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There is no reason to suppose that a difference as radical as true language vs. protolanguage is required to explain why modern humans replaced Neanderthals so quickly. In much shorter spaces of time, groups of modern humans have replaced other groups with identical biological capacities; it took only decades, not millennia, for Europeans to replace Tasmanians, for instance. The precise nature of Neanderthal capacities and of human-Neanderthal interactions remains tantalizingly obscure, and is still controversial (Knight et al. 281).
hile the precise nature of the Neanderthal intellect and human-Neanderthal interactions remain unclear, there is some evidence in the archaeological record that lends support to the theory that Neanderthals simply did not have what it took to keep up with Homo sapiens. For instance, Findlayson reports that the stone tools used by the Neanderthals (usually described as being Mousterian), are more complex than those of Homo erectus; however, they also show…
Bisson, M.S. (2004). "The Neanderthal's Necklace: In Search of the First Thinkers." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 10(3):710-11.
Camp find extends Neanderthal timeline." (2006). ABC News Online: Reuters. [Online]. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200609/s1740994.htm
Christian, David. Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
Graham-Rowe, Duncan. (2005). "The first complete reconstruction of a Neanderthal." Mousterian (Neanderthal) Sites. Online]. Available: http://donsmaps.com/mousterian.html .
By all anthropological accounts, early-modern proto-human hominids like Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon Man, and Homo Habilis bore much closer similarity to Homo Sapiens than any surviving modern simian species. In all likelihood, Neanderthals possessed very similar abilities and comparable intellect to modern human beings.
The extinction of Neanderthal man is more likely related to slight differences in suitability for survival after the most recent ice age, or to being out-competed by Homo Sapiens and other animal species in their ecological niche than to any dramatic or fundamental differences between them respectively. In some respects, continual focus on identifying specific reasons for the demise of Neanderthals perpetuates the exaggerated self-importance that many of us presume corresponds to humanity.
In studying the place of modern man in the context of the entire history of our evolution and history on the planet, we sometimes seem to forget that vast majority of all living species…
Examination of female Neanderthal pelvic bones in conjunction with skulls of Neanderthal infants illustrates that among Neanderthals, birth was a more difficult and dangerous process than in humans. It can be presumed that the rate of Neanderthal mortality of mothers during birth and infant mortality were far greater than even the relatively high rates that prevailed among modern humans prior to the development of modern medicine. In that regard, childbirth in undeveloped countries still reflects those dangers.
The fact that Neanderthals had comparatively greater nutritional needs to support rapid brain growth suggests that one of the main reasons for their demise was that they were unable to compete successfully with modern humans after the latter first arrived in Neanderthal habitats approximately 35,000 years ago. Likewise, the longer childhoods of Neanderthals inferred from evidence deduced from studies of their teeth seems to indicate that Neanderthals had developed cooperative hunting strategies and…
Marcellin oule who first identified the Neanderthals as the "missing link," a "primitive evolutionary link to modern man"
In many ways, there are clues that this may have been true. First of all, the Neanderthal is one of the first hominids to have an upright stature as close to ours as it may be. Second of all, despite an obviously less qualified brain, the Neanderthal had the ability to create and use tools, practiced hunting with spears and other types of simple weapons and is believed to have had a certain hierarchical society. Several archeologists believed the Neanderthal had a primitive burial ritual as well.
Most important of all, in my opinion, is the fact that the Neanderthals are deemed to have had the ability of speech. According to some scientists, language has been around for 400,000 years, which means that the entire period during which the Neanderthal lives is…
1. Oard, Michael. Neandertal Man -- the changing picture. February 2003. On the Internet at http://www.answersingenesis.org/docs2003/0217neandertal.asp
2. Human Evolution. On the Internet at http://sci.waikato.ac.nz/evolution/HumanEvolution.shtml
3. Foley, Jim. Fossil Hominids: mitochondrial DNA. September 2003. On the Internet at http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/mtDNA.html
4. Fox, Maggie. Your forefathers were not Neanderthals. January 2004. On the Internet at http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1066168/posts
Bone is very fragile and rock slides, cave-ins etc. could cause damage to the bones after the demise of the skeleton's owner. Trinkaus maintains that among the examples of supposed violence, only a few exceptional cases stand up to scrutiny. This would include the Shanidar 3 Iraq rib bone that undoubtedly betrays injury from a thrown spear. Trnkaus further maintains that this is the only absolutely conclusive evidence found of a violent encounter between modern man and his Neanderthal cousins (ibid. 143).
