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The two nursing theories espoused by Jean Watson and Marilyn ay have different points of focus, but both focus on the primary purpose of nursing as a caring profession. As such, nurses, carers, and leaders all need to integrate their efforts for the purpose of furthering the primary concern to create a caring and comfortable environment for clients, particualry in the acute care setting. Having considered Watson and ay, it is concluded that ay's theory is the optimal choice for further study, as she provides an integrated and practical nursing setting to help leaders create the environment in which employees can function to fulfill their caring mission to the best of their ability.
The basic premise of Watson's theory is that nursing is that it should function within a Caring Science orientation (Watson, 2008, p. 16). According to Watson, the fact that this has not been the focus…
Eggenberger, T.E. (2011, May). Holding the Frontline: the Experience of Being a Charge Nurse in an Acute Care Setting. The Christine E. Lyn College of Nursing. Retrieved from: http://gradworks.umi.com/3462565.pdf
Keesler, L.D. (2007). Barriers to Timely Hospice Referral for Cancer Patients Across the Lifespan: Implications for the Family Nurse Practitioner. Retrieved from: https://www.nursing.arizona.edu/Library/Keesler_Lana.pdf
Ray, M., Davidson, A.W., and Turkel, M. (2011). Nursing, Caring, and Complexity: For Human-environment Well-being. Springer Publishing Company.
Watson, J. (2008). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. University Press of Colorado.
Numerous nursing theories guide the field of healthcare within the nursing realm. It is the idea that by following structured programs, in this case that of a nursing theory, a health care provider will be more able to accurately serve its designated population. Nursing theories serve as a principle that nurses live by. In their chosen field or specialty, healthcare professionals experience an array of physical and psychological states in a patient, and being able to fully grasp the severity of the situation enables the nurse to become more able to manage patient health care in a more efficient manner (Alligood & Marriner-Torney, 2010). These nursing principles also serve as a guide for the nurse to be able to handle emotions within him or herself. Such is the theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness.
Margaret Newman established the nursing theory of health as expanding consciousness. This theory derived…
Alligood, M.R., & Marriner-Tomey, A. (2010). Nursing theorists and their work. Mosby/Elsevier.
Duffy, J.R., & Hoskins, L.M. (2003). The Quality-Caring Model (C): Blending Dual Paradigms. Advances in Nursing Science, 26(1), 77-88.
Malinski, V.M. (2006). Rogerian science-based nursing theories. Nursing science quarterly, 19(1), 7-12.
McCamant, K.L. (2006). Humanistic nursing, interpersonal relations theory, and the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19(4), 334-338.
In fact, its utilization led to the development of the Goal-Oriented Nursing Record (GONR), which is used as a procedural step that would guide the nurse throughout his/her conduct of care service provision and evaluation.
Orlando's theory of functional nursing, meanwhile, focuses on one concept considered vital in King's goal attainment theory: perception. In her theory, Orlando explicated the importance of a perceptive nursing, which is a basic requirement and goal for any practicing nurse. This 'concept' is vital in that through the practice of perceptive nursing, the idea of "good" and "bad" nursing is eliminated. Moreover, in discussing further the idea of perceptive -- that is, functional -- nursing, Orlando argued the following, centering on the importance of becoming a care provider first rather than being a medical service provider:
in day-to-day practice the nurse can forget what her real job is, if she tries to carry out too…
Orlando, I. (1962). "Concept of function in professional nursing." Presented at the New York Academy of Medicine. Available at http://www.uri.edu/nursing/schmieding/orlando/manuscripts/files/coffpn.html .
Williams, L. (2001). "Imogene King's Interacting Systems Theory -- Application in Emergency and Rural Nursing." Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Healthcare, Vol. 2, Issue 1. Available at http://www.rno.org/journal/issues/Vol-2/issue-1/Williams.htm .
Nursing is a professional and an academic discipline and must be "studied in concert with all of the disciplines that together from the health sciences" (Levine's four conservation principles, 2012, Current Nursing).
