Athlete's Journey Through the Sixties to the Age of Academic Capitalism. The phrase "counterfeit amateurism" is a phrase Sack uses to describe the progression of college sports from a purely amateur athletic scenario to a big business. Yet athletes are rarely receiving the full benefits of their success. Sack would prefer to see a return to true amateur college sports devoid of the big media attention garnered today, but acknowledges that the current trend is towards the "sports entertainment empire," (Sack 2).

Paying athletes is unnecessary and would not necessarily help them achieve their academic goals, notes Sack. Athletes are also "already essentially paid to play" because they receive scholarships (Sack 2). According to the author, athletes should instead receive medical benefits, workers' compensation, and, most controversially, "the right to engage in the same kinds of entrepreneurial ventures that are the stock and trade…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Sack, Allen. "Should College Athletes Be Paid?" Christian Science Monitor. 7 march, 2008. Retrieved online:
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Leadership That Extends Beyond the

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89460638

Make sure you get on the right bus,'" stressing the fact that education could make a difference in his life (Get on the right bus, 2010, Enterprise media). Coach K. shows his players that he cares for them as people as well as athletes, as he demands that they keep their grades high as well as show up and try their hardest on the court. Because of his history, he understands the challenging transition some of his players experience in a college environment, but he also does not make excuses for them. "That's why I'm against the rule (that prevents [players] going straight to the NBA)" he says, because he is only interested in players who want to be there -- in college, at Duke, learning as well as playing (Chavez 2008). "I look at myself as a leader who just happens to coach basketball" Krzyzewski (Gregory 2006). Basketball is the medium through which he motivates players to better themselves.

Unlike some other NCAA coaches, Coach K. is always aware of the fact that he is teaching adolescents, and instills values and discipline in his players, rather than cultivates a sense of entitlement within their hearts. "At Duke, we wouldn't…… [Read More]


Chavez, Luciana. (2008, July 5). Coach K. And Duke changing recruiting philosophy. Oakland Tribune. Retrieved February 17, 2010 at

Coach K. (2010). Official Website. Retrieved February 17, 2010 at 

Get on the right bus. (2010). Enterprise media. Retrieved February 17, 2010 at

Duke basketball. (2010). Coach K. Official website. Retrieved February 17, 2010 at
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Dan Gable the Amazingly Successful

Words: 1469 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51136823

His coaching resume includes serving as head coach of the World Team in 1977, 1978, 1979, 1983, 1994, and 1999, according to It also includes the fact that he was the head coach of the Goodwill Games' wrestling team in 1981; his team won the Bronze medal. He retired from coaching in 1997, ESPN writes, because after a dozen knee and back surgeries, he was no longer physically able to get down on the mat in order to "…demonstrate holds and escapes" (ESPN).

In Gable's book, Coaching Wrestling Successfully, he covers many issues that of course revolve around wrestling, but he also delves into subjects that coaches may need to know no matter what sport they are coaching. For example, the skill of communicating is important for a coach, so he recommends starting "in small groups" that a person feels comfortable with. Once a coach's confidence is built up, and he (we'll use "he" though this applies to female coaches as well) believes he is ready to speak to larger groups, the best advice from Gable is to "…tag along with another coach or friend who is an accomplished speaker" to a speaking appointment. Carefully observe how that person…… [Read More]

Works Cited

CBS College Sports. "Dan Gable." Retrieved February 20, 2012, from .

Gable, Dan. Coaching Wrestling Successfully. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1999.

Iowa Wrestling Hall of Fame. "Dan Gable, 1977 Iowa Wrestling Hall of Fame Inductee."