Although less definitive, Shanidar 1 shows injuries that might have been due to a violent encounter, although and accident can not be ruled out, although it is not clear whether the atrophied right arm was amputated or was due to a blow to the left side of the skull that caused paralysis to that right arm. Other Shanidar cave skeletons had only minor injuries, none of which proves…
Trinkaus, Erik. "Hard Times Among the Neanderthals." Ghosttn.com. 15 Apr 2010.
he debate on Neanderthal man's place in human evolution has continued unabated since the discovery of the first Neanderthal fossil in 1856. One camp believes Neanderthal man is a human ancestor and should be classified as a subspecies of modern man -- homo sapien neandertalis. he opposing view argues that Neanderthal man is a distinct species - homo neandertalis - a species entirely separate from modern humans. his paper argues that Neanderthal man is indeed related to modern humans by looking at key elements of the Neanderthal physiology, behavior and cultural life.
Recent findings on the mitochondrial DNA taken from the right humerus of a Neanderthal skeleton failed to show significant similarities with the mitochondrial DNA of modern humans. According to the study, one sequence of Neanderthal DNA shows significant variances from the same sequence in moderns. From this, researchers concluded that Neanderthals diverged about 600,000…
Trinkaus and Shipman, p 356.
Trinkaus and Shipman, p 255
Kate Wong, "Paleolithic Pit Stop," Scientific American, < Scientific American http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?colID=1&articleID=000F0825-AC71-1C72-9EB7809EC588F2D7,13 November 2002.
Glimpse into Neanderthal Culture
hen one thinks of the Humanoid genus Homo Sapiens neanderthalensis (HSN) they picture a very primitive creature, simplistic in nature with few social complexities. However, upon close examination of several Neanderthan archeological sites, one will find the Neanderthal man had all of the necessary elements for the beginning of the formation of modern society. It was once thought that these elements were only present after Neanderthan culture after contact with Home Sapiens (HSS). However, evidence now exists that suggests that Neanderthals were already well on their way to developing a formal, but rudimentary, culture well before contact with HSS. This research will examine these findings using evidence gathered from the Petralona, Larga Velhol, St. Cesaire, Shanidar, and Arago sites. This research will support the thesis that Neanderthals had the beginnings of an advanced society prior to contact with Home Sapiens and that the disappearance of the…
Bednarik, R.G. (1992). Palaeoart and archaeological myths. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2(1): 27-43.
Chase, P. And Dibble, H (1987). Middle Paleolithic symbolism: a review of current evidence and interpretations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6:263-296.
A d'Errico, F. et al. (1998) "Neanderthal Acculturation in Western Europe? Current Anthropology, Supplement, 39:1-44, p. 3 in Morton, G. (1998) Neanderthan Culture. Internet Discussion. September 7, 1998. http://www.asa3.org/archive/evolution/199809/0121.html Accessed July, 2003.
Fagan, B. (1990) The Journey From Eden, (London: Thames and Hudson) in Morton, G. (1998) Neanderthan Culture. Internet Discussion. September 7, 1998.
twenty million years ago the Indian plate collided with Asia; this generated the Himalayan mountain range, which drastically altered the earth's climate forever after. Basically, "The climate became drier and the forests of what is now Africa and Asia contracted. The result was an increased area of savanna habitat, with fewer trees." (Campbell, 711). This brought about environmental and ecological changes that animals already adapted to one way of life needed to alter in order to survive. It is widely believed that humans and apes diverged from a "common humanoid ancestor only about 5-7 million years ago." (Campbell, 711). It is not difficult to imagine that one of the leading forces that caused the early hominoids to split lineages was the widening of the savanna. Essentially, many groups of animals that had become suited to tree-dwelling needed to adjust to life on the open plains; out of these pressures came…
1. Campbell, Neil A. Jane B. Reece. Biology: Sixth Edition. New York: Benjamin Cummings, 2002.
2. Class Notes. "HPN: Homo Erectus." 2005.
3. Cowen, Richard. History of Life: Third Edition. Malden: Blackwell Science, 2003.
4. Geocites. "Homo Erectus." Geocites.com, 2005. Available: http://www.geocities.com/palaeoanthropology/Herectus.html.
They make fire (p. 29). They use stones to cut branches (p. 30). They are not afraid to get muddy (pp. 16-17). Their physical abilities, however, are informed and governed by their mental abilities. The people of Lok's tribe, ironically, are not Neanderthals. Golding's use of the word "cunningly" in describing how the old woman built the fire is telling: "She fitted these pieces cunningly together till wherever the flames rose they found dry wood to bite on." Modern day Scouts can take lessons from this lady. Hunger is an almost always present part of the life of Lok and his people. Golding writes how, "Mentioning food made [Lok's] hunger as real as the smells." Golding, too, describes how Lok, Fa, and Liku discover and enjoy honey (pp. 50-51) -- at least until the hyenas crash the party.
