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NEO Personality Inventory
There are many versions of psychological tests which have been developed over the period of time by Paul T. Costa, Jr. And obert . McCrae. One of these tests is NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) which is based on big five personality traits. These traits are openness to experience, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness and extraversion. NEO-FFI has 60 items, equally distributed in these five domains. There is a longer version of this test as well. It is known as evised NEO Personality Inventory or NEO-PI-. It has 240 items spread over five personality traits. The tests are applicable on adult males and females who have no overt psychopathology issues. NEO-PI- is still popular in literature and NEO-PI-3 and NEO-FFI-3 also have certain updates. In 2010, NEO-PI- and NEO-FFI were updated for inclusion in a manual named as NEO Personality Inventory-evised, NEO-Five-Factor Model 3 and NEO Personality Inventory-3.
Costa, P.T., McCrae, R.R. And PAR Staff. (2000). Revised NEO Personality Inventory -- Interpretive Report. Accessed from: http://www.acer.edu.au/documents/sample_reports/neo-pir-sample.pdf
Cano-Garcia, F.J., Padilla-Munoz E.M. And Carrasco-Ortiz, M.A. (2005). "Personality and contextual variables in teacher burnout" (PDF).Personality and Individual Differences 38 (4): 929 -- 940.
Conard, M.A. (2006). "Aptitude is not enough: How personality and behavior predict academic performance." Journal of Research in Personality 40 (3): 339 -- 346.
Costa, P.T. And McCrae, R.R. (2006). Age Changes in Personality and Their Origins: Comment on Roberts, Walton, and Viechtbauer. Psychological Bulletin 132 (1): 26 -- 28.
Personality traits make up the characteristics of the individual. Schmutte and yff (1997) define personality traits as describing, "individual propensities toward stable patterns of behavior and thought, that often are neither inherently good nor inherently bad." Psychologists generally assess five factors of the personality, known as the Big Five personality factors. These five factors include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There are multiple scales designed to measure such factors. This paper will examine four major instruments used to measure personality, specifically, the Big Five personality traits; the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Five Factor Personality Inventory developed by Somer, Korkmaz & Tatar in 2002 (Tok, 2011), and the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991).
Discussion of Topic
When deciding on an instrument to measure personality, a researcher must take into account the scale's validity, reliability and preferred methodology. For this reason,…
Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.P. (1992). The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Goldberg, L.R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.
Salami, S. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(6), 785-794.
Schmutte P, Ryff C. (1997). Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Journal Of Personality & Social Psycholody, 73(3), 549-559.
Low emotion level - this is an area that will need improvement considering that a perspective employer may view me as an individual that is not overall enthusiastic in nature, this can also be perceived as a lack on enthusiasm in my work and corporate morale. Low trust level - Work is needed in this area in order to make interactions with others more fulfilling. If everyone is perceived as selfish and potentially dangerous, this will put a strain on cooperation in-group work and in building positive personal and business relationships. Low altruism level - Being viewed as a person that does not like to help others. In a work setting or search for employment, this can be seen as a deterrent to hiring me if the perception of ill will towards helping others exists. Low tenderness level- if I want to pursue a career in Counseling & Psychology, this…
In the 1950's in Kansas City married couples ages 40 through 90 were put through a series of psychological tests to gain insight into the optimal idea of aging (USC, 2010). The Kansas City study lent to the idea of the disengagement theory which states that optimally aging adults gradually withdraw from society and social obligations as they age. Cumming and Henry, whom devised the disengagement theory, argued that the theory sufficiently explained why the elderly reduce their workload, social interactions, amount of new activities, and seem to have increased wisdom (USC, 2010). One suggested reasoning for adults' disengagement in life is because of the departure from society that takes place with death. In order to reduce emotional pain, many adults attempt to sever ties with friends and loved ones beforehand (USC, 2010). The other possibility is that lessening social obligations and commitments essentially frees elderly people as they…
The Psychology of Aging. (2009) University of Southern California. .
F. De Fruyt, R.R. McCrae, Z. Szirmak, & J. Nagy (2004). The Five-factor Personality
Inventory as a measure of the Five-factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R. NCBI Vol. 11 (3), 207-15.
