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esearch Databases - Nursing
The incidence and mortality rates for stroke differ markedly along racial lines, with African-Americans having a much higher risk of stroke and death from stroke compared to Whites (Howard, 2013). Approximately 40% of this difference can be explained by the variables included within the Framingham Stroke isk Score, while another 10% can be explained by socioeconomic status. Other contributing factors probably include differential health care access and quality. Accordingly, the Surgeon General of the United States (2014) recently issued a statement describing government actions being taken to reduce health disparities and published a list of recommendations for providers. Among these recommendations are focusing on at-risk communities, improving care access and quality, improved provider training, and better evaluations of stroke risk among minorities. For these reasons I have chosen to focus on stroke incidence and mortality in African-Americans.
270 words for each database
Database #1:…… [Read More]
The background checks can take months and months, so they're walking around with a card in the meantime & #8230;That's why so many of these airport employees are arrested so long after the fact, and are continuing to be arrested in sweeps by the Justice Department. When the information finally
does come back, they see they've got somebody out there that has a felony and lied on his application, or has a warrant out, or is in the country illegally"
Civil ights Issues in Passenger Screening
While the security protocols in relation to typical potential "weapons" in the possession of passengers are fundamentally flawed, federal authorities working with British security services did identify a specific threat in 2006 that precipitated necessary precautions against more than a certain amount of liquid allowed per passenger. Unlike the other senseless concern over nail files and cosmetic scissors, this precaution was justified…… [Read More]
These words, 'necessary and proper,' in such an instrument, are probably to be considered as synonymous. Necessarily, powers must here intend such powers as are suitable and fitted to the object; such as are best and most useful in relation to the end proposed. If this be not so, and if congress could use no means but such as were absolutely indispensable to the existence of a granted power, the government would hardly exist; at least, it would be wholly inadequate to the purposes of its formation. 17 U.S. 316, 324-325.
Furthermore, the Court firmly established the supremacy of the Federal government, by determining that state action could not impede the Federal government's valid exercise of power. The Court determined that:
The constitution, therefore, declares, that the constitution itself, and the laws passed in pursuance of its provisions, shall be the supreme law of the land, and shall control all…… [Read More]
The bottom line on ethical behavior for "civilian" agencies of the Bush Administration is that since September 11, 2001, they can follow what laws they want to, ignore what laws they want to, and even write their own laws that serve their unethical interests. Since the terrorist attacks of 2001, it is clear that Congressional oversight is very much subject to what the executive branch decides is acceptable, not what federal law requires.
Eggan, Dan. "Bush Authorized Domestic Spying." ashington Post 16 Dec. 2005, Retrieved July 30, 2006, at http://www.washingtonpost.com.
Fuchs, Meredith, & Blanton, Thomas. "CIA Claims the Right to Decide hat is News." The National Security Archive, 14 June, 2006. Retrieved July 30 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20060614/index.htm.
Hersh, Seymour M. "National Security Dept. Listening In." New Yorker 82.15 (2006): 24-25.
The National Security Agency. "Organization and Management / Overview." Retrieved July
31, 2006, through The National Security Archive, http://www.gwu.edu/.…… [Read More]
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 there has been a significant effort to protect America from any further terrorist attacks. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the U.S. National Security Agency's ability to identify and monitor the communications of terrorists and prevent terrorism from occuring. The research will also investigate how the implications of employing these techniques for foreign intelligence surveillance suggests that the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ("FISA") is inadequate in addressing recent technological developments. These developments include the transition from circuit-based to packet-based communications; the globalization of communications infrastructure; and the development of automated monitoring techniques, including data mining and traffic analysis. The research will also focus on how FISA is challenged by technological developments.
The Monitoring of Communications
The National Security agency was created to "protect U.S. national security systems and to produce foreign signals intelligence information." The strategic plan of the…… [Read More]
Terrorist is Created:
Terrorist acts are usually motivated by two major reasons i.e. The belief that violence or its threat will be suitable in contributing to change and social and political injustice. Throughout history, many terrorists have stated that they chose violence because they felt they had no alternative after long deliberations. In this case, these terrorists have considered violent acts justify the ends following long deliberations. Notably, there are various factors that contribute to the development and recruitment of terrorists, especially political, religious, economic, and cultural conditions. In most cases, the political and social conditions have been considered as the major factors that result in the creation of a terrorist. Through these conditions, people choose terrorism in attempts to right perceived wrongs in their social or political lives. These individuals resort to violence or its threats when they feel that they have been stripped of their land or denied…… [Read More]
This essay reviews the relevant literature to provide a background on Edward Snowden and how his high-profile actions adversely affected the work of the National Security Agency (NSA). An analysis of what the NSA was doing prior to the leaks and how it collects intelligence information now is followed by an examination concerning what Snowden leaked and why. Finally, a discussion concerning whether the U.S. government violated Snowden’s constitutional rights is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue in the conclusion.
