" Parallels with business takeovers are frighteningly stark.
Change. In the Prince he says "It must be considered that there is nothing more difficult to carry out, nor more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to handle, than to initiate a new order of things" (Machiavelli).
The impact of Machiavelli's writing on politics has been accepted for some time, but the relevance of his ideas to business had to wait until the second half of the nineteenth century, when companies began to operate as large, complex organizations -- the equivalent in Machiavelli's terms of a move from tribal society to corporate state (Perseus Publishing Staff, asic ooks, Editors of Perseus Publishing). Most of these relevant concepts we have already discussed.
Though the Prince is much sought after as a manual for modern-day leadership and management, some of the 1500s tactics he espouses are, for the most part, not…… [Read More]
However, to interpret Machiavelli from this angle only would be to view his thoughts myopically. (Viroli, 1998) This is because the other piece of work that Machiavelli wrote at about the same time, the "Discourses on Livy" showed Machiavelli to be essentially a republican who perceived the state to be an autonomous and secular entity which depended upon mass support and human skills for its survival. According to a few present-day analysts, this particular book unlike "The Prince" is a decent as well as useful book which can serve as a guide for leaders, followers, nation-builders as well as reformers of republics on the ways and means by which freedom can be preserved and corruption avoided. His subsequent piece of work, "The Art of War," which outlined the strategies of statecraft and warfare, served as a source of inspiration to later generations of military thinkers like von Clausewitz, Napoleon and…… [Read More]
Hence he advises that a prince should never rest from military thought. Especially in times of peace, a prince must engage in honing his skills and in studying military strategies.
Relationship of the New Prince with the People
Machiavelli realizes the importance of the new prince's relationship with the people and he has repeatedly emphasized its necessity in the Prince.
Gaining Support of the People: When a new prince acquires a new principality or adds territory to his existing rule, he often has to set up new, innovative methods of government. This creates many enemies for him among people who oppose change. On the other hand, according to Machiavelli, the supporters of change are usually passive because most people do not trust or support a government until it is firmly established. Hence, establishing a firm and stable government is a big challenge for a new prince before he can hope…… [Read More]
This is again an idealistic notion of human nature, going back to imagining humans as permanently ridding themselves of their bad traits.
In regard to this Machiavelli acknowledges that being liberal, which is how he describes a ruler freely spending his country's resources, is a good quality to have. However he believes that this quality, if unregulated, could lead to a prince's ruin. If according to Machiavelli a prince were to spend a country's resources too excessively and begin heavily taxing his subjects as a result of that, he would risk losing their loyalty. Machiavelli recognized that in reality resources would always remain limited no matter how much of it is saved for future use. Thus this entailed that rulers would need to learn how to spend wisely and minimally. Machiavelli thus stated that being miserly with one's resources was better for rulers in that case, since then he would…… [Read More]
MACHIAVELLI's THE PRINCE
Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince is one of the most controversial yet enduring political manifestos regarding the differing types of military affairs, principalities, and qualities of a great leader. The Prince has been referenced by academics, directors of corporations, and politicians for centuries, as it provides general, historically proven advice for principalities and republics on how to govern and maintain relations with their most important resource and the essential core of their power, i.e., individual citizens.
This paper is an ethical analysis of The Prince using the tobacco companies as an example. In Part I, the most critical, repulsive, and useful points of Machiavelli's The Prince will be analyzed and discussed. Part II examines the Machiavellian techniques the tobacco companies have employed in their business and reviews the effectiveness of such techniques. In Part III, the stakeholders the tobacco companies chose to placate or satisfy are discussed as…… [Read More]
Hitler was an aggressive, dominant leader who was revered by many Germans. He overtook Poland and other nations such as Norway with virtually no defense at all because they were unprepared and their leaders did not anticipate or approve of aggression and defense. They were wrong, and it cost them dearly. If these nations had put up a real fight, the war might have had a different outcome. The same is true of the Holocaust. For the most part, most victims did not fight back, and offered little resistance as they were moved first to Jewish ghettos and then concentration camps. Had they risen up as a group and defended themselves, their fate might have been different as well.
Hitler was not a hero, or even a respected world leader, but those around him were weak, and that led to their downfall. A good leader is defensive, but also prudent,…… [Read More]
It basically approves of just about any behavior as long as the company survives, and that is music to many people's ears.
