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Betty Neuman Model of Nursing treats the client as an open system which is constantly reacting to the stressors in the environment along the lines of specific variables such as the physiological psychological, sociocultural, developmental and spiritual (Gonzalo, 2011). In this case, Stephanie's literature review on the study conducted by Siegel and colleagues to examine the impact on a low-carb diet on obese children really did not connect strongly to the Neuman model. This study just looked at diet as a single aspect of health and how this connected to weight and cholesterol levels. This is a flimsy connection to Neuman's model, as the Neuman model treats the body as a far more complex system, impacted by a range of factors.
Likewise, the Lowry literature review only examined how two more factors (diet and exercise) impacted the BMI of adolescents. This study was slightly more comprehensive and thus had a…
Gonzalo, A. (2011). The Neuman Systems Model. Retrieved from Nursingtheories.com:
Internet Plan for Healthcare Facilities
A suitable IT plan for an electronic inventory control and communication for the 10 healthcare facilities in Gainesville, Florida will have voice or data communication between and among the Corporation, the master practice and the individual practices (China Mobile, 2011). It can provide or extend telehealth or eHealth devices through the network. It can also use mobile phones and similar devices for local health operations, which utilize the main network (China Mobile).
These top-of -- the line applications or devices are fast enabling healthcare operations in both the economically advanced and the developing countries (China Mobile, 2011). Through their skillful use, they can reach un-served and under-served populations, raise the level of efficiency of these operations, and cut down on costs of healthcare delivery, as a consequence. As consequences, they contribute to the effectiveness of public health programs and research, help prevent and treat disease…
Benson, C (2015). Security planning. Microsoft Solutions Framework: MSDN. Retrieved on June 28, 2015 from http://www.msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc723503.aspc
China Mobile (2011). Mobile communication for medical care. Technology Business:
University Cambridge. Retrieved on June 27, 2015 from http://www.slideshare.net/bluepathrec/mobile-communiations-for-mdical-care
FCC (2015). Emergency planning: health sector. Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau:
Neuman Health Care Systems Model:
Preventative Care for Mr. H
The Neuman Health Care Systems Model was created by Betty M. Neuman in an effort to help nursing students focus on wellness for the client system (McHolm & Geib, 1998). In order to create wellness for a client system, the nursing students use an Assessment and Analysis Tool, which will help in identifying Mr. H's problems (McHolm & Geib, 1998).
First, a nurse must find out Mr. H's profile and define his stressors. This must be done by the nurse and by the concerns expressed by the client (NeumanSystemsModel.org, 2011). It is clear that stressors in this 72-year-old widower's life are affecting his overall health. ecent changes in his life, such as the loss of his wife of 45 years, are a factor in his health changes. It is good that Mr. H is still trying to maintain his normal…
A.D.A.M. (2011). Hypotension. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from https://health.google.com/health/ref/Hypotension .
McHolm, F.A. & Geib, K.M. (1998, January-March). Nursing diagnosis: Application of the Neuman systems model of teaching health assessment and nursing process. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3836/is_199801/ai_n8792656/?tag=content;col1
NCBI. (2010, July 1). Pubmed health - Atorvastatin. Retrieved January 20, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH
NCBI. (2008, September 1). Pubmed health -- Furosemide. Retrieved January 20, 2010 from
Public Program Quality Evaluation
Overview of the Program and the Program ationale
In 2011, approximately 23% of all children in the United States were children of immigrants. Many of these children have come from countries where the educational systems have not prepared them with competitive skills that will support a good standard of living. Various policies to address this issue have been proposed. Of the feasible options, the policy most likely to achieve popular approval is the provision of preschool education to all low-immigrant children. In part, the basis for this support is the historical national approval of programs such as Head Start. ecently, the nation has seen an upswing in state-funded pre-K programs that focus on preparing low-income 4-year-old children for kindergarten and elementary school. Head Start programs continue in a parallel manner, and necessarily so, as only a handful of states offer pubic school-based pre-K programs to all…
Haskins, R. & Tienda, M. (2011). The future of immigrant children. The Future of Children. Princeton University and the Brookings Institution.
Lawrence L. Martin, L.L. & Kettner, P.M. (1996). Measuring the performance of human service programs. Sage Publications.
Neuman, W.L. (2012). Basics of social research: qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.).
Puma, M. Bell, S., Cook, R., & Heid, C. (2010, January). Head Start Impact Study Final Report, Executive Summary. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. Washington, DC.
In critically ill adults (p), how does the daily use of chlorohexidine (I) compared to sterile water reduce VAP (ventilator-associated pneumonia) (O) during hospitalized stay (T)?
oy's Adaptation Model (AM) states that the "nursing process is a problem solving approach for gathering data, identifying the capacities and needs of the human adaptive system, selecting and implementing approaches for nursing care, and evaluation the outcome of care provided" ("Application of oy's Adaptation Model," 2012). This approach seems uniquely well-suited to the question of how to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia, a common complaint of patients during hospital stays. AM focuses on objective analysis of the problem and attempting to provide solutions which address human needs through a scientific approach to care. The first step of the nursing process is gathering data, in this case determining why pneumonia is so common amongst patients. Next identifying "internal and external stimuli" that give rise to…
Application of Roy's Adaptation Model. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved from:
Gonzalo, A. (2011). Betty Neuman: The Neuman Systems Model. Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Retrieved from: http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/betty-neuman.html
Client Stressors Case Study
According to the Betty Neuman model, intrapersonal stressors are "internal environmental interaction forces occurring within the boundary of the client, between client sub-systems," (12). This commonly includes physical, psychological and emotional issues that become stressors for each particular case. The clear intra-factors in this case are the presence of a kidney infection, acute lower abdominal pain, the fact that she is not taking any medications. She has been staying hydrated, a previous back muscle injury in the past. The patient has been having heavier menstrual cycles with worse cramping, no breast tenderness, did not pass clogs, she believes she is getting close to experience menopause, no prior abnormal paps or STDs, normal mammogram and pap last year, did have surgery for PPTL in 1977 after her third child was born, does not douche, previous hospitalization for back pain 5 years ago, recently went to…
Reed, Karen S. (1993). Betty Neuman: The Neuman System's Model. Sage.
he Neuman Model is appropriate for senior care.
Studies necessary with other models.
Penrod, et.al.; Reframing Person Centered Care for Persons with Dementia
Research and heory for Nursing Practice
Lit. Review, discussion
Research shows individual personhood approach has positive effects on care.
Biomedical and psychological models must be merged for persons with dementia.
Further study using different integration modeling.
