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New Testament to gospels confusing, repetitious appears conflicting DISCUSS PLEASE DO NOT COPY AND PASTE FROM THE INTERNET
hy Four Gospels?
There is much controversy regarding the fact that Christianity promotes the idea that it is perfectly natural for Christians to respect four gospels. Many people have trouble understanding the attitudes that they need to employ regarding the four gospels because they come across stories that are similar to one-another and because some points-of-view expressed by a particular gospel appear to contradict points present in other gospels. One needs to comprehend that the gospels were actually designed to express stories as seen from the perspective of the person writing them. As a consequence, some aspects in one gospel might differ from ideas in other gospels precisely because the writer interpreted ideas that he encountered and wrote them as seen from his point-of-view.
Most individuals are accustomed to thinking that the…… [Read More]
New Testament Vocabulary
Pharisees, Essenes, and Sadducees were three major sects or practices of Judaism at the time of Christ. The Pharisees and Sadducees were the two more powerful and influential sects, the Essenes were much smaller in number and less influential. The Sadducees derived their name from Zadok, the High Priest of David and Solomon: their version of Judaism was centered strictly on the text of the Torah and the temple rites. Sadducees tended to come from the highest ranks of Jewish society. The Pharisees by contrast had an oral tradition beyond the written text of the Torah, and were the more popular and democratic sect -- Pharisaic Judaism would become the basis for contemporary (Rabbinic) Judaism. There was political and social disagreement between Pharisees and Sadducees: they were essentially rival sects. The Essenes were, by contrast, apolitical ascetic separatists: the Dead Sea Scrolls are widely thought to have…… [Read More]
Instead, Paul positions the way of faith over against "works of the law" (Rom 3:27-28), pitting God's sovereign grace over against human effort. In the interests of his Gentile mission, Paul aims to deflate an inflated sense of Jewish identity, particularly "boasting," which religious leaders routinely displayed while observing ritual religious practices. Paul stressed the time had come to recognize, in accordance with the promises to Abraham, the reality of God's gracious designs for the Gentile world.
God's Justification: Beginning to End
From the beginning of Romans to its end, a theodicy, a justification of God, increasingly recognized, proves central, rather than the more accustomed perception regarding the "justification" noted in Romans as figuratively moving the opposite direction; relating God's gracious justification of human beings through faith. Although the justification of believers does serve as a primary theme of the letter, as Ernst Kasemann argued, the multiple references to "the…… [Read More]
Christ is also mediator as well as High Priest. For example, Christ serves as a mediator between humanity and the divine; between man and God. The High Priest serves a similar function, but it is crucial that Christ replaces the Jewish priesthood. Likewise, Christ is King to replace and supplant all earthly kings, and is the intercessor by which human beings achieve salvation from sin.
4. Using specific examples, discuss John's view of Jesus.
John's vision, interpretation, and experience of Jesus are different from the other apostles. John's vision of Jesus is more all encompassing and powerful than any other Biblical author. John equates Jesus with God unequivocally, by drawing parallels with Genesis in John 1:1. John's view of Jesus is that Jesus is God, a truly and wholly divine being. This helps to clarify the confusion between whether Jesus was a historical figure and a prophet; he was truly…… [Read More]
Paul demonstrates his own faith and humility, further establishing himself as a Christian leader. For example, in Philippians 3:12 Paul admits that he has not attained the level of spiritual development that he hopes for and is far from perfect.
The New Testament book of James was supposedly penned by James the brother of Jesus, who had been established as an important Church leader. The book of James is concerned primarily with setting forth practical rules and guidelines of living a Christian life. Many Christian moral precepts are established through the writings of James. For example, James denounces greed among the wealthy classes: "The wages you failed to pay the workmen who mowed your fields are crying out against you. The cries of the harvesters have reached the ears of the Lord Almighty," (James 5:4). James therefore contains a theme of Christian communal lifestyle. Patience is clearly established as a…… [Read More]
What was the Council of Jerusalem about and how did it turn out?
This is also known as the Apostolic Conference refers to the early Christian council that was held in Jerusalem. The purpose of the meeting according to Acts was to try and resolve the grudges and differences that were since the time in Antioch.
During this meeting, the council agreed that the Gentiles who had converted to Christianity had no strict obligation to keep most of the Mosaic Laws, the circumcision of males included. They however upheld some laws that were still to be followed by all Christians like forbidding fornication, eating blood, eating meat with blood in it and idolatry.
4. James 2:14-26 and Galatians 5:1-15 what do these text teach and what are the important similarities and differences between the theological emphases of Paul and James in these two texts?
The texts talk about faith and…… [Read More]
In terms of content, then, and also in terms of the overall consistency of both content and structure within and between most chapters, all twenty-seven books of the New Testament, for example, are discussed first from the viewpoint of 'theological story', that is, how its actual narrative content unfolds and advances itself; and second, from the perspective of various, frequently although not always or immediately compared 'theological themes', i.e., key themes that emerge, holistically, from each book on its own and later, implicitly and explicitly, in combination. The cumulative effect is one of carefully, steadily pointing out to the reader "stories" and themes that appear and reappear in common throughout the books of the New Testament.
