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Aristotle said, "The good for man is an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue, or if there are more kinds of virtue than one, in accordance with the best and most perfect kind" (). According to Aristotle and his Nicomachean ethics, there are two kinds of virtue: intellectual and moral. Intellectual virtues are learned by instruction and moral virtues are learned by practice. According to his theory, we can all be morally virtuous, but it is only by acting rightly that we can become virtuous. Virtue is a disposition therefore and it is something that is apart from our feelings and our senses and, without it, we can never be truly happy. Aristotle does not tell us what dispositions are virtuous and which are vicious, he merely informs us that in order to learn virtue, we must practice virtuous behavior and habits.
People do not normally…… [Read More]
Happiness in Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics"
According to the definition of human happiness in Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics" the goal of human life ought to be the seeking of happiness, when pursuing all things. This may be contrasted with merely living for the sake of momentary bodily, social, or even personally gratifying pleasure. True, pleasure is often mistaken for happiness. But unlike pleasure, happiness is a moral obligation, shared by all peoples, rather than something that is dependant upon others and the esteem or judgment of others or even other sources. Rather, to seek happiness is a uniform moral bond all human beings labor under, for they should attain a complete state of the highest and fullest happiness as the ultimate purpose of their lives, rather than merely seeking out pleasure and momentary and societal approbation in a variety of forms.
"Verbally there is very general agreement; [that happiness is the goal…… [Read More]
Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle explains his theory of virtue and how to become virtuous. The main premise of Aristotle's theory of virtue rests upon the ideal of the "highest good" (Nic. Ethics I 2). Aristotle defines this as happiness, or living well. After this, Aristotle goes on to determine what exactly it means to "live well." He begins this process by stating what does not constitute living well. At first glance, pleasure wealth and honor appear to lead to happiness; however they fall short, as there are examples of persons having these and nonetheless not being happy.
In his attempt to understand happiness then, the philosopher takes a wider view, looking towards human life as a whole in order to determine the elements of a happy, good and virtuous life (Nic. Ethics I 7). In terms of this paradigm, the ultimate happiness lies in spiritual values rather than material acquisitions: human…… [Read More]
If this was the case, and this transformation of reasoning did occur, then that person would be truly virtuous.
There are many strengths to Aristotle's argument, as well. One of the main strengths is the discussion of the two kinds of virtue - the kind that comes from habit, and the kind that comes from learning. This would work to demonstrate why some people change so much as they grow older, and why many who come from good and stable homes and families do not end up that way themselves. The reverse is also true. Some who come from terrible childhoods turn out to be very good people indeed. Again, this comes from people carrying out acts that are virtuous and finding that they receive so many reward that are not tangible from doing this that they choose to continue along this particular path.
Another strength of the argument is…… [Read More]
Acting in accordance with virtuous principles is a key to attaining happiness. In Book Three of the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle explains the difference between voluntary and involuntary action as well as total passivity. In the first chapter of the book, the philosopher explains the importance of free will and taking action in determining ethical behavior. Aristotle concludes that the only truly ethical acts are those that are chosen by the actor. An involuntary act, one that is done begrudgingly or because of coercion, might yield positive results but cannot be considered ethical. A person who picks up garbage from the streets because they are performing mandatory community service is not acting ethically or from a virtuous character. On the other hand, a person who picks up garbage on the streets to beautify the community or to welcome a guest would be acting with virtue and in accordance with ethics. Aristotle…… [Read More]
These [bad effects of pleasure and pain] are the reason why people actually define the virtues as ways of being unaffected and undisturbed [by pleasures and pains]" (1104b21-25)
It is not imperative to remain indifferent or unaffected by both pleasure and pain to be virtuous, it is only essential that we have the right feelings of pleasure and pain at the right time. Therefore, he goes on defining virtue as the right state in front of pleasure and pain:
e assume, then, that virtue is the sort of state that does the best actions concerning pleasures and pains, and that vice is the contrary state."(1104b26-27)
Thus, Aristotle sums up his discussion and concludes that virtue is all about the feelings of pleasure and pain, and that the actions, even if they are good can decrease virtue when they are done badly:
To sum up: Virtue is about pleasures and pains;…… [Read More]
perceive as Aristotle's best work known work on ethics, Nichomachean Ethics, sheds light on what Aristotle believed was happiness. "…happiness would seem to need this sort of prosperity added also; that is why some people identify happiness with good fortune, while others <
eacting from one extreme to the other> identify it with virtue" (Aristotle, Irwin, & Fine, p. 360). His perception of what is happiness implies:
that it itself is desired, that is not based on anything else's sake, that it satisfies all desire and is not mixed with any evil, incorruptible,
It is stable.