Tuami's tribe was, at the same time, physically superior to Lok's people…
Golding, William. The Inheritors. New York: Harcourt Brace & World, Inc., 1955.
person within the Christian worldview. Specifically it will discuss technology, the environment, and the media as it relates to my personal Christian worldview. As noted in this course, understanding a worldview can help a person understand other people and all their roles in today's society. Today's culture is broad, and influenced by a variety of sources, from scientific to religious, and they combine to create a contemporary Christian worldview in others and myself. Personally, my worldview is one of balance between my Christian beliefs and scientific study and analysis, which may be fairly common for a modern Christian worldview.
First, it is necessary to define worldview and what it is. A worldview encompasses every aspect of life, so understanding it is crucial in decision-making and living life to the fullest. It is really a wide-ranging perception of the world around us, formed using a Christian viewpoint. In other words, it…
Editors. (2009). About us. Retrieved 22 June 2009 from the Evangelical Climate Initiative Web site: http://christiansandclimate.org/about/ .
Gibson, T.S. (2004). Proposed levels of Christian spiritual maturity. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 32(4), 295+.
Holy Bible. New King James Version.
Schmeltekopf, D.D. & Vitanza, D.M. (Eds.). (2006). The future of Baptist higher education. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.
As these people get a little bit older, they also find that they want to help the next generation of people to grow up, and this becomes more important than their problems and worries. Old age brings with it a curiosity about what comes next and an acceptance of dying that younger adults do not have very often. These stages are not always exact for everyone, and not everyone reacts to the changes in their lives the same way, but most people move through these certain stages as they grow older and realize that what is important to them changes (Learning, 1997).
Part of this is biological and based on changes in the mitochondria, because people see the deterioration of their physical bodies and they are then faced with the choice of whether they are going to accept it or whether they are going to rail against it - even…
Bailey, R. (1988, October 17). In praise of the conventional life. (Grant Study of Adult Development finds a conventional life leads to happiness and a successful career). Forbes.
Finlayson Clive, and Carrion, Jose S. (2007). Rapid ecological turnover and its impact on Neanderthal and other human populations Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 22(4), 213-222
Learning about life from the movies. (Temple Univ psychology professor Marsha Weinraub uses movie characters to teach students about stages of adult development). (1997, August 1). USA Today.
Lieberman, Philip. (2007). Current views on Neanderthal speech capabilities: A reply to Boe et al. (2002). Journal of Phonetics, 35(4), 552-563.
Understanding the structure and function of DNA has allowed scientists to uncover truths about the origin of human life on planet earth. In "Ancient ussian's DNA Sheds Light on Neanderthal Interbreeding," Dunham (2014) discusses one of the recent discoveries in human genetic history. A DNA sample was extracted from the tibia of a Homo sapiens called "Kostenki man" because of the village in which the skeleton was found. Because so much is now known about DNA, it is possible to take samples from 37,000-year-old skeletons. The article also shows that DNA remains intact in the bones of living creatures thousands of years after they die. Moreover, the article is about the fact that the DNA samples from Kostenki man show that some 50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had interbred with Neanderthals, who had "colonized the region thousands of years earlier," (Dunham, 2014). As a result of these findings, researchers…
Alberts B, Johnson A., Lewis J, et al. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science.
Dunham, W. (2014). Ancient Russian's DNA sheds light on Neanderthal interbreeding. Reuters. Nov 6, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/06/us-science-genome-idUSKBN0IQ2QK20141106
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
African Fossil ecord Contributions
African Fossil ecord
African Fossil ecord Contributions to the 'Out of Africa' Theory
The African fossil record represents the foundation upon which modern archeologists base many of their theories concerning the evolutionary history of modern humans (Klein, 2008). When combined with DNA sequencing, the African fossil record shows that modern humans probably emerged about 200-150 ka (thousand years ago) and expanded into Eurasia as recently as 50 ka. This 'Out of Africa' theory would therefore not exist without the African fossil record.
The human fossil record reveals that humans split into three morphologically distinct species approximately 500,000 years ago; Homo sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, and H. erectus, in Africa, Europe, and Asia, respectively (Klein, 2008). The African fossil record contains no evidence that Neanderthals were ever in Africa, therefore it is assumed that modern humans emerged in Africa in the absence of a Neanderthal contribution (Klein, 2011).…
Klein, Richard G. (2008). Out of Africa and the evolution of human behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology, 17, 267-281.
Shea, John J. (2011). Refuting a myth about human origins: Homo sapiens emerged once, not as modern-looking people first and as modern-behaving people later. American Scientist, 99, 128-135.
