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Britain initiated the battle for control over African and Asian territories; other European powers as well as the United States and Japan soon followed suit to keep up with their competitor. Nations like France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States wanted to end Britain's dominance of the world marketplace.
Political and military motives also fueled the New Imperialism. This was especially evident in the Spanish-American ar. Even before that, the United States and Germany were already beginning to threaten British military dominance. After the American Civil ar, its military was strengthened and it became significantly less isolationist in its foreign policy. After the unification of Germany, its military and political powers increased greatly. Both the United States and Germany grew their naval forces to compete with Britain's. Germany first initiated its New Imperialist campaigns during 1884 to 1885, mainly in Africa. The United States dove right into the New…
New Imperialism." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Imperialism .
The White Man's Burden: Kipling's Hymn to U.S. Imperialism." History Matters. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/ .
Looking at late 19th century world history we see that a prominent trend was that of non-Europeans being dominated by Europeans. There were a number of ways in which this domination took place such as economic penetration and by annexation. It seemed that there were few places on the planet that European adventurers, merchants, missionaries, or explorers couldn't get to. This activity is commonly called imperialism or colonialism, reflecting the fact that many countries, such as Great ritain established 'empires' and had colonies (The New Imperialism).
In examining the impact of imperialism, perspectives as to its value and/or utility have changed. If one had asked whether colonial was beneficial only a few decades ago, the answer would have been a definite no. However, after the failure of Soviet Union, and the conclusion of Cold War, there has been somewhat extensive discrediting of Leninist and Marxist analysis. As well as…
n.d. Document. Retrieved from: http://www.indiana.edu/~hist104/final%20exam%20model%20answers.pdf
Foster, John Bellamy and Robert W. McChesney. monthlyreview.org. 2003. 22 April 2015. Retrieved from: http://monthlyreview.org/2003/11/01/kipling-the-white-mans-burden-and-u-s-imperialism/
Goucher, Candice, Charles LeGuin and Linda Walton. "In the Balance: Themes in Global History." 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/support/reading_19_1.pdf
"The Age of Imperialism." n.d. Retrieved from: http://www.tamaqua.k12.pa.us/cms/lib07/PA01000119/Centricity/Domain/119/TheAgeofImperialism.pdf
Iran and Iraq
Analysis of the Impact of Imperialism on Iran and Iraq
The modern nation of Iraq was formed in 1932 when the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom. It had been placed under the authority of Great Britain as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia by the League of Nations in 1920. Prior to that, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. This delineates the history of imperialism in Iraq as beginning with the arrival of the Ottomans the 15th century, through independence from the Great Britain. These two stage of imperial rule had several different impacts on modern-day Iraq.
The first is the borders of the current state of Iraq were the direct result of British rule. The Ottomans had administered Iraq differently, with three main provinces. Under Ottoman rule, Baghdad, Mosul and Basra were all provinces within the Ottoman Empire. Iraq was not Iraq…
Butch, T. (2015). Why China will intervene in Iraq. Asia Times. Retrieved May11, 2016 from http://atimes.com/2015/09/why-china-will-intervene-in-iraq/
CIA World Factbook (2016). People's Republic of China. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
Dawson, J. (2014). Why Britain created monarchies in the Middle East. New Statesman. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2014/08/why-britain-created-monarchies-middle-east
Dehghan, S. & Taylor, R. (2013). CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup. The Guardian. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/19/cia-admits-role-1953-iranian-coup
53). He points out that four countries (in 1917) -- England, France, Germany, and the United States -- own 80 per cent of the world's finance capital; thus, in his view, the whole rest of the world is subjugated, that is, indebted to and tributary to those four "international banker countries."
Where once monopolists exported goods to other countries to make a profit, now they export finance capital. This is another symptom of the imperialistic stage of capitalism -- what to do with excess wealth? Lenin states that it would not be capitalism if the excess wealth were used to improve the quality of life for the millions of people who are still underfed and leading lives of misery. Instead, the capital is exported to "backward" countries and used to make more profits. In backward countries (now called developing nations) where there is a shortage of capital, labor is cheap,…
The Egyptian King Faud (1922-36) repeatedly disbanded popularly elected afd governments, despite huge majorities, due to their distinctly nationalist platform. The fickleness of the British position is exemplified by their later coercion of King Farouk (1936-52) to appoint an enfeebled afd government due to their need for a neutral Egypt during the Second orld ar. This intense irony does not detract from the fact that the monarchs in Egypt and Iraq were very powerful political actors but were 'so closely associated with the structures of colonialization that they did not outlast them' (Owen 1992, 19). The British imperialists exploited the constitutional power of the King to dismiss any elected government of nationalists 'that threatened to tear up or amend the arrangements…defining Britain's rights' (Owen 1992, 19). Hence, once again, diminishing the authority of the regime they installed and creating a lack of respect for lawfully elected governments.
Pan-Arabism Causes Conflict…
Anderson, L. "The State in the Middle East and North Africa." Comparative Politics 20, no. 1 (1987): 1-18.
Ayubi, N. Over-stating the Arab State. London: Tauris, 1995.
Batutu, H. "Of the Diversity of Iraqis, the Incohesiveness of their Society, and their Progress in the Monarchic Period toward a Consolidated Political Structure." In The Modern Middle East: A Reader, by A. Hourani. London: Tauris, 1993.
Beinin, J, and Z. Lockman. Workers on the Nile. London: Tauris, 1988.
globalization and imperialism and argues that globalization is actually nothing more than imperialism under a new guise. The writer uses several sources to illustrate the definition of imperialism and then holds it against globalization to prove they are one and the same under different names. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Globalization = U.S. Imperialism
As mankind continues with the process of globalization, many world leaders point to it as an indication of peace on earth. Proudly discussing the coming together of nations, cultures, ideas and technology, the leaders of the world relay to their constituents that globalization is a positive step toward worldwide cohesiveness. Those who live in the nations, taking part in the process, look at technological advances, the ability to widen their market bases and other things and wholeheartedly agree with what they are being told. While there are many aspects of globalization that…
Risks of globalization stressed during Second Committee Debate; Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs participates in Question and Answer Session with Delegations.
The Real Reasons for War In Yugoslavia: Backing up Globalization with Military Might.
Imperialism and Globalization.
The possibility of deteriorializing democracy: Agonistic democratic politics and the APEC NGO forums.(Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)(non-governmental organizations)
imperialism is necessary for cultures to progress. The United States is not often thought of as an imperialistic nation, because we like to think that we would not subjugate or take over other countries. However, that is just what we did when our forefathers came to this country and shoved aside the Native Americans. We subjugated and eradicated a culture and way of life, and that is the textbook definition of imperialism. Imperialism is wrong and shameful, but it seems that as much it may be hard to say, it is necessary for securing our way of life, and it is crucial in developing new trade and commerce.
