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positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.
In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)
In the past…
Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website: http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2010/cluster7/Agarwal_Nisha_Cloning.pdf
Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website: http://arabidopsis.info/students/microarrays.pps
Brock, D. Brown University, (2009). Cloning human beings. Retrieved from Brown University website: http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf
Silva, K. Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences. (2008). Biology and society: A new way to teach tertiary science to non-science students. Retrieved from Flinders University website: http://dspace.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2328/12252/2006009592.pdf;jsessionid=507BB9A61E39EF7034A7C025D0896D59 ?
positive and negative impacts Western colonialism peoples Africa. Give specific examples.
Imperialism in Africa
European colonization of Africa was one of the most important events in world history, providing Europeans with the raw materials and labor resources to conquer and control much of the rest of the world. Moreover, centuries of European colonial domination left an indelible imprint on Africa's societies, economies, and cultures that is still visible nearly half a century after the end of decolonization. Though imperialism clearly benefited Africa and some Africans, on balance, it is clear that imperialism was negative for Africa and Africans.
Europeans had colonized Africa as far back as the Greeks' establishment of a mercantile colony at Naucratis in the sixth-century B.C.E. Typically, however, when scholars discuss colonization of the African continent, they are referring to the period from the sixteenth-century C.E. through the mid-twentieth century, when European powers vied with one another…
Yet, for all of the structural benefits of colonization -- the Suez Canal, the Cape to Cairo Railway -- the reality is that European colonization of Africa was devastating for the continent, responsible for the corruption and poverty that characterizes many African nations. According to famed historian Walter Rodney, European countries deliberately retarded African development so that they could exploit the continent's mineral and labor resources.[footnoteRef:1] Of course, the most obvious form of European colonial exploitation of Africa and Africans was slavery, which Rodney called "the basic factor" in Africa's underdevelopment. Though slavery goes back to ancient times, the emergence of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade in the mid-fifteenth century created a racial hierarchy in Africa that legitimized the expropriation of Africans' labor by force.[footnoteRef:2] This racial hierarchy existed, in modified form, in South Africa as late as 1994; called "apartheid," it was a system of legal discrimination and enforced segregation that had its roots in slavery. Slavery tainted everything, even Europe's "gifts" to the Africans; for instance, the French forced Egyptian peasants to perform the hazardous and backbreaking word of actually digging the Suez Canal, a form of chattel slavery known as "corvee."[footnoteRef:3] [1: Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (Nairobi, Kenya: Sitima Printers and Stationers, Ltd., 2009), 8.] [2: Patrick Manning, Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 4. ] [3: Zachary Karabell, Parting the Desert: The Creation of the Suez Canal (New York:: Knopf Doubleday Publishing, 2004), 112.]
The negative effects of European colonization of Africa did not stop at enslavement and exploitation; as Rodney makes clear, European colonization left Africans with an enduring legacy of corruption and poverty. Despite the fact that Africa is Earth's second largest continent, and the planet's most populous, it remains the poorest. Moreover, as economist John Mukum Mbaku makes clear in his new book, Corruption in Africa: Causes, Consequences, and Cleanups, Africa "… is one of only a few regions that has failed to make any significant improvements in human development [since the end of the Cold War} & #8230; [and one] of the most important contributors to this state of affairs in Africa is corruption."[footnoteRef:4] [4: .John Mukum Mbaku, Corruption in Africa: Causes, Consequences, and Cleanups (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007), xi.]
It is undeniable that European colonization benefit Africa and Africans in a number of ways. As this paper had made clear, Europeans designed, financed, and built a number of important infrastructure projects during their time in control of the continent; these include the Suez Canal and the Cape to Cairo Railway, both of which are still in use and generating wealth for Africans today. On balance, however, it is clear that these technological marvels pale in comparison to the years of organized exploitation and slavery that characterized European domination of Africa. Moreover, the colonialism's legacy -- political corruption -- keeps Africa mired in poverty and despotism. Therefore, one is forced to conclude that western colonialism had a mostly negative effect on Africa and Africans.
That is; the text, pictures, animations, or videos used in the campaign. If these things are not appealing to the target viewers, all the efforts will go is vein and no one will pay attention to the company's presence on the social media (Hendricks, 139).
Recommendations to meet this challenge:
First of all, the contents must not be confusing or ambiguous. The target viewers must be communicated in simple and informative words. Then the contents; specially videos and pictures must be interesting and enriched with some clear message. This will increase the chances that they view the whole campaign and most likely wish to buy the product or at least have a healthy discussion with their close ones on the social media (alsh). Finally, the campaigns must never contain any words or pictures that are against the sentiments of some group of people. This can badly affect the public image…
Evans, Dave. & McKee, Jake. Social media marketing: the next generation of business engagement. 1st Edition. Indianapolis: Wiley Technology Publications, 2010. Print
Hendricks, John. Social Media. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2012. Print
Kaplan, Andreas, & Haenlein, Micheal. "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media." Business Horizons. February 2010: 59 -- 68. Print
Maignan, Isabelle & Ferrell, OC. "Corporate social responsibility and marketing: An integrative framework." Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 2011: 3-19
As slavery evolved and it became permissible in society to treat slaves with less and less regard, more labor could be demanded from each individual, which meant more profit from the owners. In America, especially the United States, it is possible that slavery was responsible for the development of the American middle class, because it established a caste-system and gave birth to the concept of white privilege. Slavery was certainly pivotal in the boom years of America's early economy.
Despite the fact that slavery had some advantages, the price for those advantages was staggering. As the transatlantic slave trade increased, the old reasons for enslavement largely fell away, and an increasing number of Africans were kidnapped into slavery solely for profit. Furthermore, once enslaved, these people's children were trapped into a life of slavery as well. Millions died as a direct result of the brutal conditions of slavery. In addition,…
while the parents were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). This helped the researchers obtain information regarding the behavioral abnormalities, hyperactivity, inattention, ADHD, etc.
Statistical analysis of the gathered information clearly revealed an increase in inattentive behavior (p ? 0.001 for both Internet and console video games) and ADHD (p = 0.018 and 0.020 for console and Internet games, respectively). The researchers also concluded that students who engaged in video gaming for more than an hour showed significantly lower academic performance with (Grade point average (GPA), p = 0.019 and 0.009 for console and Internet games, respectively). The association between the time spent on playing video games and the YIAS (p < 0.001), was clearly evident indicating the development of video game addiction among the subjects who played for more than one hour daily [Philip and Terry, (2006)]. This study shows that children playing video games may…
1) Online Education, 'Video game Statistics' Accessed Mar 26th 2010, available at, http://www.onlineeducation.net/videogame/
2) NIMF, 'Effects of Video game playing on Children', Accessed Mar 26th 2010, available at, http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_effect.shtml
3) Jerald J. Block, M.D., 'Issues for DSM-V: Internet Addiction', Am J. Psychiatry
165:306-307, Mar 2008, Available online at, http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/165/3/306
Negative Impact of the ADDIE Process
The ADDIE model is a problem solving process that has emerged in the last 30 years as the key process that is used to design, develop and implement training for medical students. Instructional design is the systematic approach to the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of learning materials and activities. Instructional design aims for a learner-centered rather than the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, so that effective learning can take place. This means that every component of the instruction is governed by the learning outcomes, which have been determined after a thorough analysis of the learners' needs.
First, Analysis is the process of defining what is to be learned. Design is the process of specifying how it is to be learned. Next, Development is the process of authoring and producing the materials. Implementation is the process of installing the project in the real…
Kruse, K. (2004). Introduction to Instructional Design and the ADDIE Model. Retrieved January 19, 2005, from e-Learning Guru Web site: http://www.e- learningguru.com/articles/art21.htm
Exomedia. (2005). ADDIE Model. Retrieved January 19, 2005, from Exomedia
Communicate at Will Web site: http://www.exomedia.ca/elearning/addie_model.cfm
McGriff, S. (2000). Instructional System Design (ISD): Using the ADDIE Model.
The much-promised value of social networks is then an illusion, with benefits that could easily be attained through other means.
