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Knowing why states build nuclear weapons is important for us in order to determine the future of international security and to direct foreign policy efforts in such a way so as to limit the spread of such dangerous armaments. Nuclear weapons are explosives which derive their ability to destroy from chemical reactions, either fission or fusion or a combination of both reactions. These reactions release an enormous quantity of energy, having the capability to destroy even vast cities even if the mass containing the explosive is very little. Such is the power of nuclear weapons.
Since the Soviet Union's dissolution, the key foreign policy interest of several powerful states has been to control the spread of nuclear arms. Those states which are armed with nuclear weapons or are associated with nuclear arm possessing countries continuously pressurize non-nuclear states to not develop their own weapons. The reason these states…
Hansen, Chuck. Us Nuclear Weapons the Secret History. Crown.
Hoffman, David. The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy. Anchor, 2010.
Pavil, Podvig. Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces . 2004.
Polmar, Norman. U.S. Nuclear Arsenal: A History of Weapons and Delivery Systems Since 1945. Naval Institute Press, 2009.
This debate is stated to have been lost by ethe and he finally agreed to work as a consultant since he had failed to dissuade the building of a thermonuclear bomb and provided contributions to the effort focused toward design of the bomb. In contrast the physicist Teller had "been obsessed with the need to develop the hydrogen bomb ever since Enrico Fermi, suggested the possibility to him in 1941." (Arms Control Association, 2005) it is reported that Teller was "lionized by the right as the "father of the H-bomb and became the leading proponent of the need to stay ahead of the Soviets in the arms race and for the deployment of ballistic missile defenses." (Arms Control Association, 2005) Prior to these events ethe and Teller, were very close friends and remained on the opposite sides of the debates for arms control through their entire lives. In 1945, an…
Byers, Nina (2002) Physicists and the 1945 Decision to Drop the Bomb. Physics Journal archives 13 Oct 2002. Online available at http://arxiv.org/html/physics/0210058
Bethe, Hans a. (1950) "The Hydrogen Bomb: II," Scientific American, April 1950.
Hans Bethe (1906-2005) Arms Control Today - Arms Control Association. 2005 April. Online available at; http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2005_04/Bethe.asp
Hans Bethe et al. (1984) "Space-Based Ballistic-Missile Defense," Scientific American, October 1984.
Nuclear weapons have had a profound impact upon the world at large, as well as upon the United States of America, since they were researched and created within the middle of the 20th Century. The political ramifications of the possession of, monitoring of, and even the occasional use of such weapons have drastically influenced the way nation states conduct themselves towards one another. There was a prolonged time period in which most of the world was actually anticipating, and dreading, the day a full scale nuclear war would take place due to the deployment of such weaponry. International conflicts such as orld ar II -- in which nuclear weapons were first used -- the Cuban Missile Crisis, as well as the prolonged Cold ar that largely pitted the Soviet Union against the United States helped to fuel this conception and to place nuclear weapons at the forefront of…
Bernstein, Barton. "The Uneasy Alliance: Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Atomic Bomb, 1940 -- 1945." The Western Political Quarterly 29 (2): 202 -- 230. 1976. Print.
Epperson, Ralf. The Unseen Hand. Tucson: Publius Press. 1985. Print.
Faria, Miguel. Cuba in Revolution: Escape from a Lost Paradise. Macon: Hacienda. 2002. Print.
Smyth, Henry. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes: the Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940-1945.Princeton: Princeton University Press.
An analysis of the Intelligence Community's efforts against the Soviet Nuclear arsenal during the Cold ar
The Cold ar was one of the defining periods in U.S. history. Going to the moon was more about the culture and events that were occurring during the 1960s than anything else. hen Kennedy announced in 1961 that the U.S. would put a man on the moon, it was more about the Cold ar and showing up the Soviets than merely for scientific discovery. "So we decided to engage in this major scientific and technological endeavor and prove to the world that we were second to none," Roger Launius, the curator of the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum stated (Lamb, 2012). However, the race to achieve a technological domination was not limited to space alone. Each country had developed nuclear technologies that were promoted because of the competition between the countries.…
Atom Central. (N.d.). The Cold War. Retrieved from Atom Central: http://www.atomcentral.com/the-cold-war.aspx
Lamb, R. (2012, October 6). Why Did We Go To the Moon? Retrieved from Discovery News: http://news.discovery.com/space/private-spaceflight/why-did-we-go-to-the-moon.htm
Tarantola, A. (2013, November 8). 10 Cold War Weapons That Terrified U.S. Military Intelligence. Retrieved from Gizmodo: http://gizmodo.com/10-cold-war-weapons-that-terrified-u-s-military-intell-1459669357
Valois, K. (1970). The Cuban Missile Crisis: A World in Peril. Auburndale: History Compass.
At some point one must recognize that even if we identify a strategy to convince North Korea to cease its nuclear programs, history has shown us that their agreement means very little. Further, critics of attempts to neutralize North Korea point to the lack of sanctions that have been imposed for non-compliance with agreements (Kim, 2010).
Major concerns for the international community when addressing this issue is their ultimate willingness to engage in a war with North Korea should it become necessary. Due to the failure of strategic negotiation and hard line tactics there is little that can be done to ensure that negotiations do not result in war. Yet a war would surely lead to catastrophic results including deaths of thousands of soldiers including U.S. troops and the potential for nuclear activity by North Korea (Muravchik, 2003). One must consider the fact that North Korea has accepted the possibility…
Barry, M.P. (2007). North Korea requires long-term strategic relationship with the U.S. International Journal on World Peace, 24(1), 37-41.
Kim, S.S. (2010). North Korea's nuclear strategy and the interface between international and domestic politics. Asian Perspective, 34(1), 49-85.
Laney, J.T., & Shaplen, J.T. (2003). How to deal with North Korea. Foreign Affairs, 82(2), 16-25.
Morgan, P.M. (2006). Deterrence and system management: The case of North Korea. Conflict Management Peace Science, 23, 121-138. doi: 10.1080/07388940600665768
Nuclear Weapons Issue:
Comparing Two Articles
Nuclear Weapons are not to be trifled with. These monsters can, in fact, annihilate the Earth in minutes. Though many applaud the progress of technology in achieving such powerful weapons, most people lobby against nuclear weapon use, which can be detrimental on land, vegetation, animal life, sea life, water life, and, of course, humanity at large. From previous examinations, it is necessary to note that nuclear weapons have harmed those that were nowhere near where they were detonated, thus proving the incredible extent of damage that they can provoke. This paper will analyze two articles, both of which deal with this issue and will examine the purpose, content and goals of each author.
First Article - Content
In the first article, the author describes nuclear weapons testing in the United States. He states by stating the as the 1970's cane to an end, American…
Millson, C. (2010). Nuclear Weapons Testing in the United States: Sacrificing Health for National Defense. Student Pulse. < http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/535/2/nuclear-weapons-testing-in-the-united-states-sacrificing-health-for-national-defense >.
Williams, T.T. (2004). Clan of One-Breasted Women. NY: Busic Books. (resource provided by customer).
nuclear weapons, as they relate to United States history. It will begin by first examining the circumstances surrounding the development of fissile materials, and will continue by speaking about the Second World War, as well as what prompted the U.S. - Germany - ussia race for developing nuclear weapons. Then, the paper will also examine lasting effects of the attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and will comment upon the influence that nuclear weapons issues have on foreign policy as well as how much harm they could cause today, and how the world can and should stop these weapons from existing in the world. With regards to this latter point, the paper will have to examine a short chronology of the development of these weapons and will therefore include those countries that are utilizing such technologies today, as well as how the U.S. sees these countries and what policies are in…
"Our History." National Nuclear Security Administration. Web. 30 Oct. 2011. .