Retrieved February 20, 2012, from
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Challenges Facing American Higher Education

Words: 2801 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72529302

American Higher Education

Higher Education is Wading in Deep Water in 2014

Is there anything to celebrate about higher education in the 21st century? What are the most troubling issues facing America's campuses that have emerged in particular over the past twenty years? These questions cry out for thoughtful, scholarly answers. On the one hand, there are crises related to university finances, student financial programs are bogged down by endless congressional haggling, federal financial backing for important research and development has withered away to a significant extent, and scholarships and grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have not been able to meet the demand of qualified scholars (Thelin, 2013). On the other hand, according to the Knight Foundation Commission, many university presidents (if not most) are admitting that they no longer have control of their NCAA-governed athletics programs, and moreover, deans in medical schools are being urged to begin training medical students in the art of cooperation and patient empathy, a long-held concept that has apparently -- and sadly -- been lost in recent years as American medical doctors are concerned more with the bottom line (Thelin, 2013).

In addition to the troubles impacting colleges and universities today,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barrett, P.M. (2014). In Fake Classes Scandal, UNC Fails Its Athletes -- and Whistleblower.

Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from

Barrett, P.M. (2014). The NCAA Will Investigate Fake-Classes Scandal at UNC. Bloomberg

Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from
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Sports Race and Gender Sports

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77228108

But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.… [Read More]


About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at 

Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at

Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.

Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at
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Inception in Its Present Form

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29962394

Write to the heads of BCS schools, and to their athletic directors. Write to Fox Sports, who controls $100 million a year television contract for BCS.

Voice your concerns so that all of us are heard. Let it be known that this particular system is no longer an acceptable, tolerable nor fair method in determining bowl matchups or a national champion in NCAA Division-I football.… [Read More]

Works Cited

No author. "Congress to Look Into 'Deeply Flawed' BCS System" ESPN (2005) (Accessed October 28, 2008)

Barnhart, Tony. "How the BCS Works Now" Atlanta Journal-Constitution. (2008) (Accessed October 28, 2008)

Dodd, Dennis. "Winners and Losers: BCS Adds a Fifth Bowl" CBS Sports (2004) (Accessed October 28, 2008)

Callaghan, Thomas; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason a. "The Bowl Championship Series: A Mathematical Review" Notices of the AMS, Volume 51, No. 8. (2004) pp. 887-893
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Glory Road Movie the Story

Words: 3828 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43260559

Even though Glory Road took place in the American South, its themes
are prevalent throughout sports and through many different time periods.
Current literature touches on many of the themes of the movie. A recent
study of college students by Harrison and Lawrence looks at the perception
regarding what seems to be the now dominating role of blacks in American
sports today (Harrison & Lawrence, 2004). While this seems to contradict
the theme of Glory Road, as Glory Road is about a lack of opportunities for
black athletes, the article depicts racial overtones within sports that
helps to show that racial issues have been and still are predominant in
sports. Harrison and Lawrence consider the success of black's in sports
and the public perception. Glory Road also looks at the perception of
black athletes, which in the context of America in 1966, considers blacks
to be good athletes, but not as smart as whites. This is consistent with
the themes of whiteness, white privilege, stereotyping of athletes, and
racism. Even though Haskin's took his team to the title, 30 years later,
according to Harrison and Lawrence "notions of Black athletic superiority
and intellectual inferiority permeate the minds of... American citizens"…… [Read More]

Alley, T. R. (2000). Peer Attitudes Towards Adolescent Participants in Male-
and Female Oriented Sports. Adolescence Summer2005, 40, 273-281.

Douglass, D. D. (2005). Venus, Serena, and the Women's Tennis Association:
When and Where "Race" Enters. Sociology of Sport Journal, 22, 256-282.

Erickson, B. (2005). Style Matters: Explorations of Bodies, Whiteness, and
Identity in Rock Climbing. : Sociology of Sport Journal, 22, 373.
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Marketing Strategy a College Athletic Department I

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61135602

marketing strategy a college athletic department. I a couple pages discussing background research a typical college athletic program, a school marketing increasing communities involvement ticket sales.

Most universities have intermural athletic programs. However, there is a wide variation in terms of the funding, success, popularity and approaches between these programs, spanning from Division I powerhouses to relatively noncompetitive Division III schools. Regardless of the nature of the program or the school, athletic programs can be powerful marketing and publicity tools for academic institutions. Alumni donations often increase after a successful season, as do applications from more competitive students. Also, success tends to breed success in athletics: the more successful and highly-promoted the program, the more top athletes will be inclined to apply to the school -- the more top athletes are drawn to the school, the greater the likelihood of athletic success in the future.