A second aspect of why social networks have such a negative social impact is because it creates a fertile environment for cyber bullying and abuse that many are too cowardly to do in person (Meredith, 2010). Cyber-bulling is often anonymous, concerted across multiple people in a group targeting an outsider, and faceless, yet vicious in its verbal attacks and threats of violence (Meredith, 2010). The point of cyberbuylling is to ostracize someone and also make them feel terrible so they will leave a school, university or workplace permanently. What is very troubling about this type of behavior is the fact that spreads and becomes commonplace across groups; in effect there is a proliferation of hate that occurs because everyone can stay anonymous (Meredith, 2010). Cyberbullying is reason enough to not…
James Bennett, Mark Owers, Michael Pitt, & Michael Tucker. (2010). Workplace impact of social networking. Property Management, 28(3), 138-148.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Di Cagno, D., & Sciubba, E.. (2010). Trust, trustworthiness and social networks: Playing a trust game when networks are formed in the lab. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 75(2), 156.
Hathi, S.. (2008). BILLIONS LOST FROM SOCIAL NETWORKING. Strategic Communication Management, 12(2), 9.
These generally viewed race in terms of superior or inferior throughout history.
The time frame family studies explored involved biological and pathology theories dating from the 1899 through the twentieth century. Interestingly, these researchers found that in early history, race was more likely to negatively impact child education than socio-economic status, especially during times in history when most people were at a disadvantage economically (as in during the depression). As researchers moved into the twentieth century however, there seems to be a trend in research leaning toward less emphasis on race and minority status, with many researchers turning away from terms like "morons" or "inferior" or "degenerates" and more focusing on terms like "poverty" and "poor" or "welfare status" (Block, Balcazar & Keys, 2001, p. 18). Historical data gathering included a review of researchers and psychologist reports and collection as described in a comparison table which the researcher then reviewed…
Anderson, E. (1990). Streetwise: Race, class, and change in an urban community.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Block, P., Balcazar, F. & Keys, C. (2001). From pathology to power: Rethinking race, poverty and disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1): 18.
Deyhle, D., Parker, L. & Villenas, S. (1999). Race is - Race isn't: Critical race theory and qualitative studies in education. Boulder: Westview Press.
First, a thorough secondary literature review and an assessment of available dissertations and theses on the subject, the goal will be to determine the cause-and-effect of prolonger video game use on the psychological stability of children. These are to be clear not children who play for a few hours each day, they are the ones who are playing for up to eight to ten hours a day. Second, the research from the dissertations, thesis and published journals discovered during the first step will be summarized into a table of results. The intent of this effort is to define the cause-and-effect factors that lead parents to allow their children to be some detached and consumed in these games. Third, an action plan will be defined for how to raise public awareness and assist parents in setting better constraints and parameters for the use of video games in the future.
For small amounts of viewing, achievement increased with viewing, but as viewing increased beyond a certain point, achievement decreased. That function was found for each of the 3 ages studied, but optimal viewing time -- the apex of the function - was different at each age and decreased with the age of the students. (Razel, 2001)
Research Showing Positive Effects on Children
On the other hand, there is some research that disagrees that television has a profound negative effect on a child's behavior, health and cognitive ability. This research does not support the hypothesis that television is bad for children. There is observation
Television and Children 7 research that shows that television can be a positive influence in a child's learning process. The television can inform, entertain, and educate children in many ways.
Even though there is an abundance of children's shows that promote violence and other generally un-educational topics,…
1. Comstock, George A., Eli A. Rubinstien, and John P. Murray. Television and Social Behavior: Television's Effects: Further Explorations. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1972.
2. Winn, Marie. The Plug-In Drug. New York, NY: Viking Penguin Press, 1985.
3. Children and the News Retreived July 26, 2006 at http://aacap.org/page.ww?name=Children+and+The+News§ion=Facts+for+Families
4. Razel, M. (2001). The complex model of television viewing and educational achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 94, 371-379.
Negative Effects of Off shoring on the U.S. Economy
Globalization and technological advancements over the last couple of decades have shifted the ways of many facets of life, which include the ways of doing businesses and its impact on the economies. Off shoring (preferably termed as outsourcing) is one of the widespread terms that have not only emerged as a result of globalization but have come under extensive utilization by the developed economies such as the U.S. (Farrell, p. 1-9).
Off shoring simply means that enterprises hire other people (which are typically known as third party vendors) in other countries that can perform their part of the jobs. In simple words, off shoring is a universal practice of shifting particular operational tasks to a new location that was originally performed in the home country. The phenomenon of off shoring is not restricted to a single sector but companies in various…
Bertho, M. The Impact of Globalization on the United States: Culture and society, Volume 1. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008. Print.
Committee on the Offshoring of Engineering. The Offshoring of Engineering: Facts, Unknowns, and Potential Implications. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2008. Print.
Farrell, D. Offshoring: Understanding the Emerging Global Labor Market. USA: Harvard Business Press, 2007. Print.
GOA. 'OFFSHORING OF SERVICES - An Overview of the Issues.' United States Government Accountability Office. (2005): 14-31. Web: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d065.pdf . November 27, 2012.
Negative Impacts of Social Media
Without a doubt, social media has changed the way that we live. People all over the world are more connected and have more potential to connect with others, making friends and colleagues all over the globe. News and currents events are able to travel at lightning speed around the city, nation and world community, making us all in touch as ever. But even so, there is a dark side to social media, one which must not be ignored. For all the wealth of information that's out there, there's a ton of information which is trite, repetitive or useless. Part of the battle of social media is the need to weed through all the worthless information that's out there, in order to get to the information which is important or necessary. This is one of the milder drawbacks of social media. Social media at its most…
Gee, D. (2013, November 17). 'Twitter tantrum' is a tragic lesson for teens. Retrieved from buffalonews.com: http://www.buffalonews.com/columns/denise-jewell-
Kaiser, S. (2012, February 13). Social media can both help and hurt real-life relationships. Retrieved from usatoday.com:
The negative thing associated with this practice is that the individual may buy unnecessary items since the practice is carried out without proper consideration. Furthermore, shopping has the ability of becoming a negative addiction if it leads to the purchase of items that will no longer fit the individual after a short period of time. While shopping is a good activity, it turns to a negative addiction if it's driven by a state of tension and anticipation.
Similar to positive addictions, negative addictions are recurring habits or behaviors that are learned or acquired through trial and error or through observation of other people. When an individual is continually exposed to the substance or behavior with some level of satisfaction, the urge or craving for the substance or behavior emerge gradually following repeated practice and experience. The craving or urge for the habit or substance is a person's way of anticipation…
Chakravarthula, S. (2001, December 16). Addiction. Retrieved September 9, 2012, from http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=1308
Pressley, J. (2010, February 28). The Positive and Negative Effects of Addictions. Retrieved September 9, 2012, from http://ezinearticles.com/?the-Positive-and-Negative-Effects-of-Addictions&id=3844619
Negative Effects of California's Proposition 13 on Infrastructure
California's Proposition 13, officially known as the People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation, was enacted in June 1978 in response to soaring property taxes (Chapman 1998). As a result of this act, real property tax in California is capped at 1% its assessed value. Furthermore, this assessed value cannot increase by anymore than 2% annually while under the same ownership. Once a property is sold to a new owner, the property value is reassessed at current market value and taxed at 1% of this value.
Three other changes became law when Proposition 13 passed ("hat is Proposition 13?" n.d.). First, the responsibility for allocating property tax revenue among local jurisdictions transferred to the state. Second, it became mandatory to receive a two-thirds majority vote in both legislative houses on any measures enacted to increase state revenue. Third, local governments were now required…
Chapman, Jeffrey. "Proposition 13: Some Unintended Consequences." Public Policy Institute
of California. Sept. 1998. Public Policy Institute of California. 1 Feb. 2010.
Foldvary, Fred. "Circumventing California's Proposition 13 for the Public Collection of Rent."