Rajapaksa and Rothstein; Factors hat Influence the Decisions of Men and Women Nurses to Leave Nursing.
Qualitative, some quantitative analysis
For men, compensation largest barrier to remaining in nursing; for women dissatisfaction with career goals
Barriers to entry in profession for men and still social stigma
It is possible for hospitals and care centers to develop program to retain more nurses
Needs more demographic and psychographic variation.
Gillespie and Peterson; Helping Novice Nurses Make Effective Clinical Decisions
Their Experiences With a Refugee Population." Journal of Nursing Education.
Watson, J. (2008). "Social Justice and Human Caring." Creative Nursing. 14 (2): 54+.
(Feldman & Geenbeg, 2005, p. 67) Staffing coodinatos, often nuse leades must seek to give pioity to educational needs as a eason fo adjusting and/o making schedules fo staff, including offeing incentives to staff not cuently seeking educational goals fo assisting in this pioity egadless of the implementation of a tuition eimbusement pogam. (Feldman & Geenbeg, 2005, p. 233)
Nuse Leades as Academic Theoists
The fact that many nuse leades seve as the fundamental souces fo new and emeging nusing paadigms and theoies cannot be ignoed in this eview. The theoies associated with nusing ae as divese as nuses themselves and seve seveal puposes. With egad to nuse ecuitment and the ole that nusing theoy and paadigm plays in it, nuse leades seve to espouse theoy though mentoship and taining that helps individuals see thei futue intinsic ole in nusing. To explain this ole a bief discussion of nusing theoy…
references and Affirmative Action in Making Admissions Decisions at a Predominantly White University. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(4), 269.
Burgener, S.C., & Moore S.J. (May-June, 2002) The role of advanced practice nurses in community settings. Nursing Economics 20 (3) 102-108.
Cimini, M.H., & Muhl, C.J. (1995). Twin Cities Nurses Reach Accord. Monthly Labor Review, 118(8), 74.
Cleary, B. & Rice, R. (Eds.). (2005). Nursing Workforce Development: Strategic State Initiatives. New York: Springer.
Daly, J., Speedy, S., Jackson, D., Lambert., V.A., & Lambert, C.E. (Eds.). (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York: Springer.
(2009, March). omen's Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).
CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).
Lance Armstrong Foundation. (2009). Official ebsite.
Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livestrong.org/site/c.khLXK1PxHmF/b.2660611/k.BCED/Home.htm
Heyman, Patrick & Sandra olfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.
Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm
Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke
Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:
Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest
Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).
Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.
Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…
Agnew, Thelma. (2009). Acting with confidence. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 18-20.
Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343111).
Baker, Maggie Koerth-Baker. (2008). The power of positive thinking: Truth or myth?
Special to LiveScience. Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livescience.com/health/080829-happy-thoughts.html
A nurse must weigh these variables, physical, mental, and spiritual, when advising a course of treatment and deciding how to approach a patient or patient's family. An adolescent who is an injured athlete envisioning a lucrative college scholarship might demand and be able to physically and mentally withstand a more aggressive form of treatment, due to psychological and developmental and goal-related visions (spiritual) factors than might a less motivated elderly patient.
A nurse who is training other nurses can instill consideration for all such variables in her various trainees -- and encourage nurses to engage in self-care as well as patient care on spiritual, preventative physical health care, and mental levels. Additionally, in a work environment with many diverse cultures, remind other nurses that Neuman's model has also been modified slightly to take into consideration culture as well as mind, body, and spirit -- although culture and spiritual values are…
Neuman, B.M. (1990). The Neuman systems model: A theory for practice. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 241-261). New York: National League for Nursing.
Neuman, B.M. (Ed.). (1995). The Neuman systems model (3rd ed.). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Pierce, J.D., & Hutton, E. (1992). Applying the new concepts of the Neuman systems model. Nursing Forum, 27(1), 15-18.
medical professionals, nurses as a group come closest to te ideal of treating te wole patient, addressing pysical, emotional, psycological and even social concerns. Tis is especially true of psyciatric nurses wo work to elp patients address bot te pysical and cognitive symptoms of teir conditions as well as to come to terms wit te stigma attaced to aving a mental illness - a stigma tat often is applied as muc by te patients to temselves as by oters.
Tis paper examines te paradigm of psyciatric nursing troug te lens of Betty Neuman's Systems Model. Neuman believes tat te demands and opportunities of nursing as unique because te nurse is te only medical professional wo truly does care for te wole person, elping to alleviate all of te stresses tat affect eac individual. Because nurses see teir patients as "wole" people, by extension Neuman sees te profession of nursing as…
Leon, 2002, interview.
Selleck, 2002, interview.
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
This is a situation where the environment is "all the internal and external factors that surround and influence" the environment system of each patient (316). As such, the factors that are important in the Nueman model may seem abstract, which goes against the general rule of simplicity
n regards of not only how easily the theory is understood, but also how it can be redone in actual practice. Really, Nueman's theory emphasizes the importance of focusing on the stressors and then tailoring a care strategy based in what the individual can actually perform in his or her own unique community environment.
B. Planning Phase
Using the knowledge presented by Chinn & Kramer and Alligood and Tomey (2010) as a way to evaluate Nueman's theory, the major concepts can be identified in the underlying assumptions. Essentially, these sources provide tests for how clear is the thesis in contemporary nursing theories. One…
In regards of not only how easily the theory is understood, but also how it can be redone in actual practice. Really, Nueman's theory emphasizes the importance of focusing on the stressors and then tailoring a care strategy based in what the individual can actually perform in his or her own unique community environment.
B. Planning Phase
Using the knowledge presented by Chinn & Kramer and Alligood and Tomey (2010) as a way to evaluate Nueman's theory, the major concepts can be identified in the underlying assumptions. Essentially, these sources provide tests for how clear is the thesis in contemporary nursing theories. One of the major elements is semantic clarity which essentially verifies the semantic meaning of underlying theoretical assumptions. Very direct language, that avoids passive voice and excessive verbiage which may complicate how the findings are expressed to the audience. This brings it out of the level of abstraction and into a more scientifically condensed perception of the model. This also includes an overall consistency in the semantic structure that allows for appropriate practical application of the theory in real practice. The implementation of Nueman nursing process really depends on the individual and the environment which is present in their recovery. Planning can be hard based on its abstract nature. But there are still hypothetical goals, interventions present. Essentially, the methodology wants the individual
Towards of the goal of fulfilling the mission to "help those we care for to experience the best life possible," nursing services provided at the Sarah Neuman Center include:
Twenty-four nursing in a secure residential setting.