Background of the Issue
Beginning in June 2013, Edward Snowden, a computer analyst working for the National Security Agency began leaking thousands of classified documents. These classified documents were disclosed to the Guardian and alleged that the NSA routinely gathered telephonic metadata from telecommunications companies, allowing them to scrutinize American citizens’ Internet activities (Morrison, 2014). According to Francheschi-Bicchierai (2014), among the thousands of…… [Read More]
Abdo's (2013) testimony to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is about the NSA privacy breaches first exposed in depth by Edward Snowden. The speaker accuses the NSA of using intrusive and "in certain respects unlawful" surveillance methods (p. 2). The NSA has also used their surveillance techniques outside as well as inside of the United States. Abdo (2013) speaks directly to the ACLU to outline the scope of the NSA's surveillance program. The overall purpose of the speech is to suggest what role the ACLU can and should play in promoting civil liberties, which is of course the mission of the organization.
Because NSA surveillance is a direct threat to privacy and civil liberties, the subject matter is directly relevant to the core goals of the ACLU. First, the author lists some of the main components of the NSA surveillance program. A few of the components are rooted in…… [Read More]
Some of the violations of civil and human rights that have resulted for the PA include "aggressive deportations, crackdowns at borders, surveillance of mosques and homes...destroyed livelihoods, splintered families and the loss of a sense of belonging and citizenship," the group asserts on their eb site. Moreover, many peace activists, demonstrators at anti-war rallies, animal-rights groups, student organizations, and critics of the U.S. policy towards Cuba, have been monitored and added to FBI and CIA databases as potential "enemies of America."
ID CHIPS: An article in ABA Journal (Tebo, 2006) points out that employees of some companies are being asked to have ID chips implanted in their arms so their employers "can monitor their movements," Tebo writes. And while the company that is using these ID chips, (www.Cityatcher.com) can rightly say absolute security is pivotal to their customers, many experts, the article continues, "worry that the law is not…… [Read More]
S. mainland. The court can reject the procedures only if it finds the plan for complying with the law as "clearly erroneous." The program may also continue for a year although the law is scheduled for renewal in six months. Warrant-less eavesdropping may begin immediately and ahead of the security court approval of the procedures (Savage).
Spur of the Moment and Secret Order
Weeks after the 9/11 attacks, President ush signed a secret order, which authorized NSA to wiretap international phone calls and emails without a court order (Savage 2007).
It was expressly prohibited by the 1978 warrant law. President ush claimed that war-time powers authorized him to bypass that law. In January this year, the Attorney General said that the program was brought under the supervision of the national security court. A judge allowed some form of surveillance to continue. Several months ago, however, another judge ruled that the…… [Read More]
Organized Crime elated Intelligence
Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)
The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…… [Read More]
Blanton, Thomas. (2006, February 4). iretap debate deja vu. National Security Archive.
Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB178/index.htm
Congresswoman calls alleged wiretap 'abuse of power' (2009, April 2009). CNN.com
Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/04/21/harman.wiretap/
Lewis, Neil A. & Mark Mazzetti. (2009, April 20). Lawmaker is said to have aided lobbyists.
The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/21/us/politics/21harman.html?_r=1&em
Maclin, Tracey. (2009). iretapping and electronic surveillance. Law Library.
Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/2323/iretapping-Eavesdropping.html
iretapping and Eavesdropping -- contemporary legal status. (2009). Law Library.
Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/2319/iretapping-Eavesdropping-contemporary-legal-status-wiretapping-eavesdropping.html
iretapping and Eavesdropping - early restrictions on electronic surveillance. Law Library.
Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/2318/iretapping-Eavesdropping-Early-restrictions-on-electronic-surveillance.html
iretapping and eavesdropping - The impact of electronic surveillance on personal privacy.
Law Library. Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009
A…… [Read More]
The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:
- easily approachable
- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information
- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe
- the power for the user to remain…… [Read More]
The amassing of data has become an integral process of life in the 21st century (Nunan and Di Domenico, 2013, p. 2). This fact is partially reflected by the fact that in contemporary times, people are generating much more data than they previously did. Every time someone goes shopping and makes a purchase with a credit card, receives a call or sends a text message, or visits a web site on a computer or downloads information to a mobile phone application, they are generating data. This data is stored and, through sophisticated processes of analytics that involve data mining and even predictive capabilities, is analyzed to determine aspects of consumer, individual, and collective behavior. The generation of these massive quantities of data in the myriad forms such data takes at the rapidity of real-time access is known as big data, which government representatives claim they are analyzing to…… [Read More]
FISA's recent rise to fame has been due to attempts by the Bush Administration to apply the law as justification for warrant-less wiretaps of U.S. citizens in apparent disregard of their Fourth Amendment protections. This issue will be examined in more detail below, however, it is important to first discuss some of the key court cases that help establish the Constitutionality of FISA. Specifically, this report will address three cases that directly feed into the Constitutional requirements of FISA: Olmstead v. U.S. (1928), Katz v. U.S. (1967), and U.S. v. U.S. (1972).
Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)
For the civil libertarian, the case of Olmstead v. U.S. (1928) is a nightmare violation of constitutionally guaranteed Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights. In the case, oy Olmstead was convicted of bootlegging during the Prohibition years of U.S. history. Without obtaining any kind of judicial approval, federal agents placed wiretaps in the building Olmstead…… [Read More]
he growing sophistication of internet, along with advancing abilities of individuals to hack into electronic systems is creating a growing need for improved encryption technology. he internet is becoming a domain all to itself, with its own rules, and requirements. he internet is creating new opportunities for the business and communication industries. It is also creating new demands. he internet is now facing a period in its evolution similar to the period of our country's history of westward expansion, and settlement
Wild Wild West years of the internet have passed with the bursting of the ech bubble in the early 21st century. Now business is building entire enterprises on the net. As hundreds of thousands of dollars change hands based on digital bleeps, the needs for government, business, and individuals to protect their data is becoming of paramount importance. Who will be the exas Ranger's of the internet,…… [Read More]
Agnes Meyer Driscoll
Like Yardley, Agnes Meyer Driscoll was born in 1889, and her most significant contribution was also made during World War I. Driscoll worked as a cryptanalyst for the Navy, and as such broke many Japanese naval coding systems. In addition, Driscoll developed many of the early machine systems. Apart from being significantly intelligent for any person of her time and age, Driscoll was also unusual in terms of her gender. Her interests led her to technical and scientific studies during her college career, which was not typical for women of the time (NA). When she enlisted in the United tates Navy during 1918, Driscoll was assigned to the Code and ignal section of Communications, where she remained as a leader in her field until 1949.
As mentioned above, Driscoll's work also involved remerging technology in terms of machine development. These were aimed not only at creating ciphers,…… [Read More]
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to counter-terrorism frameworks. First, the author is asked to provide a revised framework for the national terrorism prevention and response agencies in the United States. Per the parameters of the assignment, there are to be at least three agencies involved in the revised framework. Subsequent to that, the author is asked to answer to how and when the agencies will interact and why. The author is asked what tools can be used to help the agencies function and do their jobs and that will be included in the framework summary. The author is asked to wrap up the paper by enumerating at least three policy and/or procedural recommendations that should be implemented to make the existing framework gel and function more effectively.
The existing framework for law enforcement and…… [Read More]
The NSA had been illegally investigating several journalists and even violating their privacy by monitoring their telephone use through systems and capabilities designed for use against terrorist suspects only.
Fourth Amendment constitutional rights prohibit any such use of surveillance without judicial authorization, typically, a search warrant or wire tap warrant issued after a formal presentation of evidence and the establishment of probable cause, as required by the original text of the Fourth Amendment (Schmalleger, 2008). According to the accounts published, the NSA specifically targeted journalists known to have been critical of the presidential administration of George . Bush, which may raise other significant constitutional problems even beyond the Fourth Amendment issues (Scmalleger, 2008).
Possible Solutions to Balancing Effective Counterterrorism and the Fourth Amendment:
As pointed out by national security expert Randall Larsen (2007), one of the main problems with the so-called ar on Terror as conceived by the former presidential…… [Read More]
America's War on Terrorism since the attacks of eptember 11th, 2001.
America's war on Terrorism since 9/11 has largely been conducted in intensifying domestic security in all areas. The highlight has been capturing Osama bin Laden, followed by a phased extraction of the American Army out of Iraq. Nonetheless, security alert is on an all-time high and Defense receives a high proportion of fiscal allocation and focus.
government has also stepped up its surveillance system constructing a highly intricate and controversial eavesdropping data-system base that is run by the National ecurity Agency and contains trillions of e-mails, web searches and commercial transactions." (McGregor 2011)). A similar system, on as massive a scale, will almost be complete in an Antonio, Texas. Both of these systems support the NA's headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland and house everything "from records of phone calls to and from Iran to credit card purchases by potential…… [Read More]
Iraq invaded Kuwait. The invasion lasted a few days and on August 8th Iraq announced that Kuwait was its nineteenth province. The same day the invasion began, the United Nations denounced the attack and passed Resolution 660, which condemned the Iraqi invasion and called for immediate and unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait. The United States began mobilizing its military on August 7th.
y the time the UN deadline arrived in January of 1991, The United States had amassed hundreds of thousands of troops in the Persian Gulf Region. The war began on January 17th with bombing sorties. Over the next month, 67,000 sorties would be flown over Iraq. Operation Desert Storm was launched on February 24th, and Coalition ground forces entered the fight. The war was won in less than four days. The cease-fire began on 8am, February 28th. Iraq was defeated and Kuwait was liberated.
In a strategic sense, Operation…… [Read More]
In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.
In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…… [Read More]
This as an important moment in the history of the Cold War because it marked the start of a new series of talks between the Palestinians and the Israeli side. This moment also proved the importance of the State Secretary in relation to the issues of foreign policy and the international community.
