New Testament Essays (Examples)

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Religion Desilva David 2001 New

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54243867

The value of discipleship stresses the cohesion between the events of the past and the present, a fundamental tenant of psychotherapy. Discipleship also implies a mediation between God and his agents on earth, and the therapist always functions as a mediator between God's grace and earth. Community is also an important tenant of modern therapy, namely that no psychologically healthy human being is a spiritual and social island. Everyone needs social resources to fall back on, such as the church and the family. In particular for Christian counselors, the family often comes to the forefront as part of the patient's community as well as the church community. And apocalypticism focuses on the future and the patient's hopes and plans, over the course of the inner and outer changes weathered during the counseling relationship.

These four important challenges or concepts offered by the book for effective Christian counseling thus form a…… [Read More]

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Messiah in Old Testament the

Words: 7201 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66222637

In Genesis 3:15, God said, "I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring. He will bruise your head, and you will bruise his heel." According to some biblical experts, this is an oblique reference to the coming of Messiah.

This is taken by many as one of the earliest Messianic prophecies describing Satan's brief victory over the Messiah and the Messiah's ultimate victory over Satan. It is mentioned here because the offspring (Messiah) is described as being of the woman (Eve). This is extraordinary as the nation of Israel has always been patriarchal; people are mentioned in terms of their fathers, not their mothers. Because of this, many see this verse as also being a prophecy of Messiah's birth through a virgin

Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus)

The Book of Genesis also makes reference to the importance of the lineage or the heritage…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander B. On the threshold of the New Millennium. 30 Dec. 2006. ;d=96960198" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Christ's Use of the Old Testament

Words: 2945 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31664126

Christian religion, the Old and New Testaments form a whole upon which its belief system is based. The transition between the Old and New Testaments resides in the person of Christ, who came to earth as the fulfillment of the Old Testament Messianic prophesy.

This transition then occurs not only through the ultimate sacrifice of Christ at his death and resurrection, but also in his ministry during his lifetime. Christ uses the Old Testament in various ways in order both to establish the new order of the New Testament, but also to validate the authority of the Old.

As the son of God, Christ shows his relationship to the Father through his respect for the validity and authority of the Old Testament. He does this in various ways, of which one is his acceptance of the history of the Old Testament. Jesus refers to various persons of the Old Testament,…… [Read More]


France, R.T. Jesus and the Old Testament: His application of Old Testament passages to Himself and His mission. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1982

Holmgren, Frederic C. The Old Testament and the significance of Jesus: embracing change -- maintaining Christian identity: the emerging center in biblical scholarship. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans Publishers, 1999.

Smith, Barry D. "The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament." Atlantic Baptist University, 2005.

Sper, David. "Jesus Christ and the Old Testament." RBC Ministries, 1990.
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Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament

Words: 2254 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38383828

Jesus through the Old Testament

Christopher J.H. Wright's Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament is a book written to connect the two halves of scripture, in a way that helps Christians better understand that "…it is Jesus that gives meaning and validity to the events of Israel's Old Testament history."[footnoteRef:0] Wright is an Old Testament scholar -- an Ulsterman whose own parents had been Presbyterian missionaries in razil, although he would convert and become ordained in the Anglican church, and now resides in London where he directs an international ministry. His academic background is in historical study of the Old Testament, and his first full-length book was a study of economic ethics in the Old Testament. (He confesses endearingly, but unnecessarily, in the present work that he feels much less at ease with the New Testament as a scholar.) Knowing Jesus through the Old Testament is his second work, first…… [Read More]


Alexander, Paul. "Book Review: Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament." IX Marks,,,PTID314526_CHID598026_CIID2438290,00.html  (accessed 15 April 2011).

David Murray, "Jesus never read the New Testament." The Gospel Coalition,  / (accessed 15 April 2011).

O'Collins, Gerald and Jones, Michael Keenan. Jesus Our Preist: A Christian Approach to the Priesthood of Christ. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Wright, Christopher J.H. 1992. Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press.
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Canaanites in the Old Testament

Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78196238

We cannot look at what happened to the Canaanites as cruelty against a race because what God was dealing with was not a race of people, but rather, he was dealing with evil people (independent of race).

Wright doesn't spiritualize Israel's Conquest of Canaan because he believes that there is a difference between any kind of violent acts that appear to be arbitrary -- like the conquest of the Canaanites, which also appeared to him as selfish -- and an act that appears to be the consequence or punishment because of an act. Wright likens it to a parent smacking their child for no good reason as compared to a person who enacts a punishment because of disobedient behavior.

What is interesting is Wright's first framework, which refers to the conquest of Canaan as being merely an act of God (p. 90) as opposed to a war of some sort.…… [Read More]

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Health in the Old Testament

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69447435

The healing of Hezekiah in 2 Kings 20:1-11 explains that God can provide proper treatment for terminal illnesses and add years to life, but the necessity is to heal your inner self, your soul, which is in your hand. ("The biblical basis of healing in Old Testament," n. d.)