Borderless Society on Food
As disparate regions of the globe become more and more intertwined through the expansion of global capital and the practical disintegration of international borders for massive companies, the food people eat is simultaneously delivered from every region of the globe so that seasons no longer dictate the availability of any given food. However, the ability to obtain any given food out of season brings with it environmental and ecological damages because the farming and transportation practices which make this global food market work are almost entirely unsustainable and detrimental to the continued health of the global food ecosystem. In order to better understand the nature of this borderless society and how it affects the food one eats on any given day, it is useful to trace the path a couple of meals have taken from farm to plate, because only by doing so does the ramifications…
Local-food movement: the lure of the 100-mile diet. (2006, June 11). Time, Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1200783,00.html
Kloppenburg, J, Hendrickson, J, & Stevenson, G.W. (1996). Coming in to the foodshed. Agriculture and Human Value, 13(3), 33-42.
Complexities of Economic, Social and Political Landscapes and Three Benefits and Negative Impacts of Globalization on Daily Life
This work in writing will address the complexities of economic, social and political landscapes and three benefits and negative impacts of globalization on daily life. Towards this end a literature review will be conducted followed by an analysis and conclusion.
Globalization has impacted every aspect of daily life across the globe since the shirt one wears may be from Mexico or some other country (Scriven, 2014, paraphrased) their shoes from China and amazingly, it is possible to eat a Big Mac in Moscow. Globalization means that there are more choices for consumers and more consumers for producers of goods. The impact of globalization has been felt all across the globe and in the economic, political and social sectors of society. Several decades ago little was known by the American citizen about…
Batterson, R. And Weidenbaum, M. (2001) The Pros and Cons of Globalization. Center for the Study of American Business. Jan 2001. Retrieved from: https://wc.wustl.edu/files/wc/imce/the_pros_and_cons_of_globalization.pdf
Globalization (2014) English Online. Retrieved from: http://www.english-online.at/economy/globalization/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-globalization.htm
Scriven, J. (2014) The Impact of Globalization on the Consumer. Business Journal Review. Retrieved from: http://www.neumann.edu/academics/divisions/business/journal/Review2014/Scriven.pdf
Globalization and Women
Does globalization really enhance women's voice and agency? Wells, Shuey, and Kiely (2001, p. 37) define globalization as "the recent and rapid progress of intercontinental economic, social, and political integration." As the authors further point out, it is this integration that permits people from across the world to not only relate, but also communicate seamlessly. It is also this same globalization that allows corporate entities to conduct business more effectively across the globe. But how exactly does globalization affect women?
In the words of Lachner (2001), globalization could "harm women -- especially in the south -- in several ways." According to the author, globalization has could have a negative impact on women economically, politically, as well as culturally. This is particularly the case for those in the global south and north. From the economic perspective, women could suffer from globalization as corporations discriminate them in favor of…
Chandra, R., 2004. Globalization, Liberalization, Privatization and Indian Policy. Delhi: Isha Books.
Lachner, F., 2001. Globalization Issues. Retrieved from http://sociology.emory.edu/faculty/globalization/issues02.html
Scott, A. ed., 2013. The Limits of Globalization. New York, NY: Routledge
Wadley, S.S., ed., 2013. South Asia in the World: An Introduction. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
McLaren and Farahmandpur conceive of the new imperialism as a "combination of old-style military and financial practices as well as recent attempts by developed nations to impose the law of the market on the whole of humanity itself" (2001, 136).
McLaren and Farahmandpur note, too, that the concept of class division is a taboo subject within the "guarded precincts of academic discourse, leaving discussions of class out of discussions of global capitalism, exploitation and oppression linked to capitalism. Certainly, this was true in the Martha Stewart case. The media was at pains to point out how well accepted she was by the other inmates, pointing out that she hadn't even won the Christmas decorating contest. Every once in a while, to use George Orwell's mythology, some of the more equal pigs must appear to be less equal in order to convince the less equal pigs that all pigs are equal.…
Halsall, P. (1997, Aug.) "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved March 23, 2005 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1791degouge1.html
Krishnan, R. (1996, May). December 1995: "The first revolt against globalization." Monthly Review, 48, 1+. Retrieved March 23, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
McLaren, P., & Farahmandpur, R. (2001). "Teaching against globalization and the new imperialism: Toward a revolutionary pedagogy." Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 136. Retrieved March 23, 2005, from Questia database,
mass tourism on the culture of Ibiza
Ibiza in Spain is one of the best-preserved medieval islands in Europe. The island is closest of all the Balearic Islands to mainland Spain and has a 200 km coastline. Although it has a reputation as a party island, there is much more to it than nightclubs. There are many small coves and over 50 beaches. One can view other Ibiza attractions, museums, events, festivals and travel. Ibiza has earned the title of "Clubbing Capital" of the world. The temperatures range from 20 degrees Celsius in May to around 27 in August. The population hovers around 110000 while the language spoken is Castilian Spanish. The currency accepted is the Euro. During the 1990's, tourism was boosted in the island when it earned the Guinness ecord as the entertainment industry in the world. Since it has around 300 days of sunshine throughout the year,…
Ibiza Information" Retrieved at http://www.ibiza.world-guides.com/ . Accessed on 10 May 2004.
Tourism and Environment on the Island of Ibiza" Retrieved at http://www.ecociencia.com/tourism.htm. Accessed on 10 May '2004.
Tourism and Biodiversity" Retrieved at http://www.ukotcf.org/pdf/calpe/calpe125-144.pdf . Accessed on 10 May '2004.
Ibiza Uncovered" Retrieved at http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/bellis.htm . Accessed on 10 May '2004.
On January 29th, 2016, the Japanese government instituted a negative interest rate for the first time in history. The stated objective of this policy is to "encourage banks to lend, business to invest and savers to spend," but the policy has come under heavy criticism. It is, ultimately, a high-risk policy that essentially takes Japan into uncharted waters (euters, 2016). To suggest that this policy is unorthodox is an understatement, but it highlights the rather unique position that Japan is in with respect to its economy. Economists in particular will be observing what happens with this policy closely, because it is a new situation, and the impacts can only be theorized at this point. This paper will outline the context for this decision, and analyze whether it not this is a good move by the Bank of Japan.
Background on the Japanese Economy, 1940s to 1980s
Understanding how this…
Einhorn, B. (2016). Abenomics? How about Kurodanomics? NewWeek Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-02-18/japan-abenomics-how-about-kurodanomics
IndexMundi.com (2016). GDP real growth chart, Japan. IndexMundi.com. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=ja&v=66
Jones, R. (2005). Japan's economy. OECD Observer. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/1511/Japan_s_economy.html
Kobayashi, K. (2009) The G20s blind spot: President Obama must squarely face the bad asset problem. Vox EU. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://voxeu.org/article/lessons-japan-s-failed-fiscal-stimulus
social psychology: Stanley Milgram's shock experiments and Philip Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Both experiments were conducted, at least partially, to help explain why seemingly normal people became Nazi collaborators in the World War II era. The experiments help demonstrate how individual authority over another allows individuals to exercise their own proclivities for cruelty and how being under the direction of authority figures causes people to engage in behavior that they find distasteful or cruel. The paper also examines Jane Elliot's Brown Eye / Blue Eye experiment and what it says about the establishment of hierarchies.
Milgram and Zimbardo
After the end of World War II, as more and more information became available not just about the atrocities committed by the Nazis, but also about how seemingly normal individuals acted as collaborators to aid the Nazis in their pursuits, psychologists and sociologists became fascinated with how seemingly normal people could be…
Another Boring Week. (2013, January 4). Feature Film- The Stanford Prison Experiment.
Retrieved November 30, 2014 from YouTube website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L_LKzEqlPto
Big History NL. (2013, March 19). Milgram Experiment. Retrieved November 30, 2014 from YouTube website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xOYLCy5PVgM
Ludwing Media. (2012, November 19). Brown Eyes and Blue Eyes Racism Experiment
PTSD in the Middle East
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…
The use of unlicensed assistive personnel (UAPs) has sent a poor message to nursing professionals. In general, the medical establishment has used UAPs in ways that have disregarded the principles of the nursing practice and that have demeaned the value that nurses provide. Rather than showing a willingness to compensate nurses for years of training and performing a demanding job, health care institutions attempted to replace nurses with UAPs without regard to the welfare of the patient.