At this moment, some of the most important cabinets in the executive concern issues such as internal affairs and job security. These are essential portfolios from the perspective of internal and external factors. The homeland security refers in particular to aspects which take place inside the borders of the U.S. And tackle the threats that are visible on the U.S. territory. There are several departments inside the Homeland Security portfolio. These concern issues of counterterrorism, border security, immigration, or cybersecurity
. Counterterrorism measures are crucial at this moment, especially given the national security advisory which changed to orange…… [Read More]
Meanwhile Congress was reluctant to challenge Bush (members feared being termed "unpatriotic" since Bush argued that the safety of Americans depended on the secret surveillance done by NSA) immediately, but in the past few months Congress (the House Intelligence and Judiciary Committees) has demanded - and in part received - access to internal documents on the wiretapping program. "That access could ultimately help persuade skeptical lawmakers in the House, which so far has rejected the immunity idea, to sign on to the hite House's Plan" (Lichtblau 2008) according to the New York Times.
Indeed the Senate in January 2008 gave immunity for the phone companies that helped the NSA tap phones secretly, which means Verizon, at&T, et al., cannot be sued for assisting the Bush Administration with its warrantless wiretapping program (there are over 40 lawsuits pending over the phone companies' roles in the wiretapping). So here is a case…… [Read More]
He sat on the issue until he was able to retire and then brought the unethical actions into the light. In the meantime, the government through the NSA was amassing significant information about the Internet usage of American citizens. No matter the justification for this action, it cannot be supported ethically. As individuals, we may have nothing to hide, but the erosion of civil liberties and privacy is a dangerous precedent to set. The information gathered today could easily be used against American citizens in the future, should some new justification be conjured up. It is crucial that unethical it behavior is rooted out at every possible opportunity. Only by speaking out against illicit behavior can we operate in the it world with clear consciences.
Gibbs, Mark. "iretapping, histle Blowing and it Ethics." Network orld. 9 Nov. 2007. 28 Nov. 2007 http://www.networkworld.com/columnists/2007/110907backspin.html.… [Read More]
"We have the right to question this situation," Zrihen said in the statement. "The presidency of the EU, which is a central element of the European legislative process, and is supposed to obey the democratic principles, accepts to be sponsored by a private company whose economic interests are directly put into cause by a legislative proposition on the agenda of the Council...Furthermore, knowing that the 'compromise' proposal emanating from the Irish presidency rejects all of the European parliament's first lecture amendments, which corresponds to the demands of Microsoft, there is a feeling of great worry"(Preimesberger, May, 14, 2004).
To conclude with, no one can deny Microsoft's positive impact on Germany, but this mustn't be used as a screen for its reprobatory actions that should be made public by the mass-media according to their gravity.
Ketmann, Steve. "Germany Denies Microsoft an." Wired News. 19 March 2001.
Ketmann, Steve. "MS Denies…… [Read More]
On the other hand, hittaker Chambers was "a contributing editor of Time (...) from 1925 to April 1938, (he) had been a Communist, a writer of radical literature, an editor of the Communist Daily orker. He had also been what was then vaguely known as a Communist courier."
The major starting point of the case was Chambers' disappointment with the communist doctrine and the dual attitude Stalin had when signing the 1939 pact with the Nazi leadership. Therefore, according to Time Magazine, he "abandoned the party in revulsion and despair, and became a determined enemy of Communism." Consequently, outraged by the dramatic turn that the soviet politics had taken, he began expressing his views on the collaborators of the soviet regime in the U.S. It is in this way that Chambers contacted Berle, who, after the discussion he had with the former communist partisan, wrote in his notes from September…… [Read More]
U.S. intelligence refers to some of the most formidable and top intelligence available in the world. The United States has long led the way in the practice of gathering the most up-to -- the minute and esoteric intelligence regarding the actions of other countries, other armies and the other enemies. The current modern age has demonstrated the steady advancement in this regard of a range of sound technological tools which America has harnessed consistently for the effective pursuit of the most current and hard to gather intelligence.
The use of combat drones has been something that America has long used to gather intelligence and to engage in warfare with enemies or suspected enemies. However, in the last 12 months, the usage of drones has steadily decreased. "The number of drone strikes approved by the Obama administration on suspected terrorists has fallen dramatically this year, as the war with al…… [Read More]
Privacy & Civil Liberties
needs to communicate goals to the American public that include protecting the nation against threats to national security, ensuring the safety of citizens, friends, allies, and nations with cooperative relationships (Clarke, 2013). Promote national security and foreign policy interests, including counterintelligence, counteracting, and international elements of organized crime. Protect the right to privacy. Protect democracy, civil liberties, and the rule of law, eliminating excessive surveillance and unjustified secrecy. Promote prosperity, security, and openness in a networked world adopting and sustaining policies that support technological innovation globally and establish and strengthen international norms of Internet freedom and security. Protect strategic alliances that preserve and strengthen strategic relationships, protect those relationships, and recognize the importance of 'cooperative relationships'.