The idea is considered to be very true. Anxiety, distress and tension because of bad habits, irrational ways of living and improper routine practices often brings up the illnesses in a healthy body. By healing one's inner self and practicing meditation and patience, one can improve their inner health that provides strength to improve the physical health. This strength works as perfect aid for the outside healing process assisted by doctors and physicians.


Siegel, Bernie. (1990) "Love, Medicine and Miracles: Lessons Learned about Self-

Healing from a Surgeon' Experience with Exceptional Patients," Harper Paperbacks.

John ev. (2009) "The Currency of…… [Read More]


Siegel, Bernie. (1990) "Love, Medicine and Miracles: Lessons Learned about Self-

Healing from a Surgeon' Experience with Exceptional Patients," Harper Paperbacks.

John Rev. (2009) "The Currency of Healing: Old Testament' & 'The Currency of Healing: New Testament" Retrieved 21 July 2010 from

N.A. (n. d.) "The biblical basis of healing in Old Testament" Retrieved 21 July 2010
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A Christ Centric Approach to the Old Testament

Words: 3226 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46048060

Greidanus' Preaching Christ from the Old Testament and Merrill's Everlasting Dominion: A Theology of the Old Testament may be compared and contrasted on the grounds that both approach the Old Testament Scriptures, though each does it a different and unique way. Greidanus' method of examining the Old Testament is to approach it from the perspective of the New Testament -- namely, to show how Christ is evident all throughout the Old Testament Scriptures and why and how the latter link directly to the coming of the former. Specifically, Greidanus' objective in his book is to show that Christ is the fulfillment of the Old Testament. Merrill, on the other hand, takes a much more immersive approach to Old Testament and examines it thoroughly and in great detail, looking at everything from the creation of man to the fall to the prophets, the kings, the covenants and the commandments. It is,…… [Read More]


Greidanus, Sidney. Preaching Christ from the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI:

William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999.

Merrill, Eugene. Everlasting Dominion. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman

Publishers, 2004.
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Jesus Through the Old Testament

Words: 1810 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66968719

He considers that one would be an ignorant if he were to declare himself a true Christian without being acquainted with parts of the Old Testament.

It would be wrong if someone were to interpret the Old Testament on the basis of the information in the New Testament. This would mean that the New Testament is the perfect interpretation of the Old Testament. However, the truth is that the more recent text is only one of the interpretations that people can make when relating to the Old Testament, thus meaning that the older document can be interpreted in a series of ways, each being different from the other. The New Testament is however one of the most accurate interpretations made by people with regard to the Old Testament.

Similar to how the information in the New Testament offers little to no occasions to be fought, right's book contains numerous solid…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Pickup, Martin. "New Testament Interpretation of the Old Testament: the Theological Rationale of Midrashic Exegesis," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 51.2 (2008).

2. Wright, Christopher J.H. Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament. (Lion Hudson PLC, 2005).

Martin Pickup, "New Testament Interpretation of the Old Testament: the Theological Rationale of Midrashic Exegesis," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 51.2 (2008).

Martin Pickup, "New Testament Interpretation of the Old Testament: the Theological Rationale of Midrashic Exegesis," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 51.2 (2008).
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John Shelby Spong New Christianity

Words: 3631 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43418183

As Spong has closed his career as a formal minister, retiring from the bishop position in 2000 have has become even more controversial than ever before:

Spong believes in a transcending reality at "the very heart of life" that presses toward life and wholeness. He describes God as the "Ground of Being" and "universal presence" that undergirds all life and is present in all that is. He regards heaven as a symbol standing for "the limitlessness of Being itself," describes Jesus as "a God presence" whose burning awareness of God made him a doorway to divine reality, and believes that the divine source of life calls human beings to live fully, love wastefully, and have the courage to be. Spong describes his project in classic liberal terms -- walking the "razor's edge between orthodox overbelief and losing the 'Christ experience'..."I do so not because I reject the church, but because…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments: Revised Standard Version. Rev. ed. Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1952.

The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments: King James Version. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1984.

Bakker, Jay. & Brown, Marc. "What the hell happened to Christianity?"

December 18, 2006 at
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Sacramental Life in the New

Words: 1723 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53696115

The Pope and the leadership guide us in our interpretation of scripture and tradition.