The misuse of UAPs rather than the use of UAPs is a having a tremendous negative impact on the nursing profession. Of major concern is the increasing use of UAPs to perform services that should be restricted to licensed professionals. y placing untrained, non-credentialed individuals in a position that affects the patient's health, public protection is being sacrificed for increased profits. UAPs should play a role in providing support services to…
Buchanan, D. Unlicensed Assistive Personnel (UAPs). Retrived March 11, 2003 from Medical/Legal Consultants Web Site: http://www.medical-legal- consultants.com/newsletter/dec99.htm#3
Delegation: Concepts and Decision-Making Process. Retrieved March 11,2003 from NC Board of Nursing Web Site: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:OStnT6ClxFsC:www.ncbon.com/forms/Delegatio n%2520Process%2520and%2520Concepts%2520_final_.pdf+%22Unlicensed+Assistive
DeMoro, D. (2000 March-April) How Hospitals Created a Shortage of Nurses. Retrieved March
Boyd, Danah M., and Nicole B. Ellison. "Social Network Sites: Definition, History and Scholarship (Excerpt)." Everything's an Argument with Readings. Eds. Lunsford, a.A., J.J. Ruszkiewicz and K. alters. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010. Print.
Calvo-Armengol, Antoni, Eleonora Patacchini, and Yves Zenou. "Peer Effects and Social Networks in Education." The Review of Economic Studies 76.4 (2009): 1239-67. Print.
Common Sense Media. Is Technology Networking Changing Childhood? A National Poll. San Francisco, CA: Common Sense Media, 2009. Print.
Conan, Neal, et al. "Is Creating a Fake Online Profile a Criminal Act?" Everything's an Argument with Readings. Eds. Lunsford, a.A., J.J. Ruszkiewicz and K. alters. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010. Print.
Cyberbullying Research Center. "Research: Summary of Our Cyberbullying Research from 2004-2010." 2011. December 5th 2012. .
Giles, G., and R. Price. "Adolescent Computer Use: Approach, Avoidance, and Parental Control." Australian Journal of Psychology 60.1 (2008): 63-71. Print.
i-SAFE America. "Cyber…
Boyd, Danah M., and Nicole B. Ellison. "Social Network Sites: Definition, History and Scholarship (Excerpt)." Everything's an Argument with Readings. Eds. Lunsford, a.A., J.J. Ruszkiewicz and K. Walters. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010. Print.
Calvo-Armengol, Antoni, Eleonora Patacchini, and Yves Zenou. "Peer Effects and Social Networks in Education." The Review of Economic Studies 76.4 (2009): 1239-67. Print.
Common Sense Media. Is Technology Networking Changing Childhood? A National Poll. San Francisco, CA: Common Sense Media, 2009. Print.
Conan, Neal, et al. "Is Creating a Fake Online Profile a Criminal Act?" Everything's an Argument with Readings. Eds. Lunsford, a.A., J.J. Ruszkiewicz and K. Walters. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010. Print.
Part II. Meta-Analysis: Critiquing hat You Have Done
Data thus far on negative campaigning has been mixed, with some research suggesting that it can be profoundly mobilizing to the party faithful of a generally dispirited American electorate (Jackson & Carsey 2006; Martin 2004), while other anecdotal studies suggest it can alienate the public. Polling individuals from a cross-section of elections allows for a wider array of demographic data, and reduces the possibility of independent variables affecting the results. For example, the area selected for the case study might have a generally low level of civic engagement, which could create low voter turnout that was correlated to a negative campaign by both candidates, but not caused by the candidate's advertisements. Examining different districts, with different kinds of hotly contested or lukewarm races, is more representational. However, a case study allows for greater specificity in conducting the research. The interviewers are able…
Do negative campaign ads work?" This Nation. 2005. 14 Jan 2008. http://www.thisnation.com/question/031.html
Jackson, Robert a. & Thomas a. Carsey. U.S. Senate campaigns, negative advertising, and voter mobilization in the 1998 midterm election. Electoral Studies. 26.1: 180-195. March 2007. 14 Jan 2008
Martin, Paul S. "Inside the Black Box of Negative Campaign Effects: Three Reasons
Why Negative Campaigns Mobilize." Political Psychology. 25.4: 545-562. Aug 2004.
The surveys would be provided, to participants in a multi-language format and would seek out diverse groups of immigrants as well as undocumented workers.
The independent variable would be the citizens that you are surveying. In this case, you would want to have a similar question format, as the one given to immigrants and undocumented workers. Where, you are having them answer a multiple choice section and an optional part of the survey. Once the independent variable has been established, you would then compare the responses and results with the dependent variables. Where, you are looking for similarities and differences between the various groups. This will provide the most insight, as to what possible factors are affecting undocumented workers and how it having an effect upon their underlying levels of health.
Access to Health Care for Immigrants. (n.d.) Hesperian. Retrieved from: http://www.hesperian.info/assets/GHW2/GHW2_3.pdf
Denying Undocumented Immigrants Access to…
Access to Health Care for Immigrants. (n.d.) Hesperian. Retrieved from: http://www.hesperian.info/assets/GHW2/GHW2_B3.pdf
Denying Undocumented Immigrants Access to Medicaid. (2008). BU. Retrieved from http://www.bu.edu/law/central/jd/organizations/journals/pilj/vol17no2/documents/17-2CheslerNote.pdf
Immigrant and Citizenship Status. (2006). Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/reports/grr/026855s.htm
Memo to Human Resources Director
Reversal of the Work at Home (WAH) policy
Dear HR Director:
It is my understanding that you are planning to revoke the current WAH policy, and require all employees not having specifically assigned duties at another location to be present in their offices or cubicles. I believe this policy change to be counter-productive for our company, because the new policy creates more problems than it solves.
First, there is the issue of this directive going against the company's green initiatives. Requiring all employees to commute to our HQ location uses additional fuel and further damages the environment with pollution. It also requires the company to spend more money to lease larger offices and pay higher utility bills; in this economy we would prefer to cut costs, not increase them.
There's also the issue of employee productivity. With the average commute for each of…
Impacts of Divorce on Children
a. While divorce can be the lesser of two evils, divorce nonetheless can affect any involved children in many ways.
II. Positive Effects
a. Children feel a sense of relief
b. They are happier if the parents thrive after splitting up
c. Happier but split parents mean happier kids
d. Shared custody can be much better than a volatile household
e. Modeling that leaving a dysfunctional relationship is a good thing
III. Negative Effects
a. Children might act out at school
b. Single parent families can be cash-strapped
c. The effects of the divorce can extend into the child’s adult life
d. The take offense to one parent verbally assaulting the other
e. Stress of some sort is normal and expected
a. Parents should work things out if possible, but some marriages should end if certain lines are cross or attempts…
(Economic Impacts of Tourism: United Nations Environment Program)
The development of the tourism industry could cost the local government as well as local taxpayers a huge amount of money. The government resources being utilized on developing the airport, roads as well as other infrastructure or providing tax breaks for developing the tourism industry could enable the government to minimize their investment in other important sectors like education as also health thereby affecting local development. Further the seasonal nature of the tourism industry leads to economic issues for areas which are seriously dependent on it. The increased demand from tourists for basic services as well as goods could mostly lead to price hikes which could negatively impact the local residents whose income does not enhance in a proportionate manner. The development of the tourism industry and the increase in the demand for real estate which are being linked could bring about…
As children are our future, showing violent and frightening images on television has a negative impact on society because it aids in the creation of a society that is both aggressive and fear. And what causes war and conflict other than aggressive fear?
n addition to creating a society filled with those who are both aggressive and fearful, television creates a society filled with those who do not succeed academically and intellectually, preparing the world to spiral into a downturn of less than qualified leadership. According to Hedley et al.'s book, the negative correlation between television viewing and academic performance can be supported by five major studies. These studies, conducted mostly during the 1980s, used data collected primarily from educational and academic sources, such as the Educational Testing Service, the California Assessment Program, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Susan B. Neuman, in Literacy in the Television Age, a…
In addition to creating a society filled with those who are both aggressive and fearful, television creates a society filled with those who do not succeed academically and intellectually, preparing the world to spiral into a downturn of less than qualified leadership. According to Hedley et al.'s book, the negative correlation between television viewing and academic performance can be supported by five major studies. These studies, conducted mostly during the 1980s, used data collected primarily from educational and academic sources, such as the Educational Testing Service, the California Assessment Program, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Susan B. Neuman, in Literacy in the Television Age, a book published in 1999, adds to this data by arguing that the television could have been a great educational tool. Tha I t is not, and is rather a tool commonly seen as eroding academic ability, certainly speaks volumes to its nature. Neuman argues that three arguments have been made, associating television with negative affects on society. Some have argued that television takes time away from more academic pursuits like reading and imagining, while others suggest that it shapes the way that students' think. The other argument holds that TV makes students exhibit poor behavior during class. Clearly, one of the most important pursuits of a child or adolescent's life is education. Without it, society will be doomed to malfunction. Because television impacts education negatively, it has a negative impact on society.