Dibble also suggested "scraper types might represent stages of core reduction sequence, with intensity of utilization as a major causal factor." In 1990, Rolland and Dibble agreed "that Middle Paleolithic assemblage variability is continuous in nature" and "that raw material variability and intensity of occupation are the principal factors underlying Middle Paleolithic assemblage variability." Dibble asked whether Bordes' typology reflected arbitrary temporal slices in a continuum of variability in 1991, and also the factors underlying this variability. hat Rolland and Dibble argued about was whether "most of the significantly represented Middle Paleolithic tool types represent stages in the reduction of tools due to resharpening and rejuvenation...." (After an edge is dull, the tool may be retouched on that edge, or another edge may be sharpened, producing a different type of tool. Dibble contended that intensity of utilization is a causal factor of variation, from raw material quantity, accessibility and quality…
Aiello, L.C. And Dean, C. (1990). An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy. London: Academic Press, 268-74.
Bordaz, J. (1970). Tools of the Old and New Stone Age. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press.
Bordes, F. (1968). Mousterian cultures in France. Science, 134 (September 22): 802-10.
Dibble, Harold L., (1984). Interpreting typological Variation of Middle Paleolithic Scrapers: Function, Style or Sequence of Reduction? Journal of Field Archaeology, 11:431-436.
Archaeological Interpretations of Upper Paleolithic Cave Paintings
There are many questions related to the chronological spread of Paleolithic tool production and paintings due to geographical differences in the progress of the spread of such tool production. While radiocarbon dating has furthered the ability to identify specific time period information there are still limitations to this type of data. There has been loose identification of chronological periods of production and in cave paintings the more complex paintings are not always those most recently created. Difficulty exists in the establishment of regional progressions of development. While the combination of radiocarbon, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance dating techniques assisted investigators for the upper Paleolithic period in the reconstruction of "a reasonably coherent global chronology." (Bar-Yosef, 2002) At the same time there are still significant standard deviations along with other limitations in this dating of archaeological findings. This study examines these issues and limitations…
Bar-Yosef, O. (2002) The Upper Paleolithic Revolution. Annu. Rev. Ahtropolog. 2002.
Bicho, et al. (2007) The Upper Paleolithic Rock Art of Iberia. Journal of Archeological Method and Theory. Vo. 14, No.1. March 2007.
Cave Art Interpretation II (2006) Guest Editorial Essay. Perception 2006, Vol 35.
De Leo, Guilio A. et al. (2001) Evolution of Prehistoric Cave Art. Brief Communications. Nature Vol. 413, 4 Oct 2001.
I am the founder and owner of a 25-year-old vocational school and still lecture daily. I have been married to the woman of my dreams for almost 40 years; have two children and two grandchildren. e are building a second home on a lakefront about an hour from the school with the plan that I will lecture for three days and spend four days per week at the lake. Certainly, the school and tangible income has allowed us to be comfortable and educate our children, as well as put away a bit for the future. However, when I reflect, what I really find as "meaning" is the way in which, in some small manner, we have helped transform the lives of so many students who are now successful businessmen and women, who have families, and who are continuing with some of the ethical and moral principles engrained at school. The…
WORKS CITED and CONSULTED
Bittarello, M. (2008). "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex Relationship Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies 10.2 (2008): 214+.
Cosgrove, M. (2006). Foundations of Christian Thought. Kregel.
Jordan, P. (2001). Neanderthal: Neanderthal Man and the Story of Human Origins. The History Press.
O'Neill, M. And C. Mahoney, eds. (2007). Romantic Poetry: An Annotated Anthology,
A 1400-year-old volcanic or other induced "winter" likely spurred the divergence possibly even later than 150,000 years ago, brought about by an explosion of Toba in Sumatra. The elimination of this bottleneck 10, 000 years later allowed another wave of emigration from Africa. Volcanic winter may have succeeded in the reductions of populations to levels low enough for founder effects, genetic drift and local adaptations to produce rapid population differentiation (Ambrose 623 -- 651) .
This new research posits new assumptions about evolutionary rates, anagenesis, gene flow and population stability. Most biological evolution consists of the following two processes: anagenesis and cladogenesis. Anagenesis describes the transformations that occur within a single lineage, that is, as a population develops new characteristics. Cladogenesis, describes the splitting of a single species into two or more groups that later subsequently diverge in their individual traits through the anagenetic process. Gene flow and population stability…
Ambrose, Stephen H. "Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans." Journal of Human Evolution. 34. (1998): 623 -- 651. Print.
Johanson, Donald. "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?" Action
Bioscience.org. 2011. Web. 6 May 2011.