To maintain homeostasis of the organism (Levine's four conservation principles, 2012, Current Nursing).
King's theory of goal attainment
Doctorate from Teacher's college, Columbia University (Imogene King's theory of goal attainment, 2012, Current Nursing).
"To help individuals maintain their health so they can function in their roles" (Imogene King's theory of goal attainment, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nursing is defined as a process of "action, reaction and interaction…between nurse and client" (Imogene King's theory of goal attainment, 2012, Current Nursing).
The purpose of nursing is the care of human beings (Imogene King's theory of goal attainment, 2012, Current Nursing).
Watson's theory of caring
PhD in nursing from University of Colorado, 1973 (Jean Watson's philosophy of nursing,…
Faye Glenn Abdellah's theory. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Jean Watson's philosophy of nursing (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved:
In contemporary times, there are many nursing theories, each with a highlighted core concept and value, and each with a unique philosophy. When looking closely at these theories, it is possible to see commonality among them, and theorists can be divided into groups with similar core beliefs. Nursing in general has an underlying goal of identifying and filling the patient's needs, though each theorist comes from a unique perspective on how to accomplish this task. Several nursing theorists are, in fact, considered "needs theorists" as their ideas are directly related to this broader goal. Others are more relationally focused and focus on the interpersonal relationship as essential for healing to occur. The theories identified in this paper are all considered "needs theories" and their theorists all share the core value of increasing patients' autonomy, self-determination and individual independence needs through accomplishing specific nursing interventions. The core concept of…
Kagan, J & Gall, S. (2007). "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs." The Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. Ed. Jerome Kagan and Susan B. Gall. Online Edition. Detroit:
Murray, T. (2003). Henderson's definition of nursing has the edge. (Perspectives: letters).
Tom Murray. Nursing Standard. April 30, 2003 v17 i33 p30(1).
Community Nursing Practice Model
For a long time, community nursing has been an issue of major concern to most health care sectors. Values are based on the model for providing grounding for the nursing practice. The transcendent values include caring, wholeness, and respect while explicating for the actualization of values for primary health care based on access, empowerment, essentiality, collaboration, community participation and inter-sectoral. The provision for framework in terms of community nursing practice through illuminating paradigmatic view and model's values for a person, nursing, environment, and community. This paper intends to use community nursing practice models in presenting the synthesis of experiencing care and communities.
Community nursing models are developed for purposes of describing building blocks got health care practice while delineating their relationship among one another. Such models communicate foundations of practice while appropriating the discipline to the public and health colleagues within other disciplines. This essay explores…
Brownson, R.C., Colditz, G.A., & Proctor, E.K. (2012). Dissemination and implementation research in health: Translating science to practice. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Davies, S., (2010) Global Politics of Health Polity. New York: Brunei
Gauld, R., (2009) The New Health Policy. New York: McGraw-Hill International
Lofgren, H., Leeuw, E., (2011) Democratizing Health: Consumer Groups in the Policy Process. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing
age of Florence Nightingale, and even before that, the nursing profession has undergone significant transformation. Nurses today are, in their own right, important caregivers with respect to patient wellness -- not simply an extension of the attending. One of the most important dynamics in the promotion of nursing in terms of medical consumer care has been the development of favorable theories and educational programs supporting the nurse as an integral part of the patient's wellness program. The true power of nursing is, however, in the recognition of the nurse's contribution to the healthcare system and the knowledge and complex decision-making skills that are necessary to care for patients. The future of professional nursing is filled with a great deal of opportunity and excitement (sh, 1998).
Knowing that nursing has become a recognizable profession in its own right it is important as well to garner an understanding as to the philosophy…
Anyone can claim to be an expert with a newly developed theory. If this be the case then knowledge is owned by the experts and there must be an expert with the knowledge of who the experts are -- a never ending cycle. In the end it will always be up to the nurse to decide for him of herself who really knows what they are talking and theorizing about and who does not. One does these simply by checking things and makes use of what works best in a nursing situation. The more important issue is who has the right to control the circulation of knowledge and who has the right to benefit from it?