Twenty-four medical coverage supported by onsite and on-call physicians.
Onsite medical specialist consulting services.
Individualized therapy sessions, to include speech therapy, physical therapy, art and music therapy.
Nutritional services supported by staff dietitians.
Onsite pharmaceutical and laboratory services. (Sarah Neuman, para. 9)
Patients that require long-term residential care are often transferred to the Bronx nursing home which provides all of the above services, in addition to highly individualized care services and therapies for "more complex clinical needs" (Bronx, para. 4). These needs include-but are not limited to-progressive Alzheimer's, severe vision impairment, severe speech and swallowing impairments, and chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis.
Structural Support of Mission
That each facility essentially provides the same services…
"Bronx." jewishhome.org. Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January, 2011.
"Manhattan." jewishhome.org. Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January, 2011.
"Sarah Neuman." jewishhome.org. Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January, 2011.
"Research Institute on Aging." jewishhome.org. Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January,
online purchases?" using the two-part approach provided below.
Description of the Participants
In most cases, the more subjects that are surveyed, the more trustworthy the results, but there are some diminishing returns involved in qualitative analyses that limit the usefulness of increasingly larger sample sizes. In this regard, Neuman (2003) reports that, "One principle of sample size is the smaller the population, the bigger the sampling ratio has to be for an accurate sample. Larger populations permit smaller sampling ratios for equally good samples. This is because as the population size grows, the returns in accuracy for sample size shrink" (p. 232). esearchers who employ survey methods for data-gathering purposes may have a general idea about how many subjects they would like to recruit, but the harsh realities of recruiting sufficient numbers of subjects to participate in surveys means that sometimes researchers must simply accept what they get…
Chaudron, D. (2008). Master of all you survey: Planning employee surveys. Organized Change.com. Retrieved from http://www.organizedchange.com/pdfs/employee surveys.pdf.
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Stories from the field.
Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Mauch, J.E. & Park, N. (2003). Guide to the successful thesis and dissertation: A handbook for students and faculty. New York: Marcel Dekker.
By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…
Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:
esponse to Intervention
esponse to Intervention (TI)
Over the past decade, rapid changes have occurred in general educational practice to increase the focus on early identification of and intervention for students considered at risk. The aptly named response-to-intervention (TI) model of service delivery is generally described as a multi-tiered model whereby students receive interventions of increasing intensity, with movement from one level to another based on demonstrated performance and rate of progress (Gresham, 2007). This sizable paradigm shift has been influenced in part by recent special education legislation, which allows the practice of TI as an alternative to the traditional "IQ- achievement discrepancy" model of learning disability identification and allows 15% of federal special education funding to be allocated toward early intervening services (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 2004). Moreover, TI has gained favor in light of mounting evidence suggesting that intensive intervention during the primary grades is…
Aikens, N.L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 235 -- 251.
Barnett, D.W.,VanDerHeyden, A.M.,&Witt, J.C. (2007).Achieving science-based practice through response to intervention: What it might look like in preschools. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 17, 31 -- 54.
Berkeley, S., Bender, W.N., Peaster, L.G., & Saunders, L. (2009). Implementation of response to intervention: A snapshot of progress. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 85 -- 95.
Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Doolittle, J. (2005). Response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 485 -- 486.
Fatigue and Compassion as Functions of Ethical Nursing
The American Nursing Association's Scope and Standards of Practice are designed to provide a blueprint for preempting and addressing the various challenges, pitfalls and procedurals norms of the profession. These help to draw a professional, ethical and practical connection that offers a basic outline for that which is expected of the registered nurse. Indeed, it is of critical benefit to the nursing professional and to the patient community that there exist some clearly elaborated set of ethical standards that pertains directly to sometimes difficult to identify challenges such as bedside manner and fatigue. The American Nursing Association (ANA) provides just such standards, and these function to significantly aid in the decision-making, workplace culture and treatment processes undertaken by nurse professionals.
Ethical orientation is an important feature of a nursing team, particularly as it impacts the morale of nurses and the treatment…
AIPPG. (2010). Betty Neuman's System Model. Nursing Theories.
American Nursing Association (ANA). (2004). Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Nursingbooks.
Next, the literature will review the processes involved in collecting data and creating a method to guide counselors using a standardized curriculum. The literature review will also provide a history and information on the reasons for developing the ASCA model, and identify the individuals or leaders pioneering this model in the educational context. The researcher expects there will be much research both qualitative and quantitative available for review on the subject of school counseling and the ASCA model. The researcher also predicts however, that relatively little data has been systematically collected on the perceptions of teachers toward guidance counselors using the ASCA model. Thus, the intent of the literature review is primarily a synopsis and explanation of the events leading up to the ASCA implementation, and some review of any recent studies available describing the impact or influence this model has had on education, students, parents, teachers, the curriculum, administrators…
ACES-ASCA Committee on the Elementary School Guidance Counselor (1966),
Preliminary statement. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 44, 659-661.
ASCA, (2003) the ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Guidance
Counseling Programs. The American School Counselor Association. Retrieved October 19, 2007: http://www.schoolcounselor.org/files/execsumm.pdf
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
These claims are virtually all based on the concept that corporations - particularly multinationals -- should be held accountable for their actions within their sphere of operations. "Corporations, for their part, have responded in numerous ways, from denying any duties in the area of human rights to accepting voluntary codes that could constrain their behavior" (atner, 2001, p. 436). In fact, this very point is echoed throughout the literature; for example, "At the turn of the 20th century, corporations tended to disregard the public interest willy-nilly. And even as recently as one-half century ago, corporations had so much power over the marketplace and so little responsibility to society" (Sriramesh & Vercic, 2003, p. 450). Despite these trends, things are changing, though, as atner points out: "The last decade has witnessed a striking new phenomenon in strategies to protect human rights: a shift by global actors concerned about human rights from…
Blackburn, V.L., Doran, M., & Shrader, C.B. (1994). Investigating the dimensions of social responsibility and the consequences for corporate financial performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 6(2), 195.
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Casmir, F.L. (1997). Ethics in intercultural and international communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to ead
Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide range of developmental needs. The situation is urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate in the economic and political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in the educational achievement of children is likely to further widen the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn to read without an understanding of phonics.
The National Association for the Education of Young Children (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order…
Alexander, A.W., Anderson, H.G., Heilman, P.C., Voeller, K.K.S., & Torgesen, J.K. (1991). Phonological awareness training and remediation of analytic decoding deficits in a group of severe dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 193-206.