However, that said, a nagging question underlying the whole book lingers for this reader - that of rather or not a unified Christian theology had already been fully formed and solidified, i.e., that…… [Read More]
Matthew in the New Testament
The Gospel of St. Matthew of the New Testament Bible contains some of Jesus' most famous phrases. These religious phrases have been incorporated not only into contemporary theology but also the common speech and frames of reference, even for nonbelievers, because of their power to represent compelling philosophical ideas. Even though 'nonviolence' or civil disobedience would not have been comprehensible concepts to Jesus' contemporaries, advocates as diverse as Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. later extrapolated these principles from Matthew's text.
In the sermon, however, Jesus counsels humble behavior but stresses the need to have a strong internal belief structure of resistance to go with passive resistance. He inveighs his listeners in 7:6, not to give pearls to swine, that is, not to fruitlessly preach against those who will not listen. In the same book he talks of the narrowness of the gate of heaven,…… [Read More]
Christianity was truly a multicentric faith in its first centuries, owing to its relative modesty of influence and its own emergence from another faith, this perspective shows. The primary control mechanism at play is the human instinct to adopt varying interpretations of existing theological movements.
This is interesting, because in a manner, our reading here suggests that where we might contend that the scriptures arose out of Christianity. At least, insofar as categorization is concerned, the followers who would adopt Christ's ideas in the century to follow his death were simply another sect of Judaism. As Cross et al. cite in the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, the gospels would be composed in roughly 100 AD, several generations from the death of Christ. (Cross et al., 134) it should be considered a valuable understanding of the ideological origins of Christianity to recognize the reciprocity between the ability of the…… [Read More]
He possesses authority over all the people on earth, the Creator of all things and Ruler of all. Men will be judged according to His teachings, even those who reject Him. The Law of God is the Law of Jesus, who teaches it as revealed to Him by the Father. His specific teaching on divorce and remarriage is addressed to all the people of this world, not only His disciples. He spoke to the great multitudes about it in Matthew 19:3-9. When the Pharisees tested Him on the issue of divorce, Jesus' answer was and is addressed to them and to all, not just a few followers. Jesus emphasized to them and still emphasizes now that a man should leave father and mother and cleave to his wife and the emphasis is universal. He stressed and still stresses that anyone, not only a Christian, who puts away his wife and…… [Read More]
Salvation in the Old and New Testaments
The Old and New Testaments do have a very similar view of the theme of salvation in that is ensured by God through one's faith and righteousness. The connotation is originally defined in the Old Testament, but the theme is extended in the New Testament to illustrate the necessity of Jesus Christ and his ultimate sacrifice to bring salvation to mankind. Still, there are some clear differences within the two works that show the complexity of the evolution of the term as it spread through centuries of Biblical scripture.
Similar methods of salvation are shared between the two texts
Salvation through Grace
Jesus Christ as an Extension of the concepts first drawn out in the Old Testament
Many believe that there are major differences in the connotations of salvation seen in each work
B. Dispensationalism shows how there may be more…… [Read More]
Orthodoxy and the Canon:
There are several areas in the early church on essential issues such as the deity of Christ, nature, and humanity. This period of dispute was also characterized with the emergence of groups like Gnostics, which brought a completely new set of presumed beliefs to the faith that came alongside the faith and in total compromised tenets of the faith. These new beliefs were supposedly based on the truth of Christ's teachings as presented to his followers. Consequently, there was a great need to explain the true writings that presented the truth of Christ. The need for clarifications of these truths was necessary because of the fact that heretical parties involved would constantly present texts and teach them as being the writings of the Apostles. This process should include clarification of key events and movements that impacted the acknowledgment of the canonical books.
Orthodoxy and Canon:
Canon…… [Read More]
features topic significance understanding New Testament. This a short research paper include introduction, thesis, body, conclusion.
Jesus and Paul -- compare/contrast
Both Paul and Jesus are largely considered to be two of the most influential individuals in Christian history. Even though Paul was an apostle, many consider him to be equal to or even more important than Jesus, taking into account his contribution to early Christianity. Paul is widely regarded as being the founder of Christianity, but there is much controversy regarding his understanding of Jesus' teaching, as he provides a relatively different account concerning the Messiah's life. Many Christians actually denounce Paul on account of him having modified Jesus' word with the purpose of shaping the Christian world and having Christians appreciate him more than they did at the time when he became a Christian.
It is impossible to provide solid data supporting the fact that either Jesus…… [Read More]
Preaching the New Testament, is gracefully written collection of 17 essays by preachers who are also evangelical New Testament scholars. Edited by David Wenham and Ian Paul, the book does not just merely focus on 'persuasive communication, instead it concentrates on offering insights on how interpret, personalize and communicate the New Testament. In theological speak, it focuses on the hermeneutical and exegetical foundations of homiletics rather than the mere mechanics of homiletics.
The first 11 essays in the book are arranged in a canonical New testament order, with a special focus on the Gospels in (chapter one), infancy narratives (chapter two), Jesus miracles and parables (chapter 3 and 4), the sermon on the mount (chapter 5), Acts (chapter six), Paul's letters (chapter seven), the pastoral epistles (chapter eight), the book of Hebrews (chapter nine), General epistles (chapter ten), the book of revelation (chapter eleven). The rest of the seventeen essays…… [Read More]
These figures add an important historical dimension to the Bible.