Jerry Coyne's hy Evolution is True
I understand it contradicts the account in the Bible and other holy texts, if one takes a literalist interpretive stance, but given that most texts have more significant internal conflicts, I did not see why this particular theory would cause people to have such visceral emotional responses. I understand, intellectually, that evolution is not the first scientific advance to be met with tremendous hostility; there was also significant opposition to the notion of a heliocentric universe and to the idea that the earth was not flat. However, because people understand that other scientific ideas that were intertwined with biblical teachings have been proven incorrect before without damaging religious belief, I imagine that I assumed that people would be more open-minded about "modern" scientific theories. On the contrary, because of the strong scientific support for the idea of evolution, the choice not to believe evolution…
Coyne, Jerry. Why Evolution is True. New York: Penguin Group, 2009.
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
In this case, the various challenges that these individuals were exposed to and their ability to overcome them, showed me how the views of the past were incorrect. Where, the accomplishments of person will not be dependent upon: the racial, ethnic or gender group they were from. Instead, it is their overall state of mind and ability to overcome the obstacles that they are facing, that will determine how successful they will be in the future. This is important, because it shows how the lives of a host of individuals, from a variety of backgrounds, would have an impact upon shaping these views.
When you step back and analyze the underlying influences on my racial / gender beliefs, it is clear that there are a number of different factors that would influence them. Where, I was following the typical thinking (within society and in the media) about the different racial…
For example, due to prevailing oceanic currents and environmental issues, a significant amount of marine debris is both generated and deposited in Korean Coastal waterways. The Korean government has removed almost 100 tons of debris in the past decade, but realizes the problem is ongoing. To reduce their own costs and improve efficiency, the Korean government incents fishermen to collect marine debris during fishing. This idea, certainly applicable to any nation with coastal waters, bot improves the efficiency of governmental collection programs, and in the long run, helps educate and compensate local fishermen (Cho, 2008).
These, and other management programs, continue to develop among the world's fishing nations. Agencies are focused on three major goals: educate young people in all countries that the world is interdependent and the oceans must be maintained for the health of the planet; educate the public, private, tourist, and fishing populations to their individual…
"South Korean divers combat marine debris and raise funds for underwater conservation on Earth Day." Project Aware. Cited in:
See the treaty, resources, and commentary in "Oceans and Law of the Sea," Cited in: http://www.un.org/los/ .
elevance of Marital Vows in the Twenty-First Century
The Mexican government is currently considering legislation that would make every marriage performed a temporary one: Unless both parties agreed to renew it every two years, the marriage would no longer be valid. In a country with a strong Catholic tradition this is a dramatic development indeed, and one that is directly relevant to the way in which marriage is conceived of and practiced today. For while, of course, such a law would have effect only in Mexico, it bespeaks of the kinds of dramatic changes that have overtaken the concept of marriage in the past several decades. The bill has been proposed in acknowledgement of the fact that most marriages do not last for very long:
Lizbeth osas, a Mexican congresswoman, proposed a bill to the legislative assembly of the Mexican capital so that the marriages can have a…
A two-year marriage bill was proposed by Mexican politician, http://www.ecuadortimes.net/2011/09/28/a-two-year-marriage-bill-was-proposed-by-mexican-politician/
Belge, K. (2011). Sample Lesbian Wedding Vows, http://lesbianlife.about.com/od/weddingplanning/a/PamVickyVows.htm
Bell, Duran (1997). Defining Marriage and Legitimacy. Current Anthropology 38(2): 237 -- 254.
Benokraitis, N. (2010). Marriages and Families: Changes, Choices and Constraints (7th ed.) New York: Prentice Hall.
Myth, Literature, and the African World
The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…
Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1976.
. Wole Soyinka, Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), ix.
2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).
What about race?
The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…
Keita, L. (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 65. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Reeve, C.L. (2002). Race and Intelligence: Separating Science from Myth. Personnel Psychology, 55(3), 778+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database,
10. Colorblindness will not end racism. Pretending race doesn't exist is not the same as creating equality. ace is more than stereotypes and individual prejudice. To combat racism, we need to identify and remedy social policies that advantage some groups at the expense of others.
To be able to eliminate the racism, we do not have to eliminate the concept of race. This is not a solution; this will only hide the problem and not solve it. ace must be seen as an identification and not a difference. Our government must eliminate laws that advantage only some groups in society. Doing that will make people see that we all are humans and equals even if our skin color is different.
1. Fredrickson, George M., acism: A short History, Princeton University Press, July 14, 2011
2. Berg, Manfred, Wendt, Simon, acism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer…
1. Fredrickson, George M., Racism: A short History, Princeton University Press, July 14, 2011
2. Berg, Manfred, Wendt, Simon, Racism in the Modern World: Historical Perspectives on Cultural Transfer and Adaptation, Berghahn Books, April 18, 2011
3. Garfield, Kathryn, Is There a Genetic Basis to Race After All?, May 7, 2007, Retrieved December 07, 2012 from the Discover -- the Magazine of Science, Technology, and the Future website: http://discovermagazine.com/2007/may/is-there-a-genetic-basis-to-race-after-all#.UMHVdoNwotp
4. Slavery in America, Retrieved December 7, 2012 from the History website: http://www.history.com/topics/slavery
Lombroso aimed to be a true adherent of the positivist theory in constructing his criminologist theory. The way that he used positivism however shows how empiricism -- or true science as it is otherwise known -- can be misused and can lead to erroneousness results.
