Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Nonverbal Communication Skills
In in-person or face-to-face communication approximately 60% of the meaning is an outcome of non-verbal behaviour." We have actually all heard-- and stated -- "physical actions speak louder than words." Actions have been so essential to our communication that analysts have estimated that within face-to-face communication as much as 60% of the social meaning is a result of nonverbal behaviour. In other words, the meaning we appoint to any communication is founded upon not only the content within the verbal message but also our analysis of the nonverbal behaviour that accompanies as well as overlaps the verbal message. And translating these nonverbal actions has not always been the most convenient thing to do (Vantgage learning, 2009).
Attributes of Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication stands out from spoken communication in that it is continuous as well as multi-channelled. It might be unintentional and uncertain. The non-verbal aspect of the…
Buck, R and VanLear, C.A. (2002). Verbal and Nonverbal Communication: Distinguishing Symbolic, Spontaneous, and Pseudo-Spontaneous Nonverbal Behavior. Journal of Communication.
Vantgage learning. (2009). Communicating through nonverbal behaviours. Verderber Communications Publications.
Kahlbaugh, P.E. And Haviland, J.M. (1994). Nonverbal communication between parents and adolescents: a study of approach and avoidance behaviours. Journal of Nonverbal Behaviour 18(1).
Andersen, P. (2007). Nonverbal Communication: Forms and Functions (2nd Ed.) Waveland Press.
This expose the fact that non-verbal communication is imperative and effective because the eye, voice, or even touch sense is being used in a general conversation that are a part of non-verbal communication (Calero 2005).
Sending and receiving silent gestures on a constant basis is the regular and unconscious practice during general interactions. This demonstrates that all the non-verbal behaviors of an individual during the general conversations such as the appearance, way of talking, sitting, eye contact, hand contact and various others prove to send powerful and effective messages. Besides, the non-verbal message communication still continues even if the group stops talking or is silent (Calero 2005).
Non-verbal communication has not only proved to be effective in general conversations but specific conversations also rely on Non-verbal communication most of the time. It has been analyzed that nonverbal communication acts as a primary and essential source in creating the first impression,…
Calero, H.H. (2005). The Power of Nonverbal Communication: How You Act Is More Important Than What You Say. First Edition. Silver Lake Publishing, USA.
The author has focused on the effects of non-verbal communication on human beings and how it can play a substantial role in building relationships or associations. The book also highlights that the human nature takes decisions that are based on their subconscious impressions when communication is involved. Similarly, the paper has also provided a useful overview of how effective this communication can be.
Ivey, a.E., Ivey, M.B. & Zalaquett, K.P. (2009). Intentional Interviewing and Counseling: Facilitating Client Development in a Multicultural Society, Seventh Edition. Cengage Learning, USA.
This book has provided with the essential tools that needs to be considered and likewise acclimatize basic skills in order to meet uniqueness. The author has compared how communication (both verbal and non-verbal) can create an impact on the learning process and form behaviors of individuals, which has been reflected within the report as well.
Nonverbal Communication Skill
Although there is no consensus about the exact definition of "nonverbal communication" among experts, it is generally regarded as any communication conveyed through body movements (the "body language") and the intonations and emphasis that are given to words (also called the "paralinguistics"). The term
"nonverbal Communication" may itself be relatively new but its importance has long been realized. Martin Luther, the 16th century protestant reformer, often advised his followers, "not to watch a person's mouth but his fists." (Quoted by Bull, 2001) Charles Darwin discovered commonalities in facial expressions among humans and animals in his 1872 study, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which is still read with interest among researchers. In the present day, nonverbal communication evokes the interest of a broad spectrum of academic disciplines including psychology, sociology, anthropology, communications, and linguistics, and has a similarly wide scope. Most research in the…
Bull, Peter. (2001). "State of the Art: Nonverbal Communication." The Psychologist. Vol 14:12, December 2001. Retrieved on October 3, 2004 from http://www.bps.org.uk/publications/thepsychologist/bull.pdf .
Dulek, Ronald E. & John S. Fielden. (1990). Principles of Business Communication. MacMillan Publishing Company: New York:
Dunn, Laurel J. (1999). "Nonverbal Communication: Information Conveyed Through The Use Of Body Language." Missouri Western State College. Retrieved on October 3, 2004 from. http://clearinghouse.mwsc.edu/manuscripts/70.asp 'Mehrabian Communication Research." (2004). Professor Albert Mehrabian's communications model. Businessballs.com Retrieved on October 3, 2004 from http://www.businessballs.com/mehrabiancommunications.htm
Riggio, Ronald E. (1992). "Social Interaction Skills and Nonverbal Behavior." pp. 3-30.
Gestures whether voluntary or involuntary can be used to support a message or call attention to specific points in a delivery. Generally those gestures that appear natural and relaxed are more likely to send a message of self-confidence and less likely to detract from the speaker's message than those that are extreme. The authors suggests that rubbing or clenching hands may signify tension or anxiety and should be avoided during a presentation.
Visual aids are another form of nonverbal communication that can be used to enhance a message, express an additional sentiment or clarify a confusing message. Visual aids when designed tastefully and meaningfully can greatly enhance a presentation. It is also important to note however that visual aids can also detract from a presentation if they are utilized too often or are not used in a manner that adds to the presentation or amplifies the message the speaker is…
Interpersonal communication, which plays a large role in business and personal relationships, refers to the ability to relate to people by using verbal and nonverbal communication. Good communicators are perceived as those who are able to deal with different people in different situations, and make people feel more comfortable with them.
When we think about communication, we usually think about words and the way that people use language. However, most people do not realize the significant role that nonverbal communication plays in delivering and receiving messages. When people talk, they have a tendency to use their bodies, use various poses and postures, make eye contact, and use body language, in addition to speaking. This is nonverbal communication.
One of the most important aspects of nonverbal communication is physical appearance. Physical appearance has a subconscious effect on practically everybody. Most people are judged on their physical appearance, which includes…
Borrell, Leo. (2002). Medical, Social and Financial Consequences & Risks of Being Overweight.Weight Loss for Life Program. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.healthseakers.com/weight7.html .
Cowley, G. (1996). The Biology of Beauty. Newsweek, 25, pp. 60-67.
Donohue, William. (August, 1992). Managing Interpersonal Conflict. Sage Publications.
Dunn, Laurel. (January 14, 2002). Nonverbal Communication: Information Conveyed Through the Use of Body Language. Missouri Western State College Journal.
They interacted with a blonde-haired woman who did not want to give up her phone. She was a typical "ditzy" blonde who had no idea what she would do for three hours without her phone. The scene was meant to add some comic relief, but it was still played with the same kind of unemotional intensity that the other detectives had. These people are supposed to be serious about their work, and there is little banter or personal talk at all. Because of this, their body language is stilted as well. It is almost as if they were "half" people who only act one way on the show, and keep the rest of their lives (and their reactions) to themselves. This woman was not shy, and it was clear by the way she tossed the phone into the evidence envelope she was annoyed. After she turns in the phone, she…
When we communicate, we tend to focus on what people are saying and their emotions, while paying very little attention to their body language. We're all aware of some non-verbal cues but "body language is about more than how we move and stand and the signals we give off in any interaction have more influence than the words we say" (Gray, 53). In fact "only 5 per cent of communication involves the words we use and 38 per cent involves speech as a whole. A staggering 55 per cent is attributed to body language" (53).