Now that we've established how television can have a negative impact on society through encouraging violent behavior and poor academic performance, we can start to consider what can be done. Clearly, children are the focus of television's negative affects on society. Therefore, it must be children that are targeted in order to improve this situation. The burden must fall on parents, who should closely monitor what children watch and how much television they watch a day. Parents should encourage children to engage in other, more intellectually stimulating behavior, such as reading. By doing this, the negative societal affects or television can be removed. So make sure the children in your life aren't watching too much TV or shows that are inappropriate for them.
Thus, the television has been a wonderful invention that has helped us travel to other worlds. But the amount of children watching televisions for periods as long as their parents go to work is causing problems, impacting society negatively. In order to create future leaders who are not aggressive or intellectually stunted, parents must strictly monitor children's television watching.
Positive and Negative Influences of Legislation and egulation on Intermodal Transportation
Intermodal transportation is seen where goods, or people, travel across different forms or modes of transport. There are many influences on this type of transportation; the development of containers increased the demand for intermodal transportation, and technology that support longer supply chain has also increase demand. Another influence on the industry has been legislation and regulation, which has had both positive and negative impacts. This paper will look at the general concept in terms of the way regulation may impact both positively and negatively on intermodal transportation, and consider some specific examples of legislation or regulation and their potential influence.
Legislation and/or regulations have impacted directly and indirectly on intermodal transportation. Legislation has included statues to support the development and maintenance of a competitive environment, as well as controls on the movement of goods as standards for…
Carter, M, (2014, Feb 22), Why Whole Foods Market May Have a Big Problem, Motley Fool, accessed 22nd Feb at http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/02/22/why-whole-foods-market-may-have-a-big-problem.aspx
Lambert, T, A, (2008), Four Lessons from the Whole Foods Case, CATO Institute, accessed 22nd Feb at http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/regulation/2008/2/v31n1-4.pdf
MacKey, J; Robb, W, (2013). Letter to Stakeholders, accessed 22nd Feb 2014 at http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company%20Info/PDFs/WFM-2013-Letter-to-Stakeholders.pdf
Meador, Don; Britton, Mike; Phillips, Paige; Howery, Andrew, (2007), Case Analysis -- Whole Foods Market, accessed 22nd Feb 2014 at http://pnphillip.asp.radford.edu/whole%20Foods%20Case.pdf
Three Strikes Law on the African-American Community
Three Strikes legislation, which imposes sentencing enhancement on repeat offenders, often culminating with mandatory life sentences for third-time offenders, has gained popularity throughout the United States. The legislation began in California, where two highly publicized murders committed by convicted felons prompted an outcry against allowing recidivists to return to the community. California did see a decrease in crime rates following its institution of the Three Strikes policy, though there is considerable debate about whether the Three Strikes laws were responsible for that decline. Many other states adopted the legislation, so that about half of all states now have three strikes legislation. While these laws may not necessarily have the desired deterrence effect on crime, the general consensus appears to be that they are not harmful to society; therefore, even if they cannot be proven to be helpful, they should remain in place. However,…
Brown, B. & Jolivette, G. (2005). A primer: Three strikes- the impact after more than a decade.
Retrieved February 13, 2012 from Legislative Analyst's Office website: http://www.lao.ca.gov/2005/3_strikes/3_strikes_102005.htm
Goodno, N.H. (2007). Career criminal targeted: The verdict is in, California's Three Strikes law proves effective. Golden Gate U.L. Rev., 37(2), 461-485.
Jones, B. (1999). Why the Three Strikes law is working in California. Stanford Law & Policy
Anticipated impacts upon operating efficiency
Upon initiating operation efficiency, Midas will be able to mitigate challenges associated with customer service operations. Call volumes and customer inquiries will reduce because customers will not struggle anymore to complain about high bills or pay outstanding balances. Activities related to the collection will also reduce from efficient services and negotiating payment arrangements (Williams & Williams, 2009). Similarly, Midas is also under pressure to minimize customer service budgets in the next fiscal year. At some utilities where operational efficiency has worked, procedures spurred field inspection responding to evidence of tampering or billing exceptions. Smarter implementation of operation efficiency will permit customer service to minimize field visits. For instance, in case of tampering, a series of facility inspection will be arranged to guarantee that no further tampering will occur. Utilizing automated meter readings, customers will be able to be served without the need for…
Charnes, A. (2010). Data envelopment analysis: Theory, methodology, and application. Boston: Kluwer.
Palk, D.M. (2007). Differences in airport operational efficiencies and environmental impact: An examination of United States large and medium hub commercial airports. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Williams, S., & Williams, N. (2009). The profit impact of business intelligence. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act on a Medium Sized Company
The following paper begins with a discussion of the benefits of going public. The paper then gives a comparison between a public and private company. It focuses on the fund raising procedures of the private companies as well. The paper also discusses the ratios that are evaluated at the time of and IPO and determines the impact of these ratios on the decisions of the company. The paper then discusses the positive and negative impacts of the Sarbanes-Oxley act and finishes with a recommendation about whether to continue as a private company or go public.
Benefits of Going Public
Going public refers to an initial public offering of a private company. An initial public offering is the first time a company offers its shares to public. Different companies have different reasons for going public. One of the reasons is to obtain capital. Privately,…
Jong, A., Huijgen, C., Marra, T., & Roosenboom, P. (2012). Why Do Firms Go Public? The Role of the Product Market. Journal Of Business Finance & Accounting, 39(1-2), 165 -- 192.
PricewaterhouseCoopers,. (2010). Roadmap for an IPO A guide to going public (pp. 4-13). London: PricewaterhouseCoopers.
Primack, S. (2012). The Financial Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on Small vs. Large U.S. Public Companies (1st ed., pp. 1-5). Berkeley: University of California. Retrieved from http://live.econ.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/Primack.pdf
Troy, L. (2008). Almanac of business and industrial financial ratios (1st ed., pp. 9-22). Chicago, IL: CCH.
Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.
Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
For instance the World Trade Organization reports having "allowed First World countries to raise trade barriers protecting their companies, even as we have served as their forum for insisting that Third World countries lower their trade barriers more and more." (WTO,
The truth is that if richer nations were to open their markets to the LDC countries for increase opportunities of export, generated would be approximately $700 billion in additional trade for developing countries. (UNCTAD Trade and Development Report, 1999; in WTO,
The World Trade Organization relates that no known causal link exists between foreign investment and the reduction of poverty as approximately eighty percent of foreign direct investment in "in the form of mergers and acquisitions, little in the form of productive investment that creates jobs and exports."
WORLD ECONOMY in the LAST TWO DECADES
The work entitled: "The North American Integration Regime and Its Implications for the World…
Sporleder, Thomas L. And Martin, Larry J. (nd) Economic Perspectives on Competitiveness Under WTO, NAFTA, and FTAA.
Abbott, Frederick M. (1999) the North American Integration Regime and Its Implications for the World Trading System - the NAFTA in the WTO System NYU School of law Online available at http://www.jeanmonnetprogram.org/papers/99/990201.html
Answering the Critics: The Myths and Realities of Trade Liberalization. Business Roundtable. Online available at http://trade.businessroundtable.org/trade_basics/answering_critics.html
Trade Liberalization Statistics (2008) World Trade Organization. Online available at http://www.gatt.org/trastat_e.html
These restoration efforts affect natural wetlands that have been destroyed by mankind and then proposed to become urbanized.
