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Disadvantages of nuclear energy and its comparison with other sources of energy
Comparison of nuclear energy with other sources of energy
Nuclear energy does have advantages over other sources of energy like fossil fuels (coal, gas etc.) because nuclear energy makes less pollution and nuclear energy supplies more power than any other source of energy. All sources of energy do have some disadvantages. Some of them are discussed here;
It makes emit a huge quantity of green house gases and advanced technology is required to utilize them for energy purposes. For example, coal mining damages huge amount of land around it.
There are many disadvantages associated with hydropower. It includes high damage to local eco system; high cost of construction, the large size of dams poses a danger of breaking it down and can wreak the local population. (How to Power the World, 2010)
Dulabab. (2011). Nuclear power-Science, benefits, disadvantages and future use. Retrieved from Dulabab: Environmental and Ethical News and Information: http://www.dulabab.com/energy-transportation/nuclear-power/
How to Power the World. (2010). Disadvantages of Hydro Electric Energy. Retrieved from How to Power the World: http://www.howtopowertheworld.com/disadvantages-of-hydroelectric-energy.shtml
Presidio Buzz. (2009, February 23). Nuclear Energy: Pros and Cons. Retrieved from TriplePundit: http://www.triplepundit.com/2009/02/nuclear-energy-pros-and-cons/
This is a significant advantage because wind and solar can only be considered intermittent sources that produce power on a variable schedule. Yet geothermal sources produce can be used to produce power constantly and inexpensively. Because of these advantages, nearly every prime geothermal location on the planet have already been developed or are in the process of being developed and this power source in insufficient to meet the growing energy demand on its own and a combination of sources must be used.
Nuclear power has the most advantages of any power source being considered for the future energy demands of the United States. Through fission, the energy produced by 1 kg of uranium-235 is equal to that produced by 2,700 tons of coal; for a million-kw nuclear power plant, only 30 tons of nuclear fuel is needed every year, while a thermal power plant of the same capacity…
Beijing Review. "Safe and Efficient Power." Beijing Review (2002): 2. Online.
Congressional Digest. "The Future of Coal." Congressional Digest (2013): 1. Online.
Gardner, G., et al. "Risk and Benefit Perceptions, Acceptability, Judgements, and Self-Reported Actions Toward Nuclear Power." The Journal of Social Psychology (1982): 179-197. Online.
Micaelides, E. "Entropy production and optimization of geothermal power plants." Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics (2011): 233-246. Online.
Another important argument against nuclear energy is that it leaves behind radioactive waste, as evidenced above as well. Furthermore, if this waste is not properly disposed of, it can cause irrevocable damage. According to the Discovery Curiosity project, "Nuclear waste must be sealed underground in protected chambers. [A] former salt mine in emlingen, Germany, held nuclear waste for decades before structural concerns forced the government to relocate the deadly substances." According to the article, the job can be deadly and very costly.
There are many pros to this issue as well, and some are just as important as the cons. The first argument for nuclear energy includes the fact that, as aforementioned, coal and other fossil fuel emissions can bring down air quality to very low levels, and continue to pollute our planet and contribute to climate change. Another pro argument the fact these materials, besides being harmful to the…
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"Pros and Cons of Nuclear Power"(2011).
"Pros and Cons of Nuclear Power"(2011).
Black (2005) notes that within the next decade Great Britain will be unable to meet the energy needs of its population unless nuclear power becomes part of the equation. A dependence on fossil fuel sources for electricity is no longer viable, given the limited supply of fossil fuel, the volatile market for it, and the environmental concerns associated with creating and burning fossil fuels. Nuclear power is touted as at least a temporary solution to an energy supply shortfall. Many nations in Europe including Sweden and Finland are facing similar problems and have already nodded approval to investments in nuclear technology (Anderson & Crooks 2009).
Besides safety issues, nuclear power presents possible financial risks that make the technology less than ideal. Assessing the actual costs of nuclear power processing is close to impossible (ichardson 2005). Cost is sometimes framed as being irrelevant, given the rising prices of fossil fuels and…
Anderson R. & Crooks, E. (2009). Sweden to end ban on new nuclear power. Financial Times.com. Retrieved Feb 9, 2009 at http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/3dd756d4-f3b0-11dd-9c4b-0000779fd2ac.html
Black, R. (2005). Britain facing large energy gap. BBC.com. Retrieved Feb 9, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4423456.stm
Climate Change." BBC. Retrieved Feb 9, 2009 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/adaptation/nuclear_power.shtml
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This can merely be helpful on local level but not at all on the global level.
Radioactive materials in low quantities are present in fossil fuels, chiefly in coal and using them in heavy amounts can have more hazardous effects on the environment causing radioactive contamination globally. This is a much more pressing concern when compared to the radioactive contamination within a nuclear power station as the noxious waste in them is properly managed and piled up.
Mercury, toxic heavy elements, arsenic and some other traces of hazardous elements are found in coal. Some elements like mercury which is released in the boiler of power plants can stay floating in the air and move around the globe's atmosphere. hile the release of mercury because of various other man-made causes is well controlled in the environment, the significant stock of remaining mercury pollution is caused by the waste releases of power…
AAAS Annual Meeting (2011). Sustainable or Not? Impacts and Uncertainties of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies on Water. Washington DC. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/jrc/downloads/jrc_aaas2011_energy_water_tzimas.pdf
Alsema, E.A. Wild - Scholten, M.J. de; Fthenakis, V.M. (2006). Environmental impacts of PV electricity generation - a critical comparison of energy supply options Abstract ECN, September 2006; 7p. Presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Dresden, Germany.
Brown, B. (2004). "Shoot it at the sun. Send it to Earth's core. What to do with nuclear waste?" The Guardian.
Fehrenbacher, K. (2010). "TerraPower: How The Traveling Wave Nuclear Reactor Works." Earth2tech http://earth2tech.com/2010/02/15/terrapower-how-the-travelling-wave-nuclear-reactor-works/ .
Nuclear Power as a Promising Alternative Fuel for the Future
The Nuclear Dilemma (orld Nuclear Association)
There are a plethora of reasons in which alternative fuels are becoming increasingly desirable as potential power source for everyday consumption in the future. One such reason is that fossil fuels are non-renewable resources that will eventually be exhausted in regards to the feasibility of extracting these resources. It is not necessarily that non-renewable resources will be totally consumed, however the remaining reserves of these resources is increasingly hard to extract and the price of extraction will eventually exceed the costs associated with alternatives. For example, oil will eventually reach a point in which the costs associated with extracting it from hard to get to reserves will be more expensive than alternative fuels, such as wind, solar, and nuclear.
Another issue that is definitely salient in regards to the future of power is the…
Beaver, W. "The Failed Promise of Nuclear Power." Independent Review (2011): 399-411. Print.
CO2 Now. "Earth's CO2 Home Page." 11 October 2012. CO2 Now. Web. 11 October 2012.
Heiman, M. And B. Solomon. "Power to the People: Utility Restructuring and the Commitment to Renewable Energy." Annals of the Association of American Geographers (2004): 94-116. Print.
Hensen, J., et al. "Target Atmoshperic CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?" NASA Goddard Intitute for Space Studies (2008): 1-18. Web.
6. What caused the Chernobyl incidents?
At Chernobyl, poor reactor design and human error caused uncontrolled heating of the nuclear core that boiled off enough cooling water to allow the graphite moderator control rods to be exposed to air igniting them. That ignition spread to the radioactive rods and caused large volumes of radioactive smoke to be released into the atmosphere.