"N Korea Helping Iran with Nuclear Testing - Telegraph." Telegraph.co.uk - Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph - Telegraph. Web. 30 Oct. 2011. .
The United States and the Soviet Union participated in a unique standoff that sought to achieve dominance through the use of technological weaponry and the ideas of mutually assured destruction (MAD). The intelligence community during this time was often caught up in ways to truly understand the enemy and find ways of deflecting the political and military impact that this weapons race produced during the Cold War. Looking back on the situation, it appears that there were many ways to interpret the actions of this enemy and provide new and important insight that could contribute to the common defense of this country and its way of life.
The purpose of this essay is to re-evaluate the Intelligence Community's effort against the Soviet Union during the Cold War. This will be accomplished by utilizing a system of Analysis of Competing Hypothesis to determine the actions and behavior of the Soviets…
Central Intelligence Agency (nd). Analysis of Competing Hypotheses. Viewed 30 Aug 2014. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/art11.html
Nitze, P.H. (1997). Is it time to junk our nukes?. Washington Quarterly, 20(3), 97-101.
Parrington, A.J. (1997). Mutually Assured Destruction Revisited. Strategic Doctrine in Question. AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL AIRPOWER JOURNAL.
Shultz, G.P., Perry, W.J., Kissinger, H.A., & Nunn, S. (2007). A world free of nuclear weapons. Wall Street Journal, 4, A15.
Wilson earned a doctorate degree in Johns Hopkins University, and became a professor of political science. Wilson experience and academic background influenced his thought. Wilson focused on peace and international cooperation, and envisaged a new world order based on the rule of law, formation of international organizations and acceptance of shared values. Wilson also advocated for the covenants of peace by reducing armaments among nations. 28.
The idealists thought led to the formation of League of Nations to bring about cooperation among states as well as guarantying peace and security of all countries.29. Between 1920s and 1930s, idealist doctrine dominated international relations and the idealist believe made Britain to be slow in re-arming itself in the face of German with the believe that the League of Nation would prevent the outbreak of Second World War . 30. While idealist doctrine reigned between 1920s and 1930s, idealistic thought was struggling to…
Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Facilitators and Detractors
Ever since the first atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has been polarized into two different groups: one that supports nuclear proliferation, and another that vehemently campaigns against the piling up of nuclear material in the world. Both groups have their own arguments to justify their stand. While those who oppose nuclear weapons argue that nuclear proliferation endangers the very existence of the world and international peace, the supporters of nuclear weapons argue that nuclear weapons are required as a deterrent force. The American policy of minimum deterrence echoes this sentiment. However, considering the fact that the world reached dangerously close to an all out nuclear war way back in the eighties during the cold war years, points to the fact that the policy of minimum deterrence can, in the hands of hot-headed heads of states, become a very…
GCSE History, 2003, "The Cold War: Causes," retrieved at http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/classroom/gcse/cold_war.htm. On July 6, 2003
Dukes Paul, 2001, "A long view of the cold war," History Today, Issue: Jan, 2001
John Lewis Gaddis, Russia, the Soviet Union and the United States: An Interpretive History, Wiley, 1990
It should be noted, from the onset, that uranium could be enriched for two main reasons. To begin with, uranium could be enriched with the intent of building a nuclear weapon. According to the BBC (2020), “highly enriched uranium has a concentration of 20% or more and is used in research reactors… weapons-grade uranium is 90% enriched or more.” If Perelandra is enriching uranium so as to build a nuclear weapon, this move would be a threat to the safety and wellbeing of Narnia. In such a case, Narnia would be justified to intervene in an attempt to secure its interests.
It is, however, important to note that Perelandra could be enriching uranium for peaceful purposes, such as civil nuclear power generation. If this were the case, the nation would be seeking to advance the interests and wellbeing of its citizens. As a sovereign jurisdiction, this would be well within…
BBC (2020). Iran nuclear deal: Why do the limits on uranium enrichment matter? Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-48776695
Nuclear weapons became a tool of American policy that goes far beyond protection of national interests, for American national interests depend on the propagation of American ideals. The United States is, in the words of Harold Lasswell, a "garrison state;" a crusading nation that seeks to combat all enemies real and imagined and to remake the world in its own image. (Flint 86-87) Under the new doctrine, nuclear strategy becomes a means of enforcing an ideology - all dissent, or supposed dissent, is rooted out through the threat of ultimate and complete destruction. Terrorism is made the defining characteristic of immorality. States that support terrorism become the ultimate evildoers. The Bush Administration redefined international relations in terms of an axis of good led by the United States and its allies, and an axis of evil consisting preeminently of Iraq, Iran, and North Korea and their terrorist associates. Alone among these…
Botti, Timothy J. Ace in the Hole: Why the United States Did Not Use Nuclear Weapons in the Cold War, 1945 to 1965. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Flint, Colin, ed. The Geography of War and Peace: From Death Camps to Diplomats. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Hilsman, Roger. From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
Hirschbein, Ron. Massing the Tropes: The Metaphorical Construction of American Nuclear Strategy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2005.
The development of the atomic bomb as well as its perceived success rate however made further development in chemical and biological weaponry unnecessary.
It is worth noting that biological weapons were never employed significantly in World War I and World War II. The effects of biological weapons even if crude has been pointed out by Spiers (2010) when he mentioned how Japanese surrendered in 1945 abut six of their soldiers released several plague-infested rates as well as sixty horses that were infested with the deadly glanders into the relatively quite and safer Chinese countryside. This left Changchun as well as its environs unsafe for habitation until the 1950s
A review of literature indicates that the United States never actively used chemical or biological weapons as part of its military operations. In its history of military development and its rise to be the world superpower. There are cases however when…
Anderson, F (F) ed. The Oxford Companion to American Military History
Black.J (2002) America as a Military Power: From the American Revolution to the Civil War
Chambers, JW (1999)ed., The Oxford Guide to American Military History
Doughty, R., Gruber, I, Flint, R, Grimsley, M and Herring, G (1995)American Military History and the Evolution of Western Warfare. Wadsworth Publishing
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
It has been viewed to manipulate the treaty for its gains in terms of securing security. After the treaty was signed, the international community's interest to agree to rules that had been accepted created a source of safety. The current world has termed the treaty as a regime.
In the U.S. context, their aim is to provide security for their citizens because of the nuclear weapons threat. The treaty has been signed by more than 180 states worldwide. In order to ensure that there is safety while nations continue with their nuclear program, a separate organization was created to oversee the process of monitoring such activities: the International Energy Atomic Agency (IAEA). U.S. As the hegemonic state has the power to protect other nations from harm: other nations view this as a mutual benefit. While the U.S. gain more power plus safety from states that are within the NPT treaty,…
Forsberg, R. (2005). Nonproliferation Primer: Preventing the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons. Michigan: MIT Press
Gallacher, J, Blacker, C. & Bellany, I. (2005). The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. New York:
Kessler, J. (2005). Verifying Nonproliferation Treaties: Obligation, Process, and Sovereignty.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Nuclear Weapons in the 21st Century Security Environment
The apparent anti-proliferation approach of the George W. ush Administration to nuclear and other Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) seems to coincide with the perspective of Scott Sagan in The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate, as opposed to the deterrence perspective of his co-author, Kenneth Waltz. Security for major nations is currently under greater threat by the destabilizing effects of terrorism than it is by annihilation through conventional warfare. The Cold-War approach of deterrence is not adequate against enemies who are more concerned with their philosophical endurance than their physical survival. The modern landscape of nuclear arms reduction by major world powers, while many quasi-minor countries scramble to attain nuclear status explicitly underscores the delicate problem of securing safety while upholding widely accepted tenets of Just War Theory.