However, happiness as defined by these aspects are not all of what may comprise the complete meaning of happiness at least in Aristotle's eyes. He believed the life of gratification: comfort, pleasure, the life of money-making, the life of action, and the philosophical life, such as study or contemplation helped to comprise a more…… [Read More]
Unlike either deontological or utilitarian ethics, virtue ethics focuses on character. Because virtue ethics are not consequentialist, overall virtue ethical frameworks are more akin to deontological analysis of moral right and wrong. One’s intentions are as important as one’s actions; the consequences of one’s actions are important but not as much as remaining honest, compassionate, and willing to learn. At the same time, Aristotle and other proponents of virtue ethics believed that it is most important to be a good person, and to live a good life, than it is to ascribe to some external moral code.
Two virtues that are important to living a flourishing or successful life, in Aristotle’s sense, include magnanimity and temperance (“Traditional Theories of Ethics,” n.d.). Magnanimity is best understood as understated confidence, evident in behaviors like good sportsmanship whether one wins or loses. Temperance is moderation in all areas of life: not going to…… [Read More]
virtue ethics different from the other theories of ethics that you have studied so far?
Ethical theories which are founded more exclusively in virtue place less emphasis on the rules that people need to be in line with and a higher focus on allowing people to foster a more quality character, such as a character which orbits around empathy and selflessness. These character traits empower the person to make better decisions later on in life, while emphasizing the necessity for people to better understand how to eliminate certain poor traits of character, such as ones founded in greed or anger -- like vices, compulsions and addictions (Cline, 2014).
Aristotle, on the other hand, believed in laying out a clear distinction between intellectual and moral virtues. "Aristotle says that moral virtues are not innate, but that they are acquired by developing the habit of exercising them. An individual becomes truthful by…… [Read More]
Parable of the sadhu teaches us the importance of a group's commitment to the welfare of an individual. In corporate ethics, this would mean the support of the entire organization for the welfare and career/personal growth of an employee. In the sense of individual ethics, it means instead of doing our bit and throwing the rest of others, we must pool our resources and offer complete commitment to the welfare of an individual in need and that is the only way we can hope to survive as a community. In the case, a group of few individuals from different countries are navigating the wild tracks of Himalayas in Nepal when they find a half-naked sadhu in very unstable condition. Each one in the group does something for the sadhu but rather reluctantly as if they wanted to get rid of him as soon as possible without feeling guilty and responsible.…… [Read More]
Nicomachean Ethics and Leviathan
In every society, there are tens of hundreds of individuals whose personal value system leads them to leading a life based on principles of honesty, trust, fairness and compassion. To that extent, justice, as a concept can and does exist quite separate from any system of government given any number of citizens who ensure that justice is done in their dealings with their fellow humans. However, viewed from the perspective that not all members of human society necessarily adhere to similar principles, justice in a society is largely dependent on a government that upholds and enforces it. ithout government and a legal system, it is more than probable that social anarchy would prevail with many humans resorting to pure self-indulgence, committing unjust and criminal acts purely for their own personal gain, with little or no regard to concepts such as the welfare of fellow citizens. Such…… [Read More]
Abortion is an important topic in society because it deals with the matter of life and death. It also deals with the matter of personal rights. Does a woman have the right to terminate a pregnancy? Or does abortion contradict ethics and moral standards that govern society and human beings? The conflict at the heart of the abortion argument is one of rights vs. ethics. On the one hand, those who support for abortion rights say that a woman has the right to choose. On the other hand, those who do not support abortion rights, say that the woman has a duty to carry the child to term because of an ethical and moral obligation. This paper will show how according to ethical and moral perspectives, life should be supported—which means that a woman should not choose to have an abortion because this violates moral law.
What is abortion? Abortion…… [Read More]
The responsibilities of parenthood do require character virtues. Simply being a parent does not make one virtuous, but parenting can bring out the best in people. Parenting requires the person to put their child ahead of any selfish desire, which promotes humility, magnanimity, and temperance—three of the essential character virtues (“Traditional Theories of Ethics,” n.d.). Developing character ethics promotes eudaimonia within the family, and each member of the family including the parent who exhibits a virtuous character (Aristotle; Husthouse, 2016). In fact, the more one exhibits virtuous behavior in their role as a parent, the more likely it is for the child to embody the same virtues. In this way, virtuous parenting reverberates through the generations and helps create a more virtuous society overall.
Having personal experiences with a father who did not have a virtuous approach to parenting makes it easier to recognize the importance of strong…… [Read More]
In fact, both Weiner and Cutler have described the same thing, in a sense, yet through very different lenses. For some, money becomes less and less important if there is enough, but for others who truly know happiness, this is something that truly has no bearing on how one leads his or her life.
How ociety and Media Impact One's Happiness
This last section will describe how media impact happiness. For even if a person is truly happy, there are always outside forces that can disturb this sense of well-being. The media in this country in particular makes happiness seem as though it is solely constructed through money and power. In fact, it is duet to this wrong concept of what happiness means that most people believe that happiness is objective, for all agree on this very definition.
However, as can be seen from the paragraphs above, money is only…… [Read More]
" In other words, he philosopher advocates temperance, especially as far as emotion is concerned. This is combined with actions or "habits," as Aristotle terms them. A person who is temperate while also engaging in "good" activities or habits can then be said to be virtuous. It appears that this definition fits well with what could constitute "good" even in today's terms.