7. What is the cause of the Japan incident?
In Japan, a combination of natural disasters was responsible: a major earthquake triggered a Tsunami that interrupted the electric power supply to the plant. Because the plant's emergency backup generator was not built on high ground, the flood waters also wiped it out. Without electrical power, the plant could not maintain the water supply necessary to cool the control rods or the spent control rods stored in pools in the reactor and they all ignited when they became exposed to…
Attfield, R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Rennie, R. (2003). The Facts on File Dictionary of Atomic and Nuclear Physics. New York: Checkmark Books.
nuclear power. Need write assessment pros cons nuclear power generate electricity, give opinion increase decrease dependence nuclear power.
Nuclear energy -- pros and cons
There has been a lot of controversy regarding nuclear power during recent years, as even though it represents an impressive source of energy, the facts that it is highly unstable and difficult to control make it difficult and almost impossible for particular bodies to accept its importance. Nuclear power is one of the most impressive energy sources in the present and as conventional energy sources are either depleting or becoming too polluting people need to consider an alternative. Although nuclear power will certainly put an end to problems caused by other energy sources, it comes along with problems of its own and it is thus difficult to determine if it actually needs to be considered as the most viable solution to replacing many traditional energy sources.…
Elliot, David, "Fukushima: Impacts and Implications," (Palgrave Macmillan, 30.10.2012)
McLeish, Ewan, "Nuclear Power: The Pros and Cons," (The Rosen Publishing Group, 2007)
The radioactive waste that is created during the creation of nuclear power is dangerous for thousands of years. Although measures have been taken to safely store this hazardous material, especially during the first millennium when it is most hazardous, problems have still been had.
Groundwater entering burial sites and the subsequent corrosion of waste canisters has led to the leakage of radioactive waste and provides a possible opportunity for this hazardous material to work its way to the surface environment ("Nuclear eactor").
These leaks have affected all living species, from the bottom of the food chain up. Algae, crustaceans, fish, all the way to finally humans have been needlessly exposed to radiation from nuclear waste. And, as Helen Caldicott, the founder of the Nuclear Power esearch Institute has been quoted, "It takes a single mutation in a single gene in a single cell to kill you" (qtd. Hays).
Hays, M. "Risks of Nuclear Power Not Worth it." Arizona Republic (6 Jul 2005). November 25, 2006 http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/opinions/articles/0706wedlets069.html .
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Nuclear Reactor." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. November 25, 2006 http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article-45804 .
American History Since 1865
The objective of this study is to examine a topic in American History since 1865 to the present and to examine six or more related events and developments that span the years in that time period. For the purpose of this study The Cold War will be examined.
Event -- Beginning of the Cold War
t is reported that while the world was starting its recovery from World War that the first General Assembly of the United Nations met in 1946 in London and the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission was created. The purpose for the creation of this Commission was the elimination of all weapons of mass destruction and that this included the atomic bomb. (Atomic Archive, 2014, p. 1) The first American effort to set out a policy controlling atomic energy is reported as "The Report On The nternational Control of Atomic Energy" which…
It is reported that when the Atomic Energy Act was passed in 1946, that the "ties between U.S. And British nuclear programs were severed." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p. 1) At this time Great Britain held the belief that "it should have an independent nuclear force. In January 1947, plans were formulated to develop a British nuclear weapon." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p. 1) it is reported that Britain's first nuclear reaction was "led by Sir John Crockcroft" and that it "went critical on July 3, 1948. Sites for plutonium production and highly enriched uranium were also constructed." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p. 1) Since Britain was such small in size, there were not sites suitable for testing atmospheric weapons and this resulted in the British seeking sites in other locations to tests their weapons. The British're reported to have tested their nuclear weapons "on the Monte Bellos Islands, off the west coast of Australia." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p.1) On the 3rd day of October in 1952, it is reported that Britain "detonated its first atomic device, code-named Hurricane." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p.1) This atomic device it reported to have an "an explosive yield of about 25 kilotons." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p.1)
IV. Event 4 -- France Develops Nuclear Weapons
Following the end of World War II, France is also reported to have begun a nuclear weapons program but political pressures internally resulted in the program's failure to actually start until the latter part of the decades of the 1950s. France's independent force de frappe is reported to have "under Charles de Gaulle's leadership" to have come into being. The first nuclear test by the French known as 'Blue Gerbil' is reported to have been detonated on "February 13,
Nuclear security is one of the most important issues of modern times, as the 2016 nuclear security summit in Washington showed (Malin & Roth, 2016). As Malin and Roth (2016) note, the international community has embarked on a possibly dangerous post-summit era, “in which nuclear security will probably receive less-regular high-level political attention than it has in recent years.” This means there is likely to be less cooperation, less communication, and less sharing of important information that nations can use to help develop a world in which nuclear security is a top issue. After all, according to Malin and Roth (2016), “there is still critical work to be done to reduce the danger that nuclear weapons or the materials needed to make them could end up in the hands of a terrorist organization such as the Islamic State.” One of the purposes of nuclear security is “to protect people, property,…
Best, R. (2007). Open Source Intelligence (OSINT): Issues for Congress. Washington, DC.
International Atomic Energy Agency. (2018). Nuclear security series. Retrieved from https://www.iaea.org/resources/nuclear-security-series
Malin, M. & Roth, N. (2016). A new era for nuclear security. Retrieved from https://www.armscontrol.org/TAXONOMY/TERM/69
Ten, C. W., Manimaran, G., & Liu, C. C. (2010). Cybersecurity for critical infrastructures: Attack and defense modeling. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part A: Systems and Humans, 40(4), 853-865.
Nuclear energy: The Current Debate
Energy creation and consumption has been the primary driving force of political and military action since the Industrial evolution, and arguably for centuries before this shift mechanization and the widespread use of fossil fuels. In the twentieth century, mankind acquired the ability to harness the power of atomic splitting and nuclear chain reactions seemed to many a promise of freedom form the problems of fossil fuels, including their expense and their unwanted effects on the world (i.e. pollution). Some were even so optimistic about nuclear energy's potential that they envisioned a world where electricity was free, and energy meets were easily, cheaply, and entirely met by nuclear means. eality has not been so rosy, of course, and concerns regarding the environmental and health safety of nuclear energy -- especially in the light of recent seismic events in Japan -- are now a major…
Bommer, J., Papaspiliou, M. & Price, W. (2011). Earthquake response spectra for seismic design of nuclear power plants in the UK. Nuclear Engineering and Design 241(3): 968-77.
Lee, C. & Chiu, Y. (2011). Oil prices, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: New evidence using a heterogeneous panel analysis. Energy Policy 39(4): 2111-20.
Nuclear energy is an energy source that has zero emissions, propels our society into the future, and provides electricity around-the-clock. Nuclear energy comes from the splitting of atoms inside a reactor through a process known as fission to heat water into steam, turn a turbine, and generate electricity. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. These atoms have enormous energy in the bonds that hold them together. Nuclear fission will split the atoms into smaller atoms, in essence, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants make use of nuclear fission for the production of electricity. Nuclear energy is considered to be environmentally safe because it causes zero emissions and this is beneficial to the environment as it reduces the carbon footprint (Brook & Bradshaw, 2015). However, nuclear power plants do produce radioactive nuclear waste that must be stored safely to ensure there is no…
Portable Nuclear Power
Is a Portable Nuclear Power Device Feasible?
As the global population grows, we find ourselves facing growing energy consumption needs. In industrialized nations, this translates into rising energy costs to power our homes and businesses. Power outages are a major concern in metropolitan areas that depend on power to meet humanity's most basic needs. For those in poorer nations, we do not even have a way to supply them power. It is hard to believe, but there are still many in the world who are not close enough to a power grid to be connected.
What if there was a way to cut energy costs in half? What if we could eliminate the possibility of power outages in the future? What if we did find a way to supply power to those in even the most remote areas, even though there is no grid close by? What…
Asher, M. "Miniature Nuclear Reactors to be on Sale Within 5 years." Daily Tech. November 10, 2008. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Biomass For Electricity Generation. U.S.