First, it is necessary to define imperialism. Imperialism is the name for larger, more powerful nations to take over smaller, weaker nations, usually because of the promise of wealth or resources they can exploit. There is a long history of imperialism throughout…
Alam, M.S. "U.S. Imperialism and the Third World." Northeastern University. 2006. 14 Dec. 2009.
Amin, Samir. "Imperialism and Globalization." Monthly Review June 2001: 6.
Bonner, Robert E. "Slavery, Confederate Diplomacy and the Racialist Mission of Henry Hotze." Civil War History 51.3 (2005): 288+.
92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.
Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.
The new Imperialism of America (and…
Elliot, J.H. (2009). Spain, Europe and the Wider World: 1500-1800. Yale Universtiy
Haaren, J. (1904). Famous Men of the Middle Ages. New York, NY: American Book
New Culture May 4th movements. Why considered important modern Chinese history? 2. What Han synthesis? Who principle figure process elements bring create ? 3.
As suggested by the terminology, the New Culture movement refers to the attempt to rise against traditional Chinese culture. The movement was initiated by various Chinese intellectual circles around 1916 and was related to the perception that Confucian tradition contributed to the country's stagnation and national weakness and inhibited the development of China. The May 4th Movement, part of the overall Chinese cultural reform, refers to the day in 1919 that marked the immense popular protest against some of the terms that the treaty of Versailles included. The population reacted against Japan receiving territorial rights in China which had been previously owned by Germans. The Chinese intellectuals deemed the imperious need of a cultural movement that would enable China's adaptation of norms to those of the…
Imperialism was always seen as positive for Westerners, but as destructive by the peoples of Africa and Asia." To what extent does this statement appear to be true?
Rudyard Kipling's "The White man's burden" seems to be an ironic condemnation of imperialism. Whilst most Westerners of the viewed imperialism as a necessary fact and as a boon to the 'savages', Kipling was a pre-contemporary in more ways than one and saw the 'Whites' as simply one more other race populating the world. The White man in his greed and folly was perpetrating needless wars and occupying another's land as well as stealing their wives, children, property, and money for the benefit of themselves. Kipling, however, was unique in that most Westerners disagreed with him. To them, they were not only doing their duty but many defined their acts as charity. They were educating the illiterate; teaching the savage the ways…
Aristotle, and C.D.C. Reeve, (translator) (1998) Politics. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub
Bartolome de Las Casas, 1550. Apologetic History of the Indies. Columbia University. http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/CCREAD/lascasas.htm
Fromkin. D (1989) The Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. New York, NY: Avon,.
Said E. (2003). Orientalism, New York, NY: Vintage Books
New World" & "Black Robe"
Both Terrence Malick's "The New World" and Bruce Beresford's "Black Robe" deal with themes of Native American encounters with European settlers and how it impacted both parties. There are subtle differences in each movie, but the main themes of cultures clashing and the inevitable conflict that will occur as a result permeate both films. Both films are notable for their attention to detail and their respective quests for historical accuracy, though "The New World" deals with the far more mythologized and recognized story of Pocahontas. These two films together represent a shift in the telling of Native American tales in the cinema, no longer satisfied to project the image of "Noble Savage" that had previously dominated these types of movies.
In Malick's "The New World," Pocahontas is portrayed as a woman torn between two cultures: the one she has known for the whole of her…
First World War was the first-ever war that had brought great destruction and required greater involvement of many countries, most especially the European nations. Evidence of the impending world war started during the early 19th century, wherein colonization and strengthening of military power is the most prevalent activity of all European nations at that time. The World War I was said to have many causes, although the most important and more popular cause discussed by historians today is that the First World War started because of the rising imperialism among competing European nations. The war had two competing groups, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. The Triple Alliance was composed of Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy, while the Triple Entente was made up of Great ritain, France, and Russia. These groups were not originally formed as a triad; rather, each nation became affiliated with each other before and during…
The Causes of the First World War." 05 April 2002. Student-Run Computing Facility Homepage. 9 July 2002 http://srcf.ucam.org/~mrs35/hist/html-nodes/subject-notes/firstww.html.
Coffman, Edward. "World War I." The World Book Encyclopedia Vol. 21. USA: World Book Inc. 1991.
Europe in 1914." 1 January 2002. Spartacus Educational. 9 July 2002 http://spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TGfww.htm.
The First World War." 11 March 2001. Schools History.
The Industrial Revolution refers to the wave of technological, economic, and social changes taking place during the nineteenth century. Although fueled by new technology, the industrial revolution had a tremendous effect on society. The Industrial Revolution led to urbanization, social class stratification, and the capitalist market economy.
One feature of the Industrial Revolution was the newfound ability to mass-produce goods. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, any machine that was used to aid manufacturing, such as a loom or the cotton gin, could only be used by a single individual producing one thing at a time (“Industrial Revolution,” n.d. 1). Such machines were unable to produce goods in large quantity in a short period of time. With the advent of large-scale machinery powered by technologies like coal, it was possible to bring products to market faster and cheaper.
Factories also expanded their labor forces to allow them to produce…
European and American imperialism from 1900-1918
Empire is the term from which the word imperialism is carved. Government implies the act of mastery of one nation by another one, with the sole intention of expanding region, power and impact. It conveys with it the thought of social prevalence from the radical, judging the lifestyle, cultures and convictions of those colonized as sub-par and in need of changeover (Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com).
Nonetheless, Imperialism normally posits as a political control and making monetary subservience. In Europe, the time of dominion coincided with patriotism and unification when prior political units were assembled under governance that asserted the privilege to keep rule over them. "I rehash that the elite races [European] have a privilege in light of the fact that they have an obligation. They have the obligation to socialize the downtrodden races [non Europeans] (South Africa History, n.d.)"
Ashley Smith the journalist isolated hypotheses…
Encyclopedia. "Imperialism." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 1 Jan. 1968. Web. 25 Jan. 2015. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/imperialism.aspx
Grafs History. Word War 1: Consequences of the Great War. (2014). Retrieved from: https://grafshistory.wordpress.com
Humbold. Goal. The American Quest for Empire. Retrieved from:
1 Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in the 18th and 19th centuries and is responsible for the moving of nations away from farming to industry and manufacturing. The Industrial Revolution introduced trains, more advanced shipping, steel production, communications systems, cars, planes, and military equipment, and construction. The skyscraper came into existence, people moved to urban areas away from the countryside. Wars broke out as nations fought over natural resources like oil fields, minerals, and sea lanes to support the new industries.
The nations of the world were able to engage in Industrialization because of another rise—the rise of finance. Banks began to exert more and more influence over the activities of nations. They financed big productions and helped businessmen develop companies that would go on to dominate industries. Banks started working with governments too and together they started redrawing international territories, with wars financed by banks that led to…
In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Hamondsworth: Penguine, 1975. Print.
Duiker, William. The Essential World History. Boston: Wadsworth Learning, 2011. Print.
Engels, Frederic. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Gainty, Denis. Sources of World Societies. Boston: St. Martins, 2009. Print.
eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order
This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.