For example, when Northern Iowa beat number one-ranked Kansas in the NCAA basketball tournament this spring, the Northern Iowa athletics website drew 1.5 million page views that month in March, three times the monthly average; the Northern Iowa Panthers' annual athletic fund drive went up 20% (about $1.1 million); and enrollment is projected to increase…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Logue, Andrew. March's madness gives players, program at Northern Iowa a boost. USA Today. August 22, 2010. Available November 21, 2010 at
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Violence in American Sports Today

Words: 3564 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28418040

Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.

Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.

In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president of the National Alliance for Youth Sports reported that the incidence of parental misconduct at youth athletic events rose from 5% in 1995 to 15% in 2000; further Staffo (2001) (reviewed below) has reported numerous incidents of criminal violence by athletes in recent years. The authors provide some insightful observations…… [Read More]

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Internship for My Internship Experience I Choose

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68592082


For my internship experience, I choose to work at Gold & Black Illustrated, a print magazine that covers Purdue University sports. The magazine has 2,000 paid subscribers. Members of the John Purdue Club -- Purdue's athletic fundraising society -- all receive the magazine as one of the perks of their membership. The magazine has both a print and a virtual component. The print version is designed to be a glossy keepsake. The electronic component is published up to 30 times per year to give ongoing information about Purdue sports and is delivered Wednesdays during football season and Monday during basketball season. It offers an interactive experience with both video and audio components and is well-suited in the size and design to iPad and tablet reading. Its information is current, but the articles are in-depth and provide additional information beyond that of quick captions of the sort that might be written on ESPN.

The readership primarily consists of alumni who live close enough to visit the campus to see sports events on a frequent basis (90% live within a day's drive of Lafayette). They are affluent enough to provide financial support to the team and are active participants in alumni-related…… [Read More]

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Title IX and Its Impact

Words: 2582 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17304417

S. Congress went ahead and passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988, furthermore recognized as the Grove City Bill, over a rejection by President Ronald Reagan (Priest, 2003). That rule abolished Grove City College v. Bell and then made the bill plainly obvious that if any part of a school makes the decision to accept federal aid, then every part of the school will then be subject to Title IX guidelines (Walton, 2003).

Contemporary Importance of Title IX

Research shows that the Title IX is one of the well-known civil rights achievement stories in all of education, and it really does owe a lot to the determined funding of politicians like Vice President Biden. Previously to the Title IX, in 1972, there was something like fewer than 30,000 female students that were actually participating in recreational and sports programs at NCAA member organizations. That amount has risen approximately six-fold even since that has been taking place. At the high school level, the number of girls that were contributing in athletics has risen or gone up ten-fold ever since 1972, to three million girls at the moment (Reisch, 2005).

Studies have recognized recurrently that the profits of athletics actually extend…… [Read More]


Pauline, G. (2012). Celebrating 40 years of title IX: How far have we really come? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 83(8), 4-5,56.

Priest, L. (2003). The whole IX yards: The impact of title IX: The good, the bad and the ugly. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 12(2), 27-27.

Reisch, J.T. (2005). Compliance with title IX at kingston state university: A case study on cost allocation and ethical decision making. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(1), 81-97.

Staurowsky, E.J. (2007). Travelers on the title IX compliance highway: How are ohio's colleges and universities faring? Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 16(2), 46-82.
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Sexist Language in the Media

Words: 1477 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44820255

Gender and Society

Sexism in the Media: Portrayal of Female Athletes in Media Coverage

Sexist portrayal of men's versus women's athletic events and sporting events has prevailed in the media for some time. Armstrong and Hallmark (1999) note that until very recently, women in profession NCAA Division I women's basketball teams, though popular, had received "virtually no television exposure" during key station segments; women also suffered unfavorable practice times and "hand me down uniforms" (p. 1). Perhaps no other area of media portrayal reveals as much gender inequality as the portrayal of women athletes. This is not because of a lack of interest in female sports necessarily. More and more women are participating in sports formerly considered male only. However the media portrayal or lack of adequate portrayal of women's events has contributed to the perceived lack of enthusiasm and interest in following women's events. The media utilizes sexist attitudes, language and images often when portraying women's sporting events, and these habits have contributed to the lack of popularity of women's sports. This idea is explored in greater detail below.