The U.S. government must protect national security and personal privacy that includes Fourth Amendment rights. Risk management should involve the rights to privacy, freedom and liberties on the internet and…… [Read More]
Best Practice Wireless Network Security
Best Practices for Network Security
Wireless network is a technology that relies on radio waves instead of wires in connecting computer devices to the internet. There is a transmitter, with the name wireless access point or gateway, wired into an internet connection, which provides a "hotspot" transmitting the connectivity over radio waves. Hotspot has the capability to identify information, that include an item known as an SSID (service set identifier), that enable computer devices to locate them. For computer and other devices that have been equipped with wireless card as well as have permission to access the wireless frequency can then have the opportunity to connect to the network. There are some computer and other devices that may be able to automatically identify open wireless networks within a particular area, and for some you may be required to locate and enter the information manually like…… [Read More]
Policy Case Study
The author of this report has been asked to act as a consultant for a major security consulting firm. Contained within this report will be several topics that were requested to be covered and thus they will be with the appropriate amount of vigor and detail. The first topic will be a brief overview of the overall legal environment for non-information technology managers when it comes to things like constitutional law, administrative law, civil law, criminal law, due care, due diligence and overall fiduciary duty. Another major topic that will be covered is the applicable information security laws and practices. Next up will be the impact of policies, regulations and laws when it comes to the information security sphere. The next topic, and a very controversial one in the eyes of many, is the Central Intelligence Agency including is practices, what has been in the news about…… [Read More]
ight to privacy has been under attack in recent years from many sources. Issues such as terrorism and technological development has provided an opportunity and an excuse to lessen the protections that have been previously awarded Americans, as well as citizens of a number of other countries, in the name of their own protection. Albeit the threats of terrorism are real, there are also a series of threats that come from the violation of citizens' right to maintain their privacy in their daily activities. It is not only an invasion of privacy from the governments around the world that is an issue, but private organizations are also able to collect an immense amount of intrusive data about their customers or target markets. A legitimate balance between these concerns must be reached and in a timely manner because there is a significant amount of evidence that this balance is uneven and…… [Read More]
Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISA Court)
According to a recent CNN report on surveillance, the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISA Court) is "the most powerful court you have never heard of" (Mears & Abdullah 2014). Because authorization to 'snoop' cannot be given in a public forum, the court was created to approve various National Security Agency requests to spy on private citizens. However, critics contend that the court's lack of transparency means that it "rubber-stamps nearly every National Security Agency request to snoop that it receives" (Mears & Abdullah 2014). Interestingly enough the FISA Court was actually intended introduce at least some accountability and 4th Amendment protections for Americans in the Cold War era when national security concerns had generated highly secretive government entities like the CIA and FBI, both of which functioned with little oversight from Congress or the judiciary. As specified by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (1978)…… [Read More]
Privacy Matters: Introduction to Sociology.
As Glenn Greenwald points out, the Internet has been turned into a tool of mass surveillance, notably with the NSA always lurking and spying on the Digital Era’s best means of communication. To some extent this type of spying and violation of privacy has become accepted as the norm because sociopolitical discourse in the modern era presupposes that there are two types of people in the world, as Greenwald puts it—those who are good (who do not plot against the state) and those who are bad (terrorists who do plot against the state). Those who are good have nothing to hide and therefore should not mind if the state snoops around and peeks into one’s personal messages and private life to make sure you are still one of the good guys. The problem with this is that it is a violation of trust and privacy…… [Read More]
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…… [Read More]
It was also a pivotal tool in discovering the ussian nuclear missile sites that sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The U.S. also gained spy satellites in 1960, and combined with the U-2 and other tools, American technological superiority began to assert itself. The spy satellites were a direct result of rocketry experimentation during and after World War II, and many German rocket scientists transplanted to America helped create the rockets that would launch the satellites. The scope of the intelligence operations was growing, and so were the technological advances that helped the agencies grow and learn more every day.
There are many who believe that factors such as the Cold War may help develop new agencies, but they have little to do with how the agencies evolve. Author Zegat continues, "The truth is that international factors such as the onset of the Cold War may catalyze the…… [Read More]
This software is used to perform common tasks like storage, data back up and data transfers.
Small and medium businesses have embraced this technology because it involves no start up costs (like servers, hard disks, technicians etc.) therefore making it cost effective. Basically payment is based on the storage space taken by the user, again, this makes it user friendly. It may also be referred to as hosted storage.