As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.
IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…
Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1
The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002 http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#
Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan: http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html
Postcolonial Theory on Imperialism
The Strains of Living in a Postcolonial orld
In the wake of Colonialism and Imperialism, much of the world still finds itself in pieces -- unable to remember life before being conquered. hat has resulted is great turmoil in many areas of the world caused by a confusion of cultural identity and a complete lack of national identity. Yet, this move to revive individual cultures has also set off a sharp debate within the field of postcolonial theory; these cultures become protective blankets which then keep nations separated in their own twisted visions. Conquerors such as the United States and Great Britain continue on this bravado of the superior nations who still power over their former colonies. This then results in estern literature romanticizing the East as to reaffirm those chauvinistic beliefs. Thus, the conquered people face a crucial internal dilemma -- adoption into what the…
Bahri, Deepika. "Introduction to Postcolonial Studies." Department of English. Emory College. 1996. Retrieved 9 Dec 2008 at http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Intro.html .
McLeod, John. "Postcolonial Fictions of Adoption." Critical Survey. 18(2). 2006. 45-63.
McCormack, Brian. "Postcolonialism in an Age of Globalization: Opening International
Relations Theory to Identities in Movement." Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. 27(1). 2002. 99-136.
" (Capital, p. 915)
Ecological damage is grounded in resource depletion and density of population. You can have 10,000 over a 1000 acre land and this might not hurt the ecological balance but when you have the same number of people on 10 acre land, the balance is seriously disturbed as water, minerals, and other resources of a very small area are constantly being used up. This is what happened during the colonization process. Only some nations were constantly being robbed of their natural resources while nothing was coming from European countries. It must always be a two-way flow of resources because when its one-way, it leads to multifarious environmental and ecological problems. It is for this reason that Accion Ecologica argues "it's time to shut off the tap" to stem the "unjust flow of energy, natural resources, food, cheap labour and financial resources from the South to the North."…
Karl Marx, Capital, volume 1 (New York: Vintage, 1976), p. 896; Malthus to Ricardo, August 17, 1817, in David Ricardo, Works and Correspondence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1952), vol. 7
Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
Karl Marx, the Poverty of Philosophy (New York: International Publishers, 1963)
Acci n Ecol gica, "No More Plunder, They Owe Us the Ecological Debt!" (Retrieved October 10, 2007 from www.cosmovisiones.com/DeudaEcologica/a_averde78in.html,1999).
European Imperialism and Decolonization:
Spectacular in Some Respects
Not Spectacular in Other Respects
European Imperialism and Decolonization:
Spectacular in Some Respects, Not Spectacular in Other Respects
The term "spectacular" is, in some respects, subjective. The collapse of European empires after 1945 was spectacular in some respects but not in others. The British Empire's decolonization after orld ar II can be logically called "spectacular" in its scope; however, it was not "spectacularly" surprising or shocking, for the Empire began decolonization decades before orld ar II. In contrast to the Empire's decolonization, France's decolonization can be logically called "spectacular" in both its scope and turmoil. According to research, these differing experiences of decolonization can be traced to several national and accidental factors.
Analysis of the British Empire's Decolonization
The Empire and Decolonization Prior to 1945
The most common type of imperial control was the "colony," directly ruled by a Governor representing the…
Devine, T.M. "The Break-Up of Britain? Scotland and the End of Empire: The Prothero Lecture." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, 6 (2006): 163-180. Print.
Doody, Richard. "French Empire Timeline - 1940-1945." n.d. World At War Web site. Web. 24 March 2012.
Encyclopedia Britannica. "Statute of Westminster." 2012. Britannica.com Web site. Web. 24 March 2012.
Luscombe, Stephen. "British Empire in 1924." n.d. Britishempire.co.uk Web site. Web. 24 March 2012.
Paradox of Imperialism as Presented in Heart of Darkness
Beginning in the 1500's, European countries explored the world and claimed large parts of it as their own. This was the beginning of the Age of Exploration, as first the Portuguese and Spanish, then the British, Dutch, French, and other Europeans raced to discover and claim new areas of the world. By the 1800's the Age of Exploration had settled into a system of Imperialism which maintained huge Empires for the economic benefit of the home countries in Europe. While the stated goal of creating such Empires was to bring civilization to uncivilized parts of the world, the need for raw materials combined with a commercial greed created a system that cruelly exploited indigenous peoples and raped whole territories of natural resources. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, paralleled this ultimate paradox of Imperialism by describing how a good man named Kurtz,…
Bell, Fraser. "Joseph Conrad's moral journey." Queen's Quarterly 112.4 (2005): 491+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Apr. 2011.
Bowers, Terence. "Conrad's Aeneid: Heart of Darkness and the classical epic.(Critical essay)." Conradiana 38.2 (2006): 115+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Apr. 2011.
Goldblatt, Stephen, and M.H. Abrams. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. Print.
Icoz, Nursel. "Conrad and ambiguity: social commitment and ideology in Heart of Darkness and Nostromo.(Critical essay)." Conradiana 37.3 (2005): 245+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Apr. 2011.
Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life. But when analyzing we can realize that the actual dissatisfaction of individuals arises forms the modern life that they need and in comparison to that the others around the world lead. The term globalization is used to describe the various changes that have taken place in the social, economical and political scenarios that has brought about change in the current situation.
To explain, globalization is the termed used to describe the technique in which the various far away parts…
Barlow, Maude and Clake, Tony. Global Showdown. Toronto: Stoddart, 2001.p.66-68
Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State, Univ of Toronto Pr; September 2002, p.21
Ellwood, Wayne. The No-Nonsense Guide to Globalization. New Internationalist Publications Ltd., 2001, p. 14
Escobar, Arturo. Encountering Development (Princeton 1995), Chapter 5, pp. 192-211.
The faith allows for stoning of people, torture of women and the suicide bombings that the world has grown accustomed to suffering (Hoagland, 2001).
Islamic fundamentalist believe that their faith instructs them to seek out and destroy Americans. They also believe that if they are suicide bombers they will be rewarded in heaven ten fold. As America continues to fight against the human rights violations that Persian Gulf nations continue to support, the fundamentalists believe it is their calling and duty to act against American interests. They want American interests out of their area and they will do what it takes to get it done including acts of terrorism.
As the world watched in wonder the Soviet Union collapsed. It dismantled its government, it started over and it began to rebuild as a democracy after many years of being in a cold war with the United States.