A person who would disagree with the above might argue that both my and Aristotle's definition of "good" and "virtue" is far too vague to have any valid application. Neither definition, for example, acknowledges cultural variation in terms of what might constitute "virtue." A person from the Far East, for example, might consider it virtuous to obey one's parents in everything, including one's choice of a bride. In Western culture, on the other hand, and by the above definition, it is decidedly "bad" to make one's children miserable…… [Read More]
This is why exercise is needed. I believe that practice is fundamental for the solidification of a virtuous character. I still fail to see how people could still be considered possessors of virtue if they do not apply it (the intentionality factor is a key one here).
esides being a manifestation of the good, virtue is also a principle of temperance and moderation. Therefore a person who is courageous for example, demonstrates that he is half way between a reckless behavior and one which could suggest indifference or cowardice. Virtue can be opposed not only to non-virtue, but also to passions. Perhaps it would be more wisely said that it is the passions which are more likely to lead you in the direction on injustice and unjust acts. Moderation prevents the passion from getting the best out of the individual and it is a stimulus in the direction of virtue.…… [Read More]
Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry
The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…… [Read More]
The individual, who considered his action to be voluntary, because of slight negligence of social responsibility, and ignorance, now under goes trail in the state court. The individual is being accused for that entire he was much unaware about, and rather it would be right to say that he is being charged for his ignorance. is self-thought voluntary move is now considered terrorist support.
There was a local reported incident in the past where individual was forced to commit a crime only because he was being pressurized or forced to do so. It was reported within my neighborhood that the reputed banker was forced by his boss to indulge in the malpractice, and commit an intentional folly of manipulation of accounts. The banker was being blackmail by his boss; the boss was creating hindrance for his subordinate, and kept continuously delaying the release of employee-loan. The employee had no option…… [Read More]
Aristotle, happiness and pleasure was moderation and a middle action between two vices. . So, for example, modesty would be a virtue as it comes between two extremes or vices; egotism and low self-esteem. Another example would be working sensibly. The two vices of working would be overworking and laziness. The middle option would be working sensibly. This, according to Aristotle, is the correct choice of action. He said we should act in the right way, at the right time, in the right amount towards the right persons for the correct reasons:"...To experience these emotions [fear, courage, desire, anger, pity, and pleasure] at the right times and on the right occasions and toward the right persons and for the right causes and in the right manner is the mean or the supreme good, which is characteristic of virtue" (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II). Happiness, then, comes not at the end of…… [Read More]
videos is carried out; with each review explaining a particular ethical approach using examples given in respective video watched. From the videos, four major ethical approaches are highlighted in the paper; Kant, Utilitarian, Aristotle's virtue ethics and Confucius. At the end of this work, the reader will be able to understand and distinguish between moral, ethical, values and legal issues.
According to Kant, morality is based on a standard of reasonableness known as categorical imperative; thus, immorality is the violation of the categorical imperative (Aune, 1979). Also, Kant claims that for one to be moral, they should uphold the truth in whichever situation they face. However, from the video, the situation an individual whose family is wanted by the murderer faces may change their view of Kant's philosophy. Kant asserts that the individual is supposed to speak the truth on the issue, which according to him is a moral…… [Read More]
Merrill Lynch Barge Scenario
Case Summary -- Enron, a Texas-based energy company, was created in 1985 and had such phenomenal growth it was soon the seventh largest company in the U.S. until its bankruptcy in 2001. Enron was involved in a number of scandals, among which was the Nigerian Barge Case. Essentially, Enron attempted to sell interest in three power-generating barges off the coast of Nigeria, but was unsuccessful. By December of 1999, Merrill Lynch agreed to buy Enron's interest. Enron "loaned" ML 75% of the money, offering ML a guaranteed return of 15% on 7 million dollars ($1.05 million in 6 months). Essentially, the entire deal was a fraud, designed only to make Enron appear more profitable than it was. Most of the Enron promises were verbal, and the situation was never really a "sale," but a short-term leverage loan. Enron's objective, in fact, was to improve the way…… [Read More]
Aristotle's Happiness and the Virtues.
Aristotle's ideal of happiness and virtues has been drawn to a large extent from his mentor and teacher, Plato. The context of his ideas is firstly that ethics and politics are closely intertwined, together forming the concept of Political Science. Secondly, virtue according to Aristotle is an innate human quality, which can be enhanced and developed by practice. Since it is innately human to be virtuous, this element is also closely associated with what Aristotle views as the ultimate good: to be happy.
According to Aristotle then, happiness is the purpose of all action (Smith viii). Furthermore this is seen in the social and political context of the time. Thus, happiness is a collective effort of individual and state, rather than just of the individual. While the ideal of happiness is to a large extent individual, the state plays a prominent role in making this…… [Read More]
Defining an Ethical Leader
Jeffrey Immelt, General Electric
The nature of leadership is multifaceted and often requires the continual mastery of new skills, insights, intelligence and perspectives to stay effective over the long-term. Such is the nature of ethical leadership, which requires a steadfast focus on a core set of ethical principles and values that guide a leader's judgment, ensuring consistency over the long-term. These are also the fundamental aspects of any leader's long-term credibility as well, and their ability to transform their enterprises over the long-term as well (John, 2005). Ethical leaders often resonate with credibility and the willingness to also change quickly in response to the needs of their organizations, employees, stakeholders and customers.