This would entail that during the majority of the conversations and communications we have with people often take place without us realizing the non-verbal signals that we are giving off in our body language. "Up to 93% of all face-to-face communication is sent through nonverbal means. This implies the room for miscommunication is…
Perin, M. "Body Language Expert Has a Read on Communication."
Houston Business Journal October 10, 2003
Vol 34, Iss. 22, pg.2 American City Business Journal
Gray, P. "What Signals Do You Send?"
Nonverbal Communication: Journal Entry
From an early age, I was urged to always make eye contact when I spoke to others. I feel that making eye contact is natural, given that it seems people are more willing to listen to what you have to say, if you gaze directly into their face and eyes. I have since learned that eye contact is not commonly practiced in all cultures as a way of indicating sympathy and rapport with a speaker, but it feels natural to me because that it how I was raised. Kinesthetically, I have also noted that a relaxed and informal style is preferred in our culture. But I have been accused by some people (such as my parents) of putting my hands in my pockets, slouching, and not seeming sufficiently attentive in my posture. Although this may be acceptable in everyday conversation, I know that it is not…
If the pitcher does not agree, he shakes his head, jiggles his glove or makes some other sign. Then the catcher will make an additional sign and the procedure goes on until they both have the same opinion on the pitch to be thrown.
In the interim, the batter glances at the third base coach who goes through a sequence of signs from touching the nose to rasping his hand crossways on the letters of the uniform: Gestures intended to convey -- nonverbally -- what he desires the batter to do. All of these signals start off from the manager sitting in the dugout who gives signs to the third base coach who on the other hand sends them to the batter.
Body Language and Nonverbal Communication in Sporting Contests
Of the numerous types of nonverbal communication, body language is conceivably the most understandable means through which humans express judgments…
Kneidinger, L.M., Maple, T.L., & Tross, S.A. (2009). Touching behavior in sport: Functional components, analysis of sex differences, and ethological considerations. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25, 43-62.
Nunnaly, J.C. (1970). Introduction to psychological measurement. New York: McGraw Hill.
Pedhazur, E.J. (2002). Multiple regression in behavioral research (2nd ed.). New York: Holt.
Sullivan, P.J., & Feltz, 13. L. (2003). The preliminary development of the Scale for Effective Communication in Team Sports (SECTS). Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 1693-1715.
Although verbal communication is the basic, most common, and easiest form of communication, there is also the non-verbal communication that can be as effective as the verbal form.
People communicate a lot. Communication is very important because it is from communication that we are able to do what we do now. Think of how you learned to walk when you were still a child if there is no process of communication that occurred between you and your parents who taught you to walk. You may not know how to speak back then but through the non-verbal form of communication, you were able to learn to walk.
There are so many instances where we can see the use and effectiveness of non-verbal form of communication. For instance, the newspaper that people buy everyday is a non-verbal form of communication. Through the text written in it, the news is brought…
Web site: http://lynn_meade.tripod.com/id56.htm
Web site: http://www.everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=484303
Further, uncertainty and stress can stifle the flow of conversation (Countrywatch).
Understanding the challenges to verbal and nonverbal communication in Austria can provide an important step to enhancing communication with this country.
An understanding of the non-verbal cue of forms of respect, coupled with an understanding of language, can greatly enhance communication in Austrian culture. Titles are very important in Austrian culture, indicating the non-verbal importance of proper forms of respect in Austria. Language is important also, as the wives of men with titles often hold their husbands' title. For example, the wife of an Austrian professor named Schmidt may be known as Frau Professor Schmidt (Munter).
The importance of non-verbal cues in communication in Austria can hardly be overstated. For example, North Americans and Israelis may interpret stroking a beard as being deep in thought. However, Austrians see the same gesture as meaning "How boring" (Barth, Calcote, and agsdale).…
Barth, Michelle, Calcote, Michelle, and Ragsdale, Kathleen. Communicating Across Cultures.
SURVEY OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION, MMC 5306, Section 2979, Fall 1998. Accessed October 20, 2005. http://grove.ufl.edu/~mleslie/Pres2.htm
Countrywatch. CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES AND INFORMATION. Accessed October 20, 2005. http://aol.countrywatch.com/aol_topic.asp?vCOUNTRY=10&SECTION=APP&TOPIC=CCIAI&TYPE=APPEN
Munter, Mary. Cross-cultural communication for managers - includes related articles on training at multinational corporations and similarities of cultures. Business Horizons, May-June, 1993. Accessed October 20, 2005. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n3_v36/ai_13183249/pg_4
Findings from the study showed that levels of perceived affiliation of the individual determines the perceived expressiveness of smiles, whether this smile is given out by a man or a woman. In the study, individuals who were rated and perceived as "highly-affiliative" are perceived to be more expressive, and both highly-affiliative male and female participants of the study were identified as more expressive than participants with low affiliation ratings (532).
These findings support the claim earlier that the smile has complexly evolved as a form of non-verbal communication. Smiling is no longer treated or analyzed at "face value," since other factors, such as perceived personality traits of the individual, are attached in one's assessment of the individual's propensity to express his/her happiness through smiling. As in the words of the author, "...smiling...is mediated by differences in perceived dominance and affiliativeness of men and women rather than by gender per se..."…
Harris, C. (2005). "Facial expressions, smile types, and self-report during humour, tickle, and pain." Cognition & Emotion, Vol. 19, Issue 5.
Hess, U. (2005). "Who may frown and who should smile? Dominance, affiliation, and the display of happiness and anger." Cognition & Emotion, Vol. 19, Issue 4.
Venezia, M. (2004). "The development of anticipatory smiling." Infancy, Vol. 6, Issue 3.
Zaalberg, R. (2004). "Relations between emotions, display rules, social motives, facial behaviour." Cognition & Emotion, Vol. 18, Issue 2.
Communication is defined as both, the imparting or exchanging of information or news, and it is the successful conveying or sharing of ideas and feelings. The methods of communication can be verbal or non-verbal. In particular, the latter is known as demonstrative communication, which includes, the use of facial expression, body language, appearance, and various gestures to convey how he or she feels.
Non-verbal communication is might be used to reinforce verbal communication or as a form of communication on its own. For example, when introducing oneself to other, it might not be enough to just say hello but he or she may add to it a facial expression like a smile or a certain positive and friendly demeanor. As a sender of such demonstrative manner, the receiver will then be able to gauge how to react, which in such situation is positive. In addition, the way a person looks…
Stewart, G. (n.d.). Types of nonverbal communication: Listening Skills. Better business communication results. Retrieved November 6, 2011, from http://www.leehopkins.com/types-of-nonverbal-communication-listening-skills.html
Sutton, N. (n.d.). Pros & Cons of Nonverbal Communication | eHow.com. eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you. | eHow.com. Retrieved November 6, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8117087_pros-cons-nonverbal-communication.html
TANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS MODEL
Communication plays an extremely important role in the success of any organizational culture. How employees and management communicate with and respond to each other is what determines the level and type of communication that exists in the organization. In this connection, Transactional Analysis Model can help in identification of problems/conflicts that exist in communication method and offer useful suggestions. In short TA model can be effectively used to understand and analyze behavior of different organizational members. Transactional analysis Model was developed by Dr. Eric Berne MD in 1960s and it ruled the world of communication theories during the next two decades. It is still used widely to remove communication blocks. Transactional Analysis Model works on two important concepts: a) every person has three sides to his personality and b) when two people communication, one of these sides is evoked leading to a transaction.