The flying Organizations
Smart companies are looking at the various aspects of the cloud and pushing some application into the cloud and some into the traditional data center environment. The most significant value of cloud computing is not just the cost benefit but agility for the whole business. This is done by creating an opportunity for firms to upload anything concerning their IT infrastructure to an outside provider. With cloud you only contract for the services you need and at the…… [Read More]
Under Clinton's administration, the CIA was a low-priority issue and American intelligence services became sucked up into the Washington political circles and in useless bureaucracy. Business trumped national security in terms of importance, which is why the CIA reduced the numbers of field operatives like Baer. Fewer officers were trained in local languages and customs in order to infiltrate terrorist organizations before they could wreak havoc. The reduced numbers of field officers meant less intelligence and more potential for terrorists to organize attacks such as September 11.
Most readers will find Baer's book shocking and frightening, given that it will take many years for American intelligence to grow back in stature and effectiveness. Additionally, the CIA's emphasis on technology over people, on business over security, on political correctness over the real and gritty work of a real security officer, might come as a surprise to those who still believe that…… [Read More]
The law enforcement in the U.S.A. today is better equipped to handle the terrorism attacks and any terrorism threats than it was before the 9/11 incidence in America. This is evident in the general ways through which the security measures are implemented in the country and the intricate manner of investigations that take place to counter terrorism.
Due to the nature of the data and information that is needed here, the scientific method employed was statistical data collection. This was due to the fact that there is need to have objective information on the facts surrounding the various arms of law enforcement. The best way to have facts behind the changes that took place after the 9/11 in terms of the quality of training and the number of law enforcement agencies, it was not feasible to conduct interviews among the Americans as they would only give a general…… [Read More]
Airport Screening for Terrorists
There are a variety of reasons why United States security does not profile terrorists, particularly at major national and international venues such as airports. The main reason why terrorists are not profiled in this setting is because it is virtually impossible to devise a neat, categorical description of what a quintessential terrorist is/looks like. It is true that virtually all of the terrorists involved in the destruction of the World Trade Center were Middle Eastern men from the ages of 20 and 40. Does this fact mean that a Middle Eastern man who is 41, for instance, could not be a terrorist? Or perhaps one that is 19? Although the terrorists who destroyed the World Trade Center all fit one neat category, others do not. For instance, the young man from Nigeria who attempted to detonate some sort of homemade explosive while above Detroit was not…… [Read More]
ationalism Politics Impacts Public's View
The six deadly sins in public administration are mandated in Drucker's "The deadly sins in public administration." The first one is to have too great of a "lofty objective" (Drucker, 1980, p. 103) in the aim that a program is trying to achieve. Programs need to have objectives that are specific and not targeted towards some general good. The next one is to incorporate too wide a scope of objectives in programs. It is much better to start out with a finite (or a single) objective and then attempt to move on to another initiative than to do too many things at one time. The third deadly sin is overstaffing. Simply by sending a great number of people to address a problem will never replace adequately thinking through a solution.
The fourth is to not sufficiently test a theory before applying it. Administrators need to…… [Read More]
9/11 and the ITPA
Under the National Security Act of 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was charged with the task of coordinating all national intelligence activities within the U.S. government. One major reason for this change was the failure of coordination and analysis across the intelligence agencies in predicting the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Indeed, so glaring were the failures to 'connect the dots' in determining the intentions of the Japanese that they gave rise to at least as many conspiracy theories as the September 11 attacks, such as the idea that Franklin oosevelt knew about the attack in advance and permitted it to happen so the U.S. would enter the Second World War. In practice, the coordination of intelligence activities never really occurred, and many similar failures occurred in the future, such as the CIA's inability to predict the outbreak of the Korean War or…… [Read More]
Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Debate over the Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Tonkin Gulf Crisis 1964 ranks with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy as events that David Kaiser of the U.S. Naval War College refers to as "controversies in American political history that dwarf all others (Ford, 1997)."
There is evidence that President Lyndon Johnson deliberately lied about the incidents leading to the Vietnam War to ensure that plans for war were supported. However, many opponents of this claim say that this is not so. According to Sedgwick Tourison in the book Secret Army, Secret War and Dr. Edwin Moise's Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War, evidence that Johnson's administration was deceitful is becoming clearer than it was (Ford, 1997).
Today, Tonkin Gulf researchers are still examining the evidence to determine whether or not Johnson's administration intentionally instigated the…… [Read More]
Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements
This paper examines some of the different aspects of the coming worldwide technological totalitarianism and the expanding of it influence. The argument that this is both a conscious and accidental program of influential individuals and organizations carried out through the procedure of reification of philosophical beliefs which are misshapen into institutions, services, technologies policies and in the end, culture. Some experts that have explored this topic believe that by pay no attention to the costs of new technologies, what there may be some kind of loss in the bargain and that it can lean so something that is immeasurable and potentially disastrous. It is obvious that history was not or is not all the way inevitable, however, it is likewise a question of human values in connection to changes that are looked at as being natural. Although there have…… [Read More]
Company's Data Needs
Data protection is an important aspect of modern day businesses and organizations because data is the lifeblood of their business and operations. Some of the major examples of a company's data include financial information, legal records, and customer information. Given the significance of this type of information, it is increasingly critical for a company to protect its data in order to guarantee successful operations. In the recent past, data protection has emerged as a major factor for companies' operations because of the numerous challenges brought by rapid technological advancements. egardless of the size and industry of the company, many organizations experience challenges associated with data backup and recovery ("Data Protection," n.d.). The most appropriate way of dealing with these challenges involves determining a company's data and planning for data needs through effective data security policies and approaches.