The purpose of this analysis is to define what an ethical leader is, how managers can progress to being more ethical in their leadership style, and how Jeff Immelt, CEO of general Electric,…… [Read More]
justice from Anaximander and Hericleitus will be traced, through the Republic of Plato and Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle's. The purpose of the essay is to discuss the concepts of justice, which are presented in these two pieces of literature. The study and researches have shown that Hericleitus concepts are related to justice and injustice, according to this concept a reader can gain an insight of the definition regarding justice and its original importance. The concept of justice as defined by Hericleitus states that justice is the process through which a human makes reasonable actions and he is satisfied with those actions and never feels regretted. hile the concept of justice by Anaximander is based on social justice and its relative importance. Both these concepts are used in the literature study because these concepts read understandable."The Republic, however, is the supreme product of Plato's most mature years, thought, and style. It…… [Read More]
"(Eliot, 850) She cannot help but comply because she had been humiliated and wounded, and she feels morally guilty. Had Rosamond acted in abidance of Aristotle's Ethics, she would have received Dorothea but she would have done so as a result of her own determination. A person is good if he or she is able to deliberate virtuously, according to the context and the circumstances of a certain situation. Rosamond on the contrary feels compelled to act the way she does, simply because she is in a state of psychological bafflement but she does not actually see the truth of the situation and neither is she able to act virtuously. She merely receives the good Dorothea tensely, endeavoring to guess the reason of her visit.
Catharine's conversion to her own traditional religion is determined by a very different motivation. She determines to become faithful to her own culture because she…… [Read More]
He believed strongly in the government's protection of civil rights and equal opportunities for all its citizens. If a government failed to do so, he called for civil disobedience. King (1986) stated that freedom must be taken from the oppressors (p. 292). His concept of meaning was formulated in the crucible of unjust laws and centered on the notion of social justice. This meant attaining freedom, dignity, and social equality for all, not just for the privileged. His advocacy of non-violent protest aligned him with Socrates, as did his subversive speech. He felt strongly that it was every person's ethical duty to stand up peacefully but powerfully against all forms of oppression, and like Socrates he was willing to face death bravely for his cause. As opposed to Aristotle and close to Socrates, he affirmed that one must work to change the material conditions of life as well as social…… [Read More]
Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…… [Read More]
Says Hobbes, "Another doctrine repugnant to Civil Society is that whatsoever a man does against his Conscience is Sin; and it depends on the presumption of making himself judge of Good and Evil" (Hobbes, p. 234). Hobbes asserts that the civil law is the public conscience, and that even if an individual believes he sins against his own conscience, but does not in actuality violate civil law, that individual is not at fault. Here, Hobbes places the Civil Law and the Commonwealth on a higher plane of morality -- one which oversees all actions, and judges them as though it were somehow superior to them.
In conclusion, both Aristotle and Hobbes formulate complex philosophical systems by which men might live. hile both assert a logical desire for the common good, their judgment of what constitutes that good is different. Aristotle, while allowing for subjective considerations, acknowledges an objective standard by…… [Read More]
Aristotle and Plato the books are as under:
Aristotle's "The Politics"
And "Nicomachean Ethics"
Plato's "The Republic."
These are the names of the three books, which will be considered and viewed in the paper as a guide and reference to various questions related to Aristotle's and Plato viewpoint on the questions, which are as follows:
What mistake do oligarchs and democrats make in thinking about Justice, according to Aristotle?
To what extent would Plato agree with Aristotle's analysis?
What explains the similarities and/or differences in their approaches?
The paper will analyze and observe the viewpoints of the theorists and their relative opinions regarding these questions. In order to answer these questions the paper will introduce the background regarding these books and their relative themes. The paper will be presented in a compare/contrast format according to which the similarities and differences in the opinions of the theorists will be discussed and…… [Read More]
theorists regarding political stability, the ideas and opinions of Aristotle, Plato, and Thucydides will be mentioned by thoroughly analyzing the viewpoints of these theorists in their books such as: Aristotle's "The Politics" And "Nicomachean Ethics," Plato's "The Republic," and Thucydides "The
Peloponnesian War." The analysis and observations of the viewpoints of these theorists will be included in the paper. The question on which the analysis will be based is as under:
What is the key to political stability, according to Aristotle? Why? Compare Plato or Thucydides' answers to this question.