Department of Energy. Electricity Analysis Reports. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
Fehrenbacher, K. "Hyperion's Nuclear-In-A-Box by 2013." Gigaom. August 1, 2008. (Web)
Against Nuclear Power
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of international relations and business today, all nations and their respective economies must be able to effectively globalize their energy operations in order to reach a greater potential resource base and sustain fiscal durability in the long-term. In accomplishing the aforementioned tasks, many nations have placed environmental considerations at the bottom of the ladder of priority. However, with countless new environmental initiatives cropping up each day, it behooves any and all government and big business personnel to gain a greater respect for the fragile environment in which we live. Terms like "emissions," "energy consumption," "fossil fuel depletion" and "carbon footprint" are increasingly becoming a part of the average global citizen's vocabulary. The future of all nations lies in the hands of those who seriously embrace the importance of such rhetoric. Accordingly, several energy-producing options have been considered and…
Bodansky, D. (2004). Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices, and Prospects (2nd Edition ed.). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag LLC.
Hatch, M., Ron, E., Bouville, A., Zablotska, L., & Howe, G. (2005). The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Epidemiol Review, 27 (1), 56-66.
Jo, D.-J., & Gartzke, E. (2007). Determinants of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51 (1), 167-194.
Ryan, V. (2009). Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Power. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from http://www.technologystudent.com/energy1/wind8.htm
There have been rumors relating to the fact that the authorities might have lied concerning the number of curies released and that it had actually been much bigger.
hile the initial communications from the authorities advised people not to panic and that the situation had been under control, the later reports informed people that precautions needed to be taken. Several tens of thousands of people had been evacuated from the area within a few days and the surrounding schools had been closed. According to surveys done consequent to the event, people apparently considered that the job done by the authorities had been deficient.
According to the studies performed in order to determine the level of radiation exposure, people had not been subjected to life-threatening doses of radiation. The average dose of radiation to which people have been subjected to consequent to the TMI incident is believed to be eight millirem.…
1. Walker J. Samuel. (2006). "Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective." University of California Press.
2. Warrick, Joby. (1997). "Study Links Three Mile Island Radiation Releases to Higher Cancer Rates." Retrieved July 28, from the Washington Post Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/tmi/stories/study022497.htm
3. (2001). "Three Mile Island: 1979." Retrieved July 28, 2009, from the World Nuclear Association Web site: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf36.html
4. "No Radiological Health Effects at TMI." Retrieved July 28, 2009, from the American Nuclear Society Web site: http://www.ans.org/pi/resources/sptopics/tmi/healtheffects.html
Nuclear Energy: isks vs. eward
Every source of energy has its own drawbacks. This is more so the case taking into consideration the recent energy source related accidents including but not limited to coal-mining mishaps, the nuclear crisis in Japan, the B.P. oil spill, etc. In this text, I will amongst other things concern myself with nuclear power and the consequences associated with the development of the same.
As I have already pointed out in the introductory section, every source of energy has a set of drawbacks. For instance, while there are a number of benefits associated with wind energy, the same also has several disadvantages. In the words of Eccleston, March and Cohen (2011), "wind farms can interfere with radar, creating a hole in radar coverage affecting aviation and national security." The author further points out that wind energy is largely unpredictable. Similarly, although hydroelectric power in the opinion…
Eccleston, C.H., March, F. & Cohen, T. (2011). Inside Energy: Developing and Managing an ISO 50001 Energy Management System. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Ginley, D.S. & Cahen, D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McKinney, M.L., Schoch, R.M. & Yonavjak, L. (2012). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Miller, G.T. & Spoolman, S. (2007). Environmental Science. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher Education.
Nuclear Fuel Cycle is a set of different processes that utilize nuclear materials and then returns them to their initial state, in a cyclical manner. It begins with the mining of naturally occurring nuclear materials from the environment, and ends with safe and proper disposal of nuclear waste products back to the environment. Production of energy from Uranium requires several unique processes. One of the terms used in this production of nuclear energy is front end, referring to the entire set of processes involved in making nuclear energy from the uranium ore in the nuclear fuel cycle. The processes involved are:  mining,  crushing,  processing,  enrichment, and  the fabrication of fuel. After being used to produce energy, the nuclear material is now known as spent fuel. The spent fuel has to be converted in a reprocessing or storage facility if the company wants to recycle it.…
Carlsen, B.W., Phathanapirom, U., Schneider, E., Collins, J.S., Eggert, R.G., Jordan, B., ... & Yacout, L. (2013). Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (No. INL/EXT-14-32302). Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
CAS. College of Agricultural Sciences. (2009). Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Retrieved from: http://extension.psu.edu/publications/uc203
ELAW. Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide. (2015). Overview of Mining and its Impacts. Retrieved from: https://www.elaw.org/files/mining-eia-guidebook/Chapter1.pdf
IAEA (2006). International Atomic Energy Agency. Storage and Disposal of Spent Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste. Retrieved from: http://www.iaea.org/About/Policy/GC/GC50/GC50InfDocuments/English/gc50inf-3-att5_en.pdf
There are several groups involved in fighting the Yucca Mountain site, including local grassroots organizations in Nevada and larger organizations around the country. Many Native American tribes do not support the site, as it is located on their ancient tribal lands. The Nevada Piutes are one group who is organized in opposition to the site, as are several other western Native American tribes. A larger organization is the Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, a group who opposes the site for a number of reasons, including transportation safety issues, the geology of the site, and the fact that other sites were not seriously considered.
What are the future prospects of Yucca Mountain? That is still not clear. Congress OK'd the dumpsite in 2002, but since then, many things have changed politically in Washington and around the country. Many groups and citizens are protesting the dump, mainly due to safety and transportation…
Editors. "Earthquakes in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain." State of Nevada. 1996. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.state.nv.us/nucwaste/yucca/seismo01.htm
Editors. "Yucca Mountain Repository." U.S. Department of Energy. 2007. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov/ym_repository/index.shtml
Fraud Allegations Roil Yucca Mountain Project." Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2005: 20+.
Rosenheck, Dan. "Digging a Deeper and Deeper Hole." New Statesman 29 Sept. 2003: xxii+.
It has been viewed to manipulate the treaty for its gains in terms of securing security. After the treaty was signed, the international community's interest to agree to rules that had been accepted created a source of safety. The current world has termed the treaty as a regime.
In the U.S. context, their aim is to provide security for their citizens because of the nuclear weapons threat. The treaty has been signed by more than 180 states worldwide. In order to ensure that there is safety while nations continue with their nuclear program, a separate organization was created to oversee the process of monitoring such activities: the International Energy Atomic Agency (IAEA). U.S. As the hegemonic state has the power to protect other nations from harm: other nations view this as a mutual benefit. While the U.S. gain more power plus safety from states that are within the NPT treaty,…
Forsberg, R. (2005). Nonproliferation Primer: Preventing the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons. Michigan: MIT Press
Gallacher, J, Blacker, C. & Bellany, I. (2005). The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. New York:
Kessler, J. (2005). Verifying Nonproliferation Treaties: Obligation, Process, and Sovereignty.
Another lesson learned by the fusion research has been its impact on the development of future nuclear weapons vs. existing test ban treaties. It would be possible with successful nuclear fusion results to test weapons without an actual above or below ground explosion due to the nature of the science. The question is raised whether that would be a violation of the nuclear test ban treaties. Also, the potential power of these weapons is mind-boggling -- perhaps 100x existing nuclear weapons. They make the atomic and hydrogen bombs look like firecrackers in comparison.
The mere thought of pure fusion weapons has given pause for thought, and the development of even minor successes in this field cause lessons to be learned about the future control and management of fusion devices.