As stated previously, Roman Catholicism is truly a lifetime experience. From cradle to grave, Holy Baptism to the Anointing of the Sick, we are surrounded by these life giving and soul building acts and rarely appreciate them fully. This investigation has not only, truly deepened the author's knowledge of the sacraments by choosing Holy Eucharist, Baptism and Penance. They are an organic whole that represent the totality of our lives and with the spread of the Church's doctrines will hopefully encompass humanity as a whole.

orks Cited

Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from

Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from

Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from

Knox, James, & right, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from 

Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from

Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from

Knox, James, & Wright, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved from
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New Start as a Theme

Words: 2430 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41620170

Thus, the term "a new start" came to embody a lofty ideal and it was considered to be more important from the simple fact that the respective period in history dealt with the particular issues addressed by people such as Thomas Paine. For instance, he tried, through his writing to give a new incentive for the people fighting for the independence from Britain and from this point-of-view he is remembered as an important figure of the era (Philip, 2005).

Without a doubt there are periods in history that are dominated by certain interpretations of the notion of "a new start." This is precisely due to the fact that the American literature, it its attempt to escape the influence and the stereotypes of the British creations, have searched for new sources of inspiration. In this sense, while in the British Isles the romantic view of the world was still predominant, in…… [Read More]


Funston, Judith E. (1990) "Authority, Autonomy, and Representation in American Literature, 1776-1865." By Mark R. Patterson. Review. The Journal of American History, Vol. 77, No. 2., pp. 650-651.

Kwok, Gordon. (2001) Civil War Poetry. 13 Feb 2008. 

Larkin, Edward. (2008). Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge University Press.

Outline of American Literature. (2006). Democratic Origins and Revolutionary Writers, 1776-1820. USINFO.STATE.GUV website. 13 Feb 2008.
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Pauline Epistles Q

Words: 1341 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94804706

New Testament

What city is central to the development of Acts? How so?

Besides Jerusalem, the city most central to the development of Acts is probably Antioch. Acts chapter 11 narrates the founding of the church at Antioch, and in 11:26 the word "Christians" is used for the first time in the New Testament -- this is where the disciples were first called "Christians."

What are the "we passages "u in Acts?

In five separate sections of the book of Acts -- each reporting the missionary journeys of Paul -- the author suddenly shifts into the first person plural, as though to indicate the author of Acts was a traveling companion of Paul in the journey described. The "we passages" are Acts 16:10-17; 20:5-15; 21:1-18; and the openings of chapters 27 and 28. The significance is that the author of the book appears to have had first-hand personal knowledge of…… [Read More]

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Necessity of the Old Testament

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76196491

God of the Old Testament is one that must not disappear from the minds of those that embrace the Christian faith. Brueggemann notes, "The Old Testament is indispensable...because it is a peculiar witness to elusive, irascible, multilayered, multivoiced holiness that can affect agency in the world" (Brueggemann, 2015, p. 263). It is in the Old Testament that God shows His presence not just in the sense of the beginning, but also the end. Brueggemann mentions this inhabiting God as a keeper of the world as well as people's pretensions, penultimate and open, helping believers resist deadly idolatries that come packaged in the guise of something precious.

With regards to Holiness or the term 'holiness' Brueggemann mentions the irreducible otherness of God'. Meaning, God supersedes and defies a formulation, domestication, and morality in pathos/power. God then becomes through holiness, a multifaceted topic of scriptural discourse. Is then that the Old Testament…… [Read More]

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history of old testament prophets and kings

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38348465

.....prophets influence the monarchs?

By deriving their power from divinity, prophets possessed an incredible amount of credibility and influence. They provided a divine foundation of power for monarchs, and could influence the policies of monarchs because of their prophetic power. Prophets were "closely connected with kings," part of the "royal establishment," (Coogan, 2011, p. 301).

Historically, the period of prophecy roughly overlaps the period during which the ancient monarchies arose (Coogan, 2011, p. 301). The two phenomena are therefore linked. In fact, it was not until the establishment of the monarchy that prophets started to feature prominently in the Biblical narrative. This shows the close connection between religious and political power in ancient times, as well as the direct ways prophets could influence the reputation of monarchs and the decisions that those monarchs might make. Prophets continued to influence monarchs by claiming to know the word and will of God.…… [Read More]

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Mcdonald's New Challenges a Look at How

Words: 1999 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5207822

McDonald's New Challenges

A look at how socio-culture trends such as obesity will require that McDonald's breaks from standardization on a grand scale

(Fitness Mantra, 2007)

Industry Overview

Influence of Culture and Demographics

Supporting ork

McDonald's is the multi-national company (MNC) that has worked to break through internal barriers on a global scale. McDonald's has been at the forefront in new market expansion and the organization has now covered nearly every market on the globe (Lafontaine & Leibsohn, 2004). Despite the global coverage of operations, McDonald's has excelled in keeping its menu virtually the same. Although some room is given in terms of flexibility to incorporate items from the local culture, a Big Mac made in the U.S. tastes much like one prepared in China. This strategy has offered McDonald's a great deal of standardization through quantities of scale in different markets composed of many varieties of demographic and cultural…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Faulkner, D., 2004. Strategy: critical perspectives on business and management. 1st ed. London: Routledge.