For some the…
Farrar, L.L., Jr.(2003) Aggression vs. apathy: the limits of nationalism during the Balkan wars, 1912-1913. East European Quarterly
Hoagland, Jim (2001) Mysteries in the Persian Gulf. The Washington Post
Novotny, Patrick (1999) the Post-Cold War Era, the Persian Gulf War, and the Peace and Justice Movement in the 1990s. Social Justice nuclear terrorism (Accessed 5-17-07)
In Lenin's view, 19th century industrialized colonialism was different than previous colonial endeavors in that it was far more economically driven: nations had once used colonies as political and military buffers against their enemies. Now they needed colonies to ensure that the system that enabled the capitalist elites to prosper would survive. Without colonies, the capitalist system would topple. Lenin was prescient in seeing that colonialism made the world inherently unstable -- secret alliances and colonial conflicts were two of the major causes of World War I. Ironically, the Cold War would also be spawned by a kind of colonialist conflict -- not only did the Soviet Union strive to use Eastern Europe as a political buffer, it also economically exploited many of the Eastern European nations in its sphere of influence and forced members of the Warsaw Pact to adopt the Soviet economic system. (Lenin pointed out that colonies…
Modernity- NEW CHANGES AND THEI IMPACT
Modernism commonly refers to early 20th century when industrialization had given way to new cultural and social values. But this is not exactly the kind of modernity that we shall be discussing in this paper. Instead we will be focusing on the new changes in the concept of modernity, which defines our current cultural views, social forces and self-identity. These changes took place somewhere in 1970s after the demise of the Beat generation. In fact almost every change that defines the modern world, has its roots in the changes that took place during 1970s and 80s. These decades have had a profound impact on modern worldview thus completing reformulating and redefining various aspects of our lives.
How we see ourselves in this massive Universe is typical related to the values that culture and society instill in us. With changes in basic cultural and social…
Charles R. Walker, Modern Technology and Civilization: An Introduction to Human Problems in the Machine Age, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962: 399
Norman F. Cantor, Twentieth-Century Culture: Modernism to Deconstruction, Peter Lang: New York, 1988 (337-338)
Shyness and Late Modernity
Here, we see the Mediascape landscape alongside many other of the success factors for design in real-world situations:
[MORE PHOTO HERE]
Compare that last to the landscape identified as Ethnoscapes here:
[APPLICABLE PHOTO HERE]
Here we find Ethnoscapes defined:
In the anthropology of globalization, the suffix "-scape" signifies transnational distributions of correlated elements whose display can be represented as landscapes. For example, transnational arrangements of technological, financial, media, and political resources can be seen, respectively, as technoscapes, financescapes, mediascapes, and ideoscapes (Appadurai 1996: 33). The prefix "ethno-" refers to "people" rather than stricly to "ethnicity."
Next up we have Financescapes. Through these next images the heart of this majestic capitalist nation: the financial market alongside the culture associated with financial markets:
[CAPITALIT PHOTO HERE]
Up next, of this Anthropology of Globalization, here we find Ethnoscapes, or the people (Greek, ethno-) + the transnational distribution of correlated…
America and the Great War" and "The New Era"
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. Vol. 2: A Concise History of the American People .4th Edition. McGraw-Hill 2004.
What were the causes of WWI in Europe in 1914? Why was President Wilson so reluctant for the U.S. To get involved until 1917 and what finally put the U.S. "over the edge" and decide to enter the conflict directly?
Nationalism, imperialism, and secret treaties all played a role in the instigation of WWI in Europe, but President Wilson was initially reluctant to become involved, because of a long history of American isolationism in regards to entangling European affairs, particularly the secret alliances that stimulated the conflict. His refusal to involve the U.S. In WWI became a crucial part of his re-election campaign. But President Wilson began to protest German violations of American neutrality more vehemently in his public rhetoric than British violations,…
European exploration the world was undertaken in the 1500's in an attempt to reach the markets of Asia. And once they reached the East, the Europeans quickly found that their technological superiority gave them a strategic advantage over the Asian countries they encountered. As a result, the West began a period of Colonial Imperialism whereby European nations, followed later by the Americans, occupied and administered entire regions of Asia as colonies to be economically exploited. The Asian countries of India, China, and Japan reacted differently in response to the predations of the West, with differing results. India was completely conquered, China ended up conquered to a degree, and Japan started conquering. These three different results were in due, partially because of the stability of their nations, and partially due to the ability of each to adapt and modernize.
The origins of British rule in India began with the British East…
Beeching, J. (1975). The Chinese Opium Wars. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Busch, N. (1972) The Horizon Concise History of Japan. New York: American Heritage Pub.
Danielou, A. (2003) A Brief History of India. Rochester, VT.: Inner Traditions.
Dugdale-Pointon, TDP. (2004, September 19), The Boxer Rebellion, 1900, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_boxer.html .
Raeff, M. The Constitutionalism of Emperor Alexander I.
Raeff traces shifts in social and political culture in Russia at the start of the 19th century. Russian nationalism and federalism were beginning to become salient issues, leading to different expectations from Russian leaders. The people of the nation had a difficult relationship with the elite and the monarchy, exemplified in the "unabashed joy and happiness" that resulted from the death of Paul I (p. 1). New emperor Alexander faced a changing Russia that was becoming more aware of its role on the international arena and also more aware of its internal strife and diversity. Prior emperors like Paul had ruled with an iron fist and inspired mainly fear in the people. Alexander aimed to change public perception to garner support for federalist policies. Those policies included mending relationships with neighbors like Finland and Poland but it also included a more radical…
3. Von Haxthausen on the peasant commune (1844)
One of von Haxthausen's most poignant observations and descriptions on his journey through Russia was on the peasant commune and its ubiquitous presence in the countryside. His travels were through disparate regions and he witnessed many different cultures and societies, all of which shared in common the lifestyle the author describes in this chapter of his memoir. Describing the peasant communes in an admiring light, von Haxthausen notes that this might have been what Europe had looked like just a few generations ago. Von Haxthausan romanticizes the peasant commune, which gives rise to the idealistic notion that peasant-led movements can and should characterize future revolutions in Russian political culture. Although he admires the organization evident in the society and its hierarchical stratification, von Haxthausen also critiques the aristocracy for being completely out of touch with the people they govern.
The peasant commune presents an alternative social model to the exploitation of serfs, which had been the mainstay of European societies throughout history. Economic and political reforms that would take place a few generations after von Haxthausen penned his work are based on similar principles that workers should take pride in their daily work and not become too distanced from the means of production, honoring traditional labor models like farming. Moreover, von Haxthausen echoed prevailing sentiments related to the social and political empowerment of peasant people by offering rich descriptions of what he saw through his travels and by tying in analogies to what he knows of European history. Von Haxthausen also waxes poetic about the patriarchal family structure and gendered role differentiation throughout the communal societies.
China did not have any debts to pay. However, actually during this era Chinese authority had been so undermined and the prestige of the government with its own people so completely destroyed "that it may well be said to have prepared the ground for the Walpurgis night of imperialism, which was witnessed in the decade following the Sino-Japanese War in 1895."
For example, one major complication that rendered diplomatic relations between China and the Western nations led by Britain extremely difficult was the attitude of the British mercantile community. The chimera of inexhaustible trade had drawn them into the interior. The central highway of China, the Yangtze, had now been opened. "Settlements" and trading establishments existed in every important city. Yet for some reason the results were bitterly disappointing. The fabulous China trade did not materialize.