Most importantly, the fifty years of research into nuclear fusion have brought the world to the point of learning…
Brooks, M. (2009). 13 things that don't make sense: The most baffling scientific mysteries of our time. New York: Random House.
Buhl, G. (2005, November 8). Nuclear fusion. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from georgebuhl.com: http://www.georgebuhl.com/Assets/PDFs/Fusion.pdf
Doyle, J. (2009, April 1). Scientists take another stab at nuclear fusion. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from San Francisco Chronicle: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/03/31/MN7M16QB7I.DTL
Kahney, L. (1999, December 12). A century of spectacular failure. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from wired.com: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/1999/12/32916
Power & Nationalism
Koreans seems to have grown tired of the American presence in their country. Is this a fact? What are its causes and how has it come to this status? The American presence in the Korean Peninsula dates from the Korean War, which was the first major war after the Second World War. The war started in 1950 with the invasion of South Korea by the Communist North. The war had been predictable for some time, as the Communist threat had become more persistent in that part of Asia, with the Communists having gained power in China in 1949, however, the United Stats had previously stated that it held no interest in the area and that it would not intervene.
Albeit this, Harry Truman and his advisors decided to send air strikes in North Korea and gained a United Nations mandate to send troops under its emblem to…
Korean War History Guide. Can be found on The History Beat, on the World Wide Web at http://www.searchbeat.com / http://www.korea.army.mil/welcome/sofa.htm (for the SOFA agreement)
http://www.yonip.com/main/articles/declaration_on_current_situation.html (for a case of two Americans that crushed to death two Korean girls in a car accident)
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…
Adamson, Greg. We All Live on Three Mile Island: The Case against Nuclear Power. Sydney: Pathfinder, 1981. Print.
"The Case against Nuclear Power and the Case for Real Solutions to Energy Security and Climate Change." Greenpeace International. GREENPEACE. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Totty, Michael. "The Case For and Against Nuclear Power." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 30 June 2008. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Williams, Chris. "The Case against Nuclear Power." ISR - International Socialist Review. The Center for Economic Research and Social Change. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Japan abolishes current nuclear plant Fukushima Crisis. What effects immediately long-term Japan world a case stop operation of nuclear power plants.
As a brief description, Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power plant was an operating energy facility in Japan particularly in the Fukushima prefecture or province. The plant was established in 1971, which occupied a total of 3.5-kilometer site that makes it as one of the largest nuclear power plants in the world by land area. This nuclear power plant was very useful in the Japanese energy regulation system because it has an economical generation costs that is more reliable than using hydroelectric power sources from dams and streams. It is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company that is the largest operating agency around Japan as claimed by Arnold (2010).
On March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake hit the northeastern portion of Japan with an epicenter just off the coast of Fukushima…
Arnold, Wesley., 2010. Nuclear Power Plant facilities. New York: McGraw Hill, 78-97.
Cousins, C., (2011). Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Retrieved from: http://www.scj.go.jp/ja/info/jishin/pdf/t-110405-3e.pdf .
Fraser, Scotty., 2009. Environmental Issues: Natural Disasters. Alexandria: Tim and Gale Publishing, 35-38.
Gilbert, L.F., 2011. Application of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Accessed at: http://www.em-ea.org/Guide%20Books/book-4/4.12App%20of%20Non%20conventional.pdf.
A nuclear meltdown would be a local catastrophe requiring evacuation (and likely permanent abandonment) of the surrounding communities, but that risk is not substantially different in magnitude from a burst hydroelectric dam, or from the aggregate harm of continuing to pollute our atmosphere with fossil fuel waste products..
Certainly, nuclear energy requires strict regulation, careful facilities planning, and myriad other equally important practical considerations for administrating the industry safely so that its risks are minimized. However, the emotional objection to peaceful uses of nuclear power is based on incorrect assumptions about what those risks actually are, as well as on the illogical association of the beneficial uses of the technology with its destructive potential used in weapons of war.
In the case of nuclear power, the ethical considerations are closely related to the logical analysis. Once it is established that the emotional objection to nuclear power on overall…
Gundersen, P. (1999) the Handy Physics Answer Book.
Barnes & Noble: New York
Rennie, R. (2003) the Facts on File Dictionary of Atomic and Nuclear Physics.
Checkmark Books: New York
In addition, problems would also exist outside of the nuclear power plant itself, with the suppliers of the nuclear material also being a possible target of attacks or a source of materials for weapons. This shows that what Ansolabehere suggests as one problem is really a whole range of problems.
Another important point to note is that the possibility of nuclear power plants becoming a source of nuclear weapons and becoming terrorist targets is only a possibility. In contrast, storage of nuclear waste and the safety of nuclear power plants is a current problem that already exists for the power plants in operation. Grossman (p. 206) notes that current nuclear power plants were not designed for more than 40 years of use and are considered hazardous. Grossman (p. 207) also notes that the government is currently planning to store nuclear waste in the Yucca Mountains, an area that is near…
Ansolabehere, S. "The Future of Nuclear Power." In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Thomas A Easton. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 192-204.
Grossman, K. "The Push to Revive Nuclear Power." In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Thomas A Easton. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 205-209.
U.S. based company concerned earthquake, tsunami nuclear power plant accident occurs Japan? 2. With rapid technology, boundaries industries redefined. What industry company Google ? Who Google's main competitors today competition ? 1 page 1 Reference Case 9: Panera read Company 2012 - Pursuing Growth a Weak Economy, Arthur A. Sources
First of all, all companies today operate in a global business environment, where local influences are often felt and have repercussions worldwide. In this specific case, there are several reasons why the American company should be concerned with such an event. It has a significant impact on the Japanese market, lowering the purchasing power of existing and potential customers.
At the same time, there are potential negative effects on the political and economic system in Japan. The government will need to invest in the saving operations, which will likely impact the budget and lower the chances that Japan can offer…
1. Efrati, Amir (2013). In Online Ads, There's Google -- and Then Everybody Else. Wall Street Journal.
2. Porter, M.E. (2008) The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy, Harvard Business Review, January 2008.
3. Graham, Jefferson, (2012). Talking Tech: Customers clog Panera's free Wi-Fi. USA Today
4. Dampier, Phillip, (2012). Panera Bread Stores Overloaded With Wi-Fi Users Who Won't Leave. On the Internet at http://stopthecap.com/2012/05/17/panera-bread-stores-overloaded-with-wi-fi-users-who-wont-leave/ . Last retrieved on April 9, 2014
South Florida, especially Broward County, has showed the most eagerness, with eighty seven percent in favor of solar energy investment. Central Florida and the Gulf Coast were close behind, and eighty percent of those living in North Florida also favored more state venture for solar energy. hile voters of all ages said they approved of spending more on solar, ninety three percent of those between eighteen and thirty four agreed. Statewide, the accord crossed party lines, with eighty two percent of Republicans favoring more public capital for solar energy, compared with eighty seven percent of Democrats. The poll also showed strong support for solar energy even if it led to an increase in utility bills. Overall, eighty one percent of those polled said they were willing to pay more each month on their utility bill to sustain solar energy (Poll: Support up for solar energy investment, 2008).
The sun is…
Borenstein, Severin. 2008. "The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity
Production." Web. 29 March 2011.