The Spread of Nuclear Weapons is the work of…
1. "Just War Theory." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Alex Moseley, Ph.D. 2001. 16 Apr. 2003 http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/j/justwar.htm .
2. Review of: The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate. Helen E. Purkitt. United States Naval Academy. 16 Apr. 2003 http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/Review/1996/autumn/nuc-a96.htm.
3. Sagan, Scott D., and Kenneth N. Waltz. The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995.
Weapons Proliferation, simply defined, is the rapid increase or spread of weapons in the context of global security. If we are to measure the weapons capabilities of the world, the United States retains the lion's share: in 2002 the Economist estimated that American military spending would exceed 379 billion in 2003 (Economist, 6/18/2002.) For comparison's sake, Russia, the world's second largest nuclear power, had a total GDP of merely 346.6 billion in 2002 (Economist, 7/22/2003.) However, the "balance of terror" that underscored the cold war era was in many ways much safer than the current situation. Whereas 'weapons proliferation' once referred to the number of weapons in existence, it has taken on a new meaning; it now is usually meant to reflect the number of political entities capable of using weapons of mass destruction. The number of such countries has increased beyond UN Security Council permanent members to include India,…
Be Afraid. Economist, September 4th, 2003
Lord Hutton's Eyebrows. Economist, September 4th, 2003
Brecher, Gary. Bezerkers with Red Stars: North Korean Scenarios. The Exile, June 2, 2003.
Another lesson learned by the fusion research has been its impact on the development of future nuclear weapons vs. existing test ban treaties. It would be possible with successful nuclear fusion results to test weapons without an actual above or below ground explosion due to the nature of the science. The question is raised whether that would be a violation of the nuclear test ban treaties. Also, the potential power of these weapons is mind-boggling -- perhaps 100x existing nuclear weapons. They make the atomic and hydrogen bombs look like firecrackers in comparison.
The mere thought of pure fusion weapons has given pause for thought, and the development of even minor successes in this field cause lessons to be learned about the future control and management of fusion devices.
Most importantly, the fifty years of research into nuclear fusion have brought the world to the point of learning…
Brooks, M. (2009). 13 things that don't make sense: The most baffling scientific mysteries of our time. New York: Random House.
Buhl, G. (2005, November 8). Nuclear fusion. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from georgebuhl.com: http://www.georgebuhl.com/Assets/PDFs/Fusion.pdf
Doyle, J. (2009, April 1). Scientists take another stab at nuclear fusion. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from San Francisco Chronicle: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/03/31/MN7M16QB7I.DTL
Kahney, L. (1999, December 12). A century of spectacular failure. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from wired.com: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/1999/12/32916
Everything was routine until the attempted refueling.
Moran did her research well, including flying with a KC-135 tanker crew to experience an in-flight refueling so that she was cognizant of exactly what might have taken place that day. Her account of the accident holds the reader's attention, and, at the same time, seems purely objective.
Since the pilots of the 52 survived the disaster, along with the 52 navigator and spare pilot, her telling of the story comes first-hand -- at least the 52 crew's version since all aboard the KC-135 were killed. And, despite the vast differences between what the pilots told her and the results of the investigation board after the accident, Moran holds to an unbiased account of both.
She draws no conclusions other than repeating what the investigative board ruled. While the pilots described only a sudden explosion occurring at the rear of the 52 causing…
Moran, B. The day we lost the h-bomb: Cold war, hot nukes, and the worst nuclear weapons disaster in history. New York: Random House, 2009.
As a matter of fact, that is precisely what bin Laden has pledged to do in an operation he calls the "American Hiroshima." Except that bin Laden's dream consists of detonating nuclear devices in six or seven major American cities like New York, Chicago, Las Vegas, Washington, and Los Angeles simultaneously.
Allison explains that this is the real danger to the U.S. posed by Iranian intentions to start enriching uranium to weapons grade in their reactor facilities, which they will soon be able to do unless they accept the trade concessions and other incentives offered by the West to suspend such ambitions and allow regular inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Whereas Iranian missile technology is far less advanced than necessary to threaten the U.S. directly, it could easily furnish enough weapons-grade uranium to make bin Laden's dream a real possibility within a matter of only a few…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Henry Holt
By continuing with a "business as usual" attitude, the terrorists would not have a long-term psychological impact on American society, culture and economic development.
hile the long-term psychological impact appears to be the most prominent value that a weapon of mass destruction has for a terrorist, it seems reasonable to argue that these weapons also serve as a means for terrorist groups to have their political voices heard. Terrorist attacks bring to light the activities, beliefs and values of a specific terrorist group. Although many in the U.S. were familiar with Osama bin Laden before 9/11, his implication in the terrorist attacks made him and Al-Qaeda household names. In this context, bin Laden was able to bring to light the organization's hatred of the United States and the organization's political agenda for the entire international community. The publicity gained from terrorist events clearly has value for terrorist groups.
The dynamic terrorist threat." RAND Corporation. . Accessed October 31, 2007 at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1782.pdf .
Thornburgh, Dick. "Balancing civil liberties and homeland security." Albany Law Review, 68(4), (2005): 801-813.
Weapons of mass destruction." Global Focus. . Accessed October 31, 2007 at http://globalfocus.org/GF-WMDs.htm.
(ebehn M.) Another example from the 1700's of the use of bacterial agent in war was in the conflict between ussia and Sweden in 1710. There are reports that the ussians used the bodies of plague victim to create an epidemic among the enemy. (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)
There is also the infamous incident in American history of the intentional infection of the native Indians with smallpox. "An English general, Sir Jeffery Amherst, surreptitiously provided the Indians loyal to the French with blankets infected with smallpox virus. The resulting epidemic decimated the Indians." (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)
2.3. The modern technological era and weapons of mass destruction.
With the advent of the modern industrial age there was a rapid development of technology. This was also to lead to the equally rapid growth in the development of even more and more destructive and indiscriminate weapons of destruction. The most well-known and…
HISTORY of BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at http://www.gulfwarvets.com/biowar.htm
History of Epidemics and Plagues (2001) Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at http://uhavax.hartford.edu/bugl/histepi.htm
Johnson T.J. A History of Biological Warfare from 300 B.C.E. To the Present.
Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at http://www.aarc.org/resources/biological/history.asp
Nuclear Fuel Cycle is a set of different processes that utilize nuclear materials and then returns them to their initial state, in a cyclical manner. It begins with the mining of naturally occurring nuclear materials from the environment, and ends with safe and proper disposal of nuclear waste products back to the environment. Production of energy from Uranium requires several unique processes. One of the terms used in this production of nuclear energy is front end, referring to the entire set of processes involved in making nuclear energy from the uranium ore in the nuclear fuel cycle. The processes involved are:  mining,  crushing,  processing,  enrichment, and  the fabrication of fuel. After being used to produce energy, the nuclear material is now known as spent fuel. The spent fuel has to be converted in a reprocessing or storage facility if the company wants to recycle it.…
Carlsen, B.W., Phathanapirom, U., Schneider, E., Collins, J.S., Eggert, R.G., Jordan, B., ... & Yacout, L. (2013). Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (No. INL/EXT-14-32302). Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
CAS. College of Agricultural Sciences. (2009). Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Retrieved from: http://extension.psu.edu/publications/uc203
ELAW. Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide. (2015). Overview of Mining and its Impacts. Retrieved from: https://www.elaw.org/files/mining-eia-guidebook/Chapter1.pdf
IAEA (2006). International Atomic Energy Agency. Storage and Disposal of Spent Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste. Retrieved from: http://www.iaea.org/About/Policy/GC/GC50/GC50InfDocuments/English/gc50inf-3-att5_en.pdf
seventh and eighth chapters of Lawrence Freedman's book The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy. Indeed, the use or threatening of use of nuclear weapons has been a prominent and controversial topic for the last half century and change since the weapons were dreamt up and brought to reality. hat follows this introduction is meant to be an abstract of what Friedman had to say. hile the use of weapons of mass destruction was and remains a very charged subject, there is no doubt that it has altered the course of human history both when it is used and not used (Freedman).
It is indeed interesting how the different motives and obligations can make the opinions about things like destructive bombs ebb and flow. hile some may focus on the death, destruction and later fallout of Japan post-orld ar II, others still focus on the threat of these weapons being used against…
Freedman, Lawrence. The evolution of nuclear strategy. 3rd ed. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print.
There are several groups involved in fighting the Yucca Mountain site, including local grassroots organizations in Nevada and larger organizations around the country. Many Native American tribes do not support the site, as it is located on their ancient tribal lands. The Nevada Piutes are one group who is organized in opposition to the site, as are several other western Native American tribes. A larger organization is the Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, a group who opposes the site for a number of reasons, including transportation safety issues, the geology of the site, and the fact that other sites were not seriously considered.
What are the future prospects of Yucca Mountain? That is still not clear. Congress OK'd the dumpsite in 2002, but since then, many things have changed politically in Washington and around the country. Many groups and citizens are protesting the dump, mainly due to safety and transportation…
Editors. "Earthquakes in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain." State of Nevada. 1996. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.state.nv.us/nucwaste/yucca/seismo01.htm
Editors. "Yucca Mountain Repository." U.S. Department of Energy. 2007. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov/ym_repository/index.shtml
Fraud Allegations Roil Yucca Mountain Project." Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2005: 20+.
Rosenheck, Dan. "Digging a Deeper and Deeper Hole." New Statesman 29 Sept. 2003: xxii+.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Nuclear terrorism or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were labeled as the single most serious threat to the national security of the United States of America by President George W. Bush. When President Barack Obama came into office, he had the same sentiments about the growing terrorism in the Middle East. Our leaders and security experts see terrorist having access to WMD as nightmares when they sleep. The Japanese group Aum Shrinrikyo, Al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Lashkar al Tayyib and Jemmah Islamiya are few of the terrorist groups who have been known to gain access to chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 5) Terrorist groups are present to spread terrorism all over the world as the name suggests. However, many would argue that these viscous people are only going to scare the world and not use any of them. However, seeing their statements and…
Cordesman, Anthony H. 2002. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger
Long, Jerry M. 2008. Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. USAF Academy, Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies
Mowatt-Larssen. 2010. Al Qaeda Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat: Hype or Reality? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School
O'Neil, Andrew. 2003. Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction: how serious is the threat? Australian Journal of International Affairs 57:99 -- 112.
Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism
Iran has made a choice, and that choice is to sustain a global stance of nuclear realism. And it has chosen to do this in no small part because its chief opponents who favor the new school of institutionalism are unable and unwilling to counterpunch. For right now, the major organizations of global collaboration are actually down if not out on the mats of the boxing ring, fearing, in reality, their own revival. If they arise and confront Iran, they would not only bring unwanted attention to a significant and potentially expensive conflict (which they cannot afford), they might also even have to acknowledge that they are able to unleash an entire new level of nuclear manipulation and confusion, one that would engage the destructive capabilities of cyberwarfare -- a potential blow to many elements of deterrence and power.
At this point, however, the match…
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
Boucek, C. And Sadjadpour, K. (2011) Rivals -- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/2011/09/20/rivals-iran-vs.-saudi-arabia/56t9 .
Hirsch, M. (2008). Iran's Great Game. The Daily Beast. Retrievable from http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2008/07/02/iran-s-great-game.html
Jonsson, C. And Tallberg, J. (n.d). International Theory and International Relations. Retrievable from http://www.uni-muenster.de/Politikwissenschaft/Doppeldiplom/docs/IIR.pdf .
Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, "Political Realism in International Relations," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .
If there are people, of whatever nationality, who will be found guilty of creating and scattering MD, will be subjected to penalties and/or punishment which will be imposed by the overall leader o the UN itself. More so, countries which will be proven allowing the research and development and eventual use of MD should also be asked to answer from the call of the UN.
The entire populace can also share their efforts to controlling the use of any form of MD, thereby preventing any possibility of massive deaths or environment destruction. People must voice out their concern. The people should be activist enough in letting their leaders know how they want the use of MD to be abolished. The media can play a detrimental role in airing and showing how the people, across all nations, are against any form of MD. Newspapers, magazines, TV programs, radio stations, are good…
Collins, Robin, 2005. A step in the right direction: the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Ploughshares Monitor
Everett, R 2004. Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction - Radiological, Chemical and Biological. Langford Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
Kalyadin, Alexander 2003. A strategy for active Non-Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Publication: Military Thought
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…
Adamson, Greg. We All Live on Three Mile Island: The Case against Nuclear Power. Sydney: Pathfinder, 1981. Print.
"The Case against Nuclear Power and the Case for Real Solutions to Energy Security and Climate Change." Greenpeace International. GREENPEACE. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Totty, Michael. "The Case For and Against Nuclear Power." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 30 June 2008. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Williams, Chris. "The Case against Nuclear Power." ISR - International Socialist Review. The Center for Economic Research and Social Change. Web. 31 May 2014. .
S. had provided the technology needed to promote the development of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. argued that it had provided civilian instead of military technology, therefore had not violated the treaty.
The Politics of Proliferation
The politics of non-proliferation are complex. In the case of the U.S., the agreement and terms must satisfy every party involved. On one hand, the U.S. is under an obligation built on trust, that it will reduce the number of nuclear weapons in its arsenal. However, it must still maintain an arsenal that is capable of acting as a deterrent against first attach by non-treaty countries with nuclear weapons. These two goals compete with one another. The U.S. is not the only nuclear weapon owner with this conflict. Every member of the non-proliferation treaty faces this same dilemma.