Question 3. Answering the question of whether or not there exists a unique theory in professional nursing practice is not an easy answer to find. For those who are not flexible in accepting differences in healthcare delivery and not amenable to change then the answer is an unequivocal yes. Unfortunately, however, nurses who practice by one and one set of theoretical guidelines miss the opportunity to experience new comings in healthcare. This situation is very much like the teacher who has taught twenty years. Does a teacher have twenty years of experience or has the teacher simply taught the same thing twenty times over? The issue brought forth, therefore, is not necessarily one of finding a unique theory of nursing, rather one of how all-nursing philosophies are applied.
Question 4. Sometimes a question asked is best answered in as few words as possible, accompanied by a universal embedded thought: "I am the same the world over, do not use me to misguide the misguided. I carry with me an abundance of style, precision, and insight. Use me with caution, yet with respect for I will deliver to you the answer to your question" (Ohlson, 1998).
Florence Nightingale's Environmental Theory
Florence Nightingale stands out as the mother of modern nursing. In most of the cases, Florence used her life experiences to construct modern nursing theories. She viewed the manipulation of the physical environment as a crucial factor in nursing care. The theorist identified ventilation and warmth, light, noise, bed and bedding, cleanliness as important aspects of the environment the nurse could improve to enhance the quality of care. If one or more of the aspects goes out of balance, nurses will have to increase energy in an effort to counter the environmental stress (Nightingale, 1859).
The concepts of nursing, such as person, environment, and health emerged from an evaluation of nursing curricula (Nightingale, 1859). Nightingale advocated for two behaviors, which she felt were important in nursing practice (George, 1995). The first nursing behavior, which the theorist felt was important, was to ask the client their need.…
Altimier, L. (2011). Mother and child integrative developmental model care model: A simple approach to a complex population. New and infant nursing reviews, 11(3), 105-108.
Chen, Y., Sheng, W., Wang, J., Chang, S., Lin, H. (2011). Effectiveness and limitations of hand hygiene promotion on decreasing healthcare-associated infections. PLoS One, 6(11). e27163. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027163. Epub 2011 Nov 16.
George, J. (1995). Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice (4 eds.).
Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Nursing is a practice or field that must be based on nursing theories, which contributes to the consideration of nursing discipline as a profession. The significance of nursing theories in the practice is attributed to their provision of direction and guidance for arranging professional nursing education, research, and practice. Nursing theories also distinguishes the focus of this discipline from other professions since they provide directions regarding evaluation, assessment, and intervention of nursing care. Nursing theories also provide the basis for gathering reliable and valid data about clients' health status that is crucial for effective decision making and implementation. Notably, these theories are based on certain concepts that are essential for guiding nursing practice. While nursing theorists have developed different theories and models, these theories or models are based on some common core concepts.
Core Concept in Two Contemporary Nursing Theories
The understanding of nursing theories first requires the…
Cruz, R. (n.d.). Fundamentals of Nursing Practice. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesen/nursepractice/nursepractice2.html
Henderson, V. (1991). The nature of nursing: a definition and its implications for practice, research, and education: reflections after 25 years. New York, NY: National League for Nursing Press.
Lake, R. (n.d.). Four Basic Concepts in Nursing. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://www.ehow.com/list_6133165_four-basic-concepts-nursing.html
"Virginia Henderson's Need Theory" (2012, February 4). Nursing Theories: A Companion to Nursing Theories and Models. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Henderson.html
The nursing field comprises different theories that are used to govern nursing practice through offering different perspectives and views of phenomena. A theory can be defined as the development of a link between concepts that create a certain view of a phenomenon (Jackson, n.d.). The theories in the nursing field focus on issues that are relevant to enhancing patient care, overall nursing practice, and nursing education. Moreover, these theories are used to define, create, and distribute existing knowledge in the profession as part of efforts towards improving nursing practice. The theories in nursing field are classified into different categories i.e. ground nursing theories, nursing practice theories, and mid-range nursing theories. Some examples of these various types of nursing theories include Nola J. Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) and Mid-ange Theory. These theories differ in terms of the theorists' backgrounds and their experiences, description of theory, assumptions, and application…
"Health Promotion Model." (2012, January 31). Nursing Theories: A Companion to Nursing
Theories and Models. Retrieved April 28, 2015, from http://nursingplanet.com/health_promotion_model.html
Jaarsma, T., Riegel, B. & Stromberg, A. (2012, September). A Middle-Range Theory of Self-
Care of Chronic Illness. Advances in Nursing, 35(3), 194-204.