Positivism is the orientation that attempts to follow empirical or sensory experience only and eschew metaphysical or spiritualist renderings. The irony of this was, at least in Lombroso's case, that his rendering of positivism when combined with criminology took him straight into metaphysics.
(This wasn't the only case where Lombroso's scientific manipulations led him into the mystical realm. Later on, he wrote books on spirits and seances claiming these to have empirical base too).
Cesare Lombroso (1835 -1909) saw crime as being an inherited or genetic feature that could be recognizable by experts according to certain physiognomy, or physical defects, that characterized someone as being…
Bland, KR CESARE LOMBROSO Florida State University - School of Criminology
KR Bland… - criminology
Gould, Stephen J. (rev. ed. 1996) The Mismeasure of Man W.W. Norton, USA
Jones, D.A. (1986). History of Criminology: a philosophical perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Alberta Tar Sands Issues
The tar sands oil reserves in Alberta, Canada, represent the second largest proven petroleum reserve in the world -- right behind the reserves in Saudi Arabia. The Alberta tar sands are located in the vast boreal forest of Canada, just north of Montana, and it is estimated that nearly 179 billion barrels of oil are in the tar sands, according to Bridget Mintz Testa, writing in the peer-reviewed journal Mechanical Engineering (Testa, 2008). The great volume of crude oil is seen as a positive, reliable source of energy for Canada and other countries that will be importing this oil. The extraction, production, and transportation of tar sands oil also represents a number of serious environmental impacts, which will be reviewed in this paper.
The Science Involved in Tar Sands Oil Production
Notwithstanding the fact that tar sands oil is in plentiful supply, one of the down…
American Petroleum Institute "Keystone XL Pipeline." Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://www.api.org.
Austen, Ian. "Oil Sands Industry in Canada Tied to Higher Carcinogen Level." The New York
Times. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Chemical Engineering. "Solvent extraction method shows promise for recovering bitumen from tar sands." 118.9 (2011): p. 12.
Jose y Gasset, one of the most famous panish and existentialist philosophers, wrote realms of books about the importance of stepping from 'out' and turning 'within'. The greatest warriors, he noted, were those who took time to separate themselves from their armies, go into seclusion, and reflect on the history of their tactics and on ideas of how to proceed. It was exactly this 'turning away' form the noise of the world that allowed them to gain a moment of silence, see the world, and their actions in it is, form a clearer, more detached perspective, and enable them to proceed in a more rational manner.
Hurricane andy gave me something of this last week. Perhaps, because I took advantage of it. Many others, I later heard, were discomfited by the break in their electronic routine. They -- we -- were used to texting, chatting, browsing on the computer, talking…
Bikerts, S. Into the Electronic Millennium . Boston Review
The creation and enjoyment of music has been a part of our collective human culture since long before the beginnings of recorded history. It is believed that once upon a time even cavemen and Neanderthals were able to create music using their prehistoric instruments and technologies. Archaeologists and historians have discovered remnants of musical instruments in dig sites from all across the globe. The various instruments or what may or may not have at one time been instruments, that have been found at each of these locations have been a reflection of the culture in which it was used. As modern culture is reflected in current musical interests, so too the cultures of past civilizations have been reflected in the instruments and music that those cultures had left behind. Part of the culture invariably involves the tools and available materials that the population would utilize in order to…
Anderson, J 2008, 'Slaves to the rhythm,' CBC News.
Busoni, F 1962, 'Sketch of a new esthetic of music,' Three Classics in the Aesthetic of Music:
Cher 1998, 'Believe,' Believe. Warner Bros.
Everett-Green, R 2006, 'Ruled by Frankenmusic,' The Globe and Mail.
role of potassium argon dating within the field of archaeology. How it works and what methods are used to glean the date from archaeological artefacts and remains.
Potassium argon and the archaeologist
The majority of the world's archaeological sites are now so ancient that there is no actual way of giving them a complete and secure chronological date that radio-carbon dating can provide. However, here are many techniques for dating within the field of archaeology, one of these methods is the K-Ar (Potassium-Argon) method which has been a vast success within the field of geology (the study of earth).