Fitness Mantra, 2007. FitnessMantra Weekend: The McDonald's Effect On Children's Taste. [Online]

Available at:  / [Accessed 13 July 2012].

Franchise Direct, 2010. Industry Trends. [Online]
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Catholicism and Mormonism Comparison

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14220948

Testaments to Truth

Roman Catholicism and Mormonism Compared

There are many varieties of Christianity, some of them very old, and some of them of quite recent origin. The Roman Catholic Church boasts an uninterrupted existence of two thousand years. Its hierarchy, and its beliefs, have adapted to changed conditions. Yet truth is not so easily discovered. Rome may have purified her Church during the Counter Reformation, but not all were satisfied. The Protestant Churches of estern Europe spawned an even greater number of sects in the New orld. Some of these creeds held beliefs similar to those of the Roman Catholic Church, while others developed in remarkably different ways. In mid-Nineteenth Century New York, Joseph Smith was privileged to receive an entirely new Revelation. This Book of Mormon was at odds with the teachings of virtually all other Christian denominations. The followers of this brand new Church of Jesus Christ…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barlow, Philip L. Mormons and the Bible: The Place of the Latter-Day Saints in American Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Coates, James. In Mormon Circles: Gentiles, Jack Mormons, and Latter-Day Saints. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991.

Guelzo, Allen C. For the Union of Evangelical Christendom: The Irony of the Reformed Episcopalians. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994.

Posner, Richard A. Sex and Reason. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.
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Eisdom and Woman in the Old Testament

Words: 2738 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23021692

Wisdom and Woman in the Old Testament

Women and Wisdom in the Old Testament

In recent years, scholars and Bible commentators have analyzed extensively the way in which women are portrayed in the Old Testament. The matter has also been the focus of many feminist studies that research the role of the women in the patriarchal Israelite society. However, in spite of the fact that there are indeed many instances of harsh treatment of women in the Old Testament, as their social roles were constrained by many serious restrictions, there are also a few cases where women are associated with divine wisdom and understanding. For example, in Proverbs, wisdom is personified as a feminine figure that directs the believers towards true understanding and godly illumination. Likewise, in Judges 4 and 5, Deborah is described as both a judge of Israel and as the leader of the army, whereas Jael, another…… [Read More]


The Bible. King James Version,

Bach, Alice.1999, Women in the Hebrew Bible: A Reader. New York: Bantam House.

Crenskaw, James L. 2000, Old Testament Wisdom: An Introduction. New York: John Knox Press.

Mandell, Sara. "King David with the Wise Woman of Tekoa: The Resonance of Tradition in Parabolic Narrative. Book Review." Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 118, No. 2, p. 344-346
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Vera Britain Testament of Youth

Words: 1584 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61539295

Vera rittain

The advent of the First World War brought with it the stark reality of the 'progress' which modern man had made. Mankind found out that despite the eloquence of the enlightenment, and the wonderful advancements made in medicine, education, literature, and the arts that man could still take up arms against his brother, and fight hand to hand if necessary in order to gain a foot of ground, or in retaliation for yesterday's loss of a comrade. The First World War plunged the entire western world into a deep pit, governed by the engines of war, empowered by the newly mechanized assembly line manufacturing of the industrial revolution. Fro all his advancement, and enlightenment, mankind was still closely related to the Romans who burned and conquered peopled under their iron fist, and the Huns where known to destroy everything in their path. Civilized, and enlightened, we still were…… [Read More]


DAYS LIKE THESE 19 MAY 1941. The Independent London, England. 5/19/2003

Brittain, Vera. Testament of Youth. New York: Penguin Books. 1994
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Speech on the New 7

Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69895634

" (Fletcher in Gogeometry Website, 2008). The trail to Machu Picchu is known as one of the best trekking sites in the world, particularly for its landscapes that showcase the remnants of its historic past as well as its diverse ecology (ibid).

Mexico's Chichen Itza also showcases its nation's rich, historical past in the same way the Machu Picchu does. Chichen Itza, roughly translated as "at the mouth of the well of the Itza," is considered as a political, commercial, and religious center of the ancient Mayan tribe in Mexico. In this city, one can locate the Temple of Kulkulan (Feathered Serpent), the Observatory, an astronomical observatory, and Temple of the Warriors and the Sacred Cenote (Well of Sacrifice). These structures have religious and scientific significance for the Mayan culture (ibid.).

Not too far from Mexico, we can find Brazil's huge Christ edeemer structure. "Christ the edeemer is a large…… [Read More]


Garrison, L. (n.d.). Petra - Lost City in Jordan and One of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Retrieved at  Nov. 12, 2008.

Gogeometry Website. (2007). New 7 Wonders. Retrieved at . On Nov. 12, 2008.

Seven Wonders of the World Website (2007). The World Has Voted for the New 7 Wonders! Retrieved at  Nov. 12, 2008.