The mercantile community blamed their failure on the opposition of the Chinese officials. Their…
Michael, Franz. Taiping Rebellion. Seattle: Washington Press, 1971.
Pannikkar, K.M. Asia and Western Dominance: A Survey of the Vasco Da Gama Epoch of Asian History, 1498-19 London: George Allen & Unwin, 1953.
Reilly, Thomas. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. Seattle: Washington Press, 2004
Shih, Vincent. Taiping Ideology. Seattle: Washington Press. 1967.
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).
The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Center of the American West. "About Patty Limerick." Retrieved online: http://centerwest.org/about/patty
Duke University Libraries (n.d). Biography of John Hope Franklin. Retrieved online: http://library.duke.edu/rubenstein/franklin/bio.html
Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss. 2000. From slavery to freedom: a history of African-Americans. New York: A.A Knopf
What were the primary motivations and factors that led to the U.S. shift from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
America’s so-called “shift” from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries was really nothing more than a natural evolution of America’s “Manifest Destiny.” Before the US could enter its imperial phase beginning with the Spanish-American War at the turn of the century, it had first to square accounts on the continent by pushing its borders as far as they could be pushed. Once the West had been thoroughly settled and the Union held together (the major conflict of the 19th century), the US could turn its attention to foreign lands and global plans to facilitate the spread of the American Empire. It would have been impossible for the US to achieve imperial objectives any…
Lease, Mary Elizabeth. Women in the Farmers’ Alliance. (1891). In Reading the American Past, Vol. 2. Ed. By Michael P. Johnson. Bedford/St. Martins, 2012.
O’Sullivan, John. "Manifest destiny." Sanford, Manifest Destiny (1845): 26-32.
Peck, Mary Gray. Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography. New York: HW Wilson Company, 1944.
Smith, Adam. The wealth of nations. Aegitas, 2016.
Roark, James L., Michael P. Johnson, Patricia Cline Cohen, Sarah Stage, and Alan Lawson. Understanding the American promise, volume 2: from 1865: a brief history of the United States. Vol. 2. Macmillan, 2011.
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
g. unindustrialized or newly independent post-colonial nations). Modernization can thus be an evolutionary movement of technological progress or a reaction to the past and a new template for the future. However, we must understand that it is both a continuous, and open-ended, process. It is not the type of social change in which there is a clear beginning, middle and end; but rather a movement towards equilibrium on a scale that is constantly changing. Historians, for instance, tend to link modernization to the process of urbanization and industrialization, as well as the spread of compulsory education throughout a population based in this view, humans come together in cities for a variety of reasons: safety, job specialization, etc. And then move technologically forward until much of their society is mechanized and there is then ample opportunity for even more specialization and adaptation through education (Inglehart 1997). In critical sociological theory, modernization…
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
McLaren and Farahmandpur conceive of the new imperialism as a "combination of old-style military and financial practices as well as recent attempts by developed nations to impose the law of the market on the whole of humanity itself" (2001, 136).
McLaren and Farahmandpur note, too, that the concept of class division is a taboo subject within the "guarded precincts of academic discourse, leaving discussions of class out of discussions of global capitalism, exploitation and oppression linked to capitalism. Certainly, this was true in the Martha Stewart case. The media was at pains to point out how well accepted she was by the other inmates, pointing out that she hadn't even won the Christmas decorating contest. Every once in a while, to use George Orwell's mythology, some of the more equal pigs must appear to be less equal in order to convince the less equal pigs that all pigs are equal.…
Halsall, P. (1997, Aug.) "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved March 23, 2005 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1791degouge1.html
Krishnan, R. (1996, May). December 1995: "The first revolt against globalization." Monthly Review, 48, 1+. Retrieved March 23, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
McLaren, P., & Farahmandpur, R. (2001). "Teaching against globalization and the new imperialism: Toward a revolutionary pedagogy." Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 136. Retrieved March 23, 2005, from Questia database,
Duiker and peilvogel's book, World History ince 1865, Volume II examines the emergence of imperialism promoted by Europeans and the resulting affects of their determination to expand, far surpassing imperial Rome.
Great Britain, France, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, pain, Portugal and even Russia intruded forcefully into Africa, Asia, the Middle East and the outh Pacific and finally sought out the North and outh Poles. Today, there is common agreement that European overseas expansion was a constant factor of the nineteenth century, with British commercial activities the most obvious.
But the key aspect of this mobile expansion and what dominated world history from 1500 to the present is the gradual integration of the world into a European-dominated global system. One of the more interesting aspects of this "globalization" is to understand that countries outside of Europe were not victims of this movement. Historical, social, economic and political dynamics contributed to European…
World History Since 1865. Volume II. William Dukier. Jackson J. Spielvogel.. Wadsworth Publishing.
Europe in Retrospect. Raymond F. Betts. 2000. www.britannia.com/history/euro. http://mars.wnce.edu/courses/worldlectures/imperialism.
East Asia, 1800-1912
Even with the fact that it would be absurd to claim that Charles Darwin is responsible for the spread of Imperialism, it would only be safe to say that he played an important role in making particular influential bodies in feeling justified as they were conquering other peoples and imposing their power in these areas. orld powers such as the British Empire and Spain were inspired to look at the world as an environment consisting out of communities who were superior and communities who were inferior. As a consequence, it seemed that only those who were superior were worthy to survive while others needed to make place for evolution.
The fact that the British Empire was one of the greatest powers in the world during the nineteenth century and that Darwin issued a series of theories during the period enabled the English to look at life from…
Hawkins, Mike, "Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat," (Cambridge University Press, 13.03.1997)
"The New Imperialism," Retrieved Southern Utah University Website: http://www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/TheNewImperialism.pdf
S. responded to the Great Depression by electing FDR, who brought out his Alphabet Programs which were supposed to put the nation back to work with public works projects. When that failed to restore the economy, the world elected to start with a new war: WWII. Germany had been buried by the Western powers following WWI -- and now the country threatened to assert itself once more. Russia was in the middle of its own revolution: Stalin was liquidating the kulaks and rounding others up and shipping them off to the Gulag. That did not help Russia's economy any more than FDR's Alphabet program -- but it did not matter: war was on the horizon. Japan was being strangled by Western powers: the American military-industrial-congressional complex essentially forced Japan to attack -- and then sat back and let it happen when Japan finally decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. Thus, America…
Terrorism Media in a minimum pages ( including title reference pages): Discuss broadcasting terrorist activities successes psychologically impacts individuals (e.g., victims, recovery teams, responders, general population).
Terrorism is one of the most discussed subjects in the last ten years. A terrorist attach that takes place in one place of the world usually captures the headlines in the next day's main newspapers and television broadcasts. This is largely due to the fact that terrorism is a phenomenon that can affect in an instant thousands of people and the futures of even more.