It is important…
James, Muriel: Transactional Analysis for Moms and Dads. Addison-Wesley. Reading, 1974
Laurel J. Dunn Communication: Information Conveyed Through The Use Of Body Language, Department Of Psychology, Missouri Western State College, 1999
He listened attentively to my description, and waited until I had finished talking before responding. We maintained eye contact throughout this exchange. The salesman then showed me the range of what they had within my requirements, demonstrating the traits of each model. He accented these traits with explanatory hand gestures. The CR for both myself as customer and the salesman was complete, and thus I feel that the exchange was successful.
Another exchange that I experienced in my capacity as customer was at a cell phone dealer. As above, I entered, and was approached by a young salesman. This person looked nervous, but nonetheless smiled as he introduced himself. He did not shake my hand, but rather invaded my personal space. I must add that the shop was fairly crowded, which did not help to either ease the salesman's nerves or improve my increasingly irritated disposition. I however tried to…
Smeltzer, Larry R., Leonard, Donald J., and Hynes Geraldine E. Managerial Communication: Strategies and Applications. Second Edition. Boston: MacGraw-Hill Higher Education
Smeltzer, Leonard & Hynes 167
Smeltzer, Leonard & Hynes 47
Smeltzer, Leonard & Hynes 43
For example, the way a person tells a child about the weather is different than the way that same person would tell a stranger or a mother or a friend about it. Clarity entails clear words, diction, and a non-sarcastic tone of voice. Avoiding hyperbole (exaggeration), bias, and other blocks to clarity will help any health care professional work better with their coworkers and with the patient population.
I will do everything I can to keep my communications clear, open, and honest. Keeping in mind that clear communications are the hallmark of any healthy relationship will remind me to cultivate clarity in all my interactions with patients as well as coworkers. In fact, communications among coworkers can be as important as those between doctors and patients. Types of medications and treatments being used, allergies, and other information needs to be relayed accurately because human lives are at stake. Because patients'…
Communication theory is described as any systematic explanations of the nature of the communication process. It's important for businesses and organizations to understand communication theory because they can't accomplish their objectives and goals without effective communication between workers. Since it focuses on analyzing the processes with which information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, communication theory also focuses on the various ways with which information is transferred from one medium to another.
Generally, communication is regarded as the magical factor that can guarantee a happy long-term relationship and organization success (Dainton, 2004). It's an important factor within the Navy, particularly in the Casualty Assistance Calls section since this section deals with helping sailors who have suffered a casualty. Therefore, it's important for the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer to possess effective communication skills because his/her main duty is to provide information, resources, and assistance in the event of a…
Brown, J.M. (n.d.). How Can Cultural Differences Affect Business Communication? Retrieved
December 20, 2011, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-cultural-differences-affect-business-communication-5093.html
Dainton. (2004, September 16). Introduction to Communication Theory. Retrieved December
20, 2011, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4983_Dainton_Chapter_1.pdf
acism in the United States is often seen as the methodical oppression of African-Americans and other people of color and the related ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. These two aspects of racism have influenced the U.S. society from the early 1600's until the present (Bohmer 1998). It all comes down to everyone being different and people being unable to accept these differences.
I have often found myself when choosing people to date letting the fact of whether these people had any college education or not influence my decision on who to go out with and who not to. After evaluating that way of thinking, I have come to the realization that this is just silly and that this factor should not be something that I take into the equation when deciding who to go out with.
Effective communication occurs mainly at an unconscious level and this…
Bohmer, P., 1998, Marxist Theory of Racism and Racial Inequality, Available at:
Effective Communication Skills, 2009, Available at: http://www.maximumadvantage.com/
Horton, J, 2008, Why Looking Different Upsets Many People: Evolution, Available at:
Employees become frustrated and develop negative views concerning management. Any animosity that the employee may exhibit could result in workplace violence. If employees are terminated or laid off under such conditions, resentment could lead to violence (Chenier 1998)." stressful work environment can also lead to poor service and customer dissatisfaction (aner 1995). In severe cases, problems communicating in the workplace can lead to the demise of a business or enterprise. Therefore, it is vitally important that workplace communications problems are addressed in a timely and appropriate manner. Over the next few paragraphs, we will discuss how communication problems in the workplace can be resolves.
Resolving Communications Problems in the orkplace
Stoppler (2005) explains that problems communication in the workplace will always exist to some extent. Therefore, managers and employees alike must find ways to resolve these conflicts. The author argues there are ten ways that communication problems in the workplace…
Brownell, J. (1994). Managerial listening and career development in the hospitality industry. Journal of the International Listening Association, 8, 31-49.
Carmichael, K. (1996). Conceptualizing Business Communication. The Journal of Business Communication, 33(3), 327+. Retrieved Chenier E. (1998) the Workplace: A Battleground for Violence. Public Personnel Management. Page Number: 557.
Cooper, L.O. (1997). Listening Competency in the Workplace: A Model for Training. Business Communication Quarterly, 60(4), 75+..
This is exacerbated by the problem that Carmen is close friends with the owner Kenneth. Kenneth has a similar conflict management style to Carmen. He can be extremely nice when dealing with people casually, but whenever a problem arises like Carmen he makes excuses, avoids the problem, tries to pass it on to someone else, or resorts to texting or faxing messages rather than confronting complaints. Their favorite 'nonverbal' communication strategy is simply not being there.
A failure to listen is one of the most common workplace communication problems. "When people or groups are in conflict, communication between them tends to get worse and worse. As a conflict escalates, people limit their direct contact with people on the other side, because such conflict is uncomfortable or threatening….Eventually all direct communication between parties may be cut off. Sometimes, communication is cut off in protest" (Lack of communication channels/avoided communication, 2005, OTPIC).…
Craig, Suzanne. (2012). What restaurants know (about you). The New York Times. Retrieved:
Lack of communication channels/avoided communication. (2005). Online Training Program
on Intractable Conflict (OTPIC). Retrieved:
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…
Center for Nonviolent Communications. "Founder." Retrieved online: http://www.cnvc.org/about/marshall-rosenberg.html
There is only so far Google Translate can take a person hoping to achieve social harmony across cultures. Language barriers are enhanced, and exacerbated, by the differences in non-verbal communication across cultures. Whether for business or personal interactions, non-verbal communications characterize a culture's values and social norms. This is why places like Sweden feel completely different from places like Saudi Arabia; and places are dramatically different in terms of how the society is structured, who is in power, and what norms govern behavior. Understanding the complex facets of cross-cultural communication can greatly enhance a travel experience, or a business interaction.