Also in the Hebrew Bible are collections of romantic poetry calls psalms. The psalms and also the proverbs round out the collection of Biblical literature that is included within the Jewish canon. All the books of the Hebrew Bible are thousands of years old, and were not authored or compiled all at once. The Bible has many different authors writing at many different periods of time in many different places throughout the Levant.
The Christian Bible comprises a series of books that were also authored by different people at different times. Although the Christian Bible follows the Hebrew Bible and builds upon some of its core tenets, believers in Christ refer to the Hebrew Bible as the Old Testament. This is because a Jew named Jesus Christ developed a body of teachings that diverged significantly from Judaism. Jesus believed that…… [Read More]
Old Testament Bible Dictionary Project
Person-- -- Moses
Moses was born in 1393 and died in 1273 BCE. The Maimonides called him 'perfect' and the Talmud sages said 'Divine Prescence' spoke from Moses' throat. While some have said these wonderful things of Moses, the man who freed the Israelites from slavery in Egypt was written in the Old Testament as a very humble man. The third child of Amram and Jocheved, Moses' brother Aaron was older than him by three years. Miriam, the oldest, was six years his senior. As many know, when Moses was a baby (three months old), he was set afloat in a bakset in the River Nile to avoid death by the Pharoah's decree[footnoteRef:1]. This decree said all male Hebrew children would be killed via drowning. Batyah, the Pharoah's daughter saved him and took him from the river to raise as her own (Exodus 2:5-10. He…… [Read More]
New Testament: The Life of John the Apostle
The Life of John the Apostle: The New Testament
John the Apostle
John and his brother James are called by Jesus to follow Him; they immediately and without question leave their fishing nets and follow Christ (Mat 4:18) (Brownrigg, 2002).
John is one of three disciples' in Jesus' inner circle. He, alongside Peter and James are with Jesus when He raises Jairus' daughter from death (Luke 8:49 -56; Mark 5: 53-43), during the transfiguration (Luke 9: 8; Mathew 17: 1; Mark 9: 2), and in the Garden of Gethsemane before His arrest (Mark 14: 33). Moreover, John is chosen by Jesus to prepare the Passover celebrations (John 13: 23) and is the first to see Jesus' empty tomb (John 20: 1-10)
John is referred to, time and time again as 'the disciple that Jesus loved' (John 13: 3; 21: 20); however, he…… [Read More]
Messiah in the Old and New Testaments
The Jewish origins of the word "messiah" are found in the ancient consecration ritual of the Hebrews, who "anointed" something or someone by purifying it with holy oil (1 Sam 10:1-2). It is to this act of anointing that the word "messiah" is derived, as it means "anointed." Kings, priests, prophets, the Temple, and the special bread (which also takes on a unique significance in the New Testament) are all variously spoken of in terms of anointing or touching with oil in the Old Testament (1 Kings 1:39, Lev 4:3, Isa 61:1, Ex 40:9-11, Num 6:15). However, the term "messiah" came to take an on even deeper meaning after Saul fell out of favor with the Lord and a new king (David) was anointed. David was not a direct, bloodline descendent of the kings -- but, rather, a spiritual descendent of Abraham: he…… [Read More]
For one to construct a biblical-theological framework to understand God’s and the church’s mission, as well as the church’s mission to the world, one should begin by understanding the unified Biblical narrative. The unified Biblical narratives comprises for major plot movements. These are: creation, fall, redemption, and restoration (Christensen, 2003). Understanding the grand narrative of Scripture remains a vital step towards understanding God and the church. This essay hopes to break down this grand narrative to illuminate the United presented in the Bible.
I. The Unity of the Bible
a. The four-fold Plot of Scripture: Creation, Fall, Redemption, New Creation
Shalom from Genesis 1 and 2 is the best way up its story. There was peace on earth. In this version of earth, the world was bountiful, a place where humanity could flourish. However, from this tale of Creation cam the Fall and rejection of Adam and…… [Read More]
Gospel: Gospel is a message that has contents on Jesus, God, salvation, the Kingdom of God, and everything that is done to reach out this message to the believers. Gospel is also one of the books in the New Testament talking about the life, death, resurrection, and the works of Jesus Christ.
• Original sin: Original sin refers to the tendency and deprivation to the evil that is seen as innate in all humankind and it is passed from Adam to all human beings, resulting from the sin engaged by Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. The sin is naturally adapted to every born human being, born of Adam being the initial sinner.
• Fundamentalism: Fundamentalism is a 20th-century religious movement emphasizing on a strict belief in the literal understanding and interpretation of the religious texts.
• Heresy: Heresy is a theory that is developed to be at…… [Read More]
Old Testament Bible Dictionary Project:
The book of 1 Samuel is largely considered as one of the historical books and Deutronomistic writings that attempt to display the history of Israelites as well as showing how the Laws of God were explained to the Israelites under the guidance of the prophets. It also highlights the life of Israelites in Canaan as they transitioned from the leadership of the judges to being ruled by Kings, indeed, it was Samuel who acted as the last Judge and it was him who anointed the first two Kings of Israel; Saul and David. A significant part of the book is also dedicated to the life of Samuel and Saul. Though the author(s) of this book is largely anonymous, some of the chapters therein are attributed to Samuel, Nathan and Gad (). The authorship of the book took place over a span of 100…… [Read More]
The value of discipleship stresses the cohesion between the events of the past and the present, a fundamental tenant of psychotherapy. Discipleship also implies a mediation between God and his agents on earth, and the therapist always functions as a mediator between God's grace and earth. Community is also an important tenant of modern therapy, namely that no psychologically healthy human being is a spiritual and social island. Everyone needs social resources to fall back on, such as the church and the family. In particular for Christian counselors, the family often comes to the forefront as part of the patient's community as well as the church community. And apocalypticism focuses on the future and the patient's hopes and plans, over the course of the inner and outer changes weathered during the counseling relationship.