Given the importance of the subject, the media usually plays a key role in the relationship between terrorism and its target public. Through the media in particular terrorist activists send their message across to decision makers, to the public, and most importantly, through the immense coverage terrorism receives on all media channels, it has become an even more global…
Al Jazeera. (2010) "U.S. kills al-Qaeda 'number three'." Around the world . Retrieved from http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2010/06/20106143751105245.html
Homeland security (2008). "Assessing the Nuclear Attack Threat" Testimony of Under
Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis Charles E. Allen before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/testimony/testimony_1207151676007.shtm.
Joyner, J. (2006) "Media Coverage Fuels Terrorism." Outside the beltway. Retrieved from http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/media_coverage_fuels_terrorism
In other words, once our leadership gains office, then whatever was said goes the way of special interest, because the interest of the greater society becomes lost in the quest of self-interest.
e are perhaps for the first time in our nation's history attempting to understand our own path to the power we are perceived by the rest of the world as having. In fact, as Harvey so succinctly demonstrates in his discussion on the political maneuvering, because America could not have by any stretch of the imagination have accomplished its present act upon the world stage without a supporting cast of world players (28). hen they built America up for purposes of pursuing their own self-interest, then their support of America quickly began deteriorating, disintegrating to a lack of control of their own political forces, economies, and even inability to mobilize their human resources as they would have previously…
Harvey, David. The New Imperialism, Oxford University Press, 2005.
Conference Berlin consequences b)
The History of Contemporary frica
Ever since parts of its region became colonized by Europeans (which began happening fairly regularly since the early part of the nno Domini timeline), frica has suffered an abundance of problems relating to its political, social, and economic spheres of existence. fter its introduction to what is best termed a fledgling globalization through colonization in several of its countries by a number of European nations, frica has understandably endured a number of issues relating to its primary systems of government, economics, and socialization. lthough events related to the conclusion of World War II were largely responsible for decolonization in this part of the world, many nation states on the continent would struggle for several years -- and are still struggling -- to overcome the effects of colonization and the inherent instability it provided to many of the key infrastructures within today's…
A large degree of political turmoil took place in Uganda following its liberation from colonization midway through the 20th century. A number of political factions vied for power in the ensuing years; many of these were associated with religious groups set up by the European colonialists, such as Catholic and Protestant supporters. Economically, the country had a strong Indian population that was in control of much of the commerce nad industry there, which is why dictator Idi Amin expelled them in the early 1970's. Deforestation issues have affected Uganda quite significantly. Urbanization and expanding farmlands are responsible for much of Uganda's deforestation problem, while like most regions in Africa, the population housed within this country has seen an explosion in the number of victims of AIDS and HIV. Civil wars and internal fighting, however, would regularly plague Uganda into the new millennium. In more recent times, efforts have been made to reduce barriers to women owning property and being an economic influence within this country. The traditional gender equality within Uganda has certainly circumscribed its growth.
One of the most insidious instances of neo-colonization in Africa, however, was evinced in South Africa. The system of apartheid, which was essentially a legalized subjugation of people of African descent that highly favored Europeans and those of European descent, was responsible for political instability for several years as black South Africans strove to overturn such a repressive regime. Apartheid was eventually overturned in 1994 with the presidency of Nelson Mandela, but economically, unemployment was largely rampant in the country as it struggled to transition to true independence. Other contemporary issues plaguing this country are a nationwide rapid deforestation process, as well as rampant AIDS infection (South Africa may have the most people with AIDS in the world today). Women have played a significant role in the true liberation of this country from first its colonial history and then its repressive reign of Apartheid, as is evinced within the perseverance and political inclinations of Winnie Mandela.
There were several things about Africa that I learned while taking this course. One was that there was a highly planned, systematic implementation of repression that is responsible for keeping Africa socially, economically, and politically years behind many other parts of the world. This repression truly took hold during colonialism, but the bouts of neocolonialism that many countries endured even after formal colonialism was dispelled certainly contributed to this cause. I was also unaware of the contemporary problems that Africa has regarding issues of deforestation. I had no idea that the cutting down of trees and the reduction of forests could take hold of this area as quickly as it had, and continue to affect the environments there today.
Asia and Africa in estern European Art
Globalization is generally associated as a modern phenomenon, however, it is a global movement that began with the Greeks and did not accelerate until the renaissance era. The est, going back to Alexander the Great, has a long history of interactions with Asia and Africa. Ideas and goods were consistently traded. This trend of globalization accelerated with the age of exploration in the 16th century when Europeans came into further contact with Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Driven by the quest for gold and natural resources estern European traders navigated the world. This had a profound effect back home, as Europeans developed an interest in the exotic. The interest blossomed during the 18th and 19th century, during the height of estern power and colonialism. Curiosity into the foreign permeated all levels of society. Artists incorporated Asian and African artistic styles into their…
Soltes, Ori. "They All Came to Paris." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
Soltes, Ori. "Asia and Africa in the Western Mind." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
Scramble for Wealth in Africa
1880-1900 was a period that was characterized by rapid colonization of the entire African continent by European nations. This was what was known as the scramble for Africa and it took place due to various economic, social as well as political evolutions that were taking place in Europe. This scramble was known as the race of Africa or partition of Africa was a process of invasion, occupation and eventual annexing of the African territory by European powers during the new imperialism period.
By 1880, around the coast of Africa and a small distance inland found along major rivers like Niger and Congo were under the European rule which was only a small part of Africa. This paper will therefore look at the scramble for Africa and the reasons that led to this evolution. There are various factors that led to the impetus scramble for Africa,…
Global security.org (2013). The Scramble for Africa - 1880-1899.retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/scramble-for-africa.htm
Boddy-Evans, A. (2010). What Caused the Scramble for Africa? Retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://africanhistory.about.com/od/eracolonialism/a/ScrambleWhy.htmc
During the turn of the century, maverick muckraking journalists dug up dirt on unfair labor practices including the use of child labor. Muckrakers also drew attention to unsanitary working conditions and the lack of systematic health regulations in meat and food production. President oosevelt responded by initiating a series of labor-related legislation including the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. However, oosevelt at the same time publicly denounced muckrakers and lent them their derogatory name. oosevelt's passion for environmental conservation reflected his personal interests and beliefs more than it did the results of investigative journalism. Environmental conservation emerged as of the main issues that distinguished the progressivism of oosevelt and that of Wilson.