Of the innumerable sociological and anthropological frameworks used to understand and explain cross-cultural differences in communication, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions are among the most useful and well used. Power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term vs. short-term orientation, and indulgence vs. restraint are important and…
In a travel article about Stockholm, Alford (2012) relates tales that reveal the unique communication styles of Sweden. These styles can be conceptualized in terms of Hoftstede's cultural dimensions. For example, Swedish society has quite a low power distance; its culture is not hierarchical and is self-defined as being "socialist" in spirit (Alford, 2012, p. 2). Moreover, as Alford (2012) points out, most people in Stockholm also have a cabin in the woods or on an island -- highlighting the relatively flat social structure that has a low distance between haves and have-nots (p. 2). The power distance factor in Sweden can be readily compared to more hierarchical societies, such as India, in which the haves and the have-nots are separated by wide and usually insurmountable chasms. Even the United States has a higher power distance factor than does Sweden, as many Americans are fundamentally opposed to social institutions and structures that generate equality such as free higher education for all citizens, and free healthcare funded by taxpayer dollars. As American onlooker Alford (2012) describes it, " New parents get 480 days of parental leave?! Everyone I talk to seems to have a summer house on an island?!" (p. 2).
As Allwood (1999) points out, Sweden shares many communication traits in common with other Nordic countries like Finland. However, there are a few culture-specific variables that should be taken into account to better understand non-verbal communication patterns. One is specific to social gatherings in which alcohol is involved. Allwood (1999) notes that in Sweden, it is customary for each guest to bring and drink his or her own alcoholic beverages rather than expect the host to provide it. Moreover, the guests will not start drinking until a communal toast has been proposed (Allwood, 1999). This is somewhat similar to the Jamaican custom of not starting to eat at a party until the host makes an invitation to do so; which is ironic given the informal nature of Jamaican communication styles in general ("Jamaica: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette," n.d.). Swedes appreciate informality, but do not appreciate superficiality in terms of conversation topics and styles ("Sweden: Conversation," 2009).
Allwood (1999) also notes that Swedish teaching styles are noticeably different from those in other cultures including other Nordic cultures. There is less authoritarian teaching styles in
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.
The cultural space that I visited and covered was a state-tour musical concert attended by close to 5,000 people at all concert locations. I showed up on three occasions. The interactions between attendees were lively and varied. Various verbal and non-verbal aspects could be picked up. Some of the non-verbal communication setups I observed included, but they were not limited to, shaking of hands, gestures, hugging, touching, and even facial expressions. Aspects of verbal communication identified were proximity and eye contact. In this discussion, I will concern myself with proximity.
In essence, in non-verbal communication, proximity has got to do with the distance communication participants keep between each other during the conduct of their interactions. In the three concerts I attended, the distance people kept between each other varied. For instance, as the concert commenced, there was an observed shorter distance between friends and people who appeared to…
Communication and Culture
An Analysis of the Dangerous Effects of New Communication Technology on Society
Technology is making communication easier in today's world, but often at the expense of personal contact as many people choose to socialize in front of a computer screen. What dangers are there for a society which depends on computer screens rather than face-to-face contact for its main means of communication? This paper will analyze the effects of today's communication technology (social media, chat rooms, networking) on society and culture.
Michel Metz (1995) argues "that cultures are both possible and prevalent among communities connected only by computer as the preferred mode of communication" (p. 1). But Metz is writing perhaps too soon. The explosion of social media in the 21st century has essentially redefined the way we communicate and form relationships -- which no longer require face-to-face encounters; they can exist globally, with face-to-face simulation offered…
Bugeja, M. 2005, Interpersonal Divide: the search for community in a technological
Age, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Causes of Divorce in Saudi Arabia 2009, Available from http://home-
family.top54u.com/post/Causes-of-Divorce-in-Saudi-Arabia.aspx [Accessed 3 Sept 2011].
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…
Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/
Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/
Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
nonverbal behavior has James made?
From the case study provided, there are various mistakes of James' own nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal behaviors such as emotions, attitudes and personality traits come clear from his conversation with Bob Croze. For instance, when Bob tells James that he was late and therefore he had already placed an order with one of James' competitors, James conveys his attitudes and expresses his emotions by increasing his voice in speed and pitch as well as, rising up ready to leave. This shows that James was not happy with Bob since he had placed an order with his competitor.
Cite at least 3 examples, explaining James' nonverbal behaviors and the messages they sent.
Expressing emotion (For example, James not happy with Bob, and so increases his voice in speed and pitch)
Conveying attitudes (For example, crossing arms and legs while talking to Bob)
Demonstrating personality traits (For example,…
Cherry, K. (2014). Types of Nonverbal Communication. Major Nonverbal Beahviors. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com/od/nonverbalcommunication/a/nonverbaltypes.htmFind a website by URL or keyword...
Hallett, T. (2014). Body Language: Understanding Non-Verbal Communication. Body Language. Retrieved July 20, 2014, from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/Body_Language.htm
communications in a business setting compromise the work of that business, a solution must be found for the benefit of the company and of all who work there. Problems can arise when employees whose tasks require written communications skills are deficient in those skills. Problems can arise also when employees are expected to both understand and explain matters verbally and nonverbally.
The cure for the first problem could be as simple as sending the employee in question for writing instruction.
The cure for the second is, however, much less straightforward. The problem might arise because of the use, or misuse, of strategic ambiguity either by the employee exhibiting the problem, or by managers and colleagues who deal with her. Or it might be caused by an unrecognized personal problem of the employee, for example, a drinking/drugs problem or a cognitive disability of short or long duration. This paper looks at…
Ames, Genevieve M., Joel W. Grube, and Roland S. Moore. 'The relationship of drinking and hangovers to workplace problems: an empirical study." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 58, no. 1 (1997): 37+.
Cooper, Lynn O. "Listening competency in the workplace: a model for training." Business Communication Quarterly 60, no. 4 (1997): 75+.
Crombie, Winifred, and Helen Samujh. "Negative messages as strategic communication: a case study of a New Zealand company's annual executive letter." The Journal of Business Communication 36, no. 3 (1999): 229.
Krider, Diane S., and Peter G. Ross. "The experiences of women in a public relations firm: a phenomenological explication." The Journal of Business Communication 34, no. 4 (1997): 437+.
In general, communication refers to the sharing of ideas by transmitting those ideas from at least one individual to at least one other individual. Communication can involve several different mediums: it includes verbal transmission of ideas, visual transmission of ideas, and it can involve both deliberate and unintentional or even unconscious transmission of ideas. Communication is not necessarily limited to same species either: individuals from different species often communicate using postures, mannerisms, and sounds that are universally associated with particular concepts, such as aggression and dominance or submission and fear, among many others.
What is the purpose of communication?
Communication has many different purposes. Most generally, it is intended to allow another individual to understand the state of mind of another individual. That state of mind may include myriad different ideas such as aggression, non-aggression, interest, non-interest, possessiveness over resources, and even deception, such as in the case of…
effective communication in the criminal justice profession. Good verbal and nonverbal communication is essential in every area of the criminal justice system, and developing good communications techniques is essential for criminal justice professionals. These skills can be used with other professionals, in interrogations, and in just about every aspect of a criminal justice career.
The process of effective verbal and nonverbal communication between criminal justice professionals entails everything from writing case decisions in the judicial setting, to writing police reports, internal communications, public relations material, and communications regarding cases, interviews of suspects, and much more. All of these communications between professionals follow a process of information being found, verified, and used to advance the field or the case in some way. It also uses primary and secondary sources for the information, and the process also entails several stages in the information flow. These stages are informal discussion, formal reports, exchange…
Heilman, K., & Lawson, K.M. (2000, December). Facilitating communication. Corrections Today, 62, 84.