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Genesis The Old Testament Chapters

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21558912

In Genesis 2, God rested on the seventh day. Then, in Genesis 2, God creates the first man and the first woman. God created "a garden eastward in Eden" (Genesis 2:8, p. 58), where he put the first man he had formed (Adam). Then God created "every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil" (2:9, p. 58). God made a river to water the garden, and the river had four heads: Pison; Gihon; Hiddekel; and Euphrates. Then God said "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him" (2:18. p. 58). God then sent Adam into a deep sleep, and as he slept, formed a woman (Eve) from Adam's rib to be his companion in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Genesis 1-2. The Old Testament. In the Norton Anthology of World Literature, Beginnings to a.D. 100, Vol. A (Pkg. 1). Sarah Lawall et al. (Ed.). New York: Norton, 2002. 56-58.
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Passover Theme an Analysis of

Words: 1846 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23219052

The Jews, of course, were as antagonistic to hearing Stephen preach the life of Christ as they were to Christ Himself -- ho is the way of salvation, and hom they have rejected. Stephen's speech is fiery and full of love and fury -- love for Christ, fury for the Jews who rejected Him: "You stiff-necked people! Your hearts and ears are still uncircumcised." (Here Stephen as much as says, "You are not real Jews. Real Jews would have recognized their Redeemer.) "You are just like your ancestors: You always resist the Holy Spirit!" The reaction of the Jews is to stone Stephen to death. Stephen accepts his martyrdom and dies as Christ died, with a prayer for his persecutors -- and out of that prayer comes (through the mercy of God) the conversion of St. Paul.

In conclusion, "we may say that perseverance as a Christian is the only…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fitzmyer, Joseph. The Gospel According to Luke (I-IX), vol. 28. Garden City, NY:

Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1981. Print.

Hamm, Dennis. "Are the Gospel Passion Accounts Anti-Jewish?" Journal of Religion

and Film vol. 8, no. 1 (Feb, 2004). Print.
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Biblical Mission

Words: 2633 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36875123

Christian Church acknowledges its missionary function as truly the core of Christianity, the heart of the Church. Through Christ's teachings, mission is the foreground of His legacy to the Church, the instrument for redemption. The guiding principles at the basis of the Church's mission exist as transparently related by the ible which in itself transcends all worldly knowledge and phenomena. God, as the Holy Trinity, reveals Himself through the biblical record in order to communicate with man candidly and openly, sends His only son into the world in order to claim Him back to the offspring of wholeness, and puts forth a missionary pattern for His followers: "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another." (John 13:34, 15:17 King James ible) "And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the…… [Read More]


Abraham, William, James. The Logic of Evangelism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1989.

Blauw, Johannes. The Missionary Nature of the Church. New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill Company Inc., 1974.

Bosch, David, C. Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission. New York: Orbis Books, 1991.

Flett, John, G. The Witness of God: The Trinity, Missio Dei, Karl Barth, and the Nature of Christian Community. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2000.
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Jesus the Four Gospel Books in the

Words: 2001 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15921227


The four gospel books in the New Testament are the principal foundation of the information regarding the life of Jesus. These books include Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The four books tell the story of the life of Jesus, but from different perspectives. Christian faith depends on the four gospel books that narrate the historical life of Jesus. As a result, if the provisions in these four books are a correct historical account of Jesus, then the faith of Christians is practical. Moreover, if indeed Jesus rose on the third day from the departed, the claim that Jesus is the Son of God is rational. If the claim that Jesus taught the people many things highlighted in the four gospel books, then believing in Him is the only means through which Christians can have everlasting life. Although the gospel books particularly Matthew, Mark and Luke demonstrate the synoptic problem,…… [Read More]

References List

Bible Society in Australia Staff 2008. Holy Bible: New international version. Australia: Bible Society in Australia Incorporated.

Donahue, J., & Harrington, S.J 2002. The Gospel of Mark: Texas: Liturgical Press.

Dunn, J 1985. The evidence of Jesus. Westminster: Westminster John Knox Press.

Green, J., Turner, M 1999. Jesus of Nazareth: Lord and Christ: Essays on the historical Jesus and the New Testament Christology. New York: Wipf & Stock Pub.
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Heaven and Hell Really Exist

Words: 2045 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70605985

The literal meaning of the word is the place for the dead. Literal meaning of both words is the grave. This can be confirmed with a comparison of the Old Testament and the New Testament (West 34). For instance, it has been mentioned in the Psalms 6.10;

"For You, will not leave my soul in Sheol, nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption." This verse has been referred in Acts 2.27 by the apostle Paul saying that the verse talks about Jesus Christ.

If the Old Testament is taken into account there are many who have highlighted that there is no mentioning of hell to the Israel by the God. There is no place in the Old Testament where God has said to the Israel that if they follow the teachings of the God, they will see and remain in heaven and if otherwise, they will seek…… [Read More]


Bunyan, John. Visions of Heaven and Hell. Sovereign Grace Publishers, 2007.