These four important challenges or concepts offered by the book for effective Christian counseling thus form a…… [Read More]
In Genesis 3:15, God said, "I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring. He will bruise your head, and you will bruise his heel." According to some biblical experts, this is an oblique reference to the coming of Messiah.
This is taken by many as one of the earliest Messianic prophecies describing Satan's brief victory over the Messiah and the Messiah's ultimate victory over Satan. It is mentioned here because the offspring (Messiah) is described as being of the woman (Eve). This is extraordinary as the nation of Israel has always been patriarchal; people are mentioned in terms of their fathers, not their mothers. Because of this, many see this verse as also being a prophecy of Messiah's birth through a virgin
Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus)
The Book of Genesis also makes reference to the importance of the lineage or the heritage…… [Read More]
Christian religion, the Old and New Testaments form a whole upon which its belief system is based. The transition between the Old and New Testaments resides in the person of Christ, who came to earth as the fulfillment of the Old Testament Messianic prophesy.
This transition then occurs not only through the ultimate sacrifice of Christ at his death and resurrection, but also in his ministry during his lifetime. Christ uses the Old Testament in various ways in order both to establish the new order of the New Testament, but also to validate the authority of the Old.
As the son of God, Christ shows his relationship to the Father through his respect for the validity and authority of the Old Testament. He does this in various ways, of which one is his acceptance of the history of the Old Testament. Jesus refers to various persons of the Old Testament,…… [Read More]
Jesus through the Old Testament
Christopher J.H. Wright's Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament is a book written to connect the two halves of scripture, in a way that helps Christians better understand that "…it is Jesus that gives meaning and validity to the events of Israel's Old Testament history."[footnoteRef:0] Wright is an Old Testament scholar -- an Ulsterman whose own parents had been Presbyterian missionaries in razil, although he would convert and become ordained in the Anglican church, and now resides in London where he directs an international ministry. His academic background is in historical study of the Old Testament, and his first full-length book was a study of economic ethics in the Old Testament. (He confesses endearingly, but unnecessarily, in the present work that he feels much less at ease with the New Testament as a scholar.) Knowing Jesus through the Old Testament is his second work, first…… [Read More]
We cannot look at what happened to the Canaanites as cruelty against a race because what God was dealing with was not a race of people, but rather, he was dealing with evil people (independent of race).
Wright doesn't spiritualize Israel's Conquest of Canaan because he believes that there is a difference between any kind of violent acts that appear to be arbitrary -- like the conquest of the Canaanites, which also appeared to him as selfish -- and an act that appears to be the consequence or punishment because of an act. Wright likens it to a parent smacking their child for no good reason as compared to a person who enacts a punishment because of disobedient behavior.
What is interesting is Wright's first framework, which refers to the conquest of Canaan as being merely an act of God (p. 90) as opposed to a war of some sort.…… [Read More]
The healing of Hezekiah in 2 Kings 20:1-11 explains that God can provide proper treatment for terminal illnesses and add years to life, but the necessity is to heal your inner self, your soul, which is in your hand. ("The biblical basis of healing in Old Testament," n. d.)
The idea is considered to be very true. Anxiety, distress and tension because of bad habits, irrational ways of living and improper routine practices often brings up the illnesses in a healthy body. By healing one's inner self and practicing meditation and patience, one can improve their inner health that provides strength to improve the physical health. This strength works as perfect aid for the outside healing process assisted by doctors and physicians.
Siegel, Bernie. (1990) "Love, Medicine and Miracles: Lessons Learned about Self-
Healing from a Surgeon' Experience with Exceptional Patients," Harper Paperbacks.
John ev. (2009) "The Currency of…… [Read More]
Greidanus' Preaching Christ from the Old Testament and Merrill's Everlasting Dominion: A Theology of the Old Testament may be compared and contrasted on the grounds that both approach the Old Testament Scriptures, though each does it a different and unique way. Greidanus' method of examining the Old Testament is to approach it from the perspective of the New Testament -- namely, to show how Christ is evident all throughout the Old Testament Scriptures and why and how the latter link directly to the coming of the former. Specifically, Greidanus' objective in his book is to show that Christ is the fulfillment of the Old Testament. Merrill, on the other hand, takes a much more immersive approach to Old Testament and examines it thoroughly and in great detail, looking at everything from the creation of man to the fall to the prophets, the kings, the covenants and the commandments. It is,…… [Read More]
He considers that one would be an ignorant if he were to declare himself a true Christian without being acquainted with parts of the Old Testament.