Presidents oosevelt and Wilson transformed the role of the federal government in the United States. Both wielded their executive powers to protect the rights of the poor and working class, to abolish some of the powers…
Theodore Roosevelt." AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at http://www.americanpresident.org/history/theodoreroosevelt/
Theodore Roosevelt." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt
Thomas Woodrow Wilson." AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at http://www.americanpresident.org/history/woodrowwilson/
Woodrow Wilson." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson#Presidency_1913-1921
nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was a time of hardship for many Americans, and a time of extreme injustice for several groups, as well. African-Americans were strictly segregated and subjected to institutional racism by the state and local governments in the South and by cultural sentiments, and Native Americans continued to be pushed into ever-smaller reservations and subjected to a host of other injustices, as well. The former group was being ostracized from mainstream American society, while the latter group was forced to assimilate or to live in squalor, and leadership in both groups was split, as well. Meanwhile, expansion into areas of the continent that had been unsettled increased due to mining efforts and for other reasons, as well, though by the early twentieth century the frontier had largely been closed and the first phase of America's history, at least according to some observers,…
Free Are American Media
Events occur and become news, news circulate all around the globe. In early times it was almost impossible to convey these happening with in short period of time but with the advent of time technology grew exponentially and gave a fast source of communication called "media."
Media has played a very important role throughout. Any event occurring in one side of the globe gets to the other side within a span of minutes. They cover events such as politics, sports, entertainment etc. And telecast it to the other regions. Every event that had occurred in the past has been covered by the regions local and international media. The point lies in the contradicting news telecasted by the media i.e. one event coverage contradicting to the same event covered by another channel.
The process of broadcasting consist of many events such as coverage, filtration, etc. A channel…
Czitrom, Daniel J. Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Davis, Richard, and Diana Owen. New Media and American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Entman, Robert M., and Kimberly A. Gross. "Race to Judgment: Stereotyping Media and Criminal Defendants." Law and Contemporary Problems 71.4 (2008): 93+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Fox, Julia R., and Byungho Park. "The "I" of Embedded Reporting: An Analysis of CNN Coverage of the "Shock and Awe" Campaign." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.1 (2006): 36+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Over the years, regional identity has played a major part in helping specific regions to embrace their culture and traditions. In many cases, these views are often expressed in different forms of literature and songs. However, as globalization has become more dominant, these beliefs have come into conflict with other regional influences. This is because many of these traditions are being replaced by new ideas that are attempting to impose their values and ideas upon everyone inside a specific area. To fully understand what is taking place, there will be a focus on the songs Allentown and here I Come From in conjunction with insights from Fetterley. This will be accomplished by determining if these songs are resisting the mainstream, examining if they cite local identity in order to advance cultural imperialism (according to Fetterley) and the differences between them. Together, these elements will provide insights that will…
"Allentown." You Tube, 1982. Web. 28 Oct. 2012
"Where I Come From." You Tube, 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2012
Fetterley, Judith. Writing Out of Place. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2003. Print.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
Stalemate to Crisis" and "he Imperial Republic."
Questions From "From Stalemate to Crisis" and "he Imperial Republic"
Brinkley, Alan. (2004) he Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American people. Volume II. 4th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
What were the great social issues creating deep divisions in American life in the 1880s and 1890s? Discuss unionization of workers and the discontent felt by the farmers?
Political corruption, America's increasingly marked shift from an agrarian to an industrialist society, and the tariff questions surrounding the sale of American goods abroad, were all the important issues that served to tear the American nation apart during the latter half of the nineteenth century. he rise of agrarian discontent was manifested in the vocal Granger Movement, the formulation Farmers' Alliances, and the Populist movement that swept the American Midwest. Although agrarian discontent declined, after 1898, the origins, purposes, and effectiveness of the Interstate Commerce…
The taking of territories by the United States was hardly justified according to standards of either moral or formal international law, then or now. But the annexation "fever" of the late 1800s clearly benefited politicians wishing to create a greater sense of cohesive unity in an increasingly divided America, an America characterized by warring political and geographic interests and greater levels of economic stratification.
As you look at how the media dealt with the Spanish American War reflect on how the media today deals with both domestic and foreign affairs stories. What is their agenda in 2005 when reporting? Have they handled Afghanistan and Iraq in a similar fashion to the way the press reported the sinking of the battleship Maine? Is the media trustworthy in 2005? Please be more specific on this question.
The media's agenda in 2005, as during the Spanish-American War, is always to generate interest in the news and to sell consumption of papers, cable subscriptions, and advertising. However, the public has more media outlets it can use, and is more 'savvy' as to media bias and misrepresentation. Also, the media itself is more self-critical, after realizing that politicians are able to misrepresent the events of today for personal ends. The media seemed to show a sense of 'betrayal' of the truth and trust in the relationship between press and professional politicians, in the way that the threat of weapons of mass destruction was used to justify war in Iraq, as the ways that the White House vacillated on its knowledge of the terrorist threat level before 2001. This sense was not evident in the glorious trumpeting of U.S. justice during the sinking of the Maine. Still, domestic news coverage often has the same sensationalistic tone, specifically in crime reporting, as was common to ages past.
Cuban Missile Crisis: Why we need more balance of power in the world.
Cuban Missile crisis in 1960s may raise a serious political question in retrospect i.e. should America be allowed to exist as the sole superpower and what could be the repercussions of such an existence? Now fifty years or so later, we are in a much better position to answer this question. United States or any other nation for that matter must not work as the sole superpower because it can cause many political upheaval as we recently witnessed. We will discuss the Cuban Missile crisis in detail but first we must establish that American history is fraught with events and wars that were fought on the false belief of America's superiority which made it an imperial power. Examples of these events include the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War and not to mention the current conflict with Iraq.…
Rothernberg. R.S. "Crisis Time." USA Today 130.2676 (2001)
Meagher. MR."In an Atmosphere of National Peril': The Development of John F. Kennedy's World View." Presidential Studies Quarterly 27.3 (1997):
Krenn ML. "Robert Weisbrot. Maximum Danger: Kennedy, the Missiles, and the Crisis of American Confidence." International Social Science Review (2002):
Nigro Jr. LJ. "High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Parameters 35.3 (2005)
Sociology and Anthropology
After 1880, Africa underwent a major transformation with the European powers effectively dividing the continent among themselves. Over the next 100 years, nearly every major decision affecting the region would be made in a European capital. Then, each nation was able to gain their independence. To fully understand what took place requires: carefully examining the rationale for imperialism in Africa and studying the British vs. French colonizing missions. These factors will highlight the kinds of approaches that were used by the Europeans and the long-term impact of colonization. (Ciment, 2007, pp. 19 -- 24)
The ationale for Imperialism in Africa
The Europeans had different reasons for colonizing Africa. A few of the most notable include: to protect their own economic interests, maintain a balance of power and control key areas that are strategic importance. In the case of protecting their own economic interests, the Europeans believed that…
Ciment, J. (2007). Atlas of African -- American History. New York, NY: Facts on File.
Foster, D. (2002). The Global Etiquette Guide to Africa. New York, NY: Wiley.
As shown later, the Japanese were able to successfully adapt use and excel successfully in using the estern technology against the other powers to repel advances and to build their own empire. Perry's mission successfully ended Japanese isolation but also indirectly brought on the very circumstances that led to the U.S.-Japanese competition in the Pacific and directly later on to orld ar II in the later twentieth century. In a nutshell, the Perry mission's negations were successful and the Treaty of Kanagwa was signed in Shimoda, Japan. This treaty permitted American ships to buy coal in Japan and memorialized the requested protection for shipwrecked American seaman, in particular whalers who steamed off of Japanese waters in their annual hunts at sea.