"Clean Energy Never Looked So Good." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
"Environmental Effects of Solar Energy." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
Secret; The Power
honda Byrne's The Secret: The Power (2010) is truly an incredibly bad book, simplistic, repetitive and divorced from real history, politics or economics, yet it has sold 19 million copies. A cynic might say that the real secret to wealth is writing a bestselling book that millions will buy. Her 2006 book The Secret sold more over 19 million copies and was translated into 46 languages, and she was also a guest on the Oprah Winfrey Show and many others on the daytime TV chat circuit. Like all self-help writers, she has a talent for publishing the same advice repeatedly in new books that claim to offer even greater insights than past philosophers and religious teachers and in 2007 Byrne wrote The Secret Gratitude Book, followed a year later by The Secret: Daily Teachings. Her latest offering is about 250 pages long and quickly appeared on the…
Byrne, R. (2010). The Secret: The Power. NY: Simon & Schuster.
S. had provided the technology needed to promote the development of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. argued that it had provided civilian instead of military technology, therefore had not violated the treaty.
The Politics of Proliferation
The politics of non-proliferation are complex. In the case of the U.S., the agreement and terms must satisfy every party involved. On one hand, the U.S. is under an obligation built on trust, that it will reduce the number of nuclear weapons in its arsenal. However, it must still maintain an arsenal that is capable of acting as a deterrent against first attach by non-treaty countries with nuclear weapons. These two goals compete with one another. The U.S. is not the only nuclear weapon owner with this conflict. Every member of the non-proliferation treaty faces this same dilemma.
Nuclear arms negotiations have taken place amidst an atmosphere of deception and mistrust. Full disclosure is…
Curtis, L. 2007. "U.S. Policy and Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Containing Threats and Encouraging Regional Security." The Heritage Foundation. July 6, 2007. http://www.heritage.org/Research/asiaandthepacific/tst062707.cfm (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Kerr, P. 2004. "Libya Vows to Dismantle WMD Program. Arms Control Today." January/February 2004. http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2004_01-02/Libya (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Lavie, M. "Israel Stands by Vague Nuclear Policy." December 7, 2006. Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/07/AR2006120701234.html)
Levy, D. 2007. "U.S. nuclear policy goes from MAD to NUTS, Panofsky says." Stanford Report. April 18, 2007. http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2007/april18/pief-041807.html (Accessed August 21, 2008)
One nuclear expert notes, "For countries that think the United States constitutes a threat, how should they react? In effect, there is no way to deter the United States other than by having nuclear weapons. No country can do that conventionally. The United States can overwhelm other countries conventionally."
Clearly, the United States has nuclear capabilities, but they have only used them once, in a time of war. Today, the message is clear. Those countries that have nuclear capabilities do not use them, for they know if they do, they will suffer the same nuclear consequences. Thus, the world stays "safe" because no one is ready to make the first move. Some say Iran is simply attempting to defend itself, while others are not so sure.
In conclusion, the Iranian nuclear development program is becoming increasingly difficult to manage by regulatory organizations, and it seems Iran will do what it…
Editors. Q&a: Iran and the Nuclear Issue. BBC News. 3 Dec. 2007. Newspaper online. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4031603.stm .Internet. Accessed 15 Dec. 2007.
Sadjadpour, Karim. "The Nuclear Players." Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 125+.
Sagan, Scott, Kenneth Waltz, and Richard K. Betts. "A Nuclear Iran: Promoting Stability or Courting Disaster?" Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 135+.
Schake, Kori. "Dealing with a Nuclear Iran." Policy Review, no. 142 (2007): 3+.
This is mainly done by the plants using non-renewable sources of energy. The plants also differ in the competency of the amount of watts produced. Due to the extent of sources used, some plants produce enormous amounts than others. A good example is the nuclear plant at Crystal iver; it contributes to 15% watt production compared to the solar plant at Indiantown that contributes to 3% of power production.
The data collected through this research is concrete. Statistical information has been extracted from vital databases such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis, SEDS Database and the Institute of Energy research. Though the information is rightfully available, it is not possible to create Florida's electric power network due to poor infrastructure on the transmission network and the availability of many plants and substations.
Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.
Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.
Federal Energy Administration (F.E.A). (1994). Inventory of Power Plants in the United States. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Institute of Energy Research. (2009). Real GDP per Capita 2008: Bureau of Economic Analysis. News Release: GDP by State.
Kirkland, K. (2007). Electricity and Magnetism. New York: Infobase Publishing.
nuclear deal with Iran. A tentative agreement has recently been signed, and the final details need to be worked out by the end of June. The parties at the negotiating table have an interest in a negotiated agreement, even if some other stakeholders do not. Given that, while there still risks that the deal may be scuttled or delayed, in all likelihood the deal will pass. The trade-off for the U.S. will be that it gets some certainty with respect to the Iranian nuclear program in exchange for allowing Iran to have a civilian nuclear program for power generation, subject to strict controls. The paper analyzes the other options on the table and explains why a negotiated agreement with Iran is superior to the other potential alternatives that are available.
At the time of writing, Iran is engaged in talks with the United States and several other stakeholder nations…
ADL (2015). The Iranian nuclear deal: Why it matters. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.adl.org/israel-international/iran/c/the-iranian-nuclear-threat-why-it-matters.html
Al-Ghoul, A. (2013). Hamas mixed on Iran nuclear deal. Uruknet.info. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.uruknet.info/?p=m102915
Al Jazeera (2015). Why Saudi Arabia and Israel oppose Iran nuclear deal. Al Jazeera Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/04/saudi-arabia-israel-oppose-iran-nuclear-deal-150401061906177.html
Anishchuk, A. (2013). Iran's Rouhani says wants nuclear issue resolved, but draws lines. Reuters. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/09/13/us-nuclear-iran-rouhani-idUSBRE98C0EQ20130913
The modern world has been characterized with several environmental issues in the recent past including natural resource depletion, climate change, pollution, and overpopulation. However, climate change has attracted significant attention because of increased environmental impact of industrialization and globalization. Climate change is largely attributable to the current energy sources, which continue to affect the environment. As a result, the search for a suitable energy source with little to no environmental effect has become a major issue for policymakers, governments, and environmentalists. Despite conventional views that nuclear power is unsuitable, recent studies and statistics have considered it a clean energy source. This has contributed to arguments and counter-arguments on whether nuclear energy is clean and safe for the environment. Despite having little to no emission of dangerous gases, nuclear energy is unsustainable when considered from an economic and social perspective.
The Case for Nuclear Energy
In the past few…
Cavanagh, R. & Cochran, T. (2013, November 6). Nuclear Energy Film Overstates Positives, Underplays Negatives. CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/opinion/pandora-nuclear-energy-opinion-cavanagh-cochran/
Kemfert et al. (2015, November). European Climate Targets Achievable Without Nuclear Power. DIW Economic Bulletin, 5(47), 619-625.
Koffler, D. (2008, July 8). The Case for Nuclear Power. The Guardian. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/jul/08/nuclearpower.energy
Totty, M. (2008, June 30). The Case For and Against Nuclear Power. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121432182593500119
Nuclear weapons became a tool of American policy that goes far beyond protection of national interests, for American national interests depend on the propagation of American ideals. The United States is, in the words of Harold Lasswell, a "garrison state;" a crusading nation that seeks to combat all enemies real and imagined and to remake the world in its own image. (Flint 86-87) Under the new doctrine, nuclear strategy becomes a means of enforcing an ideology - all dissent, or supposed dissent, is rooted out through the threat of ultimate and complete destruction. Terrorism is made the defining characteristic of immorality. States that support terrorism become the ultimate evildoers. The Bush Administration redefined international relations in terms of an axis of good led by the United States and its allies, and an axis of evil consisting preeminently of Iraq, Iran, and North Korea and their terrorist associates. Alone among these…
Botti, Timothy J. Ace in the Hole: Why the United States Did Not Use Nuclear Weapons in the Cold War, 1945 to 1965. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Flint, Colin, ed. The Geography of War and Peace: From Death Camps to Diplomats. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Hilsman, Roger. From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
Hirschbein, Ron. Massing the Tropes: The Metaphorical Construction of American Nuclear Strategy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2005.