It would be wrong if someone were to interpret the Old Testament on the basis of the information in the New Testament. This would mean that the New Testament is the perfect interpretation of the Old Testament. However, the truth is that the more recent text is only one of the interpretations that people can make when relating to the Old Testament, thus meaning that the older document can be interpreted in a series of ways, each being different from the other. The New Testament is however one of the most accurate interpretations made by people with regard to the Old Testament.
Similar to how the information in the New Testament offers little to no occasions to be fought, right's book contains numerous solid…… [Read More]
As Spong has closed his career as a formal minister, retiring from the bishop position in 2000 have has become even more controversial than ever before:
Spong believes in a transcending reality at "the very heart of life" that presses toward life and wholeness. He describes God as the "Ground of Being" and "universal presence" that undergirds all life and is present in all that is. He regards heaven as a symbol standing for "the limitlessness of Being itself," describes Jesus as "a God presence" whose burning awareness of God made him a doorway to divine reality, and believes that the divine source of life calls human beings to live fully, love wastefully, and have the courage to be. Spong describes his project in classic liberal terms -- walking the "razor's edge between orthodox overbelief and losing the 'Christ experience'..."I do so not because I reject the church, but because…… [Read More]
The Pope and the leadership guide us in our interpretation of scripture and tradition.
As stated previously, Roman Catholicism is truly a lifetime experience. From cradle to grave, Holy Baptism to the Anointing of the Sick, we are surrounded by these life giving and soul building acts and rarely appreciate them fully. This investigation has not only, truly deepened the author's knowledge of the sacraments by choosing Holy Eucharist, Baptism and Penance. They are an organic whole that represent the totality of our lives and with the spread of the Church's doctrines will hopefully encompass humanity as a whole.
Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2009/documents/hf_ben-xvi_ang_20090614_en.html
Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3E.htm
Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/alpha/data/aud19861001en.html
Knox, James, & right, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved…… [Read More]
Thus, the term "a new start" came to embody a lofty ideal and it was considered to be more important from the simple fact that the respective period in history dealt with the particular issues addressed by people such as Thomas Paine. For instance, he tried, through his writing to give a new incentive for the people fighting for the independence from Britain and from this point-of-view he is remembered as an important figure of the era (Philip, 2005).
Without a doubt there are periods in history that are dominated by certain interpretations of the notion of "a new start." This is precisely due to the fact that the American literature, it its attempt to escape the influence and the stereotypes of the British creations, have searched for new sources of inspiration. In this sense, while in the British Isles the romantic view of the world was still predominant, in…… [Read More]
What city is central to the development of Acts? How so?
Besides Jerusalem, the city most central to the development of Acts is probably Antioch. Acts chapter 11 narrates the founding of the church at Antioch, and in 11:26 the word "Christians" is used for the first time in the New Testament -- this is where the disciples were first called "Christians."
What are the "we passages "u in Acts?
In five separate sections of the book of Acts -- each reporting the missionary journeys of Paul -- the author suddenly shifts into the first person plural, as though to indicate the author of Acts was a traveling companion of Paul in the journey described. The "we passages" are Acts 16:10-17; 20:5-15; 21:1-18; and the openings of chapters 27 and 28. The significance is that the author of the book appears to have had first-hand personal knowledge of…… [Read More]
God of the Old Testament is one that must not disappear from the minds of those that embrace the Christian faith. Brueggemann notes, "The Old Testament is indispensable...because it is a peculiar witness to elusive, irascible, multilayered, multivoiced holiness that can affect agency in the world" (Brueggemann, 2015, p. 263). It is in the Old Testament that God shows His presence not just in the sense of the beginning, but also the end. Brueggemann mentions this inhabiting God as a keeper of the world as well as people's pretensions, penultimate and open, helping believers resist deadly idolatries that come packaged in the guise of something precious.
With regards to Holiness or the term 'holiness' Brueggemann mentions the irreducible otherness of God'. Meaning, God supersedes and defies a formulation, domestication, and morality in pathos/power. God then becomes through holiness, a multifaceted topic of scriptural discourse. Is then that the Old Testament…… [Read More]
.....prophets influence the monarchs?
By deriving their power from divinity, prophets possessed an incredible amount of credibility and influence. They provided a divine foundation of power for monarchs, and could influence the policies of monarchs because of their prophetic power. Prophets were "closely connected with kings," part of the "royal establishment," (Coogan, 2011, p. 301).