Machiavelli's advice has little to do with "do unto others as you would have them do unto you." He writes as a man of science and logic, rather than a man of ethics and morality. Machiavelli felt a prince or leader stood above others, and so, was above moral judgment, because his actions were always to maintain and control power for the good of the people, and they would always be seen as honorable, no matter what. How he maintained power really did not matter in Machiavelli's eyes. He writes, "Let a prince therefore act to conquer and to maintain the state; his methods will always be judged honourable and will be praised by all; for ordinary people are always deceived by appearances and by the outcome of…… [Read More]
Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli
In Defense of Tyranny: The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli
Niccolo Machiavelli, Italian historian, statesman, and philosopher of the Renaissance period, was known for his discourse, The Prince, published in the 16th century, for discussing his views on political leadership, particularly that of tyranny. In fact, The Prince is best described as a discourse on tyranny and authoritarian rule, and embodied through the Prince's personality, Machiavelli sets his standards on what kind of leader will benefit both the state and its people from threats against invasion from foreign rule.
This paper discusses two important aspects of Machiavelli's The Prince: (1) the characteristics of the Prince and the kind of society he will rule and (2) the permissiveness of tyranny in making society secure from foreign invasion/rule. Provided with these two important factors, this paper posits that Machiavelli's The Prince illustrates how tyranny can be functional (instead of…… [Read More]
Virtue translates to skill, ability, and ingenuity to Machiavelli, and so, it is quite understandable that his idea of virtue would share a stormy relationship with fortune.
The relationship between fortune and virtue in this work may seem to be convoluted at best, but in reality, the relationship makes perfect sense for the time. educed to its lowest level, the relationship is simply one between a strong and demanding man and a subservient woman. The man must never solely rely on the woman for his fate and fame. Instead, he must learn how to master fortune, and then mold it to his own will, and need. Thus, the relationship is volatile from the first, and will remain volatile as Machiavelli sees it. Fortune has no place in the planning of a political state, because fortune cannot be counted on. However, virtue, as Machiavelli defined it, has every place in a…… [Read More]
Published in the early sixteenth century, Nicolo Machiavelli's The Prince is a classic Early Renaissance-era work of political philosophy. Its tenets are still put into practice today by the world's top leaders, including the President of the United States. In The Prince, Machiavelli outlines the basic guidelines for effective leadership. In Chapters 15 through 18, Machiavelli especially focuses on specific leadership qualities and behaviors. Chapter Seventeen is especially notable for its advice against being too compassionate: it is better for a leader to be feared than to be loved, according to Machiavellian ideals. What makes The Prince a quintessential early Renaissance text is its focus on the pragmatic qualities of human leaders, rather than on the divine or moral qualities they should ideally exhibit. This was a radical shift in political philosophy, which was largely based on Church law before that.
Chapter Seventeen of The Prince is entitled "Cruelty…… [Read More]
However, it was after his imprisonment that Machiavelli showed 'Machiavellian' traits, as he tried to pursue his political philosophy by gaining his once-deferred power by the Medici family. Machiavelli shows his Machiavellianism by devising ways to win their favor once again, and these ways include creating discourses that reflect the family's method of governing Italy. By reflecting through the image of the Medici family the image of resolute and wise leaders, he shows that he has the ability to win others' favor through "clever trickery" -- that is, by making the Medici family believe that he is an avid follower of their administration, and eventually, win their trust. However, Machiavelli had failed to receive the desired results of his philosophies, but the strategies he adopted to achieve the reforms he wanted to introduce in Italy was nevertheless successful, at least through his truly Machiavellian writings and discourses.… [Read More]
Machiavelli, Thomas More, Thomas Hobbes
Under what circumstances is it just (or right, or ethical) to go to war? Why? Compare and contrast how Machiavelli, Thomas More, and Thomas Hobbes might answer this question.
Because of the rather negative perception of Niccolo Machiavelli's theories of political survival and expediency at all costs, one might be tempted to assume that the Italian political theorist believed that the ideal leader, The Prince, should go to war at any opportunity to demonstrate his strength as a leader. However, Machiavelli was not nearly so bloodthirsty or foolish. In fact, Machiavelli believed in self-promotion and the promotion of the existence of the Prince's political future and the state at all costs. War occasionally might serve as a means to this end but only should be undertaken in extreme circumstances. For instance, in discussing a specific political situation that plagued Italy at the time, he noted,…… [Read More]
In Chapter 25 of the Prince, Machiavelli addresses the topic of fortune and its effect on rulers and their states. Machiavelli makes two main statements about fortune. First, the author claims that the good leader transcends fortune's vicissitudes. Free will, notes Machiavelli, trumps luck. Second, Machiavelli urges rulers to control and command fortune.
Fortune is female in the Prince for two reasons. One, females are associated with nature, and Machiavelli uses a metaphor from the natural world to describe fortune as a raging river: "which when in flood overflows the plains, sweeping away trees and buildings, bearing away the soil from place to place; everything flies before it, all yield to its violence, without being able in any way to withstand it," (Chapter 25). Two, fortune is female because men can control it using brute force. Females and fortune are depicted as wild, natural, and untamed. ulers are by default…… [Read More]
Republicans recently overtook Democrats in fundraising, for instance, yet they will continue to play the underdog on most issues because the "good" qualities of security and being disadvantaged (which is generally viewed favorably in the country) are mutually exclusive, and because the appearance of being the underdog helps their cause regardless of its truth.