It is possible to date rocks with a low potassium content such as basalts in this way. Sadly the dates are not always secure due to the behaviour of the geochemicals of the parent and daughter elements as they are likely to being disturbed by geological events such as weathering or…
Gamble, C (1994) The Peopling of Europe: Oxford Illustrated Pre-History of Europe Cunliffe, B (ed) Oxford University Press. Oxford Fagan, B. (1998) People of the Earth Longman. New York
McKie (2000) Ape Man BBC Worldwide; London
Stringer, C and Gamble C (1993) In search of the Neanderthals Thames and Hudson: London
Fagan, B. (1998)
Prehistoric cave art is considered to be man's original form of art, although its date of origin is still unknown. The art displays the effects of the cultures and surroundings that created them. Cave art found in Europe and Africa depicts the prehistoric conception of animals, humans, symbols and weapons. There are many differences and commonalities between the art found in both areas.
The bulk of the world's cave paintings were discovered in Europe. The humidity and temperature of the European climate are perfect for preserving the art. Cave paintings, along with additional indications of human life, are entirely preserved. Even the footprints of humans and animals are embossed on the floors of several caves.
Examples of European prehistoric cave art are present in the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardeche, France and in Les Trois Freres, France. "We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet…
Adams, P.J., et al. The Concise Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Ed. Cottrell, Leonard. 1st ed. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1960.
Bandi, Hans-Georg, et al. The Art of the Stone Age; Forty Thousand Years of Rock Art. New York: Crown Publishers, 1961.
history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…
J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.
THE JEWISH CONCEPT OF THE MESSIAH
Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm
IQ Test Scores
Cultural Differences in IQ Test Scores
Most studies carried out in the United States to measure intelligence (IQ) indicate a significant gap in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites. The gap is more pronounced in certain areas of intelligence such as general intelligence and on tests requiring problem solving and more complex mental operations than on tests of rote learning and immediate memory. The gap has narrowed since the 1970s but still persists stubbornly. Debate has raged among the psychologists and social scientists about the reasons for the gap. The "hereditists" believe that the difference in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites is largely due to genetic reasons. The "environmentalists" are equally certain that the gap is due to environmental reasons and has nothing to do with genetics. This paper looks at both the heredity explanation as well as the environmental explanations of…
Dorfman, Donald D. (1995). "Soft Science with a Neoconservative Agenda." A Review of the Bell Curves. 40: 5. Contemporary Psychology, APA's journal of book reviews. Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.apa.org/journals/bell.html
Haughton, Noela A. (2002). "Biased Content, Context, and Values: An Examination of the SAT." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.sq.4mg.com/IQincome.htm
Jencks, Christopher and Phillips, Meredith. (1998). "The Black- White Test Score Ga: An Introduction." (pp. 2-22) The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips - eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Keita, L. (1999). "Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean." The Western Journal of Black Studies. 23: 1, p. 65.
Marketing Plan can be defined as a written plan or document that refers to the particular organizations adaptation of a particular marketing strategy. It can also be defined as the written plan of a company that underlines the various marketing activities that the company would undertake in the following months or weeks. A marketing plan must include general information like for example, the particular service or product that is being offered by the organization, the pricing of the product or service, the target market, that in other words means the market in which the product or service is being proposed to be sold, and important information about the different competitors who offer similar products and services, and the marketing budget, that is the amount of money or finances that has been earmarked for the purpose of this particular marketing plan.
The success of a well-planned and well-executed marketing plan depends…
Bright Minds Shine. Retrieved at http://www.homeschoolnewslink.com/vol7iss3_BrightMinds.html . Accessed on 2 September, 2004
Critical Thinking across the Curriculum. Retrieved at http://www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/longview/ctac/corenotes.htm. Accessed on 1 September, 2004
Frey, Chuck. New Book Provides Valuable Insights. June 23, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.innovationtools.com/Articles/BookReviewDetails.asp?a=94. Accessed on 3 September, 2004
Golden Business Ideas. Journal of Accountancy. April, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.aicpa.org/pubs/jofa/apr2000/gbi.htm . Accessed on 1 September, 2004
History of Fashion
The history of fashion can be dated back to the development of the fashion industry in different time eras. Fashion was taken and applied in different forms depending on the situation of that era. It has been noted that clothing from the oman and the Ancient Greek times is more dependent on the mere purpose of clothes rather than the style that was present. As it would be expected, in the olden times, clothes or fashion were merely a way of covering one's body. People did not think about the print, style or fabric when considering what they used to cover themselves. It has been seen that up till 400 A.D, clothing was never tight fitting nor was it loose or flowy. The basic idea was that drapes were used so that men and women could feel protected and secure. As it would be expected, the…
Felice, M. (2013). Materials through the ages: All dressed up - technical fabrics | IOM3: The Global Network for Materials, Minerals & Mining Professionals. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.iom3.org/feature/all-dressed-up-technical-fabrics [Accessed: 1 Dec 2013].