The Company's Data
Google Inc. is a search engine company…… [Read More]
e., the company) that has technical control over telecommunications networks and thus technical ability to access communications, versus a party that is duly authorized to actually access those communications via a warrant (Mares, 2002). Although, as is consistent with the British model of legal evolution that relies heavily on interpretation of judicial action and precedent rather than overt legislative action, there have been no new statues issued in the intervening decade. The only other guiding document for law enforcement and judicial authorities to rely on regarding interception activity is a Code of Practice that was issued by the Home Secretary in 2002 (Interception of Communications: Code of Practice, 2002). This document provides more detailed procedural guidance and to some extent interpretation of the IPA.
The table below summarizes the key milestones in the evolution of the United Kingdoms' regulatory regime:
Milestones in the Evolution of the United Kingdom egulatory egime…… [Read More]
Israel collects intelligence on American foreign policy related to Israel and the Middle East, as well as on scientific and technological developments, including those from the private sector. The gathering of intelligence from a foreign ally is neither an unusual nor new practice. Moreover, the United States reciprocates the favor and likewise gathers intelligence on Israel. The Untied States certainly cannot expect Israel or any other nation to refrain from using surveillance, while at the same time gathering intelligence against those very same nations. For Israel, areas of general interest for Israeli intelligence collectors include military and economic policy and of course, intelligence services themselves such as the CIA (Caramela, 2014). Intelligence is used to bolster Israel's own national security, military, and technological capabilities. The methods Israel uses to gather intelligence are varied and range from computer hacking to communications surveillance. easons for gathering intelligence on an ally are…… [Read More]
Traffic Analysis/Homeland Security
One of the biggest challenges currently faced by the Department of Homeland Security is guaranteeing cybersecurity. Each and every day some type of cyber crime occurs. Such crimes have the potential to affect the country's national security. This paper investigates the significance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security. It will look at the importance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security as well as encrypted traffic and its implications to cyber-security. The manner in which the U.S. has handled cybersecurity over the past twenty years and the methods that the government has used in this time period will be discussed. Encrypted mobile messaging applications will also be discussed. At the end of the discussions, solutions are recommended and a conclusion given.
In the recent past, the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) and the DoD (Department of Defense) signed an agreement to enhance the…… [Read More]
It is difficult to assess whether the creation of the Department of Homeland Security has been effective in protection national security. The most obvious issue is that there are a lot of variables at play, and "protecting national security" is a hopelessly vague concept that would have to be operationalized before making such an assessment, in any meaningful empirical way. The DHS was created in 2002 in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The prevailing sentiment at the time was that there were communication failures among different agencies that created gaps in national security, gaps that the terrorists exploited. Agencies that were rolled into DHS included the U.S. Customs Service, INS, the TSA, FEMA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the Secret Service. In that sense, DHS is an amalgam of existing resources, and the main benefit of its creation should have been improved interagency communication (DHS, 2016)
The…… [Read More]
The United States of America's PATIOT Act (formally the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Interpret and Obstruct Terrorism Act) was a hurriedly created legislation against terrorism reacting to the terror attack on September 11, 2001. Little debate and oversight was given to the large, complex law by the Congress and President George W. Bush signed it into law on October 26, 2001. PATIOT offers sweeping surveillance, and search to both domestic officers and foreign intelligence agencies and removes many checks and balances that initially gave the courts the chance to make sure that the powers were never abused. The developing PATIOT and follow-up legislation (Gouvin, 2003) threaten the basic rights of most Americans.
The United States of America PATIOT Act, also known as USAPA brought in several legislative amendments that had a significant increase on the investigative and surveillance powers of…… [Read More]
Contemporary Political Issue: The War on Terror
On September 20th, 2001, President George W. Bush proposed the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign on getting American soldiers out of the Middle East and letting other countries handle the ISIS threat, the war on terror rhetoric out of the White House has continued unabated, with sights now set…… [Read More]
Third, birth control and condoms (for STD control as well) are far more available, as are clinics and a woman's access to birth control. Despite the issues of disease, many young people feel invincible, and especially when relaxing or alchohol is involved, tend to see sexual activity as a process for unwinding, not necessarily a sharing of intimacy between people. In fact, many believe that sex is not the most intimate activity they have with another person. When barriers to behavior fall because of substances, one of the responses is to seek physical pleasure. There are also more pharmaceuticals on the market now that, legal or illegal, enhance or intensify sexual pleasure: the Viagra types for male erection, Esctacy for both, Amyl Nitrate as an additional high, and more (What Drugs have You Used To Enhance Sex?, 2007).