Belsky, J. (1999). The Psychology of Aging: Theory, Research, and Interventions. Grove,
deductive and empirical strategies used in the construction of structured personality instruments, it is important to denote just what the terms deductive and empirical mean and how they relate to tests specific to psychological purposes. Empirical evidence is that which can be demonstrated or proven, and which ultimately exists in the world. Deductive reasoning is a form of logic wherein individuals establish a basic premise or truth, combine it with others for which there is empirical evidence to validate, and then draw conclusions. This type of reasoning determines conclusions based on a top-down approach to reasoning. These respective strategies, then, which frequently are applied in congruence with one another, are highly important for the makeup of structured personality tests. One may even posit the viewpoint that without such strategies, the results of personality instruments would be virtually useless or inconclusive at best.
Define and Describe Deductive
Therefore, when examining the…
Frisby, C.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
Kwan, K.-L. K., Maestas, M.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
McCrae, R.R., Costa Jr., P.T. (1989). Rotation to maximize the construct validity factors in the NEO personality inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 24: 107 -- 124.
Suzuki, L.A., Prevost, L., Short, E.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
" (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
According to Giovachinni research into the psychodynamics of individuals in their experience of current adjustments and symptom formation is "much more interesting and fulfilling than monitoring surface behavior. processes are innately fascinating and their study creates dimensions and viewpoints that expand our appreciation of the versatility of the psyche as our in-depth understanding is increased, in itself, an aesthetic experience." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2) Unconscious motivation is the "essence of the intrapsychic focus..." which serves to transform patients into "interesting human beings rather than the passive recipients of pharmacological ministrations. How the treatment procedures fits into the therapeutic relationship is taken into account, enabling patients to pursue autonomy and mastery of their emotions." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
The work of Halil entitled: "Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situation and Dispositional Coping" (2004) states that coping is defined "as a constantly changing cognitive and…
Intrapsychic (2008) Definition - Biology Online available at http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Intrapsychic
Intrapsychic (2008) Definition - the Free Library. Online available at http://www.thefreedictionary.com/intrapsychic
Giovachinni, Peter L. (1996) Intrapsychic Focus Can Have Lasting Benefits for Patients. 1996, December 1, Psychiatric Times, Vol. 13, No. 12. Online available at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/display/article/10168/49006?pageNumber=2
Halil, EKSI (2004) Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situational and Dispositional Coping. 2004 Egitim Danishmanligi ve Arastirmalari Iletisim Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Sti. (EDAM)
214). The author notes many empirical reasons for his critique of the five-factor model. Among the many objections that are put forward is the assertion that there is in the breadth of the five factors an indefiniteness and inconsistency. Block also refers to the descriptive coarseness of the "Big Five."
Block's article has created much debate on this subject. A useful study that counters many of arguments put forward by Block is Solid Ground in the Wetlands of Personality: A eply to Block by Costa and McCrae (1995). In contrast to Block's critique, this article suggest that, "...the most impressive achievement of the FFM is its reduction of conceptual jangle, showing how constructs ostensibly as different as absorption, intuition, and need for change all reflect aspects of the single, broader construct of Openness. " (Costa and McCrae, 1995).
The validity and acceptance of the FFM model and the various aspects…
Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 187-215.
Clark, L.A. (1993). Personality Disorder Diagnosis: Limitations of the Five-Factor Model. Psychological Inquiry, 4(2), 100-104. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77524910
Costa P, McCrae, Robert R. (1995) Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin. 117(2), 216-220 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77524936
Business coach Jonathan Farrington reports that the standards that follow team work should underpin how a person operates. The purpose of a team is to get work done satisfactorily by involving everyone and gaining through their individual strengths. Involving people with a variety of interests on broad issues is motivational and very effective. Myriad views can enhance methods, standards, processes and overall effectiveness and productivity. Other people's differences need to be respected, regardless how unusual they appear, and any personal biases eliminated. It is never healthy to underestimate people or make quick judgments about them. Humans are very complex beings; just because a person says or does one thing, he/she should not be immediately categorized.