Shadow, M. (2008). Improving nonverbal communication in criminal justice. Retrieved 1 Oct. 2009 from the Socyberty.com Web site: http://socyberty.com/law/improving-nonverbal-communication-in-criminal-justice/ .
hether or not a man shaves, and general grooming patterns including smells can reveal a lot about a person's lifestyle, the message they are trying to send about themselves, and the impression they are trying to make on others.
2. Office arrangements can have a direct bearing on the ways people interact and communicate. The office divided into cubicles with low walls allows coworkers to interact verbally and nonverbally, such as through eye contact, smiles, or waves. Such an office gives off a general impression of being social, encouraging interactions between employees during and after work. Other offices with regular walls dividing cubicles or with separate rooms promote a more independent working environment in which socializing or communicating with coworkers is discouraged. Especially when doors are kept closed, coworkers will not feel encouraged to socialize after work or even during the work day. However, favorable impressions with regard to professionalism…
Exploring Nonverbal Communication." Retrieved Sept 29, 2006 at http://nonverbal.ucsc.edu
Whether or not we are experts in technical fields, practically all contemporary business communications require the ability to communicate similar ideas to audiences with different comprehension levels about our topic. In that respect, Zeltser's article is helpful to a very wide audience.
Another useful source of information about communications skills is the article titled "Nonverbal Communication Tips: Improve Your Nonverbal
Communication Skills with these Tips" by About.com contributing writer Kendra Cherry (2012). Cherry explains the importance of understanding nonverbal communications in face-to-face interactions. Those skills may be especially important to practice in an age where so much of our interpersonal communications take place via a digital medium.
Communications Skills Self-Assessment
In college, the majority of our graded academic assignments involve the formal written expression of ideas (such as on examinations and in out-of-class writing assignments). As a result, it is likely that we receive much better feedback and constructive criticism…
Cherry, K. (2012). Top 10 Nonverbal Communication Tips: Improve Your Nonverbal
Communication Skills with these Tips. Accessed online
September 5, 2012
He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?
Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.
QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one…
Skilss in Interpersonal, Group and Organizational Communications
The objective of this study is to examine interpersonal communication and spoken skills. This work will examine communication skills using the theories of Pragmatic Perspective, Psychological Perspective, Social Constructionist, and social responsibility theory. Trenholm (2008) states that communication "is very important to everyone. One form of communication that occurs among individuals is known as interpersonal communication. Interpersonal communication is a term "reserved for two-person, face-to-face interaction and is often used interchangeably with the term dyadic communication."
Interpersonal Communication: Speaking and Listening Skills
Interpersonal communication can be understood as the interaction that takes place between individuals and concerns the deliver and receipt of information or a message. Involved in interpersonal communication are listening as well as nonverbal forms of communication and speaking. Listening is the capacity to both understand and provide appropriate response to what others are saying. Listening requires the evaluation of what…
Pearce, WB (nd) Communication and Social Construction: Claiming our Birthright. pp. 33-56 in Wendy Leeds-Hurwitz and Gloria Galanes (Eds). Socially Constructing Communication. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press. 2009.
Ramaraju, S. (nd) Psychological Perspective: Interpersonal Communication. Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce. Retrieved from: http://www.researchersworld.com/vol3/issue4/vol3_issue4_2/Paper_09.pdf
Suresh, K. (nd) Theories of Communication CHAPTER 2: Retrieved from: http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesch/mass/mass2.html
Tips for Communication Skills with Groups. About Leaders. Retrieved from: http://www.aboutleaders.com/tips-for-communication-skills-with-groups/
Voice Thread Scenario
Team formation and communication
Regular meeting among the team members are inevitable for the team to accomplish the vision they have. In the process, communication will be central to making things happen and non-verbal communication, though ignored by many, is important especially from the team leader. The non-verbal cues or communication include body gesture, body postures, tone of voice, eye movement, pauses among other (Colta A.S., 2015). These help to convey the real intention of the speaker or leader in the team, they also help the team members to identify with the concept being presented by the speaker since the non-verbal cues are known to communicate more than the verbal cues. The nonverbal cues are also important for the leader since they help attract the empathy of the team members who may not easily identify with the verbal communication.
The informal communication structure also plays a key…
Electronic communication such as texting and emailing are not as effective as talking face-to-face with someone.
Premises/Data: Studies have showed that without face-to-face interaction, the lack of nonverbal cues, facial emotions prevents successful communication and hinders growth in a relationship. One study of preteens at a summer camp found that with just five days without electronics, the children showed improvement in there nonverbal communication skills (Uhls et al., 2014). We already know that non-verbal communication is a significant portion of communication, that when presented with a person face-to-face, as little as 7% of communication was verbal (Yaffe, 2011). Thus, these preteens were improving immediately their ability to comprehend what is in many cases the majority of communication messages.
Studies of virtual teams have found that people are even inclined to interpret email text for non-verbal messages. The problem with doing so is that we tend to use shorthand for…
Bitti, P. & Garotti, P. (2011). Nonverbal communication and cultural differences: Issues for face-to-face communication over the Internet. face-to-face Communication Over the Internet. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Cheshin, A., Rafaeli, A. & Bos, N. (2011). Anger and happiness in virtual teams: Emotional influences of text and behavior on others' affect in the absence of non-verbal cues. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Vol. 116 (1) 2-16.
Uhls, Y., Michikyan, M., Morris, J., Garcia, D., Small, G., Zgourou, E. & Greenfield, P. (2014). Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues. Computers in Human Behavior. Vol. 39 (Oct 2014) 387-392.
Yaffe, P. (2011). The 7% rule, fact, fiction or misunderstanding. Ubiquity Vol. 2011 (Oct) 1-5.
Effective Communication in the Age of Technology: The Importance of Oral Communication in the Business Environment
The role that communication plays in the business environment is vital, since it keeps an organization knowledgeable about each member and/or department's activities and accomplishments. Furthermore, it allows members to become aware of other members of the company, although interaction may not be possible for all members and the organization's departments. Indeed, Henri Fayol has elucidated on the important function of communication in business: "In dealing with a business matter or giving an order which requires explanation to complete it, usually it is simpler and quicker to do so verbally than in writing. Besides, it is well-known that differences and misunderstandings which a conversation could clear up grow more bitter in writing. Thence it follows that, whenever possible, contacts should be verbal; there is a gain in speed, clarity and harmony."
Kreitner, R. (1995). Organizational Behavior. Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
Nonverbal Communication: Public Observations
Perhaps the most striking difference between men and women in terms of their nonverbal communication is their use of personal space. Riding on a bus or in a waiting room, males tend to spread out, sometimes taking up two seats or more. It is not unusual to see a male with his legs open and hands dangling between them. This looks almost like a challenging posture, even if he is apparently relaxed and not being openly threatened.
In contrast, even a woman who seems confident and is casually dressed in jeans will often assume a contained posture in a similar public environment. She will cross her legs, thereby making herself smaller, rather than occupying even her full allocation of space. In the waiting room I observed, I noticed that when a woman sat next to a man she would often be particularly intent upon squeezing her…
The study of kinesics, or body language, supplements an understanding of human communication. Often it is not the content of speech, but the gestures and symbols accompanying speech that convey meaning. During a visit to a Starbucks at a local mall, I observed that emblems, illustrators, regulators, adapters, and affect displays are ubiquitous.