Carver, R.P. (1990). Reading rate: A review of research and theory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Cooper, N. (1999). Literacy today: Phonics fun. Retrieved March 17, 2004, from Literacy Trust Website: http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/Pubs/wirth.html .
Dias, K. & Juniper, L. (2002). Phono-Graphix - who needs additional literacy support? An outline of research in Bristol schools. Support for learning, 17(1).
The fundamentals of exchange theory are illustrated at Appendix a. This approach to analyzing the current situation in North Korea will help add to the existing body of knowledge by developing fresh insights into the possible motivating factors that have characterized North Korea's negotiations with the West in general and the United States in particular in the past and will help address the hypothesis to be tested which is stated below.
The likelihood that it will be possible to persuade North Korea to dismantle its nuclear capability will be increased if American military forces are removed from South Korea.
This hypothesis will be qualitatively tested based on a preponderance of the evidence that results from the critical review of the literature described above.
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea equires Long-Term Strategic elationship with the U.S."
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea Requires Long-Term Strategic Relationship with the U.S."
International Journal on World Peace 24(1): 37-38.
Catchpole, B. 1998, November. "The Commonwealth in Korea." History Today, 33.
For one it is possible that the success rate may be limited by the number of participants willing to participate in a case study in the setting selected for purposes of this study. The results should suggest that multiple interventions including direct patient communication, early intervention to identify patients at risk for abuse and patient education to provide "community resources for abused victims" (Litwin & Zoabi, 2004: p. 133). The researcher predicts that sociodemographic as well as "dependency factors" may play a significant role in elder abuse (Litwin & Zoabi, 2004: p. 133). By using a case study approach the researcher hopes to limit non-participation and maximize response rate by as much as 90%. Observational analysis will also help facilitate better data collection and interpretation.
Adler, P. & P. (1987). Membership oles in Field esearch. Beverly Hills: Sage
Berg, B. (1989). Qualitative esearch Methods for the Social Sciences. Boston:…
Adler, P. & P. (1987). Membership Roles in Field Research. Beverly Hills: Sage
Berg, B. (1989). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Britton, A. (1996). "Advice about empirical research." ABC Study Guide, Available:
Cultural Diversity in United Arab Emirates Organizations
The purpose of the proposed study will be to evaluate the current levels of cultural diversity in United Arab Emirates (UAE) public and private sector organizations and their implications for UAE culture.
The proposed study will be guided by the following research questions:
What have been the recent trends in economic diversification in the UAE?
Is it possible to formulate optimal diversity levels for a given country?
Can there be too much diversity? How can it best be measured? If there is too much diversity, should it be curtailed? Why? How can it be curtailed?
What are the implications for UAE culture if current demographic patterns persist over the next 10 years? Twenty years? Fifty years?
esearch Problem and Scope
Today, it can be argued that the UAE is in danger of losing its cultural and religious heritage altogether. Indeed, the UAE is…
Balasubramanian, A (2010, Winter). 'Rebuilding Dubai: Post-bubble economic strategy.'
Harvard International Review, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 10-19.
Bartos, OJ & Wehr, P (2002). Using Conflict Theory. Cambridge, England: Cambridge
Jonas, M. (2007, August 5). 'The downside of diversity.' The Boston Globe, 3.
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
While the first chapter was brief, it is important to explain what will be studied and then move forward into the literature review.
In Chapter 2, the literature review provides a review of academic literature by way of journals and textbooks. This information is placed into separate sections which allow for ease of understanding. An introduction is made to capital structure, and information is given on the Indian capital structure specifically.
Chapter 3, the data methodology, provides the methodology that was used for the data. The reasons behind the methodology and what was studied are both discussed.
Chapter 4, data analysis and findings, is the chapter in which the results of the data analysis are presented.
Chapter 5, the conclusion, provides not only a conclusion to the research that was conducted in this paper but questions that are left and areas for further research in the future.
Baral, K.J. (2004). 'Determinants of Capital Structure: A Case Study of Listed Companies of Nepal'. The Journal of Nepalese Business Studies, Vol. 1(1).
Baral, K.J. (2004). 'Determinants of capital structure: A case study of listed'. The Journal of Nepalese Business Studies, Vol. 1(1).
Bauer, P. (2004). 'Determinants of Capital Structure Empirical Evidence from the Czech Republic'. Czech Journal of Economics and Finance .
Bellalah, M. & Wu, Z (2009). "An intertemporal capital asset pricing model under incomplete information." International Journal of Business. 1st January 2009. Downloaded from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-192485625.html as at 17th September 2009.
emote Nursing eview
The oles of egistered Nursing in Shaping and Providing Care in ural and emote Locations: A Literature eview
The roles and perspectives of nursing have undergone major changes in the past several decades, continuing the rapid and profound development that this area of medical science and art has experienced in its relatively brief history. For quite some time, nursing existed either as a highly denigrated and unskilled profession looked down upon my others in the medical establishment and society at large, or as the semi-sacred and highly secret practice of healing through natural remedies and purely experiential knowledge transmitted orally and though demonstration from generation to generation. An appreciation and codification of nursing as a science -- albeit a science with certain subjective and aesthetic principles, making the designation of nursing as an art somewhat appropriate as well -- did not really occur until the nineteenth century,…
Banner, D., MacLeod, M. & Johnston, S. (2010). Role Transition in Rural and Remote Primary Health Care Nursing: A Scoping Literature Review. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 42(4): 40-57.
Coyle, M., Al-Motlaq, M., Mills, J., Francis, K. & Birks, M. (2010). An integrative review of the role of registered nurses in remote and isolated practice. Australian Health Review 34(2): 239-45.
Naylor, M. & Kutzman, E. (2010). The Role Of Nurse Practitioners In Reinventing Primary Care. Health Affairs 29(5): 893-9.
ut if they can manage to terminate the temporary relationship, they will become more emotionally balanced and mature persons (Young).
Why Choose the Peplau Model
oth its interpersonal theory and nursing process have a concrete sequence of use and focus on the therapeutic relationship (Current Nursing, 2012). oth utilize appropriate problem-solving techniques, which aim in common at filling the client's needs. oth use observation and communication as well as recording as basic tools, which are already used in nursing care. The four phases inter-relate and inter-weave the varying components of each phase. The Theory or model is applicable to endeavors, which follow the concepts of client, health, environment and nursing. It proceeds in a logical and systematic manner in viewing and processing nursing situations. Its generalizability rests in its simplicity in the logical progression of the partnership. It has produced testable hypotheses. It can be used in psychiatric patients. It…
Current Nursing (2012). Theory of interpersonal relation. Current: Current Nursing.
Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://www.currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_theory.html
Landry, a, (2009). Hildegard Peplau: interpersonal relations theorist. Suite 101:
Suite 101.net. Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://www.alicelandry.suite101.com/hildegard-peplau
What are the core concept definitions of each nursing model? Are there commonalities between the models? If so, what are they? What are the differences, if any?
The core concepts of each nursing model is of course care for the patient as well as improvement of nurse.
Evidence-Based nursing for instance tries to better the nurse by placing review and analysis of research material and critical thinking as base.
Jane Watson's model too, calls for greater motivation and vigor in nurse's practice by using a spiritual approach where nurses see patients as per a holistic whole. Neuman (1995) used systems theories in arguing that people are a system that strives for stability whilst the most influential model in the UK based on Roper at al (1990) describes the person as functioning along an independence/dependence continuum throughout his lifespan
At base, all the nursing models have the following commonalities:
Fawcett J (1995) Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Co.
The holistic view of the human being (i.e. The patient) and the environment is in some ways an echo of the holistic nature of the theory itself, which quite consciously and explicitly attempted to develop a theory appropriate to all aspects and situations of nursing. Because the Science of Unitary Human Beings was developed essentially from the ground up in such a conscious and comprehensive manner, it would be practically impossible for internal inconsistencies to exist.
Just as the scope of ogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings is difficult to overstate, it is equally difficult to overestimate the impact that this theory has had on the field of nursing. Its contributions to both nursing practice and scholarship have been enormous, and as the theory continues to evolve and develop under the guidance of new scholars and practitioners its significance only grows (Butcher 2008). ogers was not the first…
Butcher, H. (2008). "Progress in the explanatory power of the science of unitary human beings." Visions, 15(2), pp. 23-36.
Farren, a. (2009). "An oncology case study demonstrating the use of Roger's science of the unitary human being and standardized nursing language." International journal of nursing terminologies and classifications 20(1), pp. 34-9.
Kim, T. (2008). "Science of unitary human beings: An update on research." Nursing science quarterly21(4), pp. 294-99.
Malinski, V. (2008). "Research diversity from the perspective of the science of unitary human beings." Nursing science quarterly21(4), pp. 291-3.
Public Program vluation: Quality Performance Measurement
Caiden, G and Caiden, NJ (nd) Measuring Performance in Public Sector Programs. Public Administration and Public Policy. Vol. II. Retrieved from: http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c14/1-34-05-06.pdf
Caiden and Caiden (nd) report that the link between reforms and public measurement and evaluation were not merely chance since as the reforms developed devolution was emphasized or the moving of functions and services to the government levels that were lower, along with an emphasis on privatization, decentralization of management, transparency and satisfaction of customers. It is reported that all of these were dependent on accountability maintenance and credibility.
Poister, T. (2001) Measuring Performance in Public and Non-Profit Organizations. Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from: http://glennschool.osu.edu/faculty/brown/home/810/Class%20Materials/Poister%20Performance%20Chapters%201,%202,%203.pdf
Poister (2001) writes that performance measures are "objective, quantitative indicators" of a range of performance in public programs or for public agencies. (p.3) This work reviews the early development and background of performance measurement and ensues on…
Ewoh (2011) examines the applications and types of performance measurement as well as the limitations of performance management. A comparative analysis is conducted in this study.
10. Lawrence L. Martin and Peter M. Kettner, (1996). Measuring the Performance of Human Service Programs. Sage Publications.
The work of Martin and Kettner (1996) examine performance measures in the public service organization and the specific outputs of performance measurement along with logic models. Quality performance measures and outcome performance measures are also reviewed including numeric counts and standardized measures of performance.
According to the research, it "is defined as a practice-based ethic that is patient centered, It is an individualistic ethic that unites the reason why a decision is made with the action itself and the foreseeable consequences of that action," (Brown, 2010). In this the theory also shares with Parse's theory the importance of individual decision making and choices. One of the main differences is the notion of how we relate to one another. We have a freedom from aggression, known as negative right, based on this relationship, where we are not scared of others acting out irrationally against us. As such, the health care professionals do not act to harm the patients, but the patients also have the strict role of being the patients, thus "to fulfill his responsibilities in the treatment plan and not to place any unreasonable demands on the healthcare professional" (Brown, 2010). This is different…
Brown, Barbara. (2010), A bioethical decision making guide: A synopsis of Symphonology. Health and Human Development. Penn State University. Web. http://www.personal.psu.edu/dxm12/n458/symphonology.htm
Parse, Rosemary Rizzo. (2011). Human becoming theory. Nursing Theories. Web. http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html
Leadership -- nursing
Discover and/or create an image, poem, quote, or selection of music that symbolizes, or speaks to you of, what it means to be a caring nurse in the organizational context. Describe why you have selected this symbol. Link your personal understanding gained by reflecting on your authentic "piece" to course literature to reveal resonance, differences and new insights.
According to Bonnie Raingruber in "Meanings in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Nursing" from the Jan-Mar 2004 edition of The Journal of Child and Adolescent Psycatric Nursing by familiarizing the nurse or patient reader and nurse and patient writer with new worlds of experience, poetry increases one's capacity to tolerate pain, understand oneself, and other people. Poetry is "dialogical: it seeks in the listener an ally whose empathy will take the form of sharing the survivor's anguish and struggle" (Kaminsky, 1998, p. 408). In light of this insight, poetry…
Kaminsky, M. (1998). "Voicing voicelessness: On the poetics of faith." American Journal of Psychoanalysis. 58, pp.405-416.
Neuman, B., & Fawcett, J. (Eds.) (2002). The Neuman Systems Model. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Raingruber, Bonnie. (Jan-Mar 2004) "Meanings in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Nursing." The Journal of Child and Adolescent Psycatric Nursing.
Wendt, D.A., & Vale, D.J. (1999). "Managing quality and risk." In P.S. Yoder-Wise (Ed.), Leading and managing in nursing. Second Edition. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, pp. 173-189).
Nursing theory chosen, which best aligns with my personal theory of nursing, is Neuman's System Model. This model was created by Betty Neuman, and designed to be holistic in nature (Memmott, et al., 2000). The focus of the model is on the whole person (patient), the environment surrounding that person, the overall health of the person, and the nursing care that person is provided with during his or her illness. While it might seem obvious that all of these areas should be considered, many models of nursing practice today ignore too many important factors regarding a person and why he or she may be ill (Barnum, 1998). With that in mind, it is very important to use a theory like Neuman's Systems Model in order to address more than just a set of symptoms (Memmott, et al., 2000). When nurses and other medical professionals take a look at a chart…
Barnum, B. (1998). Nursing theory: Analysis, application, evaluation. NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Memmott, R.J. Marett, K.M. Bott, R.L. & Duke, L. (2000). Use of the Neuman Systems Model for interdisciplinary teams. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 1(2).