Health Promotional Model by Nola Pender
The following study focuses on Srof and Velsor-Friedrich (2006) article titled "Health Promotion in Adolescents: A eview of Pender's Health Promotion Model." According to the health and promotion model, every individual possesses unique personal characteristics as well as experiences that influence subsequent actions. Various sets of variables for behavioral knowhow affect the essential motivational significance. The authors have emphasized the need to identify the variables that can be influenced by different nursing procedures. The health-promoting norms should facilitate improvement in health and enhance functional ability as well as the appropriate quality of life at all developmental stages.
According to Srof and Velsor-Friedrich (2006), the Health Promotion Model is a predictive nursing strategy that Nola proposed in 1982. In this case, she sought to explain people's perspective on their health and the effect of their personal foundation and direct actions. The model predicts the potential…
Peterson, S.J., & Bredow, T.S. (Eds.). (2009). Middle Range Theories: Application to Nursing Research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Srof, B.J. & Velsor-Friedrich, B. (2006). Health Promotion In Adolescents: A Review Of Pender's Health Promotion Model. Nurs Sci Q. 2006 Oct;19(4):366-73.
At first glance, the image used in the banner for the Nursing 550 Family and Culture Diversity Theories does not seem relevant to the subject. However, a deeper examination shows that there are layers of semiotic meaning in the image. The image depicts a gorilla tenderly cradling a kitten in its arms. At first, I did not notice that the baby animal was a kitten at all, assuming that it was a baby gorilla. My assumptions alone are one of the reasons why this course is important in raising awareness about the diversity of family structures. After realizing that the image depicts inter-species parental caring, I considered how gorillas are wild animals whereas kittens have been domesticated over the course of thousands of years. Therefore, a gorilla and a kitten are not just different species with different genetics; they have different genotypes and backgrounds. A person can adopt a kitten,…
Ehrmin, J. (n.d.). Course banner for Nursing 550 Family and Culture Diversity Theories.
According to the research, it "is defined as a practice-based ethic that is patient centered, It is an individualistic ethic that unites the reason why a decision is made with the action itself and the foreseeable consequences of that action," (Brown, 2010). In this the theory also shares with Parse's theory the importance of individual decision making and choices. One of the main differences is the notion of how we relate to one another. We have a freedom from aggression, known as negative right, based on this relationship, where we are not scared of others acting out irrationally against us. As such, the health care professionals do not act to harm the patients, but the patients also have the strict role of being the patients, thus "to fulfill his responsibilities in the treatment plan and not to place any unreasonable demands on the healthcare professional" (Brown, 2010). This is different…
Brown, Barbara. (2010), A bioethical decision making guide: A synopsis of Symphonology. Health and Human Development. Penn State University. Web. http://www.personal.psu.edu/dxm12/n458/symphonology.htm
Parse, Rosemary Rizzo. (2011). Human becoming theory. Nursing Theories. Web. http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html
(Newman, 1) Here, it can be evidenced that the empathy accorded by the theoretical framework will provide an ideological umbrella for how best to address one's condition while simultaneously abiding the regulatory medical requirements common to most forms of modern treatment.
This means possessing a degree of pertinent information where nursing theory is concerned that will allow for such pragmatism and a firm understanding of the practices pertinent to kidney donation as denoted in the annotated bibliography provided here below.
Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's Vagina. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/02/03/kidney.vagina.surgery/index.html
The article here described a first-ever successful procedure in which a healthy kidney was removed through a donor's vagina rather than through traditionally employed and far more invasive surgical procedures. This is useful to our discussion because it reduces the strain and cosmetic impact of making a kidney donation. The article cites the…
Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's
Vagina. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/02/03/kidney.vagina.surgery/index.html
Griffin, D. & Fitzpatrick, D. (2009). Donor Says He Got Thousands For His Kidney. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/09/01/blackmarket.organs/index.html
McKay, R. (2010). Kidney Donor Needed Own Transplant. Chicago Tribune. Online at http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-tc-nw-man-kidney-0104-0105jan05,0,2513301.story
Types of Reasoning
One of the main types of reasoning discussed in the readings is logical reasoning. This type of reasoning features the use of inferences in order to come into knowledge about a certain experience or phenomenon. Essentially, inferences are the way that conclusions are drawn after systematically examining observations and external phenomenon. It is close to the style of scientific inquiry which is also a very logic-oriented methodology. The primary idea behind inferences is that an individual sees or witnesses some stimuli or phenomena. From this event, that individual can then make their own conclusions as to why or how that particular stimuli or phenomena occurred, making an assumption based on external observations combined with prior knowledge of similar events and circumstances.
A second type of reasoning discussed in the reading is the use of deduction. Logical reasoning uses deduction, or the process of concluding an assumption…
Nursing theory chosen, which best aligns with my personal theory of nursing, is Neuman's System Model. This model was created by Betty Neuman, and designed to be holistic in nature (Memmott, et al., 2000). The focus of the model is on the whole person (patient), the environment surrounding that person, the overall health of the person, and the nursing care that person is provided with during his or her illness. While it might seem obvious that all of these areas should be considered, many models of nursing practice today ignore too many important factors regarding a person and why he or she may be ill (Barnum, 1998). With that in mind, it is very important to use a theory like Neuman's Systems Model in order to address more than just a set of symptoms (Memmott, et al., 2000). When nurses and other medical professionals take a look at a chart…
Barnum, B. (1998). Nursing theory: Analysis, application, evaluation. NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Memmott, R.J. Marett, K.M. Bott, R.L. & Duke, L. (2000). Use of the Neuman Systems Model for interdisciplinary teams. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 1(2).
A person's health is an ever-changing state of being resulting from the interaction with the environment. Optimum health is the actualization of both innate and obtained human potential gained through rewarding relationships with others, obtaining goals and maintaining expert personal care. Adaptations can be made as required to maintain stability and structural integrity. A person's state of health can vary from wellness to illness, disease, or dysfunction. Professional nursing is founded on the need to promote wellness practices, the attentive treatment of persons who are acutely or chronically ill or dying, and restorative care of patients during convalescence and rehabilitation. It also includes the education and measurement of those who perform or are learning to perform nursing responsibilities, the support and communication of research to enhance knowledge and practice, and the management of nursing in healthcare delivery systems. Nursing practice centers on the application of a body of knowledge in…
Johnston, N., Rogers, M., Cross, N. And Sochan, a.(2007) Global and planetary health:
teaching as if the future matters. Nursing Education Perspectives 26(3), 152
Nyatanga, L. (2005) Nursing and the philosophy of science. Nurse Education Today 25(8), 670-675
A nurse must weigh these variables, physical, mental, and spiritual, when advising a course of treatment and deciding how to approach a patient or patient's family. An adolescent who is an injured athlete envisioning a lucrative college scholarship might demand and be able to physically and mentally withstand a more aggressive form of treatment, due to psychological and developmental and goal-related visions (spiritual) factors than might a less motivated elderly patient.
A nurse who is training other nurses can instill consideration for all such variables in her various trainees -- and encourage nurses to engage in self-care as well as patient care on spiritual, preventative physical health care, and mental levels. Additionally, in a work environment with many diverse cultures, remind other nurses that Neuman's model has also been modified slightly to take into consideration culture as well as mind, body, and spirit -- although culture and spiritual values are…
Neuman, B.M. (1990). The Neuman systems model: A theory for practice. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 241-261). New York: National League for Nursing.