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…
Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.
Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.
TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
TVA Company Profile
The TVA is a self-financed government agency with approximately 13,000 employees, as of 2002 estimates.
It realized a $6.99 billion sales from hydroelectric power generation, fossil fuel, electric power generation, nuclear power generation, other electric power generation, electric bulk power transmission and control and electric power distribution. Its mission is to bring prosperity to the Tennessee Valley through excellent business performance and public service. These are to be achieved by supplying low-cost but reliable power, maintaining a thriving River, and fostering economic growth throughout the southeaster region, traversing 7 States. At the peak of its growth, TVA was serving more than 8 million users in more than 80,000 square miles of region
The TVA's integrated management of water resources, combined with its exceptional institutional capacity enabled it to lift one of the poorest regions in the U.S. into a strong economy and healthy environment today.
Findley, M. And Alavian, V. (2000). Tennessee Valley authority experiment. Case Study
in Integrated Water Resource Management. USAID Water Team: United States
Agency for International Development. Retrieved on November 11, 2010 from http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/water/case_studies/tva.basin.pdf
Funding Universe (2010). Tennessee Valley Authority: company profile.
The development of the atomic bomb as well as its perceived success rate however made further development in chemical and biological weaponry unnecessary.
It is worth noting that biological weapons were never employed significantly in World War I and World War II. The effects of biological weapons even if crude has been pointed out by Spiers (2010) when he mentioned how Japanese surrendered in 1945 abut six of their soldiers released several plague-infested rates as well as sixty horses that were infested with the deadly glanders into the relatively quite and safer Chinese countryside. This left Changchun as well as its environs unsafe for habitation until the 1950s
A review of literature indicates that the United States never actively used chemical or biological weapons as part of its military operations. In its history of military development and its rise to be the world superpower. There are cases however when…
Anderson, F (F) ed. The Oxford Companion to American Military History
Black.J (2002) America as a Military Power: From the American Revolution to the Civil War
Chambers, JW (1999)ed., The Oxford Guide to American Military History
Doughty, R., Gruber, I, Flint, R, Grimsley, M and Herring, G (1995)American Military History and the Evolution of Western Warfare. Wadsworth Publishing
British Judge Lord Bringham warned states powers intrude liberty privacy individuals justification fight a "war terror." Using specific cases examples countries studying (United States, Canada Great Britain) discuss extent intrusion rights privacy freedom occurred justified a democracy? This essay 2000 words (7-9 pages) Also sources needed paper.
The issue of national security has been a subject that has kept the headlines of the newspapers especially since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The events in the United States demonstrated that the world, as it was in 2001, was not prepared for a security breach that was unconventional in nature and modus operandi. Since then, the national security strategies have changed dramatically throughout the world. One of the most significant change if not the most significant, took place in the United States that considered itself a true victim of the terrorist phenomenon and decided to prevent further events to ever take place on…
Cockfield, A. (2011) "Surveillance as law" Grifith Law Review, Vol 20, no 4, 795- 816.
Evolving Threats To National Security" Stanford Law and Policy Review, Vol 22:1, 11-39.
Sheldon, B. (2011). "Camera surveillance within the UK: Enhancing public safety or a social threat?" International Review of Law, Computers & Technology Vol. 25, No. 3, November 2011, 193 -- 203.
Special Project National Security (2005). Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 58:5:1623- 1627
Nordstrom is a service-driven company, and this is what helps it to differentiate itself from other similar retailers. The company is one of many department stores in the United States that typically anchor malls and sometimes downtown shopping districts. Nordstrom's target market is similar to many other such retailers, and it seeks to differentiate by offering a superior level of customer service that makes for a better customer experience, and a higher degree of brand loyalty than other department stores might be able to cultivate with their customers.
Nordstrom sales people may well be apt to stay with the company because they are treated well. First, they have little to do but serve the customer, and the company supports them on their customer service initiatives. Further, the sales staff receives pay and benefits that are above average in their industry. This is because Nordstrom wants to attract the best people…
Powers and ights of the Constitution
INSTITUTIONAL POWE: The Constitution gives the federal government the right to form a military service, including what is now the National Guard (Army National Guard, 2011), though it does so in cooperation with the states and localities to serve their interests as well. This section is important for a number of reasons, including the fact that it reinforces the differences between the state and the federal government without weakening the role of the states to protect and defend themselves. It also helps ensure that the troops and resources are readily available in each locality when urgent issues of various kinds result. They can be used for natural disasters, various forms of social control, helping in other times or need, as well as to address more complicated issues like war and terrorism. This latter issue has become most important recently as localities look to be…
Army National Guard (2011). Legal basis of the national guard. Viewable at http://www.arng.army.mil/aboutus/history/Pages/ConstitutionalCharteroftheGuard.aspx
Bancuk, L. (n.d.), Right to assemble. Learning to Give. http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper57.html
Crosses of Lafayette (2007). Private website. Viewable at http://lafayettecrosses.blogspot.com/ .
Cuban Missile Crisis (2011). Viewable at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Missile_Crisis .
Beta particles are identical to electrons according to all measures that have been conducted in this regard, rendered distinct only by the fact that they are emitted from radioactive substances (Bodner, 2011). Other types of radiation also exist, but alpha and beta particles are the primary drivers of basic nuclear reactions (Bodner, 2011; Loveland et al., 2006). adioactive decay -- the result on the source substance of emitting of radioactive particles -- occurs at an exponentially decreasing rate over terms known as the "half life," which is the amount of time it takes for one-half of a quantity of a given radioactive element to transition to a lighter element through its loss of alpha particles (with incidental beta particle emission, as well, though this does not fundamentally change the element) (Carpi, 2003).
In a nuclear reaction such as the harnessed power of Uranium-235's radioactivity, neutrons are used to break apart…
Bodner. (2011). Nuclear chemistry. Accessed 16 December 2011. http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch23/history.php
Carpi, A. (2003). Nuclear Chemistry: An Introduction. In Visionlearning Vol. CHE-2 (3), Washington, DC: Dept. Of Education.
Duke. (2011). Nuclear chemistry. Accessed 16 December 2011. http://www.chem.duke.edu/~jds/cruise_chem/nuclear/nuclear.html#top
Loveland, W., Morrissey, D. Seaborg, G. (2006). Modern Nuclear Chemistry. New York: Wiley.
Pieces must first be cut down to the sizes and specifications listed on the plans you have selected, and shaped into the various different parts for both the siding and the interior of the submarine. This shaping and cutting can require some heavy-duty laser and cutting-edge equipment -- again, keep those friends close, unless you happen to have enough funds to acquire several dozen different pieces of heavy machinery. The heavy equipment needs continue with the next step, which is joining the individual pieces called for in the design through heavy-duty welding, utilizing electric arcs. A watertight craft able to withstand the pressures of deep-sea dives is of course essential to your happiness in your new sub, so make sure those welds are complete.
Once the craft is built, you will need some fissionable material -- enriched uranium is most typically used -- to power the vessel (and, if you're…
Photovoltaic power system is a type of renewable energy that converts solar energy into solar photovoltaic electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) technology converts energy from the sunlight into the electricity. One of the advantages of the PV technology is that it is pollution free, and it is applicable with little maintenance.
(EPIA 2008). Since sunlight is available free of charge, there has been an increase in the research and development (&D) to make the Photovoltaic energy available to all households and industry in the future. With the advantages derived from the PV energy systems, varieties of research have been launched at national and international laboratories focusing on the mass production of solar power at possible lower costs. (Dahl, 2005). In German, there are varieties of efforts in the development of PV technology. There has been an increase in the collaboration of government, university and the industry consortia in the development of Photovoltaic…
Dahl, T ( 2005). Photovoltaic Power Systems. Technology White Paper
El-Beyrouty, K. Meimanaliev, A. Petrosyan, L. et al. (2009). Germany's Photovoltaic Cluster. Competitiveness of Microeconomics: Clusters, Firms and Economic Development.