Political stability is one of the most difficult problem on which many attempts have been made by the government to gain a stable political system so that the people living in the country can have an independent and free life. History and researches show that despite of many attempts the leaders have failed to maintain stable and under controlled political…… [Read More]
The Greek philosopher Plato's concept of justice in "The Republic" demonstrates his belief in the path towards rationality of the individual and society. In his discourse, he talks about the rational individual as a just individual and is guided by the pursuit of the common good. The philosopher demonstrates this by justifying that in one's pursuit to achieve self-discovery and self-realization, it is inevitable that one should interact with his/her society. Once the individual realizes his/her fullest potential and demonstrates this by committing just acts, then society in effect becomes influenced by this act of justice. However, Plato also clarifies that a just and unjust individual may pursue different paths and goals in life, but in the end, both individuals contribute to the coherence and harmony in the society. The just individual showed what behavior is desirable because it is beneficial for the society, while the unjust individual becomes…… [Read More]
The question arising from this claim is whether evidence exists to prove that there exists an infinitely good, powerful, and wise God where morality naturally emerges. Humes argues that is hard to imagine that an all-good, powerful God exists in this world full of pain and misery. From these claims, one can argue that this insight, or God, has both evil and good, as is present in man if man is in God's image and likeliness.
Immanuel Kant: from the Critique of Pure Reason, the Good Will and the Categorical Imperative, the Postulates of Practical Reason
Kant believes that the vigorous application of same methods of reasoning can yield to an equal development in dealing with the issues of moral philosophy. Kant proposes a list of categories of Freedom in Relation to the concept of good vs. evil. Kant uses logical distinction as the basis for the catalog. Even though…… [Read More]
Aristotle vs. Mill
The Greek philosopher Aristotle and John Stuart Mill agreed that the objective of morality was the pursuit of general happiness and the good life in society and in the individual. ut they deviated in the concept of, and the manner of arriving at, "the right thing to do," especially in reference to friendships. Mill held that actions are right in the proportion that they tend to promote that happiness and wrong, as they tend to promote unhappiness. He advocated the action/rule-based type of morality, which determined the goodness of an act according to the consequences of that act and independently of the doer's virtues or character traits (Fieser). This type directly opposes the virtue-based morality propounded by Aristotle, who believed that happiness as the ultimate end of existence that is sought for itself and not for any other end.
Aristotle contended that friendship is the greatest external…… [Read More]
Aristotle, Hobbes, Machiavelli and Bellah
hat are the different conceptions of knowledge that inform Hobbes's and Aristotle's respective accounts of politics? Be specific about questions of individualism, virtue, and justice. In Bellah's terms, what kind of politics would they support? How are they related to Bellah's views on the relationship between social science and social life?
Aristotle stated repeatedly that the needs of the state and society overrode individual pleasures, desires and happiness, while Hobbes regarded unchecked individualism as a menace to public peace and good order. Public virtue and justice for Aristotle were not based on purely individual feelings, desires or personal happiness, for "which it is satisfactory to acquire and preserve the good even for an individual, it is finer and more divine to acquire and preserve it for a people and for cities" (Aristotle 2). Virtue is the chief end of political life, but only the vulgar…… [Read More]
Peer Response 1:
Aristotle does discuss both practical wisdom and respect in the Nicomachean Ethics (Hursthouse, 2016). Practical wisdom needs to be cultivated over time, although it does seem that some people are more prone to being practical, reasonable, and even-tempered than others. Those who lack innate practical wisdom can cultivate it, and in fact, have an ethical obligation to cultivate this virtue. Aristotle believed that there are two types of virtuous people: those who have “full or perfect virtue,” and those who have to exert effort or “strength of will” to be virtuous (Hursthouse, 2016, p. 1). Sometimes to be a virtuous person, one does need to exert effort, until it becomes second nature to do so. Once ethical virtue becomes second nature, the person is no longer “continent,” but fully and perfectly virtuous in that area of life (Hursthouse, 2016, p. 1).
Practical wisdom comes from experience. As…… [Read More]
Aristotle also argues that "happiness, above else, is held to be" (Book I, 7). He supports this argument by stating that, for every other virtue, people not only seek to obtain that virtue for its own sake, but also consider whether or not they will be happy in doing so. Thus, Aristotle sees happiness as the greatest because it is the only virtue that is sought simply for its own sake. Aristotle, then sees happiness as not only tightly connected with virtue and right or wrong, as a virtue with an ideal manifestation, and as the highest of all virtues, but Aristotle, therefore, also sees happiness as something that is to be pursued like other virtues, such as goodness, kindness, or charity. In addition, the fact that happiness is "the chief good" is also associated, for Aristotle, with the "function of man" (Aristotle Book I, 7). Thus, Aristotle asks, what…… [Read More]
As any successful marketing campaign, this needs to have the appropriate communication instruments and the most important of these would be the right channels: your own bosses, other employees (some who have no problem in recognizing the employee's qualities) or friends. Friends would hereby be included in the first category of Aristotle's friendships, the friendship of utility: one develops friendships with fellow colleagues in order to ensure that these friends develop and, more importantly, communicate, a positive image of the individual in the organization.