Fenton, C. (2013). Neoprene looks good in the water. This fall it looks even better on the town. - BostonGlobe.com. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/2013/10/22/neoprene/iBah3zTIfVctt5gmoe2BjJ/story.html [Accessed: 5 Dec 2013].
Hemephill, S. And Suk, J. (2009). The Law, Culture, and Economics of Fashion . Stanford Law Review, 61 (5).
Jones, L. (2013). LIZ JONES FASHION THERAPY: PVC is all over the catwalks -- but can any woman look fantastic in plastic?. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2401797/LIZ-JONES-FASHION-THERAPY-PVC -- woman-look-fantastic-plastic.html [Accessed: 5 Dec 2013].
Gould's and Mayr's biological species concept, as presented by Stamos (2008). According to these scientists and to this species concept, two populations are termed as belonging to the same species if they are capable of interbreeding.
So, as Stamos further exemplifies, the chimpanzees form a single species, because they are capable of interbreeding, they are producing offspring. Human beings and chimpanzees are not capable of producing offspring together, so they belong to two different species. Furthermore, two races of dogs belong to the same species: they are capable of interbreeding and the resulting dog is also fertile. However, a horse and a donkey belong to different species: while they are able to interbreed, their resulting offspring is not itself fertile.
To sum up, my understand is that humans belong to the same species because of reproductive compatibility. At the same time, the human species is formed of different races, whereby…
1. Stamos, David, (2011). Evolution and the Big Questions: Sex, Race, Religion, and Other Matters. John Wiley & Sons
2. Barnosky, A. et al. (2011). Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? 3 MARCH 2011 | VOL 471 | NATURE | 51-55
3. Hill, Kevin, (1993). The Endangered Species Act: What Do We Mean
by Species? Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review. Volume 20, Issue 2, Article 3
The enablers include the competence of the people, the culture of the corporation, internal development, worker engagement, efficient and effective communication, and innovative learning.
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. (1996). The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: progress and prospects. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4), pp. 779-801.
The research attempts to advance debates on a nascent link between the human resource systems and the strategic impact of human resource management (HRM) decisions on performance outcomes. The implications of 'best practice' for HR system structure and effects are extensively discussed to literally build the ground of the organizational value creation. Nonetheless, researchers need to give careful thought to the meaning of HR measure at the corporate level because HR practices usually different across business units and facilities within a corporation, particularly as diversification and size increase.
Moss, J. (2000)"trategies for recruiting volunteers. A management sub-feature." Lessons from the…
Shackleton-Jones, N. 2003. 'Blended Learning at Siemens: A Training Manager's View'.
Article in TrainingZone.
In this article, Shackleton-Jones briefly describes the various training needs that are necessary behind the use of blended learning approach.
Neuroscience and Linguistics
LINK AND COMMONALITIES
The Language-Ready rain
Linguistics authorities oeckx and enitez-urraco (2014) Theorize that modern man possesses a language-ready brain structure, which earlier homo species did not. This, they believe, came as a result of developmental changes shown by a more globular braincase in modern man from the time of the split of species from the Neanderthal-Denisovans. The development changes were primarily in the cortical level, accompanied by anatomical changes in the sub-cortical level, which resulted in this globularity. Modern man's resulting capacity for language can be gleaned from and explained by the functional consequences of these changes. These experts point to the thalamus, which is mainly responsible for the uniquely evolved language and human cognition of modern homo sapiens (oeckx & enitez-urraco)/
oeckx & enitez-urraco (2014) isolated a probable gene, which could be strongly influential in the unique development and connectivity of the thalamus as well…
Boeckx, C and Benitez-Burraco, A. (2014). The shape of human language-ready-brain.
Vol. 6 Article 292, Frontiers in Psychology: Boeckx and Benitez-Burraco: Research
Ge, J. et al. (2015). Criss-language differences in the brain network subserving intelligible speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science: National
Unilateralism and Preemptive Defense
The arguments for unilateralism and preemptive strikes outlined by conservative historians appear logical and well-documented but are essentially wrought with contradiction. In his recent documentary film called Bowling for Columbine, Michael Moore delivered the premise that American culture is built on the promotion of fear. Fear underlies American foreign policy, especially after the terrorist attacks of September 11. In fact, those attacks offered the Bush administration easy fodder for propaganda to promote unilateralism and preemptive strikes on other nations. In spite of the huge practical leap from Bin Laden to Iraq, the administration launched its attacks on that nation with impunity and in spite of massive international opposition. The willingness of the American government to act without the slightest respect for the United Nations proves that America as a whole is under the spell of a cultural superiority complex. This complex is not only psychologically dangerous,…