Historically, the period of prophecy roughly overlaps the period during which the ancient monarchies arose (Coogan, 2011, p. 301). The two phenomena are therefore linked. In fact, it was not until the establishment of the monarchy that prophets started to feature prominently in the Biblical narrative. This shows the close connection between religious and political power in ancient times, as well as the direct ways prophets could influence the reputation of monarchs and the decisions that those monarchs might make. Prophets continued to influence monarchs by claiming to know the word and will of God.…… [Read More]
McDonald's New Challenges
A look at how socio-culture trends such as obesity will require that McDonald's breaks from standardization on a grand scale
(Fitness Mantra, 2007)
Influence of Culture and Demographics
McDonald's is the multi-national company (MNC) that has worked to break through internal barriers on a global scale. McDonald's has been at the forefront in new market expansion and the organization has now covered nearly every market on the globe (Lafontaine & Leibsohn, 2004). Despite the global coverage of operations, McDonald's has excelled in keeping its menu virtually the same. Although some room is given in terms of flexibility to incorporate items from the local culture, a Big Mac made in the U.S. tastes much like one prepared in China. This strategy has offered McDonald's a great deal of standardization through quantities of scale in different markets composed of many varieties of demographic and cultural…… [Read More]
Testaments to Truth
Roman Catholicism and Mormonism Compared
There are many varieties of Christianity, some of them very old, and some of them of quite recent origin. The Roman Catholic Church boasts an uninterrupted existence of two thousand years. Its hierarchy, and its beliefs, have adapted to changed conditions. Yet truth is not so easily discovered. Rome may have purified her Church during the Counter Reformation, but not all were satisfied. The Protestant Churches of estern Europe spawned an even greater number of sects in the New orld. Some of these creeds held beliefs similar to those of the Roman Catholic Church, while others developed in remarkably different ways. In mid-Nineteenth Century New York, Joseph Smith was privileged to receive an entirely new Revelation. This Book of Mormon was at odds with the teachings of virtually all other Christian denominations. The followers of this brand new Church of Jesus Christ…… [Read More]
Wisdom and Woman in the Old Testament
Women and Wisdom in the Old Testament
In recent years, scholars and Bible commentators have analyzed extensively the way in which women are portrayed in the Old Testament. The matter has also been the focus of many feminist studies that research the role of the women in the patriarchal Israelite society. However, in spite of the fact that there are indeed many instances of harsh treatment of women in the Old Testament, as their social roles were constrained by many serious restrictions, there are also a few cases where women are associated with divine wisdom and understanding. For example, in Proverbs, wisdom is personified as a feminine figure that directs the believers towards true understanding and godly illumination. Likewise, in Judges 4 and 5, Deborah is described as both a judge of Israel and as the leader of the army, whereas Jael, another…… [Read More]
The advent of the First World War brought with it the stark reality of the 'progress' which modern man had made. Mankind found out that despite the eloquence of the enlightenment, and the wonderful advancements made in medicine, education, literature, and the arts that man could still take up arms against his brother, and fight hand to hand if necessary in order to gain a foot of ground, or in retaliation for yesterday's loss of a comrade. The First World War plunged the entire western world into a deep pit, governed by the engines of war, empowered by the newly mechanized assembly line manufacturing of the industrial revolution. Fro all his advancement, and enlightenment, mankind was still closely related to the Romans who burned and conquered peopled under their iron fist, and the Huns where known to destroy everything in their path. Civilized, and enlightened, we still were…… [Read More]
" (Fletcher in Gogeometry Website, 2008). The trail to Machu Picchu is known as one of the best trekking sites in the world, particularly for its landscapes that showcase the remnants of its historic past as well as its diverse ecology (ibid).
Mexico's Chichen Itza also showcases its nation's rich, historical past in the same way the Machu Picchu does. Chichen Itza, roughly translated as "at the mouth of the well of the Itza," is considered as a political, commercial, and religious center of the ancient Mayan tribe in Mexico. In this city, one can locate the Temple of Kulkulan (Feathered Serpent), the Observatory, an astronomical observatory, and Temple of the Warriors and the Sacred Cenote (Well of Sacrifice). These structures have religious and scientific significance for the Mayan culture (ibid.).
Not too far from Mexico, we can find Brazil's huge Christ edeemer structure. "Christ the edeemer is a large…… [Read More]
In Genesis 2, God rested on the seventh day. Then, in Genesis 2, God creates the first man and the first woman. God created "a garden eastward in Eden" (Genesis 2:8, p. 58), where he put the first man he had formed (Adam). Then God created "every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil" (2:9, p. 58). God made a river to water the garden, and the river had four heads: Pison; Gihon; Hiddekel; and Euphrates. Then God said "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him" (2:18. p. 58). God then sent Adam into a deep sleep, and as he slept, formed a woman (Eve) from Adam's rib to be his companion in the…… [Read More]
The Jews, of course, were as antagonistic to hearing Stephen preach the life of Christ as they were to Christ Himself -- ho is the way of salvation, and hom they have rejected. Stephen's speech is fiery and full of love and fury -- love for Christ, fury for the Jews who rejected Him: "You stiff-necked people! Your hearts and ears are still uncircumcised." (Here Stephen as much as says, "You are not real Jews. Real Jews would have recognized their Redeemer.) "You are just like your ancestors: You always resist the Holy Spirit!" The reaction of the Jews is to stone Stephen to death. Stephen accepts his martyrdom and dies as Christ died, with a prayer for his persecutors -- and out of that prayer comes (through the mercy of God) the conversion of St. Paul.