According to Gibbon (1998), emblems are "gestures that can be used instead of speech," which have a "direct verbal translation," and are "known by almost everybody in the group," (p. 1). The emblems most often noticed during my observation at the Starbucks at the mall were the two head-shaking emblems that indicate "yes" and "no." Shaking the head up and down indicates yes, viewed when the clerk asked people questions to which they answered in the affirmative. On the other hand, shaking the head from left to right would indicate a negative response to a question.…
Gibbon, D. (1998). Categories of gestures. Retrieved online: http://coral.lili.uni-bielefeld.de/Classes/Winter97/PhonMM/phonmm/node43.html
"Kinesics, AKA Body Language," (n.d.). Nonverbal Communication for Educators. Retrieved online: http://www.creducation.org/resources/nonverbal_communication/kinesics.html
Communication, particularly in a global economy is critical to success. Communication allows individuals to discuss ideas and notions in a common language and format. It allows for the exchange of ideas that can ultimately help improve the well being of an individual, a company, or society overall. The healthcare industry is no different in this regard. In fact communication is paramount to the success of the industry overall. Management must be able to properly disseminate information to subordinates to drive both profitability and service. Subordinates must be able to freely communicate findings or ideas that can help improve the healthcare facility overall. Management must be able to listen to recommendation to guide the overall direction of the healthcare firm. As such, communication skills are a key competency for a nurse manager.
To achieve better communication skills one must first practice communicating. It is through this practice that I personally developed…
1) Schramm, W. (1954). How communication works. In W. Schramm (Ed.), The process and effects of communication (pp. 3 -- 26). Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press
Communication Skills Needed for Effective Collaboration
Communication is the process of relaying information from the source to the recipient. The essential elements in a communication process include the message, channel, encoder and the decoder. The message is the intended information that is passed by the communicator to the listener. From the source, the message is made meaningful through the encoder. Once the message reaches the other end of the communication channel, it gets meaning to the recipient when has passed through the decoder stage (Agarwal, 2010). This also means that the message can be made use of once the message passes through all these stages.
The audience cannot make much out of the communication because of a breakdown. The reasons for these include inappropriate message, wrong medium used as well as presence of detractors in the channel of communication.
The audience has a difficulty following the communication…
Agarwal, O. (2010). Effective communication (Rev. ed.). Mumbai [India: Himalaya Pub. House.
Decker, B. (2007). How to communicate effectively. London: Kogan Page
Mambert, W. (2013). The elements of effective communication; idea, power, tactics. Washington: Acropolis Books.
McQuail, D. (2011). Communication. London: Longman.
Communication and Perception Processes
Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions
Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Barriers / Noise
Environmental noise- physical noise
Semantic noise- noise in encoding process
Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages
Physical context- environmental factors
Psychological context- mental and emotional factors
Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
Carey, J. (Unk). "A cultural approach to communication." Communication as culture.
Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Northern Illinois University website: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/gunkel/coms465/carey.html
"Communication and Perception Processes." (Unk.) In, A primer on communication studies, pp.
1-21. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Lardbucket website: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/a-primer-on-communication-studies/s01-02-the-communication-process.html
3. If you feel threatened by what the other person has to say, take a break and formulate a reasoned response later.
IV. The third sign of miscommunication is not appreciating differences in communication styles.
A. The popular book Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus illustrates some different communication styles.
1. Although the differences are not necessarily related to gender, they are related to healthy relationships in general.
2. Some people prefer long periods of silence, while others like to talk a lot.
3. Some people need frequent positive feedback.
B. especting the other person's unique needs is crucial for healthy relationships.
1. When in doubt, ask the other person what they need from you to be a better communicator.
2. Be patient; it takes time to learn what the other person needs
3. Become more aware of your own communication styles and express what they are.
Duerksen, C. (2009). Communication skills for lifelong relationships. Discovery Health. Retrieved Nov 18, 2009 from http://health.discovery.com/centers/loverelationships/articles/communicate.html
Gray, J. (1992). Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. New York: HarperCollins.
"Relationships and Communication" (nd). Better Health Channel. Retrieved Nov 19, 2009 from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Relationships_and_communication?OpenDocument
Communication in a Nursing Environment
This research paper deals with the subject of ensuring effective communication between nursing staff, their patients, and the patient's family. It is proposed that understanding and utilizing body language would be an effective way for a nurse to improve communication.
The nature of communication and of the importance of body language in the communication process was researched, with a focus on how this can be used to assist in communication. ased on the research, it is seen that body language can be used by nursing staff to ensure they send the right message to patients and their families and also to ensure the real message and the real state of patients can be understood.
From the research and its application to nursing and the environment of nursing, it can be seen that body language could be an effective tool in improving communication processes. In turn,…
Ashcroft, Norman & Scheflen, Albert. (1976). Human Territories: How We Behave in Space-Time. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Bolton, Robert. (1987). People Skills. Roseville: Simon and Schuster.
Carnegie, Dale. (1981). How To Win Friends and Influence People. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Friedrich, G.W., O'Hair, D., Wiemann, J.M., & Wiemann, M.O. (1995). Competent Communication. New York: St. Martin's Press.
COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL -- PIESTLEY'S PAADOX
Introduction to Priestley's Paradox
According to Priestley's Paradox, there may be an inverse relationship between the quality of communications and the complexity and variety of modern methods of communication (Hodge 1993, 4; Eunson 2008, 17). More specifically, Priestley suggested that the richest and most effective means of communications is the process of face-to-face verbal communication between two individuals. Every additional variable, such as adding more individuals to the communications chain or introducing artificial technological mechanism necessarily reduces the quality and accuracy of the communications process. In principle, therefore, direct face-to-face communications between two people is more effective than direct, face-to-face communications among larger groups of individuals. Likewise, face-to-face communications are preferable to telephonic communications, written communications, and other forms of remote communications (Hodge 1993, 6; Eunson 2008, 18).
Applying Priestley's Paradox to the Educational Environment
Priestley's Paradox is more relevant to the contemporary educational…
Allen, J (Ed) 2004, Sociology of Education: Policies and Practice, 3rd ed. Thomson
Learning, Australia, Victoria
Dufficy, P 2005, Designing Learning for Diverse Classrooms. Primary English Teaching
Incorrect assumptions regarding the utterances of others often lead to negative interactive elements, such as stress, mismatched expectations and miscommunication. This in turn leads to damaged relationships that could otherwise have functioned well with a simple well-directed question.