According to Armstrong and Hallmark, Zavoina (1999) visual imagery bombards our perception of what we see in the media, thus…… [Read More]


Alexander, S. (1994). "Newspaper coverage of athletics as a function of gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6), 655-662

Armstrong, Richard N; Hallmark, James R. "Gender Equity in Televised Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Championship Broadcasts, 1991-1995). Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 43, 1999.

Blinde, E.M., Greendorder, S.L., & Shenker, R.J. (1991). "Differential media coverage of men's and women's intercollegiate basketball: Reflection of gender and ideology." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, (2), 98-114

Bryant, J. (1980). "A two-year selective investigation of the female athlete in sport as reported in the paper media." Arena Review, 4, 32-44
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Arnold T & Shelbourne K

Words: 2152 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42250538

. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.

2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the PT group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.

Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.

The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction in addition to a standard single bundle ACL reconstruction as compared to the imposition of an anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction. Computer assisted ACL reconstruction was used. 2 groups of patients gathered from 20 consecutive ACL reconstruction procedures were studied. Group a: standard single bundle ACL reconstruction with doubled gracilis…… [Read More]

This technical study was intended to measure the in situ force applied to the ACL during load and injury. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterolateral structures (PLS), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were measured in response to 110 N. anterior tibial loading. Changes in knee kinematics associated with ACL deficiency and combined MCL and ACL deficiency were also evaluated. Findings demonstrated that impact is equally shared between the various bone ligaments and anterior bones during tibial loading of the knee leading researchers to conclude that the MCL and osteochondral surfaces may also be at significant risk during ACL injury.

Smith, F., Rosenlund, E., Aune, a., MacLean, J., & Hillis, S. (2004). Subjective functional assessments and the return to competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(3), 279-284.

The objective was to examine return to competitive sport and general recuperation of ligaments within 12 months of ACL reconstruction. A postal questionnaire 43 months after surgery was mailed to 109 selected athlete patients, 77 of whom responded. The Cincinnati sports activity scale (CSAS) and Cincinnati sports function scales were used as instruments. 62 patients had returned to activity 12 months following treatment, whilst 55 patients had regained their former level of ability. 12 patients admitted to major problems, whilst 38 patients were actively involved in sports at least four times a week. Competitive and male patients had higher scores at restoration than did non-athletic and female patients respectively. Results supported the researchers' hypothesis.
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Mr Khan-Sprained Ankle This Case

Words: 2538 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53258834

Emotional reactions to the onset of injuries as well as a patient's attitude toward the injury itself and the proposed treatment have great impacts on the length of time it will take for the patient to recover (VAN RIJN 2007). Therefore, it is in the medical staff's best interest to maintain the patient in a positive, reinforcing paradigm in order to create an atmosphere of positive goal-orientation so the patient may experience significantly reduced levels of anxiety during post-operative procedures as well as reduced rehabilitation time.

Annotated… [Read More]

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Ambiguity Why Is Leadership Within

Words: 495 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27314801

Administrators, professors, and students all need the school to thrive and prosper, so that their reputations and the value of degrees do not suffer in the future, but all have divergent short-term interests and visions.

Part 2

Please create a metaphor for some higher education organization situation. Share and explain the metaphor.