This also reflects a singularity of purpose and a determination that one's own conclusions, and not those derived from the advice of others, should be the guiding principles of leadership.
Political parties and leaders still tend to use this singularity while attempting to appear as populist leaders; the former allows for strength and true achievement, while the latter allows for the support of the people. Both are necessary, but they cannot be held at the same time. Machiavelli understood this, but this doesn't make him evil.
The Prince cannot be good or bad on its…… [Read More]
Prince by Machiavelli [...] what Machiavelli believes are the qualities of the best rulers and of the best states. It will also look at the questions: Why does he support these qualities? Why do they need to have such qualities? Do you think he's right? If so, pick a good ruler and show that he (or she) has these qualities. If you don't agree, choose a counterexample and do the same. Machiavelli's work "The Prince" illustrates how power and those who wield it have not changed throughout the centuries. Power has always corrupted, and those who wield it tend to be those most easily corruptible. This is easily evident in the modern conflict between the United States and Iraq. Each state believes the other is corrupt and led by a corrupted and corruptible leader, capable of using deadly force against its enemies. These problems seem to have plagued nation-states for…… [Read More]
" ("Selections from the Prince" 281) What this shows, is that those leaders who engage the citizens in conquered territories by allowing them to maintain their laws will perceive the Prince to be weak. In order to rule effectively, the Prince must show that he is a strong leader. This is significant, because it highlights how the ideal leader is: someone who will show what they mean through actions. Once this take place, the conquered citizens of the Prince will have respect for his rule and policies.
This has caused debate as to if the ideas of Machiavelli are more humanist or from a realist perspective. This is challenging, because he shows the importance of having a strong central government that will protect the general public. However, the tactics that he advocates using to achieve this objective are: questionable at best.
As a result, Machiavelli is not a humanist, where…… [Read More]
Frank Lautenberg's career may be described as "mostly Machiavellian" because of the way in which he used negative campaign ads early on in order to secure his hold on power, before shifting towards more outwardly benevolent means of maintaining that power. Taking Machiavelli's advice to commit all the cruelties one needs all at once, instead of piecemeal over a longer period, Lautenberg ran a vicious campaign against Pete Dawkins that relied almost exclusively on the former's ability to paint Dawkins as an opportunist and a charlatan, effectively using Dawkins' own robust resume against him. Having solidified his hold on power by winning his first reelection, Lautenberg proceeded to curry the favor of the two groups whose favor Machiavelli sees as necessary for ruling any participatory form of government, namely, the general populace and the corporate elite whose money ends up funding the majority of political activity in America. In this…… [Read More]
Fortune and Machiavelli
Fortune in the Prince
During the Medieval and Renaissance periods political theorists often wrote books which were intended to be used as instructions for the rulers of the time. This was referred to as the "mirror of princes" technique, and the most famous of these instructional manuals was written by Niccolo Machiavelli and called The Prince. Although some versions of this book were around as early as 1513, the official printed version of his book actually was published in 1532, some time after the author's death. In his book The Prince, Macchiavelli discussed everything a ruler should know from how to gain and keep power to the qualities which make for a good prince. The author even discussed the concept of fortune, or luck, and how it should be dealt with by a prince. Fortune, according to Macchiavelli, was a real force of nature which a prince…… [Read More]
Plato and Machiavelli, and how their ideas on leadership compare and contrast with each other. To do this, their respective works the epublic and the Prince will be used.
In addition to the works by the two main authors considered, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy will provide important insight on Machiavelli and his work. Indeed, the piece authored by Nederman (2009) contains a section that specifically considers The Prince and Machiavelli's concept of leadership. In addition, Farmer's work also contains several good chapters on leadership, ethics, and how Machiavelli's concept of these is to be understood. For Plato's work, Goethals and Sorenson (2005) provided some good insight into his ideas of leadership and what these mean for ethical leadership today.
These works provide a valuable addition to the primary works by the authors themselves, as well as how the two might be compared with each other.
Application to Ethical Leadership…… [Read More]
" (Prince: 61)
The second important thing to focus on is the military strength of that person. Does the ruler possess greater military might than the displaced ruler? If yes, then there is no point in rejecting him as the new ruler. This is because with his military weapons, he is likely to prove valuable to the country in the long run. Michaela's views on the art of war and possession of arms make it clear that a well-armed ruler deserves our respect because he can be relied on in difficult times
Liberty is an important concept in this connection. Liberty is the collection of various rights, which must be safeguarded at all costs, or else the public will reject the new ruler. It is thus important to remember that even when the people of a country give up their freedom because of fear of the new ruler, the ruler…… [Read More]
Hamlet act3 sene3 Machiavelli chapter 7-15-25-26 Lens Machiavelli concept Hamlet Intro - text author, content, method Paragraph1- Machiavelli concept explain applied hamlet compare Hamlet act3 sene3 Machiavelli chapter 7-15-25-26 work enables misunderstand play's ending significant relevant divergence hamlet Machiavelli Second essay compare Hamlet act 4.