According to Walters, self-knowledge is as important as self-management in conversation. This can also be accomplished by questioning. Asking oneself questions leads to a greater knowledge of oneself, as well as the ability to better understand others. When understanding oneself by means of targeted questioning, it is easier to understand others through targeted questioning in conversation. The effect of this is often that the speaker feels understood, that the listener is interested in what he or she is saying.
usan RoAne suggests becoming what she calls a "talk target," or a person to whom it is particularly easy to talk. As a talk target, communicate with difficult conversationalists become easy by means…
Fenson, Sarah. "A Crash Course in Communication." Inc. magazine. August, 2000. http://www.inc.com/articles/2000/08/20000.html
RoAne, Susan. "Talk Targets: Becoming a magnet." Inc.magazine. April, 2001. http://www.inc.com/articles/2001/09/23385.html
Walters, Jamie. "Powerful Questions can have a Powerful Effect." Inc.magazine. September, 2001. http://www.inc.com/articles/2001/04/22457.html
Communication and Relationships
Initiation of a relationship is a behavior not unlike other human behaviors. If one takes the perspective of a behaviorist, then identifying the stimulus -- response chains is helpful in determining which variables appear to be most important to certain individuals. Several key variables have been found to play an important role in the initiation of human relationships, including proximity, non-verbal behavior, and physical appearance and attractiveness. The influence and the synergy between these variables in the staging of new relations are discussed further in the sections that follow.
On the street where you live. Assuming that attraction indicates an interest in getting to know a person better, one can assume that there has been some contact between the two people. This proximity is a generally regarded to be a precondition of attraction -- although variants do occur, such as adoration of a movie star from afar…
This value plays a key role in the manner with which the Eskimos interact with each other as well as with other people. This value is taught very early in the life of every Eskimo. In the article published by Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada (2006), this value was explained as, "this belief causes Inuit to often feel a certain degree of discomfort when exercising authority over other Inuit, even if the position they hold necessitates such authority." It is said that Eskimos are not very likely to welcome someone who is trying to direct them and their actions. This value that the Eskimos uphold, plays a crucial role in the way employers act with their Eskimo employees.
The value of leadership is also important to Eskimos. However, leadership is on a different level among Eskimos. Unlike the usual leader who delegates tasks to people, for the Eskimos, the leader…
Eskimo. (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/192518/Eskimo
Alaska: History, Geography, Population, and State Facts. (2007). In Infoplease 2000-2007 Pearson Education. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Infoplease: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108178.html
Fienup-Riordan, a. (1990). Eskimo Essays: Yup'ik Lives and How We See Them. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
Fitzhugh, W. (2004). Eskimo. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/features/croads/eskimo.html#eskimo
From the experiences, I have had in organizations that work to combine autonomy, mastery and purpose, the level of performance goes up and becomes the new norm of corporate performance. The many studies of motivation underscore that when autonomy, mastery and purpose are combined, long-term learning and motivation occur (amsey, 2010). The communication networks and channels within organizations are accentuated and made more effective when these three attributes become the foundation of long-term learning and growth over time.
In conclusion, the culture, incentive, and leadership within a given organization have a major impact on the effectiveness of communication networks and channels within organizations. When there is a transformational mindset about aggregating content, data and information then transforming it from a system of record to competitive advantage, companies can use their expertise to compete more effectively. In many respects, this ability to compete more effectively based on better use of information…
Andriole, S. (2010). Business Impact of Web 2.0 Technologies. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(12), 67.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Billington, C., & Davidson, R.. (2010). Using knowledge brokering to improve business processes. The McKinsey Quarterly,(2), 110.
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
More specifically, because the potential for miscommunication, misunderstanding, and pejorative or other negative interpretations is so much greater in remote communications especially through email (SHM, 2010), the implications of failure to establish trust remotely are even greater. As Yoong (2009) points out, that is largely a function of the fact that genuineness in expressions of cultural awareness and sensitivity (as opposed to patronizing or otherwise insincere) expressions is absolutely crucial.
Sincerity and genuineness are much more difficult to communicate effectively in impersonal communications media (SHM, 2010; Yoong, 2009). Therefore, appropriate expressions and other manifestations of cultural awareness and sensitivity are most appropriately communicated to virtual working groups via two-way video conferencing instead of other less personal methods of communications, notwithstanding the substantive sufficiency or factual accuracy of those expressions in writing, for example (SHM, 2010;Yoong, 2009).
This project relies primarily on a review of secondary research in the…
Douglas, C. And Zivnuska, S. "Developing trust in leaders: an antecedent of firm performance." SAM Advanced Management Journal. Society for the Advancement of Management. 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-177101798.html
George, J.M. And Jones G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Maxwell, J.C. (2007). The 21 Irrefutable Rules of Leadership. Georgia: Maxwell
Additionally, the very peculiar relationship between modern information technologies and the business must somehow be conceptualized if a proper model of knowledge transfer is to be attained. So, while in some cases, technology may serve as an obvious way to optimize the transfer of knowledge and overcome the barriers of routines, these same technologies, in different settings or with different individuals, will create more barriers and less effective routines. The fundamental concern must be attaining an applicable model of knowledge transfer, and perhaps the willingness to employ the idea of replication wherever it can be straightforwardly implemented.
Traditionally, many careers have been subject to gender specific designations. Obviously, numerous broad fields of work like medicine and law have historically been dominated by men, while women have been relegated to secretarial, nursing, or other subordinate positions. In recent decades this trend has come under fire and gender is no-longer widely accepted…
Cohen, M.D. et al. (1996). "Routines and Other Recurring Action Patterns of Organizations." Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 5, No. 3.
Woods, Bob. (2001). "Sharing the Intellectual Wealth." Chief Executive, July.
Cohen, M.D. et al. "Routines and Other Recurring Action Patterns of Organizations." Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1996. Page 683.
Woods, Bob. "Sharing the Intellectual Wealth." Chief Executive, July 2001. Page 20.
Communication in Healthcare: Crucial Conversations
A crucial conversation which I was a part of recently involved an experience which concerned a patient going through end of life care. During this conversation I had to bring to the other nurse's attention the fact that some of her actions were offending the patient and the patient's family and that during this difficult time that really was not acceptable. For example, during the conversation I explained to the nurse that eye contact with this middle eastern ethnic group was supposed to be avoided, as was pointing as both were considered extremely offensive. The other nurse also tried to prevent candles from being lit and folk dishes from being eaten in the room. I explained to her that within this culture it was an inherent and important part of the ritual of death and a way to honor the dying. It was apparent that…
Crib, A. View in a new window. (2011). Integrity at work: Managing routine moral stress in professional roles. Nursing Philosophy. 12, 119-127.
Grossman, S., & Valiga, T. (2009). The new leadership challenge: Creating the future of nursing
(4th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
Maxfield, D; Grenny, J. (2012) The Silent Treatment. Retrieved from AORN & ACCN:
For instance, doctors usually tend to show the real situation through their facial expressions.
According to Smith,
There are no occurring contradictions as signs of body expressions or gestures are understandable to the family members"
This kind of example only demonstrates the success of using nonverbal communication. In the case we mentioned, the emotional pain showed by a physician is almost equivalent to telling the real truth to the patient's family about the patient's health condition. Here, the flow of information gathered from a nonverbal form is effective because despite of lack of speech, the sender is able to deliver the message that he wants to convey.
The book of Smith (1966) reiterates that the symbols exist in nonverbal communication. Symbols are sometimes used in hospitals to deliver information about a patient. Symbols such as medical symbols cannot be understood by a layman unless they are explained to him by…
Cherry, Colin. On Human Communication. (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 1966).
Gordon, G.N. The Languages of Communication. (NY: Harper & Row, 1969).
Pierce, J.R. Symbols, Signals and Noise. (McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1961)
Rosen, George. The Encyclopedia Ameicana. (CT: Grolier, Inc., 1972).