Daley, J. Michael. Why Do Catholics...: Teens Respond to Questions about the Faith. Saint Mary's Press, 2007.

Gibbs, T. Franklin. The Shocking Truths About Heaven, Hell and Your Birthright Blessing, Volume 2. AuthorHouse, 2011.

Madrid, Patrick. Where is that in the Bible? Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 2001.
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Typology in Christianity the Author of This

Words: 2483 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22988965

Typology in Christianity

The author of this report is reviewing typology in Christianity with a strong focus on a few particular dimensions. Typology, for the purposes of Christianity, is the translation and transition between the Old Testament and New Testament. Indeed, the different faiths that center on the traditional Christian God usually (but not always) rely on the ible, or at least part of it, with some sects focusing mainly or solely on the Old Testament while other sects or groups do the same thing with the New Testament. Obviously, since both Testaments are part of the same Holy ible, it is important to look into how they are connected and how that connection, and the church itself, has evolved over the years. A focus on how typology was done, different groups that engaged in it like the Alexandrin school and the overall history from the time of the Apostles,…… [Read More]


Barna, G. (1983). Typology offers perspectives on growing Christian market. Marketing News, 17(19), 12.

Brent, Allen. 2009. A Political History of Early Christianity. London: T & T. Clark, 2009. eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).

Cook, Jonathan A. 2006. "Christian Typology and Social Critique in Melville's "The Two Temples." Christianity & Literature 56, no. 1: 5-33. Religion and Philosophy Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).

Driesen, Isolde, Chris Hermans, and Aad De Jong. 2005. "Towards a Typology of General Aims of Christian Adult Education." Journal Of Empirical Theology 18, no. 2: 235-263. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).
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Moses Is One of the

Words: 3205 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24398261

However, Pharaoh's heart was heartened and he refused. ecause of this, Aaron was instructed to lay down the rod in front of the Pharaoh and it became a snake. The pharaoh then ordered his sorcerers to throw down their rods and they also became snakes but Aarons snake ate the other snakes and the Pharaoh's heart was hardened and he would not release the children of Israel. Then the Lord turn to River into blood and there was no water for seven days.

Pharaoh's heart continued to be hardened and several other plagues followed. According to the Old Testament these plagues included frogs, flies, lice, the death of cattle, boils, hail, locust, the plague of darkness. Finally, the Lord killed the entire first born of Egypt. He instructed the people of Israel to cover their doors with the sacrificial blood of a lamb so that death would pass over them.…… [Read More]


Demille C. The Ten Commandments. (1956) Paramount Studios

Freedman, D.N. & Mcclymond, M.J. (Eds.)"Ehrlich, C.S. (2001). Moses, Torah, and Judaism. In the Rivers of Paradise: Moses, Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, and Muhammad as Religious Founders /, (pp. 11-null9). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ;d=5001865837

Fuchs, E. (1999, Winter). Moses / Jesus / Women: Does the New Testament Offer a Feminist Message. Cross Currents, 49, 463.
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High Degree of Misinformation I Had Received

Words: 3132 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33587097

high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]

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Historicity of Acts

Words: 3162 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54636975

Historicity of Acts

For centuries, the historicity of the book of the Acts has been questioned and criticized, prompting historians to label it "the storm center of modern New Testament study." Many scholars have suggested that the Acts were written as a means of religious propaganda, rendering the work historically unreliable. Others view the Acts as a blend of historical facts and unhistorical traditions.

While the argument continues in present time, the book of Acts has withstood the test of time, holding its ground as an accurate and reliable historical work, particularly as a result of many recent archaeological findings.

An unknown pastor once described his unquestioning faith in Jesus Christ by saying: "Even if some archeologists were to find the bones of Jesus tomorrow, I would still believe in Jesus Christ as my Savior and Lord!" While faith draws its life and strength from a place far beyond history,…… [Read More]


Bruce, F.F. Are the New Testament Documents Reliable? London: IVP, 1943.

Bruce, F.F. New Bible Commentary, 3rd. ed. Leicester: IVP1989.

Bruce, F.F. The Book of the Acts, revised edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989.

Carson, D.A., Moo, D.J. And Morris, L. An Introduction to the New Testament. Leicester: Apollos, 1992.
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King David History Symbolism and

Words: 3289 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27887016

" Further, as previously stated, in the Jewish tradition, it is believed that the Messiah (whom Christians believe is Jesus), must be a descendent of David's line.

The New Testament in fact introduces Jesus as the son of David and of Abraham (Mt. 1:1). Further, in the Gospel of Luke, he describes how Mary, the mother of Jesus, was descended from King David through one of his sons, Nathan. This leads contemporary Christians to believe that Jesus is the prophesied messiah, as well as the rightful king of Israel.