Nuclear arms negotiations have taken place amidst an atmosphere of deception and mistrust. Full disclosure is…
Curtis, L. 2007. "U.S. Policy and Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Containing Threats and Encouraging Regional Security." The Heritage Foundation. July 6, 2007. http://www.heritage.org/Research/asiaandthepacific/tst062707.cfm (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Kerr, P. 2004. "Libya Vows to Dismantle WMD Program. Arms Control Today." January/February 2004. http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2004_01-02/Libya (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Lavie, M. "Israel Stands by Vague Nuclear Policy." December 7, 2006. Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/07/AR2006120701234.html)
Levy, D. 2007. "U.S. nuclear policy goes from MAD to NUTS, Panofsky says." Stanford Report. April 18, 2007. http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2007/april18/pief-041807.html (Accessed August 21, 2008)
One nuclear expert notes, "For countries that think the United States constitutes a threat, how should they react? In effect, there is no way to deter the United States other than by having nuclear weapons. No country can do that conventionally. The United States can overwhelm other countries conventionally."
Clearly, the United States has nuclear capabilities, but they have only used them once, in a time of war. Today, the message is clear. Those countries that have nuclear capabilities do not use them, for they know if they do, they will suffer the same nuclear consequences. Thus, the world stays "safe" because no one is ready to make the first move. Some say Iran is simply attempting to defend itself, while others are not so sure.
In conclusion, the Iranian nuclear development program is becoming increasingly difficult to manage by regulatory organizations, and it seems Iran will do what it…
Editors. Q&a: Iran and the Nuclear Issue. BBC News. 3 Dec. 2007. Newspaper online. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4031603.stm .Internet. Accessed 15 Dec. 2007.
Sadjadpour, Karim. "The Nuclear Players." Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 125+.
Sagan, Scott, Kenneth Waltz, and Richard K. Betts. "A Nuclear Iran: Promoting Stability or Courting Disaster?" Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 135+.
Schake, Kori. "Dealing with a Nuclear Iran." Policy Review, no. 142 (2007): 3+.
Selling Nuclear Technology
The sale of United States nuclear technology to other countries has gained more criticism, especially in light of the September 11 attacks and the current war against Iraq. Despite these security concerns, however, many corporations still advocate efforts to repeal federal laws regarding the sale of such technology to countries such as China. This paper examines the pros and cons of both positions, paying particular attention to the history and ramifications of continued sale of nuclear technology.
The United States should continue selling nuclear technology
Common perception holds that foreign countries like China, Pakistan and Algeria are the main supporters of the sale United States nuclear technology. However, many American companies such as estinghouse, Bechtel and General Electric support the move to allow the export of American nuclear technology and parts to countries such as China.
For these companies, the reasons are economic. Domestic demand for nuclear…
Hedges, Stephen J. "China's surprising nuclear helpers." U.S. News and World Report. September 29, 1997. Proquest database.
Lee, Rensselaer. Smuggling Armageddon. New York: St. Martin's Griffin Press, 2000.
Muradian, Vago. "U.S. Gov't Eyes Resuming Weapons Sales To Pakistan, Indonesia." Defense Daily International 21 September 2001. 7 December 2001 http://www.clw.org/atop/restrictions_ddi092101.html .
Nunn, Sam. "U.S. investments in a peaceful Russia." Issues in Science and Technology. Summer 1995. 11(4): 27-31. Proquest database.
When we think of warfare and terrorist attacks, we tend to think of large destructive pieces of machinery -- nuclear missiles and/or bombs, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and even the still-too-recent memory of massive airplanes being turned from passenger vehicles into weapons. Not all forces of mass death and destruction come in large packages, however. In the years following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, several small, standard envelopes were also used in an attempt at terrorist action. Though these attempts were not successful, they highlight an important part of the battle against terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. Biological agents can be delivered in small and hard to catch ways -- via the U.S. mail in what appear to be normal envelopes, for instance -- and if the agent is contagious enough the effects of biological warfare can be completely devastating and almost impossible to control.…
Against Nuclear Power
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of international relations and business today, all nations and their respective economies must be able to effectively globalize their energy operations in order to reach a greater potential resource base and sustain fiscal durability in the long-term. In accomplishing the aforementioned tasks, many nations have placed environmental considerations at the bottom of the ladder of priority. However, with countless new environmental initiatives cropping up each day, it behooves any and all government and big business personnel to gain a greater respect for the fragile environment in which we live. Terms like "emissions," "energy consumption," "fossil fuel depletion" and "carbon footprint" are increasingly becoming a part of the average global citizen's vocabulary. The future of all nations lies in the hands of those who seriously embrace the importance of such rhetoric. Accordingly, several energy-producing options have been considered and…
Bodansky, D. (2004). Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices, and Prospects (2nd Edition ed.). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag LLC.
Hatch, M., Ron, E., Bouville, A., Zablotska, L., & Howe, G. (2005). The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Epidemiol Review, 27 (1), 56-66.
Jo, D.-J., & Gartzke, E. (2007). Determinants of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51 (1), 167-194.
Ryan, V. (2009). Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Power. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from http://www.technologystudent.com/energy1/wind8.htm
A nuclear meltdown would be a local catastrophe requiring evacuation (and likely permanent abandonment) of the surrounding communities, but that risk is not substantially different in magnitude from a burst hydroelectric dam, or from the aggregate harm of continuing to pollute our atmosphere with fossil fuel waste products..
Certainly, nuclear energy requires strict regulation, careful facilities planning, and myriad other equally important practical considerations for administrating the industry safely so that its risks are minimized. However, the emotional objection to peaceful uses of nuclear power is based on incorrect assumptions about what those risks actually are, as well as on the illogical association of the beneficial uses of the technology with its destructive potential used in weapons of war.
In the case of nuclear power, the ethical considerations are closely related to the logical analysis. Once it is established that the emotional objection to nuclear power on overall…
Gundersen, P. (1999) the Handy Physics Answer Book.
Barnes & Noble: New York
Rennie, R. (2003) the Facts on File Dictionary of Atomic and Nuclear Physics.
Checkmark Books: New York
This when the Army must spread out its resources to engage threat WMDs and WMD networks. The concept applies to counterforce operations, sensors, protection, and training.
Leveraging new technologies. Many of the required capabilities presented in the strategy will be possible only through applications of new technology. The Army must leverage these new technologies.
Enhance training. Unit training is currently more flexible and quickly adaptive in comparison with institutional training. but, it often lacks valuable consistency and standardization.
Institutional training content updates, approval, and resourcing it is tied to processes too slow to remain current. Future training will prepare soldiers and leaders to exercise sound judgment in the analysis of data / information, understanding cultural impacts on operations and to act in periods of uncertainty.
These ideas are providing a background for implementing new technology and key strategies for improving the countermeasures and neutralization of WMDs. However, this research is…
"Disarmament." UN. http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/briefing/disarmament/disarmament.pdf (accessed January 30, 2013)
Michael, Vane, " Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction," U.S. Army, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA496736 (accessed January 20, 2013).
Barry, Ezill. "Identifying Factors that Influence Terrorist Decisions." Journal of Homeland Security 1, no. 1, (2012): 1- 15.
Brookes, Peter. A Devil's Triangle. Lantham: Rowman, 2005.
nuclear deal with Iran. A tentative agreement has recently been signed, and the final details need to be worked out by the end of June. The parties at the negotiating table have an interest in a negotiated agreement, even if some other stakeholders do not. Given that, while there still risks that the deal may be scuttled or delayed, in all likelihood the deal will pass. The trade-off for the U.S. will be that it gets some certainty with respect to the Iranian nuclear program in exchange for allowing Iran to have a civilian nuclear program for power generation, subject to strict controls. The paper analyzes the other options on the table and explains why a negotiated agreement with Iran is superior to the other potential alternatives that are available.