The Japanese man may fail to make eye contact, mumble his responses, and stand far away from his negotiating opposite, while, in frustration with this apparent diffidence, the Lebanese man may raise his voice, lean across the table, nod vigorously, do anything to raise the energy level of the room, potentially intimidate his opponent, but simply look weak because of his force and high level of animation. The plethora of courses in cross cultural communications show there is a need for future original study and analysis in this area, but it is an area that has not been addressed, except in passing, or in brackets, as of yet.
Describe what you envision as your own contributions to knowledge in these areas.
The use of body language, I believe, must be studied more not only in terms of how it is deployed, but also the question of how mutable it is,…
An interdisciplinary team is formed from a group of health care providers belonging to different fields of health sciences; they work together as a team to bring the best possible outcome for patient. The efficiency of this team is achieved by following three basic steps that include communication, coordination and sharing of responsibilities. In order to provide quality care in primary health care system, the hospitals need to get closely integrated with the whole health service system (Ilyas, 2006).
Who makes up the membership of the interdisciplinary team in this agency?
Members of the interdisciplinary team vary according to the age and the degree of disability of an individual. Main aim of such team is to provide support to the patient in the best possible manner. The interdisciplinary team members of Hospitals at Ontario, includes Physicians, Nurses, Midwife, Dietitian, Pharmacist, Psychologist, Podiatrist, Physiotherapist, Chiropractor and Occupational Therapist. In…
Grech, H. (2012, October 28).Communication Skills in Health Professionals. Map-n.net. Retrieved on January 10, 2013 from http://map-n.net/pastevents/violence%20and%20aggression/Prof.%20Helen%20Grech%20-%20Communication%20Skills%20in%20Health%20Care%20Professionals.pdf
Ilyas, M .(2006).Public health and Community Medicine. Karachi:Time Publisher.
Ontario (2005, July 5). Guide to Interdisciplinary Team Role and Responsibilities.Health.gov.on.ca. Retrieved on January 10, 2013, from http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/fht/docs/fht_inter_team.pdf
Salgado, C.D., Farr, B.M., Hall, K.K. And Hayden, F.G. (2002, March).Influenza in Acute Hospital setting. Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 2(3),145-55
Negotiations and Communications
Negotiation is the art and science of finding a way to agree between two or more groups. All of us know how to negotiate, we do it constantly during our days; between family, friends, colleagues, retailers, etc. Essentially, we are performing a communications duty that is part of group behavior. We use our communications tools -- both verbal and non-verbal, to express a viewpoint, to elicit a response, and to find a way to cooperate. Individuals who wish to improve their negotiating skills have a number of tools they can use. One of these, the Personal Bargaining Inventory, measures the five cognitions and their range of importance to the individual:
Planning -- Anticipation, rehearsal, monitor a plan in advance how conversations will occur.
Presence -- Awareness of the other's reactions, how to change resistance, etc.
Modeling -- Sizing up the environment, paying closer attention to how others…
Doyce, D., Love, R., & Hyer, T. (2004, January). Negotiation Strategies. Retrieved from Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Services: http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-1676/F-198web.pdf
Mitchell, O. (2010, August). Six Secrets from a Professional Speaker on Audience Participation. Retrieved from Speaking about Presenting: http://www.speakingaboutpresenting.com/audience/six-secret-audience-participation/
Richmond, V., & McCroskey, J. (1998). Communication Apprehension, Avoidance and Effectivness. Boston, MA: Alllyn and Bacon.
Schuman, S. (2005, October 28). Conflict, Negotiation and Collaboration. Retrieved from Exedes.com: http://www.exedes.com/NYSCMA-workshop.htm
It is totally unacceptable for men or women to touch each other inappropriately or sexually unless they are in a relationship of some sort, and after a certain age, it is inappropriate for boys to touch girls, except in very neutral or general ways. These norms differ in different cultures, and some cultures are much more closed about touching. For example, in our society, hugging is an accepted way to greet or say goodbye to someone, but in other cultures, that would be inappropriate, so norms differ throughout the world.
These norms are established through culture and society. Each culture raises their children differently, so they learn tactile communication differently. Some cultures are extremely open to touching and non-verbal communication, while others are more reserved. In addition, in any culture, there can be people who are non-tactile, and do not like being touched. The norms for these individuals can be…
Andersen, P.A. (2005). The touch avoidance measure. In the sourcebook of nonverbal measures: Going beyond words, Manusov, V. (Ed.) (pp. 57-63). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Andersen, P.A., & Guerrero, L.K. (2005). Measuring live tactile interaction: The body chart coding approach. In the sourcebook of nonverbal measures: Going beyond words, Manusov, V. (Ed.) (pp. 83-91). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
TASTES & COMMUNICATION
On a recent trip to India, Mr. Yang, a prominent Chinese executive, dined with his client Himanshu Jain. Mr. Yang commented that the food was spicy, which Mr. Jain interpreted as an opportunity to discuss Indian cuisine. After lengthy explanations, Mr. Yang commented again that the food was spicy. What happened? What barrier is likely getting in the way of clear communication and how could this barrier have been overcome?
This situation exemplifies a breakdown in crosscultural communication. There could have been several factors that contributed to their miscommunication. Language is likely a prominent factor in why they had a problem. Certainly, they must share some common language in order that they conduct business together, but because this cultural conundrum stems from a linguistic misfire, language barriers are a good place to start. There also seems to be some contextual confusion. Yang perceived his comment…
Rentz, L.F. (2008). Chapter 16 -- Techniques of Cross-Cultural Communication. Business Communication: Making Connections in a Digital World, 11th Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Computer-mediated communication has "revolutionized social interaction," (Georgakopoulou, 2011, p. 93). On some days, I communicate with others more with digital devices than in person, such as days I am home studying. Instead of using the phone or talking in person, I will use messenger apps or email. Social media is also an important type of computer-mediated communication. It matters because of the ways technology transforms the nature of communication. The term "mediation" refers mainly to the means by which a message is transmitted (Thurlow, Lengel & Tomic, 2004, p. 18). When we are in person or even on the phone, our brains can pick up a slew of cues, such as tone of voice, pauses in the person's speech, pace of speaking, and other forms of non-verbal communication. We detect tone and emotion in body language, eyes, and timbre of voice. These cues are all absent in computer-mediated communication, with…
Facilitated communication is widely under scrutiny and doubt owing to the fact that one cannot ascertain the authorship of the typed messages. FC, as it is commonly known, is designed to assist a person with autism to communicate by use of a message board or even an electronic device. The procedure involves a facilitator supporting the hand or other body organ of the affected person with the intention of assisting them to point to letters or type on a provided display to formulate messages. The intention of the physical contact is to provide support for the body organs and give stabilization and to enable them to slow down. It is also meant to assist such a person draw away from the keyboard before choosing the next letter. osemary Crossley is credited for introducing the method for the first time in the 70s in Australia. It was first used to handle…
American Psychological Association. (1994). Resolution on facilitated communication by the American Psychological Association. Adopted in Council, August 14, 1994, Los Angeles, Ca.
Supporting school age students on the autism spectrum. (2014). Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.positivepartnerships.com.au/en/fact-sheet/facilitated-communication-autism