Unlike Prince Hamlet, who is a man who is concerned with the morality of kingship as well as is an aggrieved son avenging his father, King Claudius of Shakespeare's Hamlet is primarily concerned with holding onto his power. Claudius does have some moral qualms about his actions, but not enough to repent. This is seen when Claudius tries to pray for forgiveness but is unable to do so: "O, my offence is rank it smells to heaven" (3.3). However, the political theorist Niccolo Machiavelli would diagnose Claudius' problem as being insufficiently ruthless up to this point in his dealings with his nephew. Claudius…… [Read More]
Cohn, Erasmus and Machiavelli
Political theory inevitably arise from the influences which affect a society at the time of their formation. During the time which communist leaders ruled Russia with an iron fist, the social order, or lack thereof, demanded a heavy handed approach to political leadership in order to bring order out of the chaos remaining after the olshevik revolutions, and the First World War. In America, the establishment of a state in which freedom of the individual is held as one of the highest moral goods of the people evolved in part due to the unfair and unjust monarchies of the European continent. The founders of the United stated had suffered under the tyranny of 'divine right' for centuries, and as a result, vowed to establish a country in which the guaranteed individual freedoms of each citizen formed the glue that would bond the country together.
Looking at…… [Read More]
By giving benefits little by little, a ruler can close old wounds. (Chapter VIIII)
10. The injuries should be done quickly and swiftly. If a city must be destroy, it must be destroyed all at once. It should be done in such a way so as to ensure no unexpected circumstance pop up. This is despotic way of ruling in my opinion, and the people deserve better. (Chapter VIIII)
11. In order to stay in power, it is important to have the support of other rulers, so they will defend you if your principalities are in danger of being seized. The people ought to fear a ruler, when it is convenient for the ruler to appear all-powerful. Otherwise, if the people believe they are serving some good, they will be more willing to work for the general good. A happy shrewdness can make the people think they are doing this.…… [Read More]
Aristotle, Hobbes, Machiavelli and Bellah
hat are the different conceptions of knowledge that inform Hobbes's and Aristotle's respective accounts of politics? Be specific about questions of individualism, virtue, and justice. In Bellah's terms, what kind of politics would they support? How are they related to Bellah's views on the relationship between social science and social life?
Aristotle stated repeatedly that the needs of the state and society overrode individual pleasures, desires and happiness, while Hobbes regarded unchecked individualism as a menace to public peace and good order. Public virtue and justice for Aristotle were not based on purely individual feelings, desires or personal happiness, for "which it is satisfactory to acquire and preserve the good even for an individual, it is finer and more divine to acquire and preserve it for a people and for cities" (Aristotle 2). Virtue is the chief end of political life, but only the vulgar…… [Read More]
Aquinas / Machiavelli Edit
Comparing Aquinas and Machiavelli
Aquinas and Machiavelli both had an important position in the study of historical development of Western political theory. They were Italian giants of medieval philosophy and politics. One of their common arguments is that nature is the basis of politics, including the nature of human beings and the nature of nations. Some may argue that in the totality of comparison that the work of Machiavelli was superior to that of Thomas Aquinas.
Aquinas's political thought started from the study of human nature. According to him, human beings are creations of the God. He agreed with Aristotle in that a human is a union of a body and a soul- a body is the matter, while a soul is the form. Also, bodies are under control of souls. He believed that humans have rational souls, which are abstract forms independent of…… [Read More]
It is more about keeping ahead of your competitors, always staying ahead of the game, and playing all the positions adroitly. It is all about power and prestige, and it is fairly amazing that anything constructive gets accomplished when there is so much political posing going on. In that, it is quite difficult to think positively of politics and politicians after reading this book, but that was probably one of Matthews' objectives when he wrote the book. Most Americans want to believe that the politicians they elect have their interests at heart, and there may be some that actually do. They, however, seem to be in the minority, and according to this book, they probably will not be very successful, anyway.
Matthews notes that Machiavelli thinks the best leader is part lion and part fox (Matthews 152), and that is another apt analogy for today's politicians - it is evident…… [Read More]
38); a Prince should also appear to keep at least some of the old ways so the people will readily accept the new ways (Machiavelli, Discourses on the first decade of Titus Livius, 2007, p. 98). hile the circumstances may change, it is clear that a Prince must be willing and able to manipulate appearances in order to convince others to give their power over to him.