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
Nursing Timeline Week 2 • Create a 700- 1,050-word timeline paper historical development nursing science, starting Florence Nightingale continuing present. • Format timeline, word count assignment requirements met
Historical development of nursing timeline
The foundation of modern nursing. Before, nursing was largely the profession of disreputable people and not exclusively female. Based on her experiences during the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale strove to make it a respectable profession with uniform, professional standards. Her approach reduced the death toll in hospitals by 2/3rds during the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 1). She established the Nightingale Training School and wrote her foundational Notes on Nursing (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 2-3). Nightingale's canons of nursing compromised everything from an emphasis on proper sanitation to how the nurse should socially interact with the patient.
1880: Famed Civil War nurse Clara Barton founds the American ed Cross.
1909. Hildegard Peplau is born. Heavily influenced…
Betty Neuman's Systems Theory, 2012, Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Clara Barton. (2012). The Civil War. Retrieved: http://www.civilwarhome.com/bartonbio.htm
Doctor of Philosophy. (2012). School of Nursing. Retrieved:
Florence Nightingale (d.1910), founder of modern nursing is born.
Florence Nightingale is widely credited for developing what has been called an 'environmental' theory of nursing. When Nightingale began to practice her craft during the Crimean War, there were no professional protocols for how nurses should behave, nor was nursing a standardized profession. Nightingale suggested the need for cleanliness and well-ventilated areas to facilitate the healing of patients. She also stressed the need for psychological relief from the distress of illness for the sick. "Patients are to be put in the best condition for nature to act on them, it is the responsibility of nurses to reduce noise, to relieve patients' anxieties, and to help them sleep" ("Theory of Florence Nightingale," 2014).
1860: Nightingale establishes the first nursing school in London
1873: First nursing school founded in the United States
1882: Clara Barton founds the American ed Cross, charter…
Betty Neuman's systems model. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved from:
Clara Barton. (2014). American Red Cross. Retrieved from:
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
ased on the guiding research question, a deductive approach was deemed best suited for the purposes of the study proposed herein.
The selection of an appropriate research strategy is important to the successful outcome of a study (Maxwell 1996). ased on a review of the available research strategies, the research strategy to be used in the proposed study will be to use a qualitative analysis of the secondary literature to develop a custom survey to collect relevant quantitative primary data. This research strategy is highly congruent with the guidance provided by Poggenpaul, Myburgh and Van Der Linde who report, "There is a strong argument for qualitative research strategies as a prerequisite for quantitative strategies" (2001, 408). The use of both qualitative and quantitative data is also congruent with Neuman's observation that, "oth qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet…
Batra, R., & Homer, P. (2004) The situational impact of brand image beliefs. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14(3) 318-330
Benz, C.R., & Newman, I. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: Exploring the interactive continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Costabile, M. (2000), A Dynamic Model of Customer Loyalty. Presented to 16th Annual IMP Conference, September 7th-9th, Bath (UK). [online] http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CBwQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.impgroup.org%2Fuploads%2Fpapers%2F43.pdf&ei=5q-sTarLD4W10QH2tfj4CA&usg=AFQjCNGRQdbe1PJHk7dPAY23xvIzBf2rvg&sig2=pNYCgID7L4yz5rihCh0chA
Sociology -- Social Work
External validity is connected to generalizing. That's the key thing one needs to bear in mind when designing and conducting research. External validity refers to the expected truth of conclusion the connect generalizations. Put in more layman's terms, external validity is the amount to which the conclusions in ones study would grasp for other persons in further places and at additional times (Neuman, 2006).
External validity speaks to the capability to generalize ones study to further people and additional circumstances. In order to have sturdy external validity, one needs a likelihood sample of subjects or respondents put together utilizing random techniques from a plainly defined population. Preferably, one will have a good sample of groups. One will have a sample of dimensions and circumstances. When one has sturdy external validity, you can generalize to further people and circumstances with assurance. Public opinion surveys characteristically put substantial…
Neuman, W.L. (2006). Chapter 9 Experimental Research. Social work research methods:
Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Historical Development Of Nursing Science
Timeline: History of nursing
Florence Nightingale publishes her Notes on Nursing, which includes her thirteen canons of nursing. This book was the first book to establish nursing as a unique profession that required specific skills and attributes. Nightingale drew upon her experiences as a nurse during the Crimean War and called for more intensive education of future nurses (Theory of Florence Nightingale, 2012, Nursing Theories).
The American Civil War was a bloody, prolonged conflict. Nurses such as Walt Whitman, Louisa May Alcott, Clara Barton, and Dorothea Dix distinguished themselves serving on the battlefield. As a result of the Battle of Bull un, Barton and Dix created a nursing corps to deal with the need to treat the fallen in a systematized fashion. There were few hospitals in existence at the time. Also, at the time the profession was largely made up of men (Stein…
Betty Neuman. (2012). Theories of Nursing. Retrieved:
Development of nursing theories. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Particularly Instrumental Case Study) Using Mixed Methods
According to Neuman (2003, p. 33), a case study is a research method in which the researcher "examines in-depth many features of a few cases over a duration of time. Cases can be individuals, groups, organizations, movements, events, or geographical units. The data are usually more detailed, varied and extensive." There are a number of different case study types that social science researchers can use, including exploratory, explanatory, descriptive, intrinsic, instrumental, multiple and collective as defined in Table 1 below.
Definitions of different types of case studies
As the name connotes, this type of case study is used to explore situations wherein an intervention or initiative being evaluated does not have a clear, single set of outcomes.
This case study type is typically employed in those instances where researchers are attempting to develop informed and timely answers to questions…
Baxter, P & Jack, S (2008, December). "Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers." The Qualitative Report, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 544-549.
Berry, WD & Sanders, MS (2000). Understanding Multivariate Research: A Primer for Beginning Social Scientists. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Bowling, A (2002). Research Methods in Health: Investigating Health and Health Services. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Chang, T. Z. (2013, January 1). "Strategies for Improving Data Reliability for Online Surveys: A Case Study." International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 121-125.
From this perspective, luxury brands may be desired be many consumers, but the more affluent are clearly more readily capable of such acquisitions, making them a natural target for luxury brands marketers.