Although the impact on the climate by humans has had several negative impacts, such impacts have the potential to be stopped and even reversed. Research clearly indicates that recent technological advances can be used in these cases as a valuable tool in determining whether natural processes can be restored, or whether other options, such as urbanization, are ideal. Finally, future studies and advancements in technology will pave the way for a brighter future in restoring and repairing our injured climate.
AGU. (2003). Human Impacts on Climate. Retrieved November 5, 2007, at http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/climate_change_position.html.
Carter & urgess Quarterly. (2001). Getting the Lay of the Land. Carter & urgess Quarterly, vol
University of Georgia. (2006). SREL Research: Remediation & Restoration. Retrieved November 2, 2007 at http://www.uga.edu/srel/research-restoration.htm.
U.S. Department of Commerce. (2007). National Geodetic…
AGU. (2003). Human Impacts on Climate. Retrieved November 5, 2007, at http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/climate_change_position.html .
Carter & Burgess Quarterly. (2001). Getting the Lay of the Land. Carter & Burgess Quarterly, vol
University of Georgia. (2006). SREL Research: Remediation & Restoration. Retrieved November 2, 2007 at http://www.uga.edu/srel/research-restoration.htm .
U.S. Department of Commerce. (2007). National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved November 1, 2007, at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/ .
Some rates had even decreased. Maritime shipping rates grew by 5 to 10% on average in the two weeks after the attack, but that rise was soon reversed. Airfreight rates, however, were about 10% higher in late 2001 than before the attacks. Due to the abrupt slowing of cumulative demand starting in 2000 and the decline in fuel costs after the terrorism, there should have been a steeper falling off in freight costs. The stability of freight rates, despite power fuel prices and underused shipping capacity would suggest that transportation costs may have increased as a result of the 9/11 attacks (Looney).
In 2005, Songster looked at the impact that terrorist acts have around the world on the hospitality industry, which has become a prime target in a number of threatening situations. Hotels, restaurants and bars around the globe have increasingly become scenes of terrorist atrocities not enjoyment and relaxation.…
Bruck, T.and Wickstrom, B. (2004) the economic consequences of terror:
guest editor's introduction, the European Journal of Political Economy 20,
Coleman, K. (July 7, 2004) Terrorism Risk Management for Finance and Insurance
Organizations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved August 17, 2007. http://www.directionsmag.com/printer.php?article_id=593
Positive and Negative Effects of Affirmative Action
Affirmative action may be one of the most highly-contested legal developments to come out of the 1960s Civil ights Movement. The theory behind affirmative action is that minorities in the United States were long denied the same opportunities as non-minorities, and, therefore, were not in a position to play on level field. Therefore, affirmative action would encourage employers or educators to give preference to a candidate on the basis of minority status. Affirmative action had some very positive effects; it is impossible to imagine the diversity of the modern workplace without affirmative action policies. Furthermore, affirmative action helped demonstrate that, given the opportunity to excel, minorities could achieve the same range of accomplishments as non-minorities. However, it is irresponsible to look at affirmative action as a wholly positive policy. Affirmative action did result in better-qualified non-minority candidates being passed over in favor of…
Messerli, J. (2012). Should affirmative action policies, which give preferential treatment based on minority status, be eliminated? Retrieved December 5, 2012 from Balanced Politics website: http://www.balancedpolitics.org/affirmative_action.htm?fb_xd_fragment=
Entrepreneurial Personality Traits Discerned
Entrepreneurship, and successful entrepreneurship in particular, is far from a perfect science. Success in this field is predicated on a host of different factors, including various aspects of marketing, product, client base, market conditions, and possibly even some luck. Nonetheless, there are a number of different traits of entrepreneurs that one is able to study and which may truly affect the ability of one to succeed in this role. Furthermore, there are certain conditions and other characteristics that could compromise the former, and even instances in which the former is able to compromise the latter. Fortunately, there is a bevy of research which has explored these personality traits and their impact both on entrepreneurs and their particular ventures. A prolonged examination of this research, in addition to a synthesis of findings, readily demonstrates the personality traits of most importance to entrepreneurs are those pertaining to assertion…
Lance additionally states that "one of the most consistent strands of research on this topic is evidenced by studied that demonstrate the value of" those as follows:
(1) quality collections of books and other materials selected to support the curriculum;
(2) State-of-the-art technology that is integrated into the learning / teaching processes; and (3) Cooperation between school and other types of libraries, especially public libraries. (Lance, 2001)
Stated as a key role of the library media specialist and one that has only been the focus of research for about the last decade is program administration since in today's schools "library media specialists are not only managers of the library media center but also advocates for information literacy with the principal, at faculty meetings, and in standards and curriculum committee meetings." (Lance, 2001) Library media specialists are further stated to be "trainers who provide in-service programs for teachers on…
Todd, Ross J. (2007) School Administrators' Support for School Libraries: The Impact on Student Academic Achievement. Learning & Media Vol. 35 No. 1 Winter 2007.
Houston, Cynthia R. (2007) Measuring Up: Academic Achievement of 'Beyond Proficiency' Standards in School Library Media Centers Across Kentucky. Kentucky Libraries Vol. 71 No. 3 Summer 2007.
Collier, Jackie (2007) School Librarians Rock: Librarian's Powerful Impact on Literacy Development: Reflections of Teacher Candidates. Ohio Media Spectrum 50 No. 1 Fall 2007.
Lance, Keith Curry (2001) Proof of the Power: Quality Library Media Programs Affect Academic Achievement. MultiMedia Schools September 2001.
The purpose of this research is to fill in the gap discovered in the literature review. The impact the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on companies is measurable. However, not much is known about how these companies adjusted in order to absorb the impact of compliance. In order fully to understand the impact of Sarbanes-Oxley on corporations, one must understand how they absorbed the expenses and the impact that it may have had on other departments. This research focuses on the methods used to negate the consequences of compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley.
Carpenter, T., Fennema, M., Fretwell, P., & Hillison, W. (2004). A Changing Corporate Culture. How Companies are adjusting to Sarbanes-Oxley. Journal of Accountancy. March 2004. etrieved February 8, 2009 at http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2004/Mar/AChangingCorporateCulture.htm
Crosley, G. (2005). Selling to Audit Committees. Journal of Accountancy. February 2005. etrieved February 8, 2009 at http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2005/Feb/SellingToAuditCommittees.htm
Daks, M. (2006). Companies 'Go Dark' to Avoid SOX Compliance, New Jersey…
Carpenter, T., Fennema, M., Fretwell, P., & Hillison, W. (2004). A Changing Corporate Culture. How Companies are adjusting to Sarbanes-Oxley. Journal of Accountancy. March 2004. Retrieved February 8, 2009 at http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2004/Mar/AChangingCorporateCulture.htm
Crosley, G. (2005). Selling to Audit Committees. Journal of Accountancy. February 2005. Retrieved February 8, 2009 at http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2005/Feb/SellingToAuditCommittees.htm
Daks, M. (2006). Companies 'Go Dark' to Avoid SOX Compliance, New Jersey Law Journal, Aug. 3, 2006. Retrieved February 8, 2009 at ( http://www.law.com/jsp/ihc/PubArticleIHC.jsp?id=1154509535896 ).
Edison, a / (2006). Exploring the Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley. Oil & Gas Financial Journal. 3 (10). Retrieved February 8, 2009 at http://www.ogfj.com/display_article/275018/82/ARCHI/none/none/1/Exploring-the-impact-of-Sarbanes-Oxley/
One study examined the impact that spiritual or religious faith had on families with autistic children. In this study 49 families of autistic children were examined for signs of stress either psychologically, emotionally or health wise. The study looked at participants who had autistic children between the ages of 4 and 20 years old. The study concluded that parents who have a strong religious or spiritual faith and support from religious groups showed a stress level that was no higher than families that do not have an autistic child (Pargament, 2001). The study attributed part of this contentment to the belief by parents that a higher power placed the autistic child in their life for a reason and he or she was one of God's gifts designed for that family. In addition, the support socially and emotionally that the parents derived from religious belonging helped the parents feel less alone…
Religious coping in families of children with autism.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities; 12/22/2001; Pargament, Kenneth I.