Niccolo Machiavelli's ideas on appearance, reality and power stem from his background and place in the political shifts of 16th Century Italy. A career politician who used and was used by the politics of the time, Machiavelli developed certain unvarnished "truths" about gaining and retaining power. It was during his political exile that he wrote the Prince, his most famous work and a book that is still read 500 years after its publication. For Machiavelli, reality was quite different from the…… [Read More]
A significant aspect of court pageantry of the time was the performance known as masking, in which the courtiers themselves assumes other roles while wearing masks. The anonymity of the performance permitted them to engage in behavior that might otherwise be considered inappropriate. However, the custom of masking also gave concrete form to Castiglione's metaphor of the courtier as one who was continually playing a role. As Federico states in Book II of the Courtier,
But if a Courtier who is accustomed to handling affairs of importance should happen to be in private with his lord, he must become another person [lit., put on another mask], and lay aside grave matters for another time and place, and engage in conversation that will be amusing and pleasant to his lord, so as not to prevent him from gaining such relaxation.
In this situation, the courtier is not only, once again, assuming…… [Read More]
hat is almost funny about this tactic is that Machiavelli notes the importance of specific circumstances throughout the chapter immediately before making generalized statements, but when it comes to actually judging the efficacy of fortresses, he refrains.
However, this does not mean that he does not come up with a general pronounce, it just means that this general pronouncement takes the form of a discussion of the importance of specific circumstances, and in this instance, the specific circumstances that matter are the degree to which a ruler is loved or tolerated by his or her subjects. Machiavelli ends the chapter by saying that fortresses may be useful or harmful, depending on the relationship between ruler and ruled, and furthermore, that fortresses or a lack of fortresses will not matter if a ruler is hated by the ruled. The way Machiavelli reaches this point is interesting because he is one the…… [Read More]
'" (p. 42). This clearly indicates that Thrasymachus was not won and while Socrates ended the argument on a good note but it was more his own approval of his views than Thrasymachus'.
We can thus say with confidence that Thrasymachus was also a wise man of considerable sagacity. He knew that Socrates could move people with the power of his speech and was thus completely prepared to meet his barrage of arguments.
I do not think that Socrates won himself a friend or even an admirer in Thrasymachus because the latter looked significantly bored and uninterested. He even said that he was agreeing where he agreed only to make Socrates happy. It seems that Socrates was more interested in pleasing the others on the scene and winning his approval than he was in Thrasymachus because he had come to know very early in the discussion that Thrasymachus could not…… [Read More]
We all live within societies and we are the consistency of the society. As families and as individuals, we play roles and responsibilities that when combined point towards a given trend and charters of a larger group, hence the society.
An ideal society is one that constitutes people with similar life patterns which are mutual and beneficial to each member of that particular group. The infiltration of people with divergent interests interferes with the consistency of that society hence should be deterred by whatever means possible.
The Oxford Dictionary (2012), refers to a society as "The aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community." The society is also defined "The community of people living in a particular region and having shared customs, laws, and organizations."
More often than not, the term society is confused with family, it is worth noting that the family is just…… [Read More]
Modern Political Thought
The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…… [Read More]
history political philosophy sources political stability instability Machiavelli? Source: The Prince (Machiavelli), cited work the Prince My thesis Statement:The Prince, written 1513, intended a guide gave advice effective ruler stay power.
Niccolo Machiavelli's 1513 political treatise "The Prince" deals with a series of matters concerning political stability and the means available to make it possible. Considering that the writer lived in a period dominated by political instability, it is not surprising that some of the methods he proposed in order to restore order were somewhat unorthodox. From his perspective, moral acts were in certain situations pointless, as people actually needed to be controlled with the help of manipulating techniques. Machiavelli was basically interested in promoting the concept of evil, even with the fact that he attempted to mask this by posing in a person deeply concerned about his nation. He considered that in order to be able to control a…… [Read More]
Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time.
One of the greatest sculptors of all times, Michelangelo, became famous at the time that the public reviewed his first works of art. Despite of the fact that he had been certain that he was best fit for being a sculptor, Michelangelo accepted to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Even with his hesitation, the painting on the ceiling still stands as one of his greatest works and one of the greatest master pieces that the Renaissance period has given birth to.
The Marriage of the Virgin is a painting appreciated worldwide for its perception of depth and for its great…… [Read More]
familiar with the adjective "machiavellian," very few are actually knowledgeable about the political philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli. However, Machiavelli does in fact have a great deal to teach us and we should be careful not to dismiss Machiavelli's thoughtfulness and acuity as an observer of human society by relegating his contributions to a single, uncomplimentary adjective. Especially in his Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius (much more so than in the more famous The Prince), we see in this writer of the Italian enaissance a man who was truly engaged in the intellectual work required to create a system of government that was based on ideals and yet that also acknowledged the realities of human society as he understood them from his particular historical perspective. This paper examines the particular suggestions that Machiavelli outlined in Discourses for a well governed republic.