One example of divergent interest can be seen in intercollegiate athletics. Administrators want teams that attract media attention and generate alumni donations and increase the quality and number of student applicants in the fall. However, the top athletes are not always the most talented students academically, may be given extra academic help to graduate, or not graduate at all. The most recent data was cited as hopeful: "the rate for men's basketball players who graduated within six years...rose from 59% to 61%...Baseball improved from 65% to 66%" (Carey 2007). The fact that only slightly more than half of student athletes from money-generating sports graduate within six years may be considered outstanding should be viewed as more sad and shameful than celebratory. The athletes are essentially used as a 'teaser' much like a prize at the bottom of a box of cereal, to encourage the consumption of the product,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carey, Jack. (2007, October 3). Overall NCAA rates hold steady. USA Today.

Retrieved March 19, 2009 at
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Imus' Racist Sexist Comments

Words: 1462 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75042907

An agreement was reached - in part due to Imus' desire to save face and possibly salvage his career - for the team to meet with Imus. The meeting took place in the New Jersey governor's mansion; in attendance were the Scarlet knights, their coach, four player parents, two grandparents, an aunt, and Stringer's pastor (who served as mediator). Imus brought his wife Deidre.

Kinkhabwala, whose information of course was second-hand (since no media was present), reports that the players wanted to know, "why us?" They spoke of their rough early season (getting beaten big by Duke and UConn), and how their amazing streak during the Big East Tournament lifted them up, only to be shot down by the negativity of Imus' remarks.

Imus apparently told them about his philanthropy work, and his wife reportedly cried. In the end, the players told the media they accepted Imus' apology - no one could imagine them not accepting it and seeming to be heartlessly, hopelessly angry and too bitter to say the right thing - and Imus, according to Newsweek (Kelley, et al., 2007), "seemed genuinely apologetic."

WHAT IS the UPSHOT? Imus told the players "that making fun of people was just…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hampp, Andres. (2007). Advertisers take wait-and-see approach to Imus. Advertising Age.

78(47), p. 4.

Kelley, Raina; Starr, Mark; & Conant, Eve. (2007). A Team Stands Tall. Newsweek 149(17),

Kinkhabwala, Aditi. (2007). The Righteous Scarlet Knights. Sports Illustrated 106(7), 16-18.
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M Ed in Intercollegiate Athletics Administration

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26603304

A strong athletic program keeps former students loyal and draws new, more qualified students into the applicant pool.

At present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In Aviation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GPA and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GPA through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial Aviation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.

I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can create a program with a high graduation rate and attract athletes with high levels of physical ability and personal character. Ideally, I would like to improve all athletic programs, not simply high-attendance like football and basketball, although these sports are my first love. I would also like to contribute…… [Read More]

At present, I am employed in the aviation industry. I obtained a M.S. In Aviation Safety at the end of 2006 with a 4.0 GPA and have since continued my education, maintaining a 4.0 GPA through an online master's program at Delta State University in the field of Commercial Aviation. My success is testimony to the fact that I believe wholeheartedly in the need to pair athletic and academic success in tandem. I was originally drawn to aviation because of the discipline and teamwork I had seen exhibited in the field, but I have begun to realize that I wish to channel my passions into something even more meaningful, that of creating athletic programs that foster positive values in young people.

I believe that my combination of management, business, and marketing skills, can create a program with a high graduation rate and attract athletes with high levels of physical ability and personal character. Ideally, I would like to improve all athletic programs, not simply high-attendance like football and basketball, although these sports are my first love. I would also like to contribute to the development of underrepresented college sports, to enable as many students to participate in competitive intercollegiate athletics as possible.

I seek this degree to give me the necessary technical skills to put my enthusiasm and innate abilities into action, as well as to gain further knowledge of the field of intercollegiate athletics administration. I am confident that this program at the University of Oklahoma, a university with such a proud and patriotic athletic tradition is the ideal place, with the ideal atmosphere, to learn what I need to know in order to be successful in my chosen, future career.
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Aerobic and Anaerobic Training on the Performance

Words: 11051 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64965063

Aerobic and Anaerobic Training on the Performance of Female High School Soccer Players

The purpose of this study is to look at aerobic and anaerobic conditioning and exercise. Female soccer players are used for this study and the results of how well they do on specific tests are measured. The goal then becomes to see whether those that perform better on these tests are also better soccer players and to therefore conclude whether this type of training and exercise has an effect on the performance of female high school soccer players.