Although there is a growing body of contemporary knowledge concerning the influence of self-perception and self-image on luxury brand purchases, the study of these issues is certainly not new. In fact, as early as 1899, Thorstein Veblen developed a theory according to which consumers use product prices as a means of ostentatiously displaying their wealth (Veblen 1899). Based on the inextricable relationship between the level of consumers' income and the type of goods and services they may desire, it would be reasonable to posit that highly affluent consumers would be a natural market for luxury brand marketers; however, the choice of luxury brands over other brands is a highly complex decision that take into account a wide range…
Abrams Research (2009, May) 'Luxury brands survey & report.' [online] available:
%E2%80%93-Abrams-Research-%E2%80%93-May-2009 Viewed on 10
Notwithstanding the challenges involved, the stakes are high and there is little room for false starts or experimentation; therefore, identifying a general set of best practices that Gambian organizations can follow in developing their own set of sustainable productivity practices represents a valuable and timely undertaking, which relates to the purpose of the study which is discussed further below.
Purpose of Study
The overall purpose of this study was to study to provide a review of the relevant juried and scholarly literature together with the findings of a survey of Gambian business leaders to generally identify the most pressing priorities for developing the nation's infrastructure and sustainable organizational productivity. The specific purpose of the study was to determine whether SMEs face the same types of challenges of to optimum performance as their larger corporate counterparts, and to identify any peculiar organizational characteristics that determine levels of performance between SMEs and…
About us. 2010. The Gambia Experience. Retrieved from http://www.gambia.co .uk/Docs/About' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Nursing Culture: Overcoming Barriers to Change
Introduction and Theoretical Framework
This program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of nursing within the area of public and private health systems. In an era characterized by increasing calls for more efficient approaches to healthcare delivery and accountability on the part of healthcare providers, there is a growing need for identifying opportunities to overcome organizational barriers to change that facilitate the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices over time. In order to accomplish this challenging enterprise, the nature of existing organizational barriers must be better understood, an issue that directly relates to the problem to be considered by the study proposed herein and which is discussed further below.
Statement of the Problem
According to Mannion, Davies and Marshall et al. (2005), the results of much of the research to date have identified a relationship between nursing culture and…
Banyard, V.L., & Miller, K.E. (1998). The powerful potential of qualitative research for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(4), 485.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Department of Health. (2000). The NHS plan: A plan for investment, a plan for reform. London:
data collection and the sources to be utilized for this project. The highlighted gaps in knowledge will be investigated with the help of two research methods. The research methods have been chosen on the basis that they have the best chance of answering the research questions. Lastly, the procedures that will be utilized to analyse the results and also the limitations of the methods will be highlighted. Ethical considerations will also be given (Frandsen & Johansen, 2010).
There is a need for a comprehensive evaluation in order to capture the sophisticated processes of public relations crisis communication and also to provide a broader perspective on the matter in addition to helping with the investigation of the related issues. A mixed-method study approach (a mix of quantitative and qualitative study methodologies) will be employed for the purposes of providing an overview of the subject matter and also to help provide data…
Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press
Collis, J., & Hussey, R. (2003). Business research -- a practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students (2nd ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cutler, A. (2004). Methodical failure: The use of case study method by public relations researchers. Public Relations Review, 30(3), 365-375. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2004.05.008
Falkenheimer, J., & Heide, M. (2010). Crisis communicators in change: From plans to improvisations. In W. T. Coombs, & S. J. Holladay (Eds.). The handbook of crisis communication. (pp. 512-526). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Another aspect that the search engines use to line up web pages, besides the frequency of the characters, is the appropriateness of the topic i.e. A search on "elephants" will not yield the same results as a search on "elephants in Africa" or "animal rights: elephants (Valenza, 1997). This difference has to be explained by the librarian-teachers to the students in the initial stages of their online research endeavors so that when they conduct research on a more vast topic, they have to ability to break own the topic and concentrate on the words and areas that will yield the most relevant information at the quickest pace. It is important to note here that the accuracy of a the use of words is also part of knowledge management as it requires an individual to first manage the little knowledge he has on the topic, i.e. distinguishing the important aspects for…
Agosto, D.E. (2002). Bounded rationality and satisfying in young people's web-based decision making. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(1), 16-27.
Chen, S.-H. L. (2003). Searching the online catalog and the World Wide Web. Journal of Educational Media and Library Sciences, 47(1), 29-43.
Gadzella B.M. And Baloglu. (2003). M. High and Low Achieving Education Students on Processing, Retaining and Retrieval of Information. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30:2.
Hirsh, S.G. (1997). How do children find information on different types of tasks? Children's use of the Science Library Catalog. Library Trends, 45(4), 725-746.
65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and iley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.
What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?
Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable…
About VA. (2011). Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.va.gov / landing2_about.htm.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership:
Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Evidence-Based Project Proposal
Graduate Project in Nursing
The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases has been increasing among adolescents in countries around the world, but there remains a dearth of timely and relevant studies concerning salient differences in knowledge level and attitudes between different cultures and ethnic populations. One common factor that has been consistently demonstrated in improving the effectiveness of treatments for sexually transmitted diseases is promoting adherence to treatment regimens, most especially for medications since these are used in all treatments for sexually transmitted diseases. While there have been some studies concerning various strategies for promoting adherence levels to treatment regimens, there remains a lack of studies concerning evidence-based practices that incorporate technological solutions. To this end, the proposed study intends to conduct an experiment using innovative face recognition and motion detection smartphone app to evaluate its effectiveness in promoting adherence to medication regimens among a population of adolescents…
Furthermore, 34 other states offer insurance discounts of up to 10% following completion of such a course. Insurance points assigned by the individual insurance carrier are used to determine the cost of auto insurance and, therefore, are not reduced upon course completion (Young). In recent years, a number of states have adopted various forms of graduated licensing in an effort to manage the high crash rates among teenage drivers and, concomitantly, improve traffic safety for the public; such graduated licensing programs allow complete licensure only following the completion of a series of steps that involve removing the various restrictions from licensure have been satisfied (Williams, Weinberg, Fields, & Ferguson, 1996).
New Jersey's Motor Vehicle Services office has developed an online overview of the state's point system and includes the penalties for violating drunk driving laws, as a state with some of the most severe penalties for drunk driving and related…
Airport ground vehicle operations guide. (1998). U.S. Department of Transportation: SVC- 121.23/Stock Number ASY-300 98/001.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Doganis, R. (1999). The airport business. New York: Routledge.
Drivers make a penalty point; poll finds the majority of us have lost faith in the system. (2006, January 27). Daily Record (London, England), 3.