In conclusion, "we may say that perseverance as a Christian is the only…… [Read More]
Christian Church acknowledges its missionary function as truly the core of Christianity, the heart of the Church. Through Christ's teachings, mission is the foreground of His legacy to the Church, the instrument for redemption. The guiding principles at the basis of the Church's mission exist as transparently related by the ible which in itself transcends all worldly knowledge and phenomena. God, as the Holy Trinity, reveals Himself through the biblical record in order to communicate with man candidly and openly, sends His only son into the world in order to claim Him back to the offspring of wholeness, and puts forth a missionary pattern for His followers: "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another." (John 13:34, 15:17 King James ible) "And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the…… [Read More]
The four gospel books in the New Testament are the principal foundation of the information regarding the life of Jesus. These books include Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The four books tell the story of the life of Jesus, but from different perspectives. Christian faith depends on the four gospel books that narrate the historical life of Jesus. As a result, if the provisions in these four books are a correct historical account of Jesus, then the faith of Christians is practical. Moreover, if indeed Jesus rose on the third day from the departed, the claim that Jesus is the Son of God is rational. If the claim that Jesus taught the people many things highlighted in the four gospel books, then believing in Him is the only means through which Christians can have everlasting life. Although the gospel books particularly Matthew, Mark and Luke demonstrate the synoptic problem,…… [Read More]
The literal meaning of the word is the place for the dead. Literal meaning of both words is the grave. This can be confirmed with a comparison of the Old Testament and the New Testament (West 34). For instance, it has been mentioned in the Psalms 6.10;
"For You, will not leave my soul in Sheol, nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption." This verse has been referred in Acts 2.27 by the apostle Paul saying that the verse talks about Jesus Christ.
If the Old Testament is taken into account there are many who have highlighted that there is no mentioning of hell to the Israel by the God. There is no place in the Old Testament where God has said to the Israel that if they follow the teachings of the God, they will see and remain in heaven and if otherwise, they will seek…… [Read More]
Typology in Christianity
The author of this report is reviewing typology in Christianity with a strong focus on a few particular dimensions. Typology, for the purposes of Christianity, is the translation and transition between the Old Testament and New Testament. Indeed, the different faiths that center on the traditional Christian God usually (but not always) rely on the ible, or at least part of it, with some sects focusing mainly or solely on the Old Testament while other sects or groups do the same thing with the New Testament. Obviously, since both Testaments are part of the same Holy ible, it is important to look into how they are connected and how that connection, and the church itself, has evolved over the years. A focus on how typology was done, different groups that engaged in it like the Alexandrin school and the overall history from the time of the Apostles,…… [Read More]
However, Pharaoh's heart was heartened and he refused. ecause of this, Aaron was instructed to lay down the rod in front of the Pharaoh and it became a snake. The pharaoh then ordered his sorcerers to throw down their rods and they also became snakes but Aarons snake ate the other snakes and the Pharaoh's heart was hardened and he would not release the children of Israel. Then the Lord turn to River into blood and there was no water for seven days.
Pharaoh's heart continued to be hardened and several other plagues followed. According to the Old Testament these plagues included frogs, flies, lice, the death of cattle, boils, hail, locust, the plague of darkness. Finally, the Lord killed the entire first born of Egypt. He instructed the people of Israel to cover their doors with the sacrificial blood of a lamb so that death would pass over them.…… [Read More]
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]
" Further, as previously stated, in the Jewish tradition, it is believed that the Messiah (whom Christians believe is Jesus), must be a descendent of David's line.
The New Testament in fact introduces Jesus as the son of David and of Abraham (Mt. 1:1). Further, in the Gospel of Luke, he describes how Mary, the mother of Jesus, was descended from King David through one of his sons, Nathan. This leads contemporary Christians to believe that Jesus is the prophesied messiah, as well as the rightful king of Israel.
It is interesting that Jesus, despite the fact of David's obviously sinful nature, follows him in matters of conduct. Indeed, the reader notes that Christ used the actions of the pre-descent David as justification for his own (Luke 6:1-5) concerning the eating of wheat from the fields on the Sabbath. (McCall, 1999). However, even more interesting than David's use as a…… [Read More]
Historicity of Acts
For centuries, the historicity of the book of the Acts has been questioned and criticized, prompting historians to label it "the storm center of modern New Testament study." Many scholars have suggested that the Acts were written as a means of religious propaganda, rendering the work historically unreliable. Others view the Acts as a blend of historical facts and unhistorical traditions.
While the argument continues in present time, the book of Acts has withstood the test of time, holding its ground as an accurate and reliable historical work, particularly as a result of many recent archaeological findings.
An unknown pastor once described his unquestioning faith in Jesus Christ by saying: "Even if some archeologists were to find the bones of Jesus tomorrow, I would still believe in Jesus Christ as my Savior and Lord!" While faith draws its life and strength from a place far beyond history,…… [Read More]
Jesus' Testimony to the Pharisees in John 8:58
The Gospel of John reveals a number of "I AM" assertions made by Jesus Christ. They are bold declarations through which Christ makes a powerful point, namely that he IS divine. However, the language that Jesus uses also conveys a message about the mystery of His Person. He uses words and formulas that are deeply meaningful for the Hebrews to whom He speaks. "I AM" after all is more than a mere subject followed by a predicate. It is the name of God as He called Himself when He spoke it to Moses in the Old Testament. Therefore when Jesus says to the Jews, "efore Abraham was, I AM" (John 8:58), he is deliberately equating Himself with the God of the Old Testament by using the language of that God.
At its most basic level, Jesus' "I AM" assertion in John 8:58…… [Read More]
Living in the palace as a prince was no doubt an indulgent experience, and likely contributed to the temper that Moses was so famous for. As an infant, he is the very image of innocence and hope, just like the baby Jesus. But as his life went on, his character became much more complex. The first story form the Old Testament that clearly illustrates Moses' inability to contain his temper comes in the second chapter of the book of Exodus: "He saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his own people. Glancing this way and that and seeing no one, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand" (Exodus 2:11-12). This episode is especially telling because it does not show simply a rash display of temper -- Moses takes the time to make sure no one will witness his actions before he kills the Egyptian. He is…… [Read More]
Gnostics believed that they belonged to the "true church" of an elect few who were worthy; the orthodox Christians would not be saved because they were blind to the truth.