We may begin our analysis of…… [Read More]
Knowing the character of the principality the prince had acquired, and tailoring his use of repression and forms of coercion, and the degree, was essential -- a lesson that has proved, one might argue, quite difficult for the United States in its involvement in the Middle East, and its involvement with other territories with long and rich histories that are very different from the history of the relatively young United States.
Machiavelli's own work is inevitably affected by when he wrote, during an age characterized small, divided leadership centers, in one of the most fractious and back-biting of all of the Italian cities. However, although being ruled by his ideal prince may hardly be attractive to a resident of a modern democracy, many of his observations of people during times of war and peace are still useful. His guide can prove helpful as well to a citizen trying to interpret…… [Read More]
These individuals promoted the belief that it was in people's best interest to concentrate on putting across thinking that reflected positively on the world and that moral thinking played an essential role in changing the way that the social order functioned. Humanist writers wanted people to learn to enjoy life's pleasures without focusing on material values.
Even with the fact that Castiglione partly agree to Pico by stating that reason and knowledge were essential factors in this process, the former actually seems to focus on a more profit-motivated attitude while the latter is apparently interested in having people acknowledge the need for more moral values.
Castiglione, Machiavelli, and Pico all had different perspectives concerning the attitudes that the Renaissance man needed to employ in order to experience positive results as he was trying to discover his personal identity. In contrast to both of them, Machiavelli did not hesitate to emphasize…… [Read More]
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…… [Read More]
Peace Possible in the Modern World?
Is peace possible in the world as we know it today? One side of the human brain, if idealistic, might reply: "Certainly peace is possible, even perpetual peace, but it is possible only if visionary, bold and intelligent leadership emerges in key international places." The other side of the brain could well answer like this: "Are you kidding? There are too many terrorists, and too many greedy, power-crazed nationalist leaders pushing and shoving and developing weapons to ever expect a peaceful world." And meanwhile, what did some of the great thinkers and philosophers have to say about the prospects of peace?
THUCYDIDES: Thucydides, in writing about the Peloponnesian War, makes it clear that human nature tends to dictate how history plays itself out, and he does not blame the Gods or other forces for this war. Thucydides, who is a young man, and an…… [Read More]
Advising princes how to rule he states, "You must know, then, that there are two methods of fighting, the one by law, the other by force: the first method is that of men, the second of beasts; but as the first method is often insufficient, one must have recourse to the second. It is therefore necessary for a prince to know well how to use both the beast and the man" (Machiavelli 58). This is extremely telling in the current situation with the executive branch as well, in many ways.
For example, many people disapprove of the methods of security and incarceration since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. They believe many of the tenets of the Patriot Act, along with the treatment of prisoners in Guantanamo Bay and other facilities are unethical and go against rights granted in the Constitution. However, these methods continue, and it could be…… [Read More]
The question of leadership and government has always been a subject that concerned political theorists. ne of the first political theorists to brake up with the Medieval tradition regarding rulers and the ethics of government, Niccolo Machiavelli, presented his theories related to the rules a prince should follow in order to be able to govern a state and stay in power as long as possible. Machiavelli left the question of ethics completely for religious subjects and treated his topic form a rationale point-of-view destined to prescribe the best recipe for a political ruler to follow in order to succeed. Shakespeare's Richard III and George rwell's The Animal Farm present two different political regimes, the former focusing on dynastic battles in England in the fifteenth century and the latter on fictional animal characters that resemble real life characters form the early twentieth century revolutionary Russia. Despite the fact that…… [Read More]
Heavy rule will always lead to destruction one way or another. Individuals can only take being oppressed for so long. An ideal society is one where the government and the people are happy.
e see the results of oppression when we look at Martin Luther King's ideas and dreams for a better society. A world apart from Machiavelli's time, King captures the plight of the oppressed individual. He knows all too well what people experience when they are held down by a government that encroaches on everyday freedom. He urges his readers to "rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice" (King). He also sees hope in the future and asks people to "make justice a reality for all of God's children" (King). Justice is part of the government's responsibility to the people. Elizabeth Cady Canton also understood the struggle for independence.…… [Read More]
Machiavelli shared Douglass' opinion concerning the role of religion in one's society. He believed that religion is instrumental in bringing about not only a moral society, but also a just one. In his discourse, "The Prince," he asserted that the ideal leader, the Prince, must not "...deceive friends...be without faith, without mercy, without religion..." This invoked the belief that a leader, in order to become effective, efficient, and respected by the civil society, must also be of moral character. This means that in the same way as people let their lives be influenced by religion and its values and beliefs, so too must the Prince engage in a lifestyle dominated by religion. A religious individual is a moral individual, hence commanding the respect of his people and giving him credibility to lead over society.