Still, despite almost 50 years of Women's Liberation, Sex Education classes, more…… [Read More]
In practice, the use of various provisions of PL 107-56 did not conform to required protocols, demonstrated the difficulty of ensuring proper adherence to intended safeguards against misuse, and, in fact, included numerous instances where government agents misused provisions intended to address terrorism for acts of political persecution and to intimidate public critics of the U.S. government (Huffington Post, 2009).
Should terrorism be treated as a criminal act or an act of war?
There are good reasons for both approaches as well as equally good reasons for arguing against both approaches. To the extent that terrorism is perpetrated by state-actors, it is appropriately prosecuted as an act of war. However, it is highly impractical (and logically indefensible) to treat lone terrorists or autonomous extremist groups who commit acts of terror as enemy combatants under the Geneva Convention, which would be required if terrorism were prosecuted as a war (Larsen, 2007).…… [Read More]
President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.
In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).
ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…… [Read More]
However, the suggested equivalence of the (rightful) criticism of those relationships and support for Israel are fundamentally flawed and invalid. Specifically, the phrase "at the expense of the Palestinians" (p796) ignores the reality of how the Palestinian became "refugees" in the first place, the degree to which Israel tried to negotiate a fair settlement during the Clinton administration, and the degree to which corrupt Palestinian leaders undermined those efforts for personal gain and to perpetuate rather than end violence in the region.
The author also equates the justified and measured U.S. military response in Afghanistan in 2001 with the invasion of Iraq in 2003 under (what in retrospect was) a fabricated justification on the part of the Bush administration. Likewise, the author presents an inaccurate view of civilian casualties and ignores the tremendous extent to which the U.S. military has always made every possible attempt to limit them in wartime.…… [Read More]
he other major component of the Department of Homeland Security that doesn't belong is FEMA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency. his is the only component of the Department that is not involved in preventing security threats that human in nature; its main purpose is to aid citizens and local governments in times of natural disaster. Again, communication with the Department would be necessary, but involving the response agency's involvement in a department whose main goal is detection and prevention of criminally threatening or destructive acts against the nation seems a very inefficient way to handle emergency situations.
here are also several agencies not represented in the Department of Homeland Security whose role in the protection of our nation and its citizens has long been a vital part of the United States' defense system. Most notable among the missing are the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, and the National…… [Read More]
" (Muntenu, 2004)
According to Muntenu (2004) "It is almost impossible for a security analyst with only technical background to quantify security risk for intangible assets. He can perform a quantitative or qualitative evaluation using dedicated software to improve the security of the information systems, but not a complete risk assessment for the whole information system. Qualitative assessment based on questionnaires use in fact statistical quantitative methods to obtain results. Statistical estimation represents the basis for quantitative models." Muntenu states conclusion that in each of these approaches the "moral hazard of the analyst has influence on the results because human nature is subjective. He must use a sliding window approach according to business and information systems features, balancing from qualitative to quantitative assessment." (2004) qualitative study of information systems security is reported in a study conducted in U.S. academic institutions in the work of Steffani a. urd, Principal Investigator for…… [Read More]
Age, race open. I'd like to chat so if you're interested.
M4W: Are you ready to truly be happy? Me too...glad I found you - (Almost) 39
Are you looking for a man to treat you like you have never been treated before? Do you want a man who can't wait to hurry and get home to you at the end of the day and wrap his arms around you like he is never going to see you again? Do you want a man you know you can trust never to let you down and know you can always turn to him for anything no matter how big or how small?... I am looking for my forever, not just sex or a one night stand... A man who will always be there for you 24/7 well then I am glad we found each other.... I look forward to spending the…… [Read More]
" (Lindsey, 2004, p.1) it is interesting to note that one of the young protestors stated: "[the world leaders] are sitting over there on Sea Island having their little party only talking about how to fix things, but we are over here actually doing something to make things better" -- Laurel Paget-Seekins (Lindsey, 2004, p. 1) the U.S.A. Patriot Act has been touted to do just this - or to make things better in terms of security of American citizens and it is certain that the provisions of this Act have served to increase levels of security for American citizens but this security has come with a cost attached and for some Americans the cost is too high and too intrusive upon their basic civil rights. One such instance of the complexity created within the security paradigm are the no-fly lists that have been implemented in U.S. airports since September…… [Read More]
In other words, up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no cases of note or significance that indicated that the executive branch of the UNITED STATES government had the authority to render suspects or criminals to foreign locations outside of the explicit authority granted through a signed treaty with a foreign government.
It was during the Civil War that the first major break with this established legal tradition was made. The incident involved the capture of a foreign citizen in New York City during wartime and performed by presidential authority alone. The man captured was Jose Augustin Arguelles, a Spanish subject, who captured illegal slave traders, claimed a reward, then sold the slaves to plantation owners. Under Spanish law he was a criminal, but the United States had no extradition treaty with Spain. Despite having no legal authority to do so, Lincoln authorized the capture of the…… [Read More]