Harris, S.L., & Handleman, J.S. (1994). Preschool education programs for children with autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Haworth, A.M., Hill, A.E., & Glidden, A.M. (1996). Measuring religiousness of parents of children with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 34(5), 271-279.
What is the impact of downsizing? As the studies below indicate, layoffs have a number of negative effects not only on workers in different industries, but also on their communities and the market as a whole. Although it has been said that downsizing can be economically beneficial to companies, the following shows that there are two sides to this issue.
Over the past decade, the workplace has altered considerably in terms of job stability. People have either experienced layoffs firsthand or directly known someone else who was impacted by re-engineering, downsizing, outsourcing or acquisition. For employees adversely affected by these changes or for those who do not completely understand why these changes are occurring, the effects can be very disturbing and impact both their personal and job life.
A variety of different industries have been impacted by layoffs, not only manufacturing. For example, hospitals like other companies and…
Burke, R.J., & Nelson, D.L. (1997). Downsizing and restructuring: Lessons from the firing line for revitalizing organizations. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 18, 325-334
Center for Competitive Economics. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. (July, 2004) Estimating the economic impacts of plant closings and business downsizing in Cleveland County, NC. Cleveland Chamber of Commerce.
Campbell-Jamieson, F., Worrall, L. & Cooper, C.L. (2001) Downsizing in Britain and its effects on survivors and their organizations. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 14, 35-58.
Dekker, S.W., & Schaufeli, W.B. (1995). The effects of job insecurity on psychological health and withdrawal: A longitudinal study. Australian Psychologist, 30, 57-63.
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
Hinder/Help Downsizing Negatives
In recent years, there has been a great deal of downsizing in corporations, businesses and other organizations throughout the United States. According to the two papers noted below, the negative effects of such layoffs cannot be completely eliminated, but they can be helped or reduced moderately through specific actions such as increased communication and counseling and trust- and team-building.
Amundson (2004) notes that corporate downsizing has become an important area of study due to the increasing impact on the American workforce. Most companies do little to prepare their employees for such negative measures. The majority of studies on this topic have focused on the victims of the layoffs; few have centered on the survivors. The studies that focused on survivors primarily used survey methods that assessed commitment, motivation, level of performance, job satisfaction, stress symptoms, and coping mechanisms and how these are related to self-affirmation, gender and…
Amabile, T.M. (1999) Changes in the work environment for creativity during downsizing. Academy of Management Journal, 42(6), 630.
Amundson, N.E. et. al. (2004) Survivors of downsizing: helpful and hindering experiences. Career Development Quarterly (52)3, 256-72 .
Armstrong-Stassen, M. (1998). Downsizing the federal government: A longitudinal study of managers' reactions. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 15, 310-322.
Evans, M.A. (1995). Downsizing in the U.S. Army: Common concerns of survivors. Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 23, 271-287.
small sampling of sources here gathered reinforces the initial hypothesis
that ill-effects will be observed in children where there is an absence of
a father figure. This serves to justify a proposed expansion of this
approach wherein a more thorough gathering of material is undertaken. The
methodology which appears as most suitable for this type of study is a more
comprehensive literature review in which a larger diversity of issues is
addressed and, simultaneously, in which greater detail is achieved in the
areas upon which the discussion has already touched.
This would essentially be a qualitative review in which the
discussion would utilize a selected set of criteria in order to identify
the sources which might most appropriately be used. The outcome of this
process should be a resolution concerning those areas where the most
attention is warranted. Thus, the review itself will touch upon such
issues in terms…
Anderson, K. (2008). Broken Homes, Broken Hearts. Leadership University.
Online at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/broken.html
Boaz, D. (1994). Individual Liberty, Free Markets, and Pace. CATO
Institute. Online at http://www.cato.org/pubdisplay.php?pubid=4545
Segura, D.A. & Zavella, P. (2007). Women and Migration in the U.S.-Mexico
In fact, they are taken on board by management in order to achieve organizational success. The workforce diversity has led to a more flexible and open approach for the management in order to avoid discrimination, and reduce grievance within an organization context.
The new concept of Human Resource management has emerged due to globalization. Now organization need to focus on their most asset i.e. The employees rather than financials. The pressure of global challenging market has pressurized the management to change their course of action. The shortage of talented workforce and the restraint of retaining that talented workforce have forced the management to change their approach. The paradigm shift of authoritative and autocratic leadership is now transformational leadership where there is high reliance on communication; the management is now more focused on eliminating the communication gaps and empowering employees. The shortage of talent in the local market has pressurized management…
Lechner, Frank J. Globalization: The Making of World Society. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. 11. eBook.
Hodgetts, Richard. M. International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. 6. India: Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008. 6. eBook.
Oshri, Ilan, Julia Kotlarsky, and Leslie P. Willcocks. The Handbook of Global Outsourcing and Offshoring. 2. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. 56. eBook.
Tay, Simon. "America's Call to Globalization." Forbes. 22-09 2010: 1-2. Web. 11 Oct. 2012. .
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…
Chon, K, Singh, A, & Mikula, J. (1993). Thailand's tourism and hotel industry. The Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 34(3), 43-49.
Elliot, J. (1983). Politics, power, and tourism in Thailand. Annals of tourism research, 10(3), 377-393.
Forsyth, T, (2002). What happened on the "the beach"? social movements and governance of tourism in Thailand. International journal of sustainable development, 5(3), 326-337.
Gold, J, & Revill, G. (2004). Representing the Environment. Routledge, London
Student Support Services
Education is a critically important aspect of survival in our society. Educators have long sought out ways to improve the post-secondary educational experiences of students. Many educators feel that first generation students in particular are at a disadvantage when entering college. To address student needs the federal government has created the Student Support Services SSS Program.
The purpose of this discussion is to analyze the impact and effectiveness of the Student Support Services Program. We will pay close attention to the effectiveness of the mentorship programs that are provided by the SSS program. In addition, we will explain both the negative and positive impacts of SSS programs at various Universities across the country.
Before we can understand the impact and effectiveness of the program, we must understand the purpose of the program and how it came about.
The Student Support Services Program
The Student Support Services Program…
Barnhardt, C. (1994). Life on the Other Side: Native Student Survival in a University World. PJE. Peabody Journal of Education, 69(2), 115-139.
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
The efforts of the federal government have been thoroughly and extensively backed up by fiscal funds given by the numerous states, districts, businesses, and parents (NCES, 2000). However, the overall literacy and literature education of students with the incorporation of technology has been primarily negative and this needs to change with time as the overall long-term impact of this negative pattern will be very damaging to the mindset of students and the overall literacy activities that they engage in.
Anderson, .E., & onnkvist, A. (1999). The presence of computers in American schools. Center for esearch on Information Technology and Organizations.
Becker, H.J., & Sterling C.W. (1987). Equity in school computer use: National data and neglected considerations. Journal of Educational Computing esearch, 3, 289 -- 311.
Becker, H.J. (2000). Who's wired and who's not. University of California, Irvine. Available: http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/DeptInfo/Faculty/Becker/packard/text.html
Cuban, L. (1998). High-tech schools and low-tech teaching. Journal of…
Anderson, R.E., & Ronnkvist, A. (1999). The presence of computers in American schools. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations.
Becker, H.J., & Sterling C.W. (1987). Equity in school computer use: National data and neglected considerations. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 3, 289 -- 311.
Becker, H.J. (2000). Who's wired and who's not. University of California, Irvine. Available: http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/DeptInfo/Faculty/Becker/packard/text.html
Cuban, L. (1998). High-tech schools and low-tech teaching. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 14(2), 6 -- 7.
The authors explain that "Large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation…" that results from urban sprawl is a major cause of the lack of biodiversity within the insect species (Acharya, 1999, 27). Even the building of a new road, or street lights, in places where previously there were no roads or lights, what the authors call "undisturbed areas," has an impact on insect biodiversity, Acharya explains. Meanwhile, moths, which are known to be drawn to light, have trigger mechanisms that detect the echolocation signals of bats; and on the other hand bats feed "…heavily" on moths, Acharya continues; in fact many bat species use moths as their "main food item" (Acharya, 27).