Part from this, one can also have a friendship of pleasure in the workplace. Team building actions or simple after work meetings for a Happy Hour could be such an example. However, there is a significant problem with both this category of friendship, following Aristotle's scheme, and with that of the friendship of the characters, the most profound form: the relationship with the office is too…… [Read More]
Supreme Court's recent decision to ban the execution of mentally challenged individuals raises important ethical issues. Judges must be able to determine if a person is indeed mentally challenged. hile the legal system and psychology have made important insights into this issue, there is still some inconsistency in the definition and application of mental retardation in the judicial system. Accordingly, an analysis of the ethical principles underlying the issue is useful. Ultimately, a combination of both deontological and teleological approaches may provide the best ethical guidelines for such a complex issue.
The ethical factors involved in handing down any death sentence are complex. This is especially true when the accused is a mentally challenged individual. In the American criminal justice system, the court must be assured that an accused individual is fully responsible for their actions in order to hold responsible for their crime. In other words, in order to…… [Read More]
This is reflected in the document where Jefferson expressly outlines the idea that all men have certain rights and are responsible for their own paths in life (Pilon, 2000). It is a product of its own era, and liberalism was the philosophy that drove much of the political actions in the early United States.
The same can be said of The Federalist. These were a collection of essays regarding the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. They are also set upon the basic premise that all people are created equal, and that humans have certain unalienable rights that a nation or state needs to respect and honor (Hamilton, et al., 2003). The men who wrote the essays were certainly trying to create a good regime through their own beliefs and values. Their ideas, which later led to the founding of a nation, are key in understanding what they believed a good…… [Read More]
In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid, environmentalleader.com)
elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.
efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…… [Read More]
Aristotle believed that human flourishing (NE: 12) is the definition of good. The mere presence of women in Congress suggests that voters rejected a man, but it is better to look at this not as the rejection of one (male or not), but as the result of human flourishing. This increased competition of more women pursuing what they feel is their own responsibility will result in more unemployment for men, a notion bolstered by Mill's belief that, "hoever succeeds in an overcrowded profession or in a competitive examination…reaps benefits from the loss of others" (Mill; Hirshman p. 239). This could be viewed as human flourishing, which is good, but it connotes competition and struggle and doesn't make the pursuit seem virtuous. Aristotle, if following his own ethics in the world today, would have to believe that women are where they are because of human flourishing and their pursuit of what…… [Read More]
Mill believed that any act may itself be inherently moral, so long as the outcome of that action produces a benign effect. Mill believed that the most ethical act is that which produces the most good, even if the act itself is one which is traditionally considered evil. An example of utilitarian philosophy would include the killing of innocent animals to determine a cure for some infectious disease. And while there are components of this philosophy that would certainly align with Aristotle's definition of ethics, it seems difficult to picture the latter condoning any method to achieve moral behavior, particularly in regards to the following quotation from Nichomachean Ethics. "A man will not live like that by virtue of his humanness, but by virtue of some divine thing within him. His activity is as superior to the activity of the other virtues as this divine thing is to his composite…… [Read More]
Reason vs Passion: Comparing Aristotle and Plato
It must be well known among all students and scholars of philosophy that both Plato and Aristotle have a high regard for reason. But what is their view on passion? It might be surprising to learn that neither philosopher holds a negative view of passion in and of itself—what both do, however, point out is that passion should be subservient to reason. Passion that is governed by reason is certainly not a bad thing, for either philosopher, and what is more important is that some passions or emotions should be promoted over others (Urmson; Taylor).
The problem that most moderns have when it comes to understanding what passion means is that they are defining the term according to all-or-nothing terms, applying a kind of either/or approach to the issue of whether one should live one’s life by using the head or the…… [Read More]
Martin Luther's Life:
Martin Luther took his birth on November 10, 1483 in a peasant family in Eisleben in the Holy oman Empire, presently known as Eastern Germany. After the birth of Luther his family migrated from Eisleben to Mansfeld. His father was a comparatively effective miner and smelter and the Mansfeld was then a larger mining town. The Parents of Martin were Hans and Magarete Luther and he was their second child. Martin started his schooling in Mansfeld most probably around seven. The School emphasized Latin and a bit of logic and rhetoric. When Martin was 14 he was brought to Magdeburg for taking up his further studies. He resided there only of a year and then admitted into a Latin School in Eisenach till 1501. During 1501 he entered the University of Erfurt that was regarded as one of the oldest and best universities in Germany where he…… [Read More]
slavery and citizenship in Aristotle's Politic:
Aristotle believes that most people in the world can be enslaved devoid of injustice as they are born to be slaves. At the same time some are born to be free and dominate as masters. Most modern critics have smeared these concepts of Aristotle. In this paper the writer evaluates the concepts of citizenship and slavery in light of Aristotle's politic to reveal not only Aristotle's thinking but also how his views are inferred by contemporary philosophers.