Since the researcher is a coach for a high school female soccer team, the ease with which this data can be collected and analyzed is significant. The importance of a study such as this should not be underestimated, as there are many athletes that could likely benefit from both aerobic and anaerobic exercise if it is found that there is a benefit for these female soccer players.

Logically, the results of this study can be extended to male high school soccer players, and to professional soccer players as well. It also has the potential to be extended to other sports where the players may also benefit from this type…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bangsbo, J. (1994). The physiology of soccer: With special reference to intense physical exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 150(suppl. 619), 1-156.

Borrie, A. And Bradburn, D. (1998). A correlation of two aerobic power tests and three sprint performance tests. Journal of Sports Sciences, 16, 20-21.

Carter, J.E.L. And Heath, B. (1990). Somatotyping: Development and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Deshaies, P., Pargman, D. And Thiffault, C. (1979). A psychobiological profile of individual performance in junior hockey players. In Psychology of Motor Behavior and Sport - 1978 (edited by G.C. Roberts and K.M. Newell), pp. 36-50. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
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Prep-To-Pro' NBA Draft According to

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83686385

I want to be a psychologist" (Hindo 2004) This seems like an argument to take such a choice away from teen draftees, and prohibit the NBA from recruiting straight from high school. But this is more rhetoric than reality, and although it could be argued that playing professional 'ball' leaves a player ill-prepared for job prospects in the real world, an even worse fate is to play college basketball for four years and leave with no degree, or to leave with a degree but few marketable skills -- and an empty bank account, and no NBA offers.

Ending the 'prep to pro' draft is not simply bad for professional basketball; it is also bad for the players, unless the 'shamaturism' of college-level basketball ends. March Madness is a multi-million dollar enterprise, but everyone profits -- colleges, coaches, networks, even alumni by their school's elevated name and more competitive admission standards -- except the boys sweating on the courts. Forcing the most talented high school athletes to turn away professional contracts would encourage further exploitation of student athletes, as they would have no recourse other than to become NCAA eligible to play at a competitive level. They might even get less…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hindo, Brian. "The NBA's Youth Squad." Business Week Online. 24 Jun 2004.

17 Feb 2008
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Creatine or Glutamine as a Dietary Supplement

Words: 1407 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97202612

Dietary Supplement for Athletes or Bodybuilding

Creatine is a dietary supplement that has been popular for more than thirty years amongst athletes and bodybuilders (Feldman 1999: 45). Its alleged benefits include enhancing muscle-building and recovery. The use of dietary supplements, particularly amongst adolescents and young adult athletes has increased in popularity and may even be endorsed by coaches and parents. Creatine is not recommended for young athletes because of questions about the long-term safety of its use, but pressures to 'be the best' have increased as the margin between first-class and second-class athletes grows ever more razor-thin (Dunn et al. 2001).One study found that "62% of adolescent athletes believed supplements improve performance, with 50% consuming dietary supplements" (Dunn et al. 2001). In another study of attitudes of young athletes Dunn (et al. 2001) found widespread acceptance of the use of creatine and belief in its benefits, even amongst athletes who did not use other ergogenic aids.

Use of creatine is even more common in the elite ranks of athletes. Amongst NCAA athletes, according to LaBotz & Smith (1999) "forty-eight percent of men reported having used creatine as compared with 4% of women. With two exceptions, all men's teams had at…… [Read More]


Beck TW, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Coburn DW, Malek MH, Cramer JT. (2007). Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein, combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance.

J Strength Cond Res, 21:100-104.