The point of that information (and of this study) in this peer-reviewed piece is that if "…eared moths" exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid bat attacks, they would not be caught as often by bats and hence this would…
Acharya, Lilita, and Fenton, Brock M 1999. 'Bat attacks and moth defensive behaviour around street lights.' Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 77, 27-32.
Chepesiuk, Ron. 2009. 'Missing the Dark: Health Affects of Light Pollution.' Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, 20-27.
Conrad, Kelvin F., Warren, Martin S., Fox, Richard, Parsons, Mark S., and Woiwod, Ian P. 'Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis.' Biological Conservation, vol. 132, 279-291
Duverge, Laurent P., Jones, Gareth, Rydell, Jens, and Ransome, Roger D. 2000. 'Functional significance of emergence timing in bats.' Ecography, vol. 23, 32-39.
Social Media and the Modern Business Environment
The modern society has witnessed a phenomenon of ongoing and rapid growth in enhanced communication and interaction between people, especially through the Internet. Actually, the Internet has become the means for collaboration and resulted in the emergence of the social media concept and networking. The Internet has been characterized by the emergence of numerous social media networks that are increasingly used as the means of communication and collaboration between people in the modern society. As a result of the impact of social media in today's society, the new paradigm is influencing the modern business environment. Given its impact on modern communications, social media has largely businesses as companies are increasingly using social media accounts for business. However, these social media accounts have generated privacy and security concerns, which results in the need to secure them.
The Growth of Social Media
In today's society,…
Abuhashesh, M.Y. (2014, July). Integration of Social Media in Businesses. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(8), 202-209.
Delgado, R. (2014, November 10). The Biggest Security Concerns with Social Media You Need to Know About. Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://tech.co/biggest-security-concerns-social-media-need-know-2014-11
Georgescu, M. & Popescul, D. (2015). Social Media -- The New Paradigm of Collaboration and Communication for Business Environment. Procedia Economics and Finance, 20, 277-282.
McIntyre, K. (2014). The Evolution of Social Media from 1969 to 2013: A Change in Competition and a Trend Toward Complementary, Niche Sites. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 3(2), 5-25.
Technological advances have impacted every area of human existence on almost every area of the planet, with few exceptions. Nearly every aspect of daily mundane life is affected by technology, including communication and transportation. However, one area of daily life is even more impacted and transformed than others. That area is food and eating. Food production has changed dramatically since the Industrial Age. Indeed, since the invention of the cotton gin, all agricultural practices have depended on technologies that have gone far beyond ox carts and donkeys. Mechanical food production increased food outputs, and greater yields have subsequently improved health and livelihoods for large groups of people. However, the fusion of technology and food production has not been completely positive. There are many negative repercussions of using technology at every stage of food production, and the integration of technology and food proves political and highly controversial. Problems such as…
Ball, M. (2014). Want to know if your food is genetically modified? The Atlantic. 14 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/features/archive/2014/05/want-to-know-if-your-food-is-genetically-modified/370812/
Flandrin, J. & Montanari, M. (2013). Today and tomorrow: Conclusion to Food: A Cultural History. Columbia University Press.
Pedrocco, G. (2013). The food industry and new preservation techniques. Chapter 36 in Food: A Cultural History. Columbia University Press.
Pollan, M. (2007). The Omnivore's Dilemma. New York: Penguin.
Social Media on Adolescent Girls
One current issue in society that has long been pervasive throughout the decades has been the power of the media and the negative impact it has wielded on adolescent girls. MTV videos, the fashion and modeling industries, commercials, film and television all show unrealistic portrayals of women with perfect appearances and hard to achieve bodies. Young people have engaged in the process of comparing themselves to what they see in the media for a while now; this is an issue that has been both recorded and researched. Social media, however, is a different form of provocation that can spark such comparisons and negative feelings (Lenhart et al., 2010). The era of social media has only complicated this issue, as pre-teen and teenage girls now have more intimate examples of models, sexually provocative women, luxury lifestyles and other visual triggers that can make them feel bad…
There is a modern emphasis, which has resulted from the experience of the economic impact of disaster, on a more extensive and 'distributed' mode of thinking about disaster recovery. This is an important factor that should be stressed as it has direct implications in terms of the economic aspects of disaster recovery planning in an increasingly networked and technologized contemporary working environment. This aspect is cogently expressed in a White Paper on this issue.
Many organizations have strong business recovery plans for their mainframe and mini-computer systems. but, as more and more critical applications are migrated to distributed systems, companies are becoming concerned about how they can protect these systems in the event of a disaster. Chances of a disaster increase significantly as systems are moved away from traditional central computer facilities that have hardened security and environmental controls.
(Disaster ecovery - a White Paper)
This emphasizes a cardinal issue…
Bielski, L. (2002). Thinking the Unthinkable: Often Dismissed as Mere "Insurance," Disaster Recovery Ought to Be Considered Part of the Lifeblood of Any Business. ABA Banking Journal, 94(1), 44+.
This article focuses on the subject of disaster management in the banking industry. It provides insight into actual situations where disaster recovery plans were effective in preventing large-scale economic loss. It also provides examples of what can occur when there is a poor or recovery plan. This is also a good background study that provides insight into the economic effects and implications of disaster in the it context.
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+.
This was a very useful article in that it provided an extensive and well written overview of issues surrounding disaster recovery and management. The article was particularly focused on the effects and implications in economic terms of the failure of disaster management planning. These aspects were compared to the effect of good and well thought out disaster planning.
Heroin Impact on Caucasian Family?
A large number of Caucasian families are plagued with the issue of heroin use, mostly consumed via injections. This is a major public health issue. Viral hepatitis, HIV and other dangers associated with heroin dependence, as well as social harm resulting from accompanying poverty and crime, exceed those of almost all other drugs used. A majority of Caucasian households are indirectly as well as directly impacted by the aforementioned diseases.
Increased pureness and decreased drug costs are potential factors contributing to the trend of decreased age of first-time consumption and increased initiation into habitual consumption in the Caucasian population. As heroin dependence can be successfully cured, primary care providers need to check their patients for this problem.
This paper serves two purposes. Firstly, it attempts to study substance abuse's socio-economic effects on Caucasian people. Secondly, depending on this analysis, it attempts to provide recommendations on…
57, why are metrics, i.e. The choice of what to measure, fair simply because one meets or exceeds a goal?
) The sales people seem to repeatedly confuse "metrics" with "goals" (i.e. "targets"). What do you infer from this? Is there anything you need to foolow up on here?
Tutor is mistaken; the Goals are the Metrics under
"The Impact of Performance-elated Pay
on Motivation and Job Satisfaction of Sales Personnel
in the Computer Industry
with ecommendations to Improve Management Practices"
Case-study of SEMICO INC
The search for better ways to motivate people in the workplace continues unabated, but the search is becoming increasingly complex as an increasing number of theorists weigh in on what factors tend to affect job performance and employee satisfaction. Although no consensus has been forthcoming, the theoretical work that has emerged concerning employee motivation can be divided into three basic…
Chapter 3: Literature Review
" But these close connections cannot be developed over the phone alone. It is important that a person stays in close personal contact with friends and family by visiting them often.
Science and technology have not only affected our daily lives, they have significantly altered our social systems as well. We are not investing in our societies and communities as our forefathers used to. For example, if we have a disabled person living in the neighborhood, we would be all too happy to have social services take care of him, instead of visiting him and checking on him personally. But there are studies that would argue against this claim. There are some new researches that came to the conclusion that with increased use of Internet and technologies, social contacts increased and social circle expanded for most people. "Because interpersonal communication dominates Internet use, using the Internet could have positive social…
1) Emma Young. Close friends make longer life more likely
16 June 2005 NewScientist.com news service http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7528
2) Kraut, Kiesler. The Social Impact of Internet use. Science Briefs. 2003. http://homenet.hcii.cs.cmu.edu/progress/kraut03-SocialImpactOfInternetUse.pdf.
3) Bill Ritchie. (2006) Satisfaction Guaranteed. Multnoma.