One is forced to do the disagreeable task of reading Aristotle's account of slavery because of such divergence in the opinions of the expert scholars. If one takes a look onat Aristotle's account of slavery, he/she will notice that on one hand; his opinion about slavery is that the enslavement of someone can't be proved as acceptable merely based on weak arguments and on the other hand;…… [Read More]
Human relations to each other in the society are usually discussed and examined through examining the simplest kinds of relationships between family and friends. It is customary for people to go back to these simplest forms of relationships because they are considered as intimate relationships. These relationships are used as the foundation for learning and extrapolation to the wider and less intimate form of human friendships. This implies that civic relationships are examined on the basis of personal relationships, which are tied together in a long chain of political philosophy. Civic relationship has traditionally been considered as a form of friendship that involves how people relate to each other in the public domain in a well-ordered society. However, Aristotle presents different ideas on civic relationships with regards to virtues, friendship, justice, happiness, and deliberation.
Aristotle's Ideas on Civic Relationships:
Generally, civic relationship is defined as the way people…… [Read More]
character is grounded in virtue and this is one notion that originates from centuries old wisdom of Aristotle. Our contemporary idea of a good character is also based on moral and spiritual virtues and philosophy largely supports this picture of a sound character because virtue has always occupied a significant place in moral philosophies. Aristotle defined good character in Nicomachean Ethics II.7 in these words:
Excellence [of character], then, is a state concerned with choice, lying in a mean relative to us, this being determined by reason and in the way in which the man of practical wisdom would determine it. Now it is a mean between two vices, that which depends on excess and that which depends on defect. (1106b36-1107a3)
Simply stated, Aristotle believed that when a person can choose the middle path between excess and defect, he is said to have followed virtue. But only a man who…… [Read More]
Barstow, Marjorie. "Oedipus Rex as the Ideal Tragic Hero of Aristotle." The Classical
eekly, vol. 6, no. 1, 2-4, 1912. Print.
Barstow observes one of Aristotle's fundamental points in her essay, which is that "Aristotle finds the end of human endeavor to be happiness…[which proceeds] from a steady and comprehensive intellectual vision which views life steadily and distinguishes in every action the result to be gained" (2). Poetry, like Oedipus Rex, helps illustrate Aristotle's point that human happiness is dependent upon one's grasp of reality.
Dodds, E.R. "On Misunderstanding the Oedipus Rex." Greece and Rome, vol. 13, 37-
Dodds asks, "In what sense, if in any, does the Oedipus Rex attempt to justify the ways of God to man?" (37). The fact that Sophocles' work tackles the question is important evidence that drama is worthy of serious study and capable of teaching profound truths. Thus, Dodds' essay validates Aristotle's…… [Read More]
Psychology of Happiness and a Life Well-Lived
In this paper, I have discussed that happiness as well as morality (meaningful purpose) are actually the ultimate goals and the true sign of a life well-lived. I have tried to explain how morality must be considered as the most important factor to signify a well-lived life. I have also given the ideas of Aristotle and Plato regarding morality and happiness and have tried to assess the literature on my chosen factor.
If we ask people to elaborate the definition of a well-lived life, we would surely get very different answers. For some, money will be considered as the means to be happy and successful; others may count recognition of peers as the basis of a well-lived life. A well-designed and useful product will be the success for some; for others it can be a beautiful garden. Good relationships would be a mode…… [Read More]
rites Copper, "the Nicomachean Ethics, many hold, is the greatest work ever written on practical philosophy" (p. 126). The greatest portion of this appeal comes from Aristotle's ability to reconcile the cultivation of a pure, inner self with the promotion of the universal good of mankind as a whole (Cooper).
hile Aristotle's conception of virtue can be a valuable practical guide on how to live one's life, his philosophy is not without major flaws. In particular, the idea that humans as a whole have a distinct function is questionable. Notes Sumner, "it is not at all strange to ask what the function is of a bricklayer or a kidney. But no answer comes readily to mind when we ask what the function is of a human being-or, for that matter a giraffe or a lichen" (p. 71). rites Pritchett, "Aristotle's assertion that humans even have a function is optimistic or…… [Read More]
Banning Books in Public Schools
The 1st Amendment to the constitution does guarantee freedom of speech and freedom of the press. However, when children are involved, freedoms often become blurry. In some cases, they are not freedoms at all, when parents or society believes they are protecting children. One example would be the case of banning books in public schools. However, banning books in public schools is unacceptable because it deprives everyone (not just children) of their rights, imposes and fosters normative values, and generally harms the author.
Book banning in public schools is unethical because it deprives every one of their right have the material. While the target audience may be children, there are many adults who read books that are aimed at youth. For example, Harry Potter has been read by old and young alike, and The Hunger Games has been a best seller for many months. Many…… [Read More]
Aristotle and the Cynics Conspire to get Snowmobiles out of Yellowstone National Park
In the scenario whereby individuals are rampaging across the wilds of Yellowstone National Park, willy-nilly upon snowmobiles, the great Greek philosopher Aristotle (presumably after overcoming his initial surprise at the existence of such a mechanized craft) would remind the snowmobile's users of Book VIII, Chapter 3, of his Ethics. A means of use of the park that is amicable and amenable to all, rather than to one subspecies of user, the snowmobiler, would be most desirable.