However, it is also vital to note that while he put premium to religiosity, Machiavelli's characterization…… [Read More]
In the eighteenth century, the concept of pleasure gardens flourished in Britain, a trend that could be traced partly to the relatively stable democratic government coupled with the international trade that thrived at that time in London. Vauxhall Gardens was perhaps the most famous pleasure garden according to the lectures. Founded in 1661, it reached the peak of popularity during the early years of the nineteenth century. It became a model for several other pleasure gardens in Europe, like the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. Historians believed it was arguably the first modern amusement park. Some of the most popular entertainments offered in Vauxhall were firework displays, theatre shows, theatrical entertainments as well as dancing floors and drinking booths. Both Vauxhall and Tivoli Gardens were so popular that they became generic names for all pleasure gardens in both Europe and the United States (UoS 2015). According to the course,…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…… [Read More]
The Prince, by Niccolo Machiavelli, is a practical handbook of political advice for leaders. Its primary purpose is to explain the best ways to obtain and keep political power. The essence of Machiavelli's philosophy is that when it comes to gaining and maintaining power, "the ends justify the means" (94). This is the theme throughout the book. Machiavelli analyzes both contemporary and historical examples of rulers, power, and strategy to support his contentions. He begins with an overview of various forms of government and how they might be best manipulated and ruled by a prince. Mixed monarchies serve a new leader's purposes best because they have no remaining hereditary families to oppose a new prince (35-42). Machiavelli then discusses how to rule newly acquired lands. The best way for a prince to consolidate power in a new territory often depends on how the territory was acquired. Machiavelli looks…… [Read More]
military philosophies of von Clausewitz, Vegetius, and Machiavelli reveal common threads of pragmatism and political realism. Vegetius focuses less on philosophy and theory, and more on the practical details and logistics of military campaigns. Yet in so doing, Vegetius does evolve a foundational political strategy that remains relevant almost two thousand years later, even as technology and the dictums of foreign affairs have changed. Likewise, the tenets embodied by Italian political philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli are still studied in the 21st century, long after they were written. Machiavelli is not as focused on the minutia of military formations on the battlefield as his predecessor Vegetius, but he is far more focused on the ways political leaders need to comport themselves in times of war and peace. Machiavelli is likewise concerned with the ramifications of political power and how leaders can retain and wield their power to achieve self-serving ends. Just as…… [Read More]
Communication and Leadership
hat makes a great leader? How is a great leader made? There is no single answer to that question because there are as many different kinds of great leaders as there are problems in society that need to be overcome. hile certainly it is true that many important and effective leaders share a number of the same qualities, it is also imperative to remember that each leader has different challenges that face him or her because of the particular historical circumstances that call that person to be a leader.
This research proposal maps out a plan to study the ways in which African-Americans become leaders in the United States today, looking at the struggles that they have to overcome in terms of the general level of background racism that still exists in this nation. But this is certainly not a research project designed to cast pity on…… [Read More]
The Donations of Constantine were in fact a fraud - a fact that could only have been revealed through the subjecting of the "original" document to unbiased evaluation. Yet Leonardo Bruni, much more than Valla, deserves the credit for shaping the modern idea of history. Advancing on the style and technique of such Classical authors as Herodotus and Thucydides, Bruni developed a more modern, and scientific approach to the subject. Though not all of his writings can be taken as shining exemplars of the new commitment to accuracy and truth, Bruni at his best, charted new territory for historical scholarship.
Bruni's monumental Historiarum Florentini Populi Libri XII (hereafter Historiae) is often singled out as an exemplary work, one that set the whole enterprise of history writing on a new plane.... Bruni destroys the legends surrounding the founding and early history of Florence, and then recasts the story on the basis…… [Read More]
However in those days, the progress was even slower and there was deeper concern about the possibility of complete transition. Samuel Huntington's path-breaking book, Political Order in Changing Societies (1968) has been by far the most well received and comprehensive book on the subject of civilian military relations. Huntington studied the conditions in Latin America and found that in underdeveloped countries, militaries were usually more powerful because society cannot access the government and hence support military's interference. Middle classes then "compel the military to oppose the government" and restore the status quo ante. Military may be powerful but Huntington felt that it was the organizational structure that can be blamed for coups but instead the social structure and thus "Military explanations do not explain military intervention," he argued.
By the end of the 1970s, even more literature appeared on the scene to explain civil military relations and to study the…… [Read More]
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…… [Read More]
U.S. Government and ethical issues of outsourcing
Description of Ideas-5
Analysis of Concepts-6
Evaluation with easons-7
U.S Government and Ethical Issues of Outsourcing
USA is at present one of the fastest growing countries as a target for outsourcing. Of late outsourcing which was once the buzzword of corporate America has been looked down upon in recent years because of growing concerns of ethics involved in outsourcing the same. Majority lament the outsourcing of jobs to low-wage economies like Asia, Philippines and elsewhere. In a slowing economy with unemployment figures hovering around 10%, outsourcing jobs is viewed as extremely undesirable. However some experts are of the opinion that outsourcing per se is not bad as it helps business to lower costs to remain in business, particularly during periods of recession. When outsourcing permits a company to cut down on costs and make production at less cost, it augurs well…… [Read More]
The study of physics, optics and biology of the eye contributed to the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library.