At the time of writing, Iran is engaged in talks with the United States and several other stakeholder nations…
ADL (2015). The Iranian nuclear deal: Why it matters. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.adl.org/israel-international/iran/c/the-iranian-nuclear-threat-why-it-matters.html
Al-Ghoul, A. (2013). Hamas mixed on Iran nuclear deal. Uruknet.info. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.uruknet.info/?p=m102915
Al Jazeera (2015). Why Saudi Arabia and Israel oppose Iran nuclear deal. Al Jazeera Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/04/saudi-arabia-israel-oppose-iran-nuclear-deal-150401061906177.html
Anishchuk, A. (2013). Iran's Rouhani says wants nuclear issue resolved, but draws lines. Reuters. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/09/13/us-nuclear-iran-rouhani-idUSBRE98C0EQ20130913
The modern world has been characterized with several environmental issues in the recent past including natural resource depletion, climate change, pollution, and overpopulation. However, climate change has attracted significant attention because of increased environmental impact of industrialization and globalization. Climate change is largely attributable to the current energy sources, which continue to affect the environment. As a result, the search for a suitable energy source with little to no environmental effect has become a major issue for policymakers, governments, and environmentalists. Despite conventional views that nuclear power is unsuitable, recent studies and statistics have considered it a clean energy source. This has contributed to arguments and counter-arguments on whether nuclear energy is clean and safe for the environment. Despite having little to no emission of dangerous gases, nuclear energy is unsustainable when considered from an economic and social perspective.
The Case for Nuclear Energy
In the past few…
Cavanagh, R. & Cochran, T. (2013, November 6). Nuclear Energy Film Overstates Positives, Underplays Negatives. CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/opinion/pandora-nuclear-energy-opinion-cavanagh-cochran/
Kemfert et al. (2015, November). European Climate Targets Achievable Without Nuclear Power. DIW Economic Bulletin, 5(47), 619-625.
Koffler, D. (2008, July 8). The Case for Nuclear Power. The Guardian. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com /commentisfree/2008/jul/08/nuclearpower.energy
Totty, M. (2008, June 30). The Case For and Against Nuclear Power. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121432182593500119
In addition, problems would also exist outside of the nuclear power plant itself, with the suppliers of the nuclear material also being a possible target of attacks or a source of materials for weapons. This shows that what Ansolabehere suggests as one problem is really a whole range of problems.
Another important point to note is that the possibility of nuclear power plants becoming a source of nuclear weapons and becoming terrorist targets is only a possibility. In contrast, storage of nuclear waste and the safety of nuclear power plants is a current problem that already exists for the power plants in operation. Grossman (p. 206) notes that current nuclear power plants were not designed for more than 40 years of use and are considered hazardous. Grossman (p. 207) also notes that the government is currently planning to store nuclear waste in the Yucca Mountains, an area that is near…
Ansolabehere, S. "The Future of Nuclear Power." In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Thomas A Easton. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 192-204.
Grossman, K. "The Push to Revive Nuclear Power." In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Thomas A Easton. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 205-209.
There is ample evidence according to some, including CIA Director George Tenet who stated in 2000 Al-Qa'ida was attempting to gain chemicals to use in terrorist activities. There is no question that terrorists seem to have an interest in such weapons. However, while they may make a concerted effort to get these weapons, they may still lack the technology and financial abundance to deploy such weapons on a massive scale. It is not impossible, and it is certainly prudent to be on guard for any plots involving weapons of mass destruction.
The best possible argument one can make based on evidenced gathered by intelligence agencies is that many terrorist groups do have interest in weapons of mass destruction. Many attempt to acquire the raw materials for these weapons. However, there is not proof yet, solid proofs, that terrorist have the ability to use these weapons or deploy them on a…
Ackerman, Gary & Bale, Jeffrey M. Al-Qa'ida and Weapons of Mass Destruction. CNS,
Center for Nonproliferation studies, in, Perspectives, San Jose Mercury News, Sunday, Dec. 22, 2002. Available: http://cns.miis.edu/pubx/other/alqwmd.htm.
McCloud, Kimberly & Osbourne, Matthew. WMD Terrorism and Usama Bin Laden.
CNS Reports, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, 2001. Available:
Countries such as Spain and England were able to colonize other countries with their advanced military and weapons system.
With the two World Wars in the 1900s, weapons and military have evolved to meet the challenges posed by the times. States are in particular looking for more technological applications in developing their army and navy. Another branch of the military service was developed in this era, the birth of the air force. The invention of the airplane led to its development from a means of transportation to a formidable military weapon. The quest of military superiority was now determined by an advanced air force, planes well armed to drop bombs at the opposing navy and army as well as deploy infantry in the battlefield. Germany and Japan in World War II had good fighter planes that won them several battles in the onset of the war, but the consolidated air…
Stearns, Peter, Donald Schwartz and Barry Beyer. World History Traditions and New Directions. New York: Addison Wesley, 1991.
Crevald, Martin. The Transformation of War. New York: The Free Press, 1991.
Goodwin, Peter. Nuclear War - the Facts on Survival. London: Ash and Grant, 1994.
Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.
The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…
Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
United States policy towards the Iran's nuclear program has been complicated by a variety of issues. Some of these issues include Iran's alleged sponsorship of terrorism, regional stability, hostility towards U.S. allies, and the complication of the peace process between Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. The United States' approach in policy toward Iran's nuclear program has changed very little from the Bush administration to the current Obama Administration. A writer for time magazine cleverly stated, in regard to the United States' approach to Iran's nuclear program that Obama taking over the presidency "is more like taking over the controls of a train than getting behind the wheel of a car" (T. Karon). This analogy is appropriate because Obama's administration is following the foundation laid by the Bush Administration.
Both the Obama and Bush administrations recognized the potential global and regional danger that could surfaces as a result of…
Katzman, K. (2008). Iran: U.S. concerns and policy responses. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Obama's Foreign Policy Similar to Bush's at End of 2009 - TIME. (n.d.). Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1950827,00.html
Renshon, S.A. (2009). National Security in the Obama Administration: Reassessing the Bush doctrine.. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.
Us Diplomacy With Iran - Clinton says U.S. diplomacy unlikely to end Iran nuclear program - Los Angeles Times. (n.d.). Featured Articles From The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/03/world/fg-clinton3
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…
Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.
Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.
TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
Annotated ebography: eapons of Mass Destruction (MD)
ith the attacks on September 11th, 2001, the United States came face-to-face with the reality that our security strategy is far from impenetrable. To the contrary, the terrorist attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon, and more recently, the Boston Marathon bombing, proved that we are quite vulnerable to mass casualty events. Perhaps most worrisome is the concern that such an event might be carried out with eapons of Mass Destruction (MD). In light of the alleged cause for the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 and continued tensions with North Korea over its nuclear development program, the issue of eapons of Mass Destruction is what the remains in the headlines and in discussions on America's military and defense strategies. Additionally, a wide range of online resources exist with the design of compiling knowledge, presenting information and promoting defense…
Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction. Archive. http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/wmd/about.html
Department of Defense. National Military Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction. http://www.defense.gov/pdf/nms-cwmd2006.pdf
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Weapons of Mass Destruction http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/wmd
Global Security. Weapons of Mass Destruction. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/
Richard Butler's; "The Greatest Threat: Iraq, eapons of Mass Destruction, and the Crisis of Global Security." The writer of this paper analyzes the book's content and measures it against the current U.S. foreign policies. There was one source used to complete this paper.
hen the Soviet Union began to dismantle and the Berlin all came down the United States breathed a sigh of relief as it appeared the threat of nuclear war were over. The calm was short lived however when the states went to battle against Saddam the first time as he threatened to destroy the United States with whatever means were needed. Twelve years later the nation is at war with Iraq again, and again it is over the accusation that Saddam Hussein is continuing to produce weapons of mass destruction. Author Richard Butler writes in his book "The Greatest Threat: Iraq, eapons of Mass Destruction, and the…
The Greatest Threat: Iraq, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and the Crisis of Global Security by Richard Butler, James Charles Roy
PublicAffairs; Reprint edition (May 22, 2001)
Countermeasures and Neutralization of eapons of Mass Destruction
At this intricate turn of the 21st century, one of the most pertinent issues at hand is that of national and international security. Humanity has come a long way in augmenting the value of life through so many miraculous technologies, but unfortunately man has simultaneously developed certain instruments that are particularly questionable and hence a threat to the life we envision. Today the world all over is ever vulnerable to large-scale attacks conducted via such abominable technologies. These weapons of mass destruction are chemical, nuclear, radiological and even biological agents, which have evolved in the hands of many countries through the years, and their possession by hostile states or terrorist organizations is a grave cause of concern for all those people who claim to support the concept of security. (The hite House 2007) As such countermeasures against prospective threats to security and…
Blackmon, Rebecca. "Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Countermeasures." CBRNC Subgroup, Combatting Terrorism Technology Support Office, 2008.
Defense Threat Reduction Agency. "Basic Research for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction."
Kimery, Anthony. "Government Still Faces Challenges In Developing CBRN Medical Countermeasures." April 20, 2012.
Nuclear Energy Agency. "Short-Term Countermeasures In Case of a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency." Organiation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2003.
iological Weapons: The 'Living' and Pervasive Weapons of Mass Destruction
The 'art' and methods of war have indeed gone a long way; from subsisting to crude metals and guns, human society has learned to manipulate Nature by using as one of its weapons of mass destruction organisms that create balance within the planet's ecosystem. Nuclear warheads, guns, and other artilleries and weaponry are no longer feasible arsenals of war, mainly because they are not energy- and economically-efficient, as biological weapons are. iological weapons, is identified as a destructive medium which "consist of living, infectious microorganisms that are disseminated as aerosols through the atmosphere... are generally invisible, odorless, and tasteless" (Falkenrath, 1998). These characteristics of biological weapons make it a feasible medium for destruction, especially between warring nations/societies.
This paper traces the origins and history of biological weapons, especially in the United States. In knowing its history, this research also looks…
Augerson, W. (2000). A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. Washington, D.C.: Random House.
Falkenrath, R. (1998). "Unconventional Arms: The Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc.
Forsberg, R. (1995). Nonproliferation Primer: Preventing the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Lederberg, J. (1999). Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat. Cambridge: MIT Press.
2) Encyclopedia.com (http://encyclopedia.com)
1. Anterior Temporal Lobectomy
2. ADULT T-Cell Leukemia
3) Worldbook online
Available through Missoula Public library (if you have a library card)
or Worldook (print edition, at your local library)
4) One other encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ATL&printable=yes
Computer science and logic
Active Template Library, from Microsoft
ATLAS Transformation Language, a QVT model transformation language for Model Driven Engineering
Alternating-time Temporal Logic, a branching-time temporal logic that naturally describes computations of multi-agent system and multiplayer games
Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (IATA airport code: ATL)
Attleborough railway station, its National Rail code
ATL (film), a 2006 film set in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Above the line (advertising), an advertising strategy
Across the Line (C Radio Ulster), a C Northern Ireland music brand
ATL (band), an R& boy band
Above the Law (group), a Los Angeles-based rap group
All Time Low, a pop-punk band…
Aztec Weapons. (2010). Aztec Warfare and Weapons. Retrieved July 1, 2010
from: http://www.aztec-indians.com/aztec-weapons.html .
Hrdlicka, D. (2004). "HOW Hard Does it Hit? A Study of Atlatl and Dart
Ballistics." Retrieved July 1, 2010 from the Jeffers Petroglyphs Historic Site at: http://www.thudscave.com/npaa/articles/howhard.htm
It would likely also require the diplomatic alignment of the U.S. with United Nations interests, which has traditionally not been a guarantee. This would combine with the established potential of counter-terrorist cells to strike on U.S. soil to place unprecedented emphasis on securing U.S. borders from entities clearly designated as enemies of the U.S. Such an enemy list that includes a nuclear power such as North Korea could therefore pose grave consequences for the U.S. And for the entire world.
The history of North Korea's nuclear program has frequently been shrouded in secrecy, sheltered from the IAEA and denounced by the United Nations Security Council. With the announcement of the arrival of the nation as a nuclear power, there is little for North Korea to shield from the rest of the world beyond the tenuous nature of its political machine. It remains to be seen if North Korea can maintain…
Globalsecurity.org. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Nuclear Weapons Program.
http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/ world/dprk/nuke.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
NPT -Non-Proliferation Treaty
Ever since the First World War, various countries in the western world had started researching in military weapons and artillery in order to strengthen their country's security. Newer and more advanced weapons continued to be inducted in the armed forces of developed and industrialized nations in the world particularly Soviet Union, United States of America, United Kingdom, Japan and Germany. While all these countries had started their researches for development of nuclear weapons as early as 1930s, the United States of America officially emerged as the first country to have nuclear weapons developed.
While development of nuclear weapons was initially considered as an individual nation's effort to strengthen its country's security and sovereignty, it was in August 1945 when the idea of nuclear proliferation and nuclear warfare alarmed the international community. This was when the United States of America bombed to cities in Japan, Hiroshima and Nagasaki,…
Alley, R. 2000, 'Reinvigorating Nuclear Disarmament', New Zealand International Review, vol. 25, no.5, pp.11.
The Disarmament Debate: The Fate of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 2005, Harvard International Review, vol.27, no. 2, pp. 72+.
Litman, L. 2003, 'Cleaning House: Dirty Bombs and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty', Harvard International Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 32+.
Lund, M. 2009, 'The Eighty Percent and Twenty Percent Solutions to Nuclear Proliferation', Brigham Young University Law Review, vol. 2009, no. 3, pp. 741+.