Part E -- Content - if we then combine the historical outline of the "reason" for John's writings with the overall message, we can conclude that there are at least five major paradigms present that are important in a contextual analysis of John.
John 5:13 - I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. This seems to point that John saw a clear difference between those who believed in Jesus as the Son of God, but were unsure about eternal life. However, if we look back at other parts of his Gospel, we do find repetition of this theme. In John 1:5-7,…… [Read More]
That must be obvious by now."
How ironic it is that the director and the lawyer talk so condenscendingly to Cincinnatus, in the same manner that Christ is talked to by the Pharasees and the Saducees.
The entire first part of the story lends an air of similarity to the New Testament that is undeniable.
Using it as a foreground for the remainder of the story enhanced the overall veracity of such a narrative. To read the allusions made to the life of Christ and at the same time to the life of Cincinnatus was an intriguing ploy by Vladimir that allowed the reader to both explore and understand the methodology of which he was using to present the story.
Further references and allusions throughout the story are as evident as the ones written about above. One of the easiest to discern came towards the last of the book when…… [Read More]
Bible: Canonical Developments
Canonicity is a term used to describe the "sacred books distinguished and honored as belonging to God's inspired word" (Keathley, 2013). This particular term has, since the fourth century, been applied to the books of the Bible. Conservative Christians and Jews today recognize the 39 Old Testament books as inspired; the oman Catholics, 88 (because of the semi-canonical apocrypha), and the Evangelical Protestants, the 27 New Testament books (Keathley, 2013). These were, however, not the only books written during the NT and OT periods. A number of questions, therefore, arise; what criterion was used in determining whether or not to include a book in the Bible? Why should Christians today trust these books as reliable, considering the massive changes the world has undergone since their inception? This text provides answers to these questions.
Historical Evidence of the Books that Make up Both the Old and New Testament…… [Read More]
Julius Scott Jr.'s work of literature Jewish ackgrounds of the New Testament, is quite fascinating. The manuscript is well researched and dedicated to a number of crucial events that influenced the form of practice of both Christianity and Judaism. The author incorporates a variety of sources, both traditional and otherwise, in an attempt to reconstruct some of the critical elements in the intertestamental period that greatly influenced both of these religions for posterity. In order to better identify the central theme of this book and the author's intention in writing it, it is necessary to begin with background information about him and the scope of focus of the book to ultimately determine whether or not he has achieved his purpose with this work.
One of the most salient facets about the background of Scott Jr. is the fact that he is a Christian. The author is an emeritus professor at…… [Read More]
The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?
Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.
If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.
The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.
Catullus ends up calling his lady…… [Read More]
hat does this passage say about the relationship with God?
Robert Imperato observes that "Matthew connects Jesus repeatedly to Jewish prophecy throughout the text" (17). The point he emphasizes, however, is that the Jews had a special relationship to God, through the Mosaic covenant contained in the Old Testament.
Yet, Jesus makes it clear, according to Imperato, that He is giving "a new interpretation of the Law" (17). In fact, Jesus is fulfilling the Old Testament prophecies, identifying Himself as the Son of God, and the Messiah in whom the prophets must place their trust if they seek salvation.
Therefore, Christ sets out the guidelines for the new relationship with the Lord that all must have who do indeed wish to cry out, "Lord, Lord." The Lord, through Christ, is showing that the way to salvation is not through legalism, or through adherence only to the Old Law,…… [Read More]
Mel Gibson's film, "The Passion of the Christ," has evoked a number of different responses from viewers and critics. It appears that, like the topic of religion itself, the one certain thing is that it is impossible to remain untouched after seeing the film. Perhaps then a study of the scholarly and cultural ramifications of Gibson's work would be profitable. First then, the impact of the film on New Testament studies will be considered, after which the general cultural ramifications of the film will be considered.
Impact on New Testament Studies
Any film concerning Christ's passion is a combination of the four Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Gibson's film is no exception, yet there are some points of emphasis in this particular work that may impact New Testament studies significantly. The first of these is the emphasis on the Jewish nation as sinners, rejecters of Christ and…… [Read More]
Doctrine of the Holy Trinity
The Doctrine of the Trinity and Anti-Trinitarian Theologies:
Servetus, Milton, Newton
The Doctrine of the Trinity
The Arian Heresy
Anti-Trinitarianism Part I: Michael Servetus
Anti-Trinitarianism Part II: John Milton
Sir Isaac Newton
The Arian heresy -- or rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity -- is actually relatively uncommon among contemporary Christian denominations; to pick one particular national example, Post-Reformation England would tolerate a broad array of theological stances -- from the dour Calvinism of the early Puritans to the sunnier Arminianism of the esleyan Methodists -- but more or less drew the line at anti-Trinitarianism. Yet it is remarkable that some of England's greatest intellectuals -- including the epic poet John Milton and the father of modern physics Sir Isaac Newton -- would secretly author theological works reviving the old heresy of Arius in order to disprove the Christian doctrine of the…… [Read More]