The Crusades of the eleventh century brought the learning of the Islamic world to Europe unfortunately this information was acquired by the act of war. The Crusades also increased the flow of trade, bringing new spices, gemstones and foods to Europe. The Crusades marked the beginning of religion as the basis for society. The Pope and the Catholic Church emerged as the leaders of society and religion as the unifying morality.
Rather than a change in politics, a mini-renaissance occurred during Romanesque period. The study of art, science and culture brought about a change in architectural styling and building materials; increased use of rounded arches and barrel vaults emerged at the same time as the use of metal, enamel, ivory, bronze,…… [Read More]
His philosophy of a ruler who used any means necessary to achieve his goals is not too far off from what Bush has done in the war in Iraq. Bush has misled the public; whether he did this deliberately or not is still up for debate but the result of his misleading behavior has been financial and political gain for him and his cronies. Vice President Cheney has made tens of millions of dollars in the Iraq conflict through his ties with Halliburton. One has to wonder if the political and financial gains being made by those in the hite House had anything to do with the initial decision to go to war in Iraq. The fallacies of the Iraq war go deeper than just policy decisions. Great philosophers and politicians warned against greed and unjust wars, and the Bush Administration took the Iraq war far beyond the limits of…… [Read More]
orse Than atergate: The Secret Presidency of George . Bush, by John . Dean: Implications for Modern American Education
The book orse Than atergate: The Secret Presidency of George . Bush, by John . Dean (Little, Brown, 2004) has as its central theme the excessive secrecy of what Dean calls the "Bush-Cheney presidency (xi) or the "Bush and Cheney presidency" (21)since, according to Dean, Cheney, not Bush, often makes key decisions. Dean asserts that "in many ways it is a co-presidency" (11), with Bush as the front man, and Cheney, being the actual decision-maker, preferring the shadows. Both men are excessively secretive, and their secretiveness, argues Dean, threatens democracy, liberty, and public accountability, and also encourages incompetence by allowing Bush and Cheney to escape public scrutiny (185-88). Moreover, Dean portends the potentially harmful effects the Bush-Cheney presidency has had, and may continue to have, on the rights and protections of…… [Read More]
Moving beyond the plot and the intricacies of life at the New epublic though, and into the world of Hollywood producers, writers, and actors, one must also ask about the veracity and credibility of the portrayals of journalistic acumen for the general public. Films such as Alan Pakula's All the President's Men (1976), Peter Weir's the Year of Living Dangerously (1982), or oland Joffe's the Killing Fields (1984), all present the journalistic morality surrounding slant, sourcing, and frankly, what to exclude to ensure the acceptance of the story. There are more examples about aggressive and expose' hunting reporters, but one asks if Glass is not being shown as the typical, epitomizing print journalism through the eyes of Hollywood, as opposed to the rouge, well-intentioned, but naively arrogant, reporter? (Bowden).
When one replays some of the key scenes in the movie, one is struck by the calm, but budding nervousness Christensen…… [Read More]
This essentially means breaking large jobs down into tiny jobs done by expert people. Frederick Taylor's scientific management methods called for optimizing the way that tasks were performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that workers could be trained to perform their specialized sequence of motions in the one best way. This also fits into the classic organization theory by once again referring to a group of expert people doing one job to the best of their ability.
Three levels of ethics (of the four) noted in the text include: professional ethics, organizational ethics, and social ethics. Explain each of these forms of ethics. Use examples as needed, to clarify your responses.
Professional ethics consists of the rules of what professionals should and should not do. Being a professional often comes with authority and power. A client often places trust in a professional on the basis that the…… [Read More]
, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.
When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.
Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.
Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…… [Read More]
Change Management Plan
The role of change
"Change is so pervasive in our lives that it almost defeats description and analysis" -- (Mortensen, 2008)
Change at any level, individual or collective (communal/familial, societal, or organizational), is a complex and challenging process that requires time, energy, commitment, and often some level of distinct intention and sacrifice, on both the front and back ends of the process. Change describes both the action(s) and the result(s) of any type of alteration, modification, transformation, or exchange of one behavior/idea for another from smaller-scale individual changes to large-scale organizational (or social systems) changes.
At any level, the process of change needs to be managed to some degree. Generally, individuals can manage their own processes of change and in many individual cases, change may happen more spontaneously. Change that occurs in systems, like organizational change, requires a more strategic (or structured) approach…… [Read More]