It is interesting that Jesus, despite the fact of David's obviously sinful nature, follows him in matters of conduct. Indeed, the reader notes that Christ used the actions of the pre-descent David as justification for his own (Luke 6:1-5) concerning the eating of wheat from the fields on the Sabbath. (McCall, 1999). However, even more interesting than David's use as a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aish. Staff. "Jewish History." Web site. 1995. Retrieved on July 8, 2005 

Alter, R. "The David Story." Chicago, Norton. 1999.

Bible Staff. "Biblical Archaeology: Tel Dan Stele." Web site. 2005. Retrieved on July 8, 2005 

Biran, Aaron and Joseph Naveh, "An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Tel Dan," in Israel Exploration Journal 43 (1993), pg. 81-98
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Jesus' Testimony to the Pharisees in John

Words: 1458 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80855054

Jesus' Testimony to the Pharisees in John 8:58

The Gospel of John reveals a number of "I AM" assertions made by Jesus Christ. They are bold declarations through which Christ makes a powerful point, namely that he IS divine. However, the language that Jesus uses also conveys a message about the mystery of His Person. He uses words and formulas that are deeply meaningful for the Hebrews to whom He speaks. "I AM" after all is more than a mere subject followed by a predicate. It is the name of God as He called Himself when He spoke it to Moses in the Old Testament. Therefore when Jesus says to the Jews, "efore Abraham was, I AM" (John 8:58), he is deliberately equating Himself with the God of the Old Testament by using the language of that God.

At its most basic level, Jesus' "I AM" assertion in John 8:58…… [Read More]


Brandt, Steve. "Before Abraham was, I am." Columbia University. Web. 20 Nov 2013.

Frey, Joseph B. The New Testament. Brooklyn: Confraternity of the Precious Blood,


Maas, Anthony. "Jehovah (Yahweh)," The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York:
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Moses There Are Few Figures

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36915285

Living in the palace as a prince was no doubt an indulgent experience, and likely contributed to the temper that Moses was so famous for. As an infant, he is the very image of innocence and hope, just like the baby Jesus. But as his life went on, his character became much more complex. The first story form the Old Testament that clearly illustrates Moses' inability to contain his temper comes in the second chapter of the book of Exodus: "He saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his own people. Glancing this way and that and seeing no one, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand" (Exodus 2:11-12). This episode is especially telling because it does not show simply a rash display of temper -- Moses takes the time to make sure no one will witness his actions before he kills the Egyptian. He is…… [Read More]

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John 5 13-21 Passage -- John

Words: 3508 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 193098

Gnostics believed that they belonged to the "true church" of an elect few who were worthy; the orthodox Christians would not be saved because they were blind to the truth.

Part E -- Content - if we then combine the historical outline of the "reason" for John's writings with the overall message, we can conclude that there are at least five major paradigms present that are important in a contextual analysis of John.

John 5:13 - I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. This seems to point that John saw a clear difference between those who believed in Jesus as the Son of God, but were unsure about eternal life. However, if we look back at other parts of his Gospel, we do find repetition of this theme. In John 1:5-7,…… [Read More]


Raymond Brown, "Does the New Testament Call Jesus God?" Theological Studies.26: 1,


Clark, N. Interpreting the Resurrection. (London: SCM Press, 1967).

Hamilton, James. God's Indwelling Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Old and New Testaments.
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Beheading in Analyzing the Biblical

Words: 1873 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50972284

That must be obvious by now."

How ironic it is that the director and the lawyer talk so condenscendingly to Cincinnatus, in the same manner that Christ is talked to by the Pharasees and the Saducees.

The entire first part of the story lends an air of similarity to the New Testament that is undeniable.

Using it as a foreground for the remainder of the story enhanced the overall veracity of such a narrative. To read the allusions made to the life of Christ and at the same time to the life of Cincinnatus was an intriguing ploy by Vladimir that allowed the reader to both explore and understand the methodology of which he was using to present the story.

Further references and allusions throughout the story are as evident as the ones written about above. One of the easiest to discern came towards the last of the book when…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nabakov, Vladimir, Invitation to a Beheading,

New Testament, King James Version
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How We Got the Bible

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71926474

Bible: Canonical Developments

Canonicity is a term used to describe the "sacred books distinguished and honored as belonging to God's inspired word" (Keathley, 2013). This particular term has, since the fourth century, been applied to the books of the Bible. Conservative Christians and Jews today recognize the 39 Old Testament books as inspired; the oman Catholics, 88 (because of the semi-canonical apocrypha), and the Evangelical Protestants, the 27 New Testament books (Keathley, 2013). These were, however, not the only books written during the NT and OT periods. A number of questions, therefore, arise; what criterion was used in determining whether or not to include a book in the Bible? Why should Christians today trust these books as reliable, considering the massive changes the world has undergone since their inception? This text provides answers to these questions.