Buford, Thomas W. (et al. 2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand:

creatine supplementation and exercise. Retrieved:
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Rule of the NBA States That Draft

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42311037

rule of the NBA states that draft prospects must be "19 years old or have completed their freshman year of college" (Zeger, 2012, "What is a 'one and done'?). This rule was passed because of concerns that players were not emotionally and physically mature enough to cope with the pressures of professional sports. A year in college was intended to provide young players with the additional support of college basketball coaches and at least some semblance of time to make up their minds before making a commitment to life as a professional athlete. Through college, an athlete allegedly gains knowledge about other professions and subjects outside of sports, however briefly. This way, if a career in the NBA does not work out, he has more to 'fall back on' than had he gone straight from high school to the NBA. Not all basketball players can expect careers as illustrious as LeBron James. "The Association was concerned about the growing emphasis on preps-to-pros, citing a number of flame-outs and players who didn't reach their potential for years after being drafted, and two years ago, imposed an age restriction on entry to the NBA draft" (Zeger, 2012, "NBA age limit").

However, critics…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Zeger, Charlie. "What is a 'one and done?'" [11 Apr 2012]
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Analyzing Scandal and Controversy in Sports

Words: 2629 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23260718

Scandal/Controversy in Sports

The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.

Background of Sports Industry and Scandals

Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.

Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds of organizations are entering the sponsorship game. 65 different organizations representing different categories varying from railroads to athletic wear sponsored the 2004 United States Olympic team at different levels by (Hughes and Shank, 2005). These corporations benefit from providing teams with funding or equipment in exchange for the right to…… [Read More]


Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from

Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from

Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from;2-P/abstract

Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from
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Good and Bad in Sports

Words: 3151 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28455055

Personal Values in Sports

As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve that they have to keep it strong that will best inform what the person does when faced with sports-related challenges of any kind.


Some people may think this subject is overblown and being portrayed in a way that is excessive and beyond the pale. However, anyone that is remotely…… [Read More]


Baby, B. (2016). Art Briles, Baylor officially part ways in wake of sexual assault scandal --

SportsDay. SportsDay. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from

Biography. (2016). Tim Duncan Biography. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from

CBS. (2016). The Penn State Scandal - CBS News. Retrieved 25 June 2016,
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Sports Law Memo Re Firing

Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26156865

Title IX, as you must know, requires that universities provide as much funding and other forms of support to women's sports as to men's. President Allen announced in the same press conference that your firing was in all likelihood a precedent to the teams' being dissolved. Given this fact, it will certainly be arguable in court (as well as in the preliminary documents that we will file, which may well lead to a settlement from the university rather than having to proceed to court) that your firing was simply a pretext that would allow the university to cut funding to women's sports. Such a clear violation of federal law is definite grounds for a lawsuit.

We have additional support for such a lawsuit in that President Allen has make a number of statement supporting the importance of male teams and has consistently attended the games played by the male teams and has yet to attend a single game played by the women. This is prima facie evidence of bias on his part.

So, in answer to your preliminary questions:

1. Yes, the university can fire you because you are an at-will employee who has arguably performed poorly.

2. You can,…… [Read More]

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NFL Overtime Rule the NFL

Words: 1663 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56510636

Justification is an important part of the game and a number of fans say that if a team's defense cannot stop the opposite team from launching a drive into the end zone, they are worthy of being given the loss. In spite of everything, it could have just as simply gone the other way. Unmistakably it is to a team's difficulty to misplace the coin toss and have to deal with catastrophic consequences in case they fail, but supporters of defensive football claim that it is a genuine way to decide the game. The NCAA and the CFL work in the perfect way, according to followers of equal-opportunity overtime; every team is arranged an equal number of possessions ahead of the winner being determined. If, though the primary team to have the ball scores and the second team does not, it is game over. In case the first team does not score and the second team does, after that it is game over. However, if both teams score, they do it once more. Nevertheless is it common sense to have the first team score, say 'Well, that is it!' And just finish the game? A lot of people would say…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Easton, S., & Rockerbie, D. Overtime! Rules and Incentives in the National Hockey League. Journal of Sports Economics, Vol6, 2005.

Fort, Rodney and James Quirk. Optimal Competitive Balance in a Season Ticket League Working Paper. 2009. Print.