EPIA (2008). Photovoltaic Energy: Electricity from the Su
EPIA, (2011). Who is EPIA? Retrieved 25 October 2011 from http://www.epia.org/about-epia/who-is-epia.html
Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism
Iran has made a choice, and that choice is to sustain a global stance of nuclear realism. And it has chosen to do this in no small part because its chief opponents who favor the new school of institutionalism are unable and unwilling to counterpunch. For right now, the major organizations of global collaboration are actually down if not out on the mats of the boxing ring, fearing, in reality, their own revival. If they arise and confront Iran, they would not only bring unwanted attention to a significant and potentially expensive conflict (which they cannot afford), they might also even have to acknowledge that they are able to unleash an entire new level of nuclear manipulation and confusion, one that would engage the destructive capabilities of cyberwarfare -- a potential blow to many elements of deterrence and power.
At this point, however, the match…
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
Boucek, C. And Sadjadpour, K. (2011) Rivals -- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/2011/09/20/rivals-iran-vs.-saudi-arabia/56t9 .
Hirsch, M. (2008). Iran's Great Game. The Daily Beast. Retrievable from http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2008/07/02/iran-s-great-game.html
Jonsson, C. And Tallberg, J. (n.d). International Theory and International Relations. Retrievable from http://www.uni-muenster.de/Politikwissenschaft/Doppeldiplom/docs/IIR.pdf .
Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, "Political Realism in International Relations," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .
S.S.R. wanted to be the instigators of a nuclear conflagration. Kennedy had to find out what the other side really wanted. (Ury, 1993, p.12) in 1962, the Soviet Union lagged behind the United States militarily, as Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe but U.S. missiles were capable of striking the entire Soviet Union. Thus, Khrushchev had used intermediate-range missiles in Cuba because a "deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S. attack against the Soviet Union," once the missiles were assembled ("An Overview of the Crisis," the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1997). In short, the U.S.S.R. wanted security, and security would also mean a safe, and a face-saving way out of the current situation.
Step 4: Reframe
Kennedy shifted to openness, from secrecy, and declared that any nuclear action launched from Cuba against a nation of…
An Overview of the Crisis." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
Discovery." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/discovery.html
Ends of a Rope." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/rope.html
Public Phase." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/public.html
leadership styles and power bases of CO, XO, Chief of the Boat (COB)? (Consider the full range of possible styles.) Cite specific behaviors and statements, with specific reference to the leadership literature.
The CO's leadership style is very much ad hoc -- in terms of his contempt for what he sees as overly theoretical book knowledge, it is also firmly based on his own long experience. To some degree it recalls the fascinating research done by Malcolm Gladwell in his book Blink: Gladwell researches the possibility that snap decisions in many circumstances are more likely to be correct than laboriously researched and deliberated ones. Gladwell estimates that ten thousand hours of intense activity are required to gain real competency or fluency in an activity, and it is clear from the captain's age and the length of his command that he has seen many years of service and can now afford…
Technology and America's Global Power:
America is considered as the cradle of contemporary anti-imperialism and the pioneer of a mighty empire across the globe. The country's global position in the 21st Century is defined by tensions in its policies and public discourse (Hay, 2004). Consequently, the role of the United States as a sponsor of worldwide stability continues to raise concerns on whether an empire can function effectively on the basis of anti-imperialism. However, the United States has also played a significant role in addressing and solving international order problems such as distant conflicts and grievances. During this process, America has continued to expand its global power to the extent of being viewed as the world's super-power. Technological advances have been critical elements with which the country has expanded its power through
Information technology has been the main element behind America's military system which supports in global military…
Agre, P.E. (n.d.). Information Technology In the Political Process. Retrieved from Department
of Information Studies -- University of California website: http://polaris.gseis.ucla.edu/pagre/political.html
Boot, M. (2006, October). The Paradox of Military Technology, Retrieved August 23, 2011,
Is There Room at the Top?
The question as to whether the United States is currently and will remain a superpower is the topic of much scholarly debate and in the general population around the dinner table. The follow up question to that, of course is, is there room at the top for another superpower, and if so which country or countries will rise to the occasion? Is America really finished as the world's superpower? There are respected intellectual, members of the elite media core, think tank theorists, and many in society at large that seem to think so. In many newspapers, magazines, and on reputable news programs around the world, learner authors announce the end of the American era and advise that the rise of China and India, the resurgence of Putin's Russia, and the noted expansion of the European Union signifies a significant and profound shit…
China State Council, (2005). White paper: China's peaceful development road. Accessed 28, January 2009 at:
Goldstein, A. (2005). Rising to the challenge: China's grand strategy and international security. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Ikenberry, J. (2008). The rise of China and the future of the West. Foreign Affairs,
Globalization has become a major boon for the teaching profession overall. An increased standard of living, accompanied by economic development has created a platform for which institutions of higher education can promote themselves. Particularly through the Internet and its overall reach throughout the world, higher institutions increase their influence. This influence, primarily derived from a position of authority can help expand the soft power of institutions throughout the world.
Faculty and staff are heavily influenced by the use of higher education to project soft power. Soft power is often characterized as a persuasive approach to international relations. This approach involves both economic and cultural influences by the institutions of higher education. Faculty and staff can therefore use their soft power to facilitate cooperation rather than coercion. For example when university policies are seen as legitimate both other countries, soft power is enhanced. Institutions within higher education are in a very…
powers of the presidency are listed and outlined in Article II of the Constitution of the United States. In a relatively brief explanation of the executive branch, the Constitution's framers present a vision of a president with very specific and limited powers. Those powers include the service of Commander in Chief of the nation's armed forces, thereby entrusted with the capability and responsibility of making key strategic decisions related to the behavior of the United States in all military matters. Additional roles played by the president include appointing Justices to the Supreme Court and other staffing decisions, which have major bearings on the political character and tenor of the nation.
Prior to the First and Second World Wars, the United States had remained relatively insular and isolationist in its approach to foreign policy. There were some strategic military engagements prior to that point, but as soon as the United States…
Congressional Record Proceedings and Debates of the 108th Congress (n.d.). Government Printing Office.
United States Constitution. Article II. Text retrieved online: https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/articleii
The UN as Global Police Force and Negotiation Facilitator
As Mingst and Karns (2016) note, the UN has played a predominant role in setting the standard for human rights—and it did so in 1948, three years after the conclusion of WW2. However, setting the standards is not the same as enforcing the standards and so far the UN’s declaration of human rights has been fairly toothless in terms of holding nations accountable through any type of police action. Global police action when it does occur tends to come from the U.S., which emerged as the world leader among the nations in the post-War era. Mingst and Karns (2016) state explicitly that “much of the UN’s success in defining human rights norms, monitoring respect for human rights, and promoting human rights has depended on the activities of the growing international human rights network of NGOs—the third UN” (p. 218). UN-led partnerships…
Ultra Long-Term Perspectives World Energy
Energy is a very important part of our lives and the world that we live in today. It has always been important since the time that the humans used to do all their work by themselves to the times when they started using animals and even today when we make use of the energy sources around us to produce energy such as electricity.