Historical Evidence of the Books that Make up Both the Old and New Testament…… [Read More]


Keathley, J.H. (2013). The Bible: the Holy Canon of Scripture. Bible .org. Retrieved from 

Miller, J.W. (2004). How the Bible Came to be: Exploring the Narrative and Message. Mahwah: NJ: Paulist Press.
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Julius Scott Jr 's Work of Literature Jewish

Words: 1900 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87584062

Julius Scott Jr.'s work of literature Jewish ackgrounds of the New Testament, is quite fascinating. The manuscript is well researched and dedicated to a number of crucial events that influenced the form of practice of both Christianity and Judaism. The author incorporates a variety of sources, both traditional and otherwise, in an attempt to reconstruct some of the critical elements in the intertestamental period that greatly influenced both of these religions for posterity. In order to better identify the central theme of this book and the author's intention in writing it, it is necessary to begin with background information about him and the scope of focus of the book to ultimately determine whether or not he has achieved his purpose with this work.

One of the most salient facets about the background of Scott Jr. is the fact that he is a Christian. The author is an emeritus professor at…… [Read More]


Scott, Jr., J. Julius. Jewish Backgrounds of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2006, ISBN: 978-0-8010-2240-1.

End Notes

1. J. Julius Scott, Jr., Jewish Backgrounds of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2006), 356.

2. Scott Jr., Jewish Backgrounds, 273.
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Throned in Splendor Deathless O

Words: 1437 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41650743

The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?

Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.

If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.

The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.

Catullus ends up calling his lady…… [Read More]

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Matthew 7 21-23 an Exegesis of

Words: 2162 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22742080

Theological Analysis

hat does this passage say about the relationship with God?

Robert Imperato observes that "Matthew connects Jesus repeatedly to Jewish prophecy throughout the text" (17). The point he emphasizes, however, is that the Jews had a special relationship to God, through the Mosaic covenant contained in the Old Testament.

Yet, Jesus makes it clear, according to Imperato, that He is giving "a new interpretation of the Law" (17). In fact, Jesus is fulfilling the Old Testament prophecies, identifying Himself as the Son of God, and the Messiah in whom the prophets must place their trust if they seek salvation.

Therefore, Christ sets out the guidelines for the new relationship with the Lord that all must have who do indeed wish to cry out, "Lord, Lord." The Lord, through Christ, is showing that the way to salvation is not through legalism, or through adherence only to the Old Law,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Combrink, H.J. Bernard Combrink. "The Structure of the Gospel of Matthew as

Narrative." Tyndale Bulletin vol. 34 (1983): 61-70. Print.

Hays, J.D. "Applying the Old Testament Law Today." Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 158, no.

629 (2001): 21-35. Print.
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Mel Gibson's Film The Passion of the

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81011606

Mel Gibson's film, "The Passion of the Christ," has evoked a number of different responses from viewers and critics. It appears that, like the topic of religion itself, the one certain thing is that it is impossible to remain untouched after seeing the film. Perhaps then a study of the scholarly and cultural ramifications of Gibson's work would be profitable. First then, the impact of the film on New Testament studies will be considered, after which the general cultural ramifications of the film will be considered.

Impact on New Testament Studies

Any film concerning Christ's passion is a combination of the four Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Gibson's film is no exception, yet there are some points of emphasis in this particular work that may impact New Testament studies significantly. The first of these is the emphasis on the Jewish nation as sinners, rejecters of Christ and…… [Read More]


Mel Gibson. "The Passion of the Christ." Icon Distribution, Inc. 2004. 

The Bible. King James Version (1611). Bible Society of South Africa, 1982.

World English Bible. The Unbound Bible, Biola University, 2004.
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Holy Trinity How Can God Be One and Three

Words: 3220 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86400189

Doctrine of the Holy Trinity

The Doctrine of the Trinity and Anti-Trinitarian Theologies:

Servetus, Milton, Newton

The Doctrine of the Trinity

The Arian Heresy

Anti-Trinitarianism Part I: Michael Servetus

Anti-Trinitarianism Part II: John Milton

Sir Isaac Newton

The Arian heresy -- or rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity -- is actually relatively uncommon among contemporary Christian denominations; to pick one particular national example, Post-Reformation England would tolerate a broad array of theological stances -- from the dour Calvinism of the early Puritans to the sunnier Arminianism of the esleyan Methodists -- but more or less drew the line at anti-Trinitarianism. Yet it is remarkable that some of England's greatest intellectuals -- including the epic poet John Milton and the father of modern physics Sir Isaac Newton -- would secretly author theological works reviving the old heresy of Arius in order to disprove the Christian doctrine of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bouwsma, William J. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Catholic Encyclopedia, "Nicene Creed."  (accessed 21 March 2011).

Grudem, Wayne. Sytematic Theology. Grand Rapids; Zondervan, 1994.

Hill, Christopher. Milton and the English Revolution. New York: Viking, 1978.