Longley, Neil and Swaminathan Sankaran. The Incentive Effects of Overtime Rules in Professional Hockey. Journal of Sports Economics Vol. 8 No. 5, 2007. Print

N.F.L. Ponders Changing How Overtime Is Played. New York Times, Section D, Page 5. 2003. Print
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Terrorism and Raymond James Stadium

Words: 3212 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76452618

According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).

Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).

Even with new legislation, the face of terrorism is not like finding a serial killer or bank robber; profiles are intensely difficult to find; men, women, and teens can be part of a group; terrorists can be ingrained in many aspects of society; and many groups and/or agencies can be used…… [Read More]


"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:

Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN

Politics.Com. Cited in:
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Sports and Alumni Donations Increasing

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33678595

Winning teams are in the news, both on a local and national level (Frank 2004). This then serves as an unprecedented spotlight for national advertising. In 1984, Boston College saw a 12% increase in applications after winning the Orange Bowl (Frank 2004). This win was not any average win. It was an extremely close and exciting game that ending with a miracle passes from Doug Flutie that finished off the game. This excitement and the subsequent media coverage of the game afterwards created a firestorm that provided Boston college with free national advertising. This advertising serves not only to generate more students, but also as a way to increase alumni donations. When a school's name is present in daily or weekly national media, the alumni are constantly reminded of their school and the success it is attaining in the field of athletics. This reminder serves as a powerful marketing tool for schools across the nation who already struggle in reaching out to alumni for charitable donations.

A strong athletic program, in many cases, needs deep pockets on the behalf of the university. Providing the funding needed for successful athletic programs is a daunting task. According to research, recent athletic budgets…… [Read More]


Frank, Robert H. (2004). Challenging the myth. Knight Foundation. Retrieved 23 Oct 2009 at

Medema, Samantha. (1008). Alumni donations increase. The Retriever Weekly. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at

Larimore, David. (2007). Non-economic societal impacts of intercollegiate athletics. The Sports Journal. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009 at

Porto, Brian L. (2003). A New Season: Using Title IX to Reform College Sports. Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Ethics on Sports It Is

Words: 5409 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90192963

D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic, however, appears inconsistent with current and past practice in soirts,

Richard a. Posner (2008), Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals; Senior Lecturer, University of Chicago Law School, purports in "The case against perfection: Ethics in the age of genetic engineering," that as it will become harder to detect, "sports doping," where…… [Read More]


Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise

and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.

Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database:
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Marketing Financial What Is the

Words: 2021 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18990992

In approaching sports marketing, many advocate what is called the 'JOBS' approach: What 'job' is the product doing -- what fundamental problem is your customer trying to solve? What objectives do your customers use to evaluate solutions? What barriers limit your customers' ability to use your solution? What solutions do your customers consider? The problem might be a perceived lack of purpose in life or 'respect' -- which may cause many fans to identify heavily with local sports teams, for example. Objectives might be entertainment, a feeling of fan identification with a player or a team, or enjoying a rivalry between two teams. Barriers might be cost, a feeling that the players are overly market-driven and don't care about the fans, and solutions might include increased interactivity between fans and players, ideally through an online format (Poe 2009).

Online interaction and connectivity will be vital to sports marketing of the NBA in the future because of its relatively low cost and cultural ubiquity amongst the young, particularly the desirable young, male twentysomething demographic. However, making 'real life' tickets affordable is likely to also be important in the future to create a necessary 'buzz' and excitement that makes fans care and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"ABA" Hoopedia: NBA. May 22, 2009.

Abrams, Jonathan. Talk to the Newsroom: N.B.A. Reporter. The New York Times.

May 11, 2009. May 22, 2009.
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Sports Surfing and Other Underrated

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79210256

In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.

Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike the higher-profile team sports, surfing requires little equipment besides a surfboard and no facilities other than access to an appropriate beach; nor is an individual dependent on the participation of others to enjoy the sport.


In terms of the talents and abilities it requires, surfing is just as legitimate…… [Read More]