Today our main source of energy are the fossils fuels that won't last forever as, they take millions of years to form and very little time to get used as a source of energy. One of the very important concerns of today's time is the speed with which we are consuming these fossil fuels and how it will be very difficult for us to keep up with the increased demand which is expected to double by 2050 as the population is expected…
European Renewable Energy Council EREC. (2010). Re-thinking 2050 - A 100% renewable energy vision of EU. Retrieved from http://www.erec.org/media/publications/re-thinking-2050.html
Jess, A. (2010). What might be the energy demand and energy mix to reconcile the world's pursuit of welfare and happiness with the necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere? Energy Policy, 38(8), 4663 -- 4678. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510003009
Khatib, H. (2011). IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 39(5), 2507 -- 2511. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511000930
Khatib, H. (2012). IEA World Energy Outlook 2011 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 48, 737 -- 743. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421512005149
Several interesting facts surrounding he China Syndrome are worth bringing out at the beginning of this paper. First, Jack Lemmon, Jane Fonda, and Michael Douglas, the principal actors in the film, were all actively anti-nuclear at one time during the 1970s and 1980s in California and Oregon. Fonda in fact flew from Los Angeles to Eugene Oregon in 1976 to appear as a celebrity on behalf of the proponents of Measure B, a ballot proposition (which failed) that would have restricted the further development of nuclear plants in Oregon pending the establishment of a safe repository for the highly radioactive "nuclear waste."
he same kind of ballot measure that was voted on in California in 1976, and was defeated because of massive advertising by the utilities, which used scare-tactic V commercials showing a family eating dinner by candlelight (the direct implication was that the lights would go out…
The "logic" of what Commoner has been saying for many years is playing out very clearly through the Bush Administration in Washington, in several ways. For example, rather than push Detroit to build cars that get much better mileage, the administration has sided with the auto industry, and worked against legislation that would force Detroit to make more fuel-efficient cars. Two years ago, the administration even went so far as to advocate tax breaks for people who buy big gas-guzzling SUVs.
Rather than push solar power usage on middle class homes, cutting the need for electricity to heat hot water in homes, the administration has pushed for more the building of more nuclear plants, and has re-written rules regarding the Clean Air Act, in order to help utilities avoid having to install expensive equipment to put out less pollution.
The administration has also pushed for more oil drilling in places like Alaska, which plays into the hands of the oil companies, and does nothing for the average consumer and homeowner. And as for energy policies, and getting input from Americans as to what they feel should be pursued for future energy sources, this administration has been very pro-oil, pro-nuclear, and secretive about its plans. Vice President Dick Cheney held an energy meeting at the White House in 2001, and though many groups sought information about what corporations were represented, and sued to find out what companies were invited and participated, the case went all the way to the Supreme Court, and still that information is not forthcoming.
The United States currently garners about 20% of its electricity from nuclear power plants ("Nuclear Power Now" nd). Moreover, nuclear power poses fewer direct dangers than coal-produced electricity ("Nuclear Power Now" nd).
Furthermore, nuclear physicists are working towards solutions to the problem of radioactive waste disposal. Scientists hope also to devise new ways of improving nuclear power production processes, and most importantly, to minimize the creation of radioactive waste. As waste creation is minimized and waste storage is made safer, nuclear power will become a more sensible option. Until then, it should remain a small but significant percentage of all electricity generation worldwide because nuclear power does not exacerbate the immediate problem of greenhouse gas emissions.
"Nuclear Power Now." (nd). etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.nuclearnow.org/
Sample, I. (2008). Beginner's guide: how nuclear power works. Guardian. 30 April 2008. etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/30/particlephysics.energy1
Till, C. (nd). Interview…
"Nuclear Power Now." (nd). Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.nuclearnow.org/
Sample, I. (2008). Beginner's guide: how nuclear power works. Guardian. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/30/particlephysics.energy1
Till, C. (nd). Interview with PBS Frontline. Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/etc./faqs.html
According to Pugh (1990), the organizational structure is an instrument that appears from the need to fulfill the organizational aims and objectives with the tools and activities that are available. Following the way that this process is managed, several types of organizational structures can be identified, including pre-bureaucratic structures, bureaucratic and post-bureaucratic structures, functional structures, divisional structures and matrix structures.
Westinghouse organizational structure falls into several different categories. On one hand, it is a bureaucratic structure. Among the characteristics of such an organization, Weber (1948) identifies several: "precision, speed, unambiguity, & #8230; strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs- these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration."
The bureaucratic nature of the organizational structure at Westinghouse is motivated by at least two aspects: (1) the nature of the industry in which Westinghouse operates: the nuclear industry, highly regulated, which implies…
1. Handy, Charles, (2007). Understanding Organizations. Penguin Books.
2. Deal T.E. And Kennedy, A.A. (1982) Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1982
3. Weber, M. (1948). Essays in Sociology. London: Routledge
4. Pugh, D.S., ed. (1990).Organization Theory: Selected Readings. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
These massive walls of water travel faster than a commercial jet as they descend upon cities and islands. The energy and force of a Tsunamis is the massive transference of potential energy, caused by the shifting currents of the ocean, into kinetic energy that active pushes the Tsunamis forward. In 2004, one tsunami traveled 375 miles in a mere 75 minutes, about 300 miles per hour. Energy however is not just limited the massive, and the mystical, it is present in every form of life. In our own bodies, energy is the driving force behind why our heart pumps blood and why we have the ability to breathe. We use chemical energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, etc. To power the basic functions of our bodies.
imply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that…
Simply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that has established the sciences. There are limitations to energy however, detailed by the fundamental laws of physics such as the law of conservation of energy. Scientist's everyday is attempting to fine hone and find the limitations of scientific knowledge. In the hopes that one day we will find an indisputable source of energy that will never wane in force, the dream of "perpetual motion."
Serway, Raymond a.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole
Walding, Richard, Rapkins, Greg, Rossiter, Glenn (1999-11-01). New Century Senior Physics. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
Fuel (Coal)/Uranium Needed (tons)
Sulfur Dioxide and Other Emissions (tons)
adioactivity mSv (millisievert)
Solid Waste (tons)
Increased global warming and health effects.
Coal power plants and nuclear power plants are currently the two basic sources of electricity generation across the globe. The purpose of this lab animation and report is to evaluate which of these sources of energy is better for human sustainability. The determination of the more efficient of these two energy sources is based on the data provided above and further research.
The generation of electricity is the leading industrial activity that produces air and gases emissions across the globe. This process is usually carried in several power plants that use different sources of energy. Generally, a huge percentage of the world's electrical power is produced through the use of non-renewable energy sources like coal and uranium (Matthews,…
Kyler, D. (2013, February 4). An Honest Look at Sustainability. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.sustainablecoast.org/site/honestlook.html
Matthews, M. (n.d.). Which One is Better for the Environment: Coal or Nuclear? Retrieved
April 28, 2013, from http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/one-better-environment-coal-nuclear-20469.html
A website called Texas Radiation Online documents a number safety violations and cost overruns for current Texas nuclear power plants that somehow have been forgotten in the news in the last few years. This is rather ironic, considering that nuclear power was supposed to be very cheap. Then Atomic Energy Agency, Chairman Lewis Strauss said in 1954 that "It is not too much to expect that our children will enjoy in their homes electrical energy too cheap to meter,."
Evidentally, Chairman Strauss was not talking to the people of the city of Austin, TX. The amounts passed onto ratepayers are in the billions of dollars. As the City of Austin joined State of Texas Nuclear project in 1973, the plant was estimated to cost $1 billion, with the Austin's share set at $161 million. This ballooned to $6.2 billion with the town's share at over $1 billion. Nuclear power has…
Hertsgaard, Mark. "We must imagine a life without oil. " Environment. AlterNet.org, 08 April 2008. Web. 28 Nov 2010. .
Thompson, Richard. "Additional coal-fired power plants in Texas would produce more 'bad air' days in Louisiana, group says." 16 Nov. 2010. Web. 28 Nov 2010.
"Texas Nuclear Power Plants." Texas Radiation Online, 2003. Web. 28 Nov 2010. .
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>