As activists in women's liberation, discussing and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they felt it imperative to find out about the lives of their foremothers -- and found very little scholarship in print" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3). This dearth of scholarly is due in large part to the events and themes that are the focus of the historical record. In this regard, "History was written mainly by men and about men's activities in the public sphere -- war, politics, diplomacy and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are usually portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles, such as wives, mothers, daughters and mistresses. History is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically 'worthy'" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3).
In what Kessler (1994, p. 139) describes as "the all-too-common historical exclusion or devaluation of women's contributions," the male-dominated record of human history has either diminished the…
American Health Information Management Association. (2012). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ American_Health_Information_Management_Association' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Successful sustainable development also requires an evaluation of major trends and problems in the tourism industry rather than focusing on minor new developments that may have localized impact only (Butler, 1998).
Taken together, the foregoing indicates that irrespective of the precise definition that is used, sustainable tourism development is based on three main principles, economic, environment and social which are described below:
1. Economic: This principle refers to something that affects to the majority number of people and enhance the economic situation which is related to sustainable management of economic in tourism sector. This can regarded as opportunities to educate and train employees, support local suppliers, trade, producers and so on (Chapman, 2007). This principle is consistent with the observation by King (2008) that, "tourism in Thailand, as with tourism in the Asian region more generally, is a highly diversified, complex, and changing phenomenon, the impact and consequences of which…
'Bung Kan Is Thailand's 77th Province.' 2011, March 23. Pattaya Daily News. [online]
available: http://www.pattayadailynews.com/en/2011/03/23/bung-kan-is-thailand%E2%80%99s-77th-province/ .
Burton, S., & Steane, P. 2004. Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
Cater, E. 1993. 'Ecotourism in the Third World: Problems for Sustainable Tourism
country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as "mainstreaming" in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting. Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…
Allen, M., Burrell, N., Eayle, B.M., & Preiss, R.W. (2002). Interpersonal communication research: Advances through meta-analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235.
Baskin, T.W., & Enright, R.D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis.
Nursing Leadership Priorities and Challenges
The priorities for nursing and nursing leadership are, on some levels, fundamentally simple. Nurses are simply tasked with providing the most effective care for their patient populations. This goal becomes much more nuanced when one begins thinking about how to properly achieve this goal. There is a considerable amount of research emerging in recent years surrounding this field which supports the notion that evidence-based practice is one of the efficient ways (Stevens, 2013) to improve patient outcomes. Therefore, in alignment with the chief priority of providing the best care to patients as possible, nurses must also prioritize how to do so utilizing evidence-based measures with a demonstrated efficacy in both clinical and outpatient settings.
However, justifying these two priorities creates an inherent challenge for nursing on a multiplicity of levels including those pertaining to organizations, roles, and individuals. Specifically, the difficulty lies in introducing new…
HSBC: An Outlook
BNP Paribas: A Helicopter View
Comparison Between HSBC and BNP Paribas in the Banking Field
SWOT Analysis and the Bank's Operations in Middle East Especially in Dubai & Bahrain
PEST Analysis And the Bank's Operations in Middle East Especially in Dubai & Bahrain
External Analysis of HSBC and BNP
Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM)
Example of HSBC and BNP Around the World
Customer Values Analysis
Value Chain Analysis of the Banks
The current corporate world and environment can be referred as the resolution of administration. Way backed in which bread-and-butter development depends entirely on accurate and automated inventions. However, in the avant-garde apple acceptable administration is all-important for able and able alive of organization, forth with abstruse advancement. Administration is all the added significant between the ambience of the enterprises of the business, neither a business can run on itself nor…
Adelman, C. (1998). Women and Men of the Engineering Path: A Model for Analyses of Undergraduate
Bhote, K. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: American Management Association.
Bossert, J. (2003). "Lean and Six Sigma -- Synergy Made in Heaven." Quality Progress. 31-32.
Breyfogle, F.; Cupello, J.; and Meadows, B. 2000. Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter solutions using statistical methods. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
How does depth perception occur in a person who gains sight after being congenital blind?
Depth perception is necessary for the ability to perform many tasks including driving, and many other activities. The ability to perceive the distance of objects is a complex process. hen people are born blind in one eye, regardless of the reason, they do not develop the ability to perceive depths. Their world is flat compared to that experienced by the rest of the world. hen that person undergoes surgery or other procedures to restore sight to the blind eye many of these patients are able to perceive depth. The ability to do this defies commonly held views on the connection between visual acuity, depth perception and motor development.
This research explores current research on depth perception and the development of depth perception. Studies in this area are limited to animal studies and those involving…
Bushnell, E. & Boudreau, P. "Motor development and the mind: the role of motor abilities as a determinant of aspects of perceptual development." Child Development. August 1993.
64.4: 1005-1021. Web. 21 October 2012.
Deregowski, J. "Difficulties in Pictorial Depth Perception." Africa British Journal of Psychology. August 1968. 59.3: 195-204. Web. 21 October 2012.
Fulcher. E. "Gibson's theory of direct perception." Crucial, a division of Learning Matters Ltd.
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…
bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.
Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.
Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.
Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.
Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
Tesco, the largest UK company, employs 260,000 people. This corporation has global aspirations and has come a long way in a relatively short period of time" (2003, p. 3).
According to the company's promotional literature, the employment figure for 2003 has almost doubled today, as shown in Table 1 below.
Current Key Figures for Tesco
Staff in the UK
Total stores in the UK
Number of markets
China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Japan, Malaysia, Poland, Republic of Ireland, Slovakia, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, UK, USA
Note: Facts correct October 2010
Source: Tesco Quick Facts 2010
Figure 1. Respective Number of Tesco Retail Formats in the U.K.
Source: Based on tabular data in Tesco Quick Facts 2010
A brief summary of the company's guiding corporate strategy is provided in…
International Social Science eview, 85(1-2), 62-63.
Halachmi, a. & Bouckaert, G. (1996). Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
How has congressional agenda setting changed over time?
The agenda of the U.S. Congress has been closely aligned with its role as the legislative branch of the U.S. government. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1991), "The first Congress under the Constitution met on March 4, 1789 in the Federal Hall in New York City" (p. 301). Indeed, the creation of the U.S. Congress coincided with the adoption of the U.S. Constitution. In this regard, Black's (1991) adds that, the U.S. Congress was created pursuant to Article I, Section 1, of the Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787 providing that "all legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Colker, R. (2007). The mythic 43 million Americans with disabilities. William and Mary Law
Review, 49(1), 1-3.
Vile, J.R. (1994). Constitutional change in the United States: A comparative study of the role of constitutional amendments, judicial interpretations, and legislative and executive actions. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.