Flight operations by Egyptian pilots using these aircraft have begun; approximately 16 Hawker Hunter jet fighters also arrived in Egypt from Iraq with Iraqi pilots. About 10 Lightning jet fighters were expected from Saudi Arabia;
(3) Movement of TU-16 bombers from Aswan to the Cairo area in the latter part of March which are equipped to carry air-to-surface missiles;
(4) A high state of alert imposed on the Egyptian air force since April 20 had been noted with some air force reservists being recalled on the third of May;
(5) Relocation and reactivation of various Egyptian air squadrons with shuffling to accommodate aircraft from Libya and Iraq;
(6) The evidence suggested that additional commando units may have moved closer to the Suez Canal since the middle of March; and (7) A report that the Egyptian staff had been ordered to prepare a detailed plan for an attack across the Canal…
Burr, William (2003) The October War and U.S. Policy. National Security Archives. 7 Oct 2003. Online available at: www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/
Indications of Arab Intentions to Initiate Hostilities (2001) National Security Council Archives. Declassified. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-01.pdf
Intelligence Memorandum for Secretary Kissinger (1973) National Security Council. From William Quandt and Donald Stukel. WSAG Meeting, Middle East, Saturday October 6, 1973, 3:00 P.M. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-15.pdf
Memorandum of Conversation: Simcha Dinitz, Ambassador of Israel; Mordechai Shalev, Minister; Henry A. Kissinger, Assistant to the President; and Peter W. Rodman, NSC Staff. The White House. National Security Council Archives. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-05.pdf
Sanctions in the OPEC World
What sorts of sanctions and punishments should an OPEC nation -- whose petroleum production bring riches almost beyond imagination, and hence is a player on the world's economic battleground -- receive if it launches programs aimed at acquiring nuclear weapons? That is the central question for this paper to review and critique. The best example for what would happen to an OPEC nation that works towards building a nuclear weapon can be viewed by examining what has happened to Iran and its fledgling nuclear program. This paper delves into the sanctions against Iran, and reports the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal consequences of the sanctions that are now being rescinded. This paper also projects what those painful economic and social / political realities would impose on other oil-producing nations planning a nuclear program. This narrative leads to a clear understanding of the question…
Aghazadeh, Mahdieh. 'A Historical Overview of Sanctions on Iran and Iran's Nuclear Program. Journal of Academic Studies. Vol. 56, 137-160, 2013.
Berliner, Uri. 'Crippled By Sanctions, Iran's Economy Key In Nuclear Deal." NPR. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.npr.org . 2013.
Byman, Daniel L. 'Iran's Support for Terrorism in the Middle East.' Brookings. Recovered November 25, 2015, from http://www.brookings.edu . 2013.
Farshneshani, Beheshteh. 'In Iran, Sanctions Hurt the Wrong People.' The New York Times. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2014.
In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:
We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)
Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
Henry Holt: New York
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat,
Responding to the Challenge. Yale University Press: New Haven
Those countries who have developed their own WMD programs and have not signed various non-proliferation agreements, highlights this hypocrisy that is existing in the international community. Where, no one is willing to force new countries that develop their own WMD programs to commit to such standards. This is problematic, because it telling the world that those countries not committing to various non-proliferation efforts, can maintain their programs (in secrecy) despite the international standard that is in place. At which point, other nations will seek to start their own WMD programs, as they see this as a double standard. Where, you are not supposed to have these weapons, yet once you do they may not apply.
When you combine this with the fact, that those countries that have not signed various international accords are also not making such disclosures to the IAEA; will more than likely be inclined to pass this…
Cimbala, S. (2005). Nuclear Weapons and Strategy. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gardner, H. (2007). Risks of Nuclear Proliferation. American Global Strategy and the War on Terrorism. (pp. 81 -94) Aldershot, UA: Ashgate.
Heng, Y. (2009). The Proliferation Security Initiative. Risk, Global Governance and Security. (pp. 87 -- 95). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lia, B. (2004). Weapons of Mass Destruction. Globalization and the Future of Terrorism. (pp. 39 -- 48). New York, NY: Routeledge.
Uranium Trioxide (UO3)
Uranium trioxide occurs as an orange powder and is the form of uranium identified in the colored glass found evidencing its use as a paint color component dating back to the First Century AD (Krauss, 2001).
Atkins, P.W. (1995). Periodic Kingdom: A Journey into the Land of the Chemical
Elements. Basic Books: New York.
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Brilliant Teacher 6th Edition. Addison-Wesley: eading, MA.
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Feynman, R.P. (1997). Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most
War in Iraq
Should we have gone to war with Iraq based on the reasons given at the time the war started? When we went to war with Iraq, ush gave three reasons for doing so. First, he claimed that Saddam Hussein had ties to al-Qaeda (Richelson, p. 44, p. 69). Secondly, he said that Saddam Hussein at the very minimum was attempting to acquire nuclear weapons and in fact might have already gotten them. Third, he claimed that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Of the three claims, the third one regarding WMD was instantly believable, because American news had been full of pictures of dead Kurds, citizens of Iraq, killed with Iraq's chemical weapons. Hussein had used WMD's in the past on his own citizens, and so it seemed likely that he could easily use them on people he regarded as enemies of his country. In addition,…
Barry, Tom and Jim Lobe. 2002. "U.S. Foreign Policy -- Attention, Right Face, Forward March." Foreign Policy in Focus, April. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://www.fpif.org/papers/02right/
CNN. 2003. "Bush sends Iraq war letter to Congress." CNN Edition Inside Politics. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04 http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/19/sprj.irq.bush/
Cochran, John. 2004. "Corroborating O'Neill's Account." ABC News, Jan. 13. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/U.S./oneill_charges_040113.html
Richelson, Jeffrey.2004. "Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction." National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 80. Feb. 11. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB80/
Mao Tse-tsung, how does one develop a correct war-Fighting strategy?
One of Mao's major points is that one has to know the actual results and circumstances based on the actions devised and executed. Also, Mao asserted that the primary purpose of war strategy and war in general is stopping the war. He also asserted that the supreme commander of a war must understand the war and how it's being executed but the same is true for the different parts of the war efforts that are led by generals and commanders. These lower commanders have to know exactly what is being done and why just like the higher ups must know the same.
Mao offered some general criteria that can and should be followed when devising a war strategy. First, proper considerations should be given to the relationship between the army you are directing and the enemy that is at hand.…
As a report entitled Politicizing the IAEA against Iran states, "….as the latest report indicates, the IAEA is being transformed from an objective international organization to a politicized one to be used by the United States and its allies to advance their agenda regarding Iran's uranium enrichment program."
In the final analysis there are no realistic options to a negotiated settlement of the problem. A solution will require both sides to renew diplomatic efforts in order to overcome their mutual distrust of one another.
liesner D. " A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything? ( 2010)
http://www.stormingmedia.us/22/2224/A222494.html ( Accessed 5 August, 2010).
Crail Peter, "History of Official Proposals on the Iranian Nuclear Issue,"
http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Iran_Nuclear_Proposals (accessed August 4, 2010).
"IAEA: Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007),1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran," http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/IAEA_Report_Iran_18Feb2010.pdf ( Accessed…
Bliesner D. " A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything? ( 2010)
http://www.stormingmedia.us/22/2224/A222494.html ( Accessed 5 August, 2010).
Crail Peter, "History of Official Proposals on the Iranian Nuclear Issue,"
http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Iran_Nuclear_Proposals (accessed August 4, 2010).
The 2001 incidents also made other nations act supportive toward U.S.'s decision to wage war against Iraq, with the international public apparently believing that the Americans had been entitled to fight terrorism everywhere. In spite of the fact that the idea of the U.S. waging war in Iraq had a rather vindictive nature, little nations actually appeared willing to condemn the actions performed by the Bush administration.
The U.S.'s decision to go to war against Iraq appears to be unjustified, considering the fact that there had been no rational grounds for such an act. The main issue to be addressed relating to the event is whether it is reasonable for a nation to invade another on the basis that the latter either owns weapons of mass destruction or has the capability to produce them. Taking into account the fact that the U.S. had probably been suspicious concerning Iraq's intention is…
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