For more than two centuries previously, Japan had successfully isolated itself from the outside world by refusing to trade with other countries except Holland and China. They had even…
Blumberg, Rhoda. Commodore Perry in the Land of the Shogun. Trophy Publishers,
Pramoedya, Ananta,. This earth of mankind. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1996
Marketing Strategies of the Shanghai Disney esort
Shanghai Disney esort
Brief History and Facts
Target Market for the Shanghai Disney esort
The Marketing Strategies of the Shanghai Disney esort
Integration with the Chinese Culture
The Major esort Segments
Entertainment and ecreational Facilities
The Most Potential Customer Segment
Why Chinese Market?
Segmentation for Promotional Campaigns
Selection of Promotional Mediums
Overall Plan of Shanghai Disney esort
Internal Environment (Strengths & Weaknesses)
External Environment (Opportunities & Threats)
Failed Market Strategy
Successful Market Strategy
Selection of the Chinese Market
Critical Analysis and Concluding Thoughts
Appendix 1: Introduction
The Shanghai Disney esort is an upcoming theme park in China. The resort is being built by the world's largest entertainment corporation -- the Walt Disney Company. Consisting of theme parks,…
Clow, K.E. & Baack, D. (2009). Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communicaitons, 1st Edition. New Delhi: Pearson.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D. & Hoskisson, R.E. (2013). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning
Jenny, M. & Scammon, D.L. (2010). Principle-Based Stakeholder Marketing: Insights from Private Triple-Bottom-Line Firms, Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 29 (1): 12-26
Mullins, J.W., Walker, O.C. & Boyd, H.W. (2008). Marketing Management: A Strategic Decision Making Approach, 6th Edition. N.Y: McGraw-Hill
Models of Media and Politics
A review of media / political models sheds some light on why the United States' cultural themes have been such a dominant dynamic in Europe, among other global venues. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe (the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model") is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven (Hallin, et al., 2004 90). The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics (Hallin 87).
The North Atlantic or Democratic Corporatist model, according to Mark a. aker II encompasses Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the "Low Countries" and Scandinavia, and can be broken down into three…
Arango, Tim, 2008, 'World Falls for American Media, Even as it Sours on America. The New York Times, Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Artz, Lee, and Kamalipour, Yahya, 2007, the Media Globe: Trends in International Mass Media. Rowman & Littlefield: Landham, MD.
Baker, Mark a., 2010, 'Hallin & Mancini, the North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model by: Mark a. Baker II', Global Media. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://globalmediastudies.blogspot.com .
Hallin, Daniel C., and Mancini, Paolo, 2004, Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge University Press: New York.
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
Looking at one of Kulkarni's pieces, a Peasant in the City, oil on canvas done sometime in the 1960s, we see a trend in modern Indian art in which the protagonist is featured as a part of an abstract background. Literally, the piece is a snapshot of a man and a beast, at night in a large urban area. The man is downcast, downtrodden, with no discernible ethnicity or age. He is a mixture of gray, and his elongated facial features suggest that he is, or has been, weeping. The single animal by his side could be a dog, a cow, or a representation of simply an "animal." The animal's front leg is extended, ostensibly onto the fence in which the man is leaning. The houses are abstract, made up of geometric lines and some color, designed it seems to indicate that they are lit. The moon is full, but…
Datta, S. (2006). K.S. Kulkarni: Life of Form in Art. Kumargallery. Retrieved from: http://www.kumargallery.com/forthcomingexhibitions/kskulkarni/kskulkarnireview.htm
Krishna Shamrao Kulkarni -- Profile. (2012). Saffronart. Retrieved from: http://www.saffronart.com/artist/artistprofile.aspx?artistid=260&a=Krishna%20Shamrao%20Kulkarni
Postcolonial Literature and Feminist Identities:
Children of the New orld
Children of the New orld by Assia Djebar, chronicles a day in the life of the Algerian rebellion of 1956, one of the years in which Algerians were attempting to wrest control of their nation back from the colonizing French. Algeria was a Muslim country; France was mainly Christian. omen played a decisive role in the struggle for liberation in many instances while others found their gender to complicate their relationship with their Algerian and Muslim nature. But advocating for rebellion from colonialism did not mean they were necessarily granted equality, as Djebar shows. All of the women in the novel have a complex relationship to nationalism, gender, and colonialism. Djebar simultaneously validates the women's right to speak and to have a very personal reaction to the war even while she shows the dangers of imperialism.
A good example of…
Djebar, Assia. Children of the New World. New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY, 2005
Mishra, Raj Kumar. "Postcolonial feminism: Looking into within-beyond-to difference."
International Journal of English and Literature, 4(4): 129-134.
Spivak, G.C. "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Reprinted by McGill. Web. 9 Dec 2004.
), [he knows] that media companies are responsive to pressure when it is sustained, sophisticated and well executed," he fails to offer any concrete examples of this kind of pressure or how it might actually be applied (Schechter, 2003, p. 242). He does propose "a Media and Democracy Act, an omnibus bill that could be a way of showing how all of these issues are connected," but he does not provide any details of what might actually be included in this all-encompassing piece of hypothetical legislation (p. 242). Rather, he simply asserts that this potential legislation (that, if it actually included regulations to effectively combat the problems with American journalism would almost certainly never have passed at the time of his writing and would still be extremely unlikely now) could magically "create one easy to market and explain package of proposals that can forge a coalition with many stakeholders and…
Cognitive compression effect. In (2000). M. Danesi (Ed.), Encyclopedic dictionary of semiotics, media, and communications. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Frontani, M.R. (2004). Embedded: Weapons of mass deception-how the media failed to cover the war on iraq. Journalism History, 30(2), 111.
Gaither, T.K. (2007). Advertising's war on terrorism: The story of the U.S. state department's shared values initiative. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 84(4), 843-844.
Goodman, A., & Goodman, D. (2006). Static: Government liars, media cheerleaders, and the people who fight back. New York: Hyperion.
Fresia's contention that the United States failed to live up to its revolutionary democratic promise and instead was captured by the powerful plutocratic elite has appeal, it oversimplifies the process by which the elite take and retain control over resources and governmental power. In reality, at the time of the American evolution, there was little dispute that the outcome of the evolution would be to give greater power and freedom to those leading the evolution; the founding fathers. While the promise of democracy was offered to common men, it was members of the ruling elite of the colonial Americas that made the decisions to declare America independent from England and drafted both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. Therefore, it is unsurprising that the Constitution does not engage in the type of re-distribution of wealth that Fresia appears to believe is necessary in order to establish a…
Fresia, Jerry. 1988. Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and other
Illusions. Boston: South End Press.