In this treatise upon Ethics, Aristotle defines relationships between human beings on the basis of friendships into of good people, friendships based on utility and friendships based on shared pleasures of company. Ethics, for Aristotle, is grounded in a need in human nature, that is, the essence of living human beings to require a just, virtuous, and happy way of…… [Read More]
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]
It can also be confusing. Some states have gay marriage as a legal right. Others have domestic partnerships, civil unions, and other terms for things that are the same or similar (Herek, 2006). Whether these options are constitutional is also something that has to be addressed and that is argued about by many scholars and laypeople (Herek, 2006). One of the other concerns that is brought to light where civil unions and their benefits are concerned is how employers view 'spouses' and what kinds of requirements are listed for them to be able to receive benefits (Same, 2008). Depending on how these people are listed, employers may or may not have to accommodate homosexuals and their partners in states that allow for gay marriages and civil unions.
As can be seen by the following map, not all states believe in any type of same-sex civil union or gay marriage, but…… [Read More]
He argues that there is a duty resting on convention, which he considers in a deep and morally weighty sense, based on an implied but nonetheless binding contract between the individual and the state:
It is a fact, then," they would say, "that you are breaking covenants and undertakings made with us, although you mad them under no compulsion of misunderstanding, and were not compelled to decide in a limited time; you had seventy years in which you could have left the country, if you were not satisfied with us of felt that the agreements were unjust (Plato, 1993, p. 89).
In other words, Socrates has enjoyed the benefit of the laws all his life and cannot now break them without breaking an implicit agreement he has made with the state based on his acceptance of the law over his lifetime.
Plato's ideal state is not a democracy, and…… [Read More]
We always find that personal library embraces its distinct structures as well as meanings, which can be either through mental traces or highlighting the answers and the questions that happens to thread through it. However, the bulk of an individual's reading such as newspaper will never form a personal library not unless an individual posses the foresight and the discipline to copy or clip it. Intellectual life will be more aided by a digital personal library.
Generally personal library will always be made up of documents that have been read by the owner, maybe using annex for the documents that he might wish to read. There could be an amplified intellectual life in case somebody finds it easy to the materials they once read, by use of non-specific sketchy summary of it (in addition to a single striking point of a distorted memory) finds its way back to the mind.…… [Read More]
Declaration of Independence was written and put into effect in the late 1700's. That is a bit of time ago but the work of Plato and Aristotle came a long, long time before that. Even with the major time disparities involved, there are some common themes and ideas that exist among both of the philosophers and the author of the Declaration of Independence. Even while keeping the focus on the Declaration of Independence very narrow, there are some obvious commonalities between the Declaration and the two classic philosophers. While many ideas and viewpoints change and shift over time, there are others that are much more enduring and prone to remain strong and many of those ideas are seen in the works analyzed within this report.
Much of what Plato had to say was very much in line with the Declaration of Independence. It is stated in The epublic that…… [Read More]
Access to all the tools necessary to succeed academically allows for access to someone 24/7 who can assist in specific needs. There is an online library that has a huge collection available for electronic delivery (immediate) or access to other databases and materials delivered through email or mail; no residency requirement, no commute, and the ability to build unique and individualzed ways of synthesizing the learning experience between classes (Experience the Trident University Advantage, 2011).
This view of aggressively encouraging and utilitzing net centric principles is now no longer a "wish" or nice to; it is clear adirectieve based on research and efficacy, that netcenter operations be made pervasive at the Naval War College, the Naval Academy, and Naval Postgraduate School, just as example. This program paradigm is so perfect for the military, that the top Naval educational peronnel see it as a way to actualize more personnel in a…… [Read More]
Socrates believed that defining which of the actions taken by man are good, and which are not, provides man with the definition of piety and impiety. Aristotle also felt that "every action and choice, seem to aim at some good; the good, therefore, has been well defined as that at which all things aim."(Aristotle, 1094a)
Socrates also presents a defense for his actions by asking Euthyphro whether the holy acts that man complete make the gods any better. Euthyphro immediately states no, no, that's not what I mean.
By presenting this defense, Socrates seems to be saying that he is not attempting to blaspheme god, or the gods in any way, instead he is learning what it takes to make himself a better man.
In the end Socrates demonstrates that not even the theologian can provide with certainty what defines piety or impiety. He thereby provides himself a defense against…… [Read More]
In fact, development of the idea will be substituted for life (Hegel, 1988).
The article on natural right and the System der Sittlichkeit complete each other. The first is destined to reveal a new way of posing the problem of natural right while the second is an attempt to solve this problem by the method proposed here (Goldstein, 2004). The System der Sittlichkeit, like the Platonic republic, is the conception of ethical life from its lower forms that Hegel considers abstract, such as individual desire, possession, work and family, to those higher forms, such as the integration of the lower forms in ethical totality, by which they truly receive their meaning. What Hegel later calls subjective spirit (psychology, phenomenology) is considered there as a preliminary moment of ethical life so that absolute spirit is presented in the form of political and social community. Religion and art, which at a later…… [Read More]