When becoming involved with a team, it is necessary to spend time to understand its goals, the ultimate task that is to be performed and each person's responsibilities to accomplish the goals. At first, it…
Ansary, T.(2009). Degrees & Training: What is a Leader? Retrieved March 20, 2010, from http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/departments/elearning/Default.aspx?
Bruce, C.E. (nd) Making the Transition from Campus to Workplace. Black Collegean Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.black-collegian.com/career/transition-199805.shtml
Burke, R.J., Oberklaid, F., & Burgess, Z. (2005) Organizational values, job experiences and satisfactions among female and male psychologists. Community, Work & Family, 8(1): 53-68
Career Media (1999), Graduate Careers in Information Technology, Westlake: Watcham Penrose Associates.
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…
Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;
Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-
term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.
Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Psychological Test Report
NEO-Five Factor Inventory
Sentence Completion Series (Adult Form)
Ways of Coping Inventory
NEO-Five Factor Inventory
The individual scored average ranks in a number of the assessment categories. For the Neuroticism scale there was a total score for this category was a 21, suggesting the individual is in the average range based on comparable female scores. In general, this means that she is "calm and able to deal with stress, but sometimes experience feelings of guilt, anger, and sadness" (Locke, 2013). The individual is most likely not easily stressed to the point of detrimental psychological damage, as she may have coping skills that allow her to deal with her stress in an effective manner. This may mean she takes a calm approach to emotional or stressful situations. Still, the scores suggest she may still have feelings of guilt or empathy, which is a typical human response…
articles seem to be saying same thing or do they contradict each other? Is the tone similar in each article, meaning can you tell what the researchers feel about the subject? Do they support the same idea, did they hypothesize similar ideas?
The following are two research essays on the burden of caregivers. The similarities of both essays are that both demonstrate the huge responsibility and unmitigated onus that caregivers carry that consequent in causing them stress and hardship. Differences include the fact that one was carried out on a population in Italy, whilst the other was carried out on a sample in America.
It is striking, too, to note, that although both concluded that caregivers needed more support, the American study recommended ways that individuals could create this for themselves, whilst the Italians-based study placed the responsibility on the community and social work profession. The tone of the articles,…
Sansoni, J et al. (2004) Anxiety and depression in community-dwelling, Italian Alzheimer's disease caregivers, retrieved from International Journal of Nursing Practice: 10: 93-100.
Hayslip, B et al. (2008) Predictors of Alzheimer's disease caregiver depression and burden: what noncaregiving adults can learn from active caregivers. Educational Gerontology, 34: 945-969, 2008
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
U.S. Foreign Policy
TAT and the orschach
In the world of psychology there are several projective techniques that were created through both the Freudian and the Neo-Freudian Theories. These projective techniques continue to gain verified research support as each moves closer to being seen as a standardized research techniques. "For the purpose of individual trauma treatment and outcome evaluation, the benefits of performance-based methods such as the orschach test and the Thematic Apperception Test have been numerously stressed in the literature." (Inoue, 2009, p. 181) Unfortunely, they may still be subjective and open to many interpretations. Because of the possibility of mixed results, the majority of the psychologists that use these tools incorporate them into a mix of tests that provide information about an individual as opposed to using the projective techniques alone to make an assessment. This essay aims to focus on two of these techniques, Thematic Apperception…
Inoue, Naomi. (2009). "Evaluation Of An EMDR Treatment Outcome Using The Rorschach, The TAT, And The IES-R: A Case Study Of A Human-Caused Trauma Survivor." Rorschachiana, Vol. 30(2), 2009. pp. 180-218 [DOI: 10.1027/1192-5604.30.2.180].
Meyer, Gregory J., John E. Kurtz. (2006). "Advancing Personality Assessment Terminology: Time to Retire 'Objective' and 'Projective' As Personality Test Descriptors." Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 87(3), 2006. pp. 223-225. [10.1207/s15327752jpa8703_01].
Suite 101. (2009). "A Brief History of Inkblot Tests." Retrieved December 5, 2009, from Suite 101 at: http://psychology.suite101.com/article.cfm/a_brief_history_of_inkblot_tests