Neuman, B.M. (Ed.). (1995). The Neuman systems model (3rd ed.). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Pierce, J.D., & Hutton, E. (1992). Applying the new concepts of the Neuman systems model. Nursing Forum, 27(1), 15-18.
Nursing theory, research, and practice
Scenario in which theory, research, and practice interact to create good patient outcomes
Imogene King’s theory
Using the Imogene King’s theory to enhance Nurse-Patient Relationship
Enhanced Patient care
narrative explanation of your visual representation following the diagram.
Nursing theories have been developed as a way of trying to explain the fundamental importance of clinical practice (INSCOL, 2014). Even though these theories are used to guide practice, it is true to claim that most of them have not been put to the test as a way of determining whether the proposed nursing actions produce the claimed effects. If nursing asserts itself as the professional practice it is a professional practice environment must be supported and practiced. In order to enhance the outcome of patients and nursing staff then the professional nursing practice must be supported (INSCOL, 2014). There exist several nursing theories…
Nursing Theory Framework
ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory
Affect egulation and Addiction
Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder
The First Phase of Therapy
Nursing Theory Framework
The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.
An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.
Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.
Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.
Nursing Theory Application
Case Study Overview from the viewpoint of a new EMT -- Patient was a 78-year-old mail presenting breathing difficulties. Patient had early stage cancer with a DRN bracelet and note. Patient's wife was aware of the DNR, but her natural reaction was to try to save her husband. The call, then, was more to assure the wife than the husband, who accepted the situation but was still distressed.
Nursing Theory Applied -- "Nursing as Caring" was developed by Boykin and Schoenhofer in the 1980s when looking at the dimensions of caring and how it applied to the overall patient/health care paradigm. In general, the theory is a framework that guides and acts as a tool box when dealing with common issues in modern health care. The central dimensions of the theory is that caring is what makes humans 'human,' that caring is a moment to moment and…
Cardinal Stritch University. (2010, June). Anne Boykin & Sarvina Schoenhoffer - Nursing as Caring. Retrieved from stritch.edu: http://www.stritch.edu/Library/Doing-Research/Research-by-Subject/Health-Sciences-Nursing-Theorists/Anne-Boykin-Sarvina-Schoenhofer-Nursing-as-Caring/
Kubler-Ross, E. (2007). On Grief and Grieving. New York: Scribner.
Kubler-Ross, E. (2007, April). The Kubler-Ross Grief Cycle. Retrieved from Changing Minds:: http://changingminds.org/disciplines / change_management/kubler_ross/kubler_ros s.htm
Kubler-Ross, E. (2013, January). On Death and Dying. Retrieved from ELR Foundation: http://www.ekrfoundation.org/
" This is a fallacy because it assumes facts not in evidence and makes a statement that appears to be factual when it is opinion.
7 State one argument made by the author. Each additional execution appears to deter between three and 18 murders. While opponents of capital punishment allege that it is unfairly used against frican-mericans, each additional execution deters the murder of 1.5 frican-mericans. Further moratoria, commuted sentences, and death row removals appear to increase the incidence of murder
8 Identify the premises and conclusion of the argument. Premise = legal execution has positive effects; conclusion: continued use of capital punishment will save lives.
9 Is the author's argument valid or invalid, sound or unsound, strong or weak? Explain how you determined this. uthor's arguments are sound and strong, using selective data to prove case, using academics and law enforcement information to appeal to audience.
10 Does the…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2004). "Capital Punishment Should be Abolished." In T. Roleff, ed., Opposing Viewpoints: Criminal Justice. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
1 Identify the principal issue presented by the source. The death penalty is not administered fairly; studies have found that the defendant's race, geographic location, and economic status greatly influence whether or not capital punishment is imposed.
2 Identify any examples of bias presented by the
Nursing has experienced a great deal of evolution as not only a profession but also as a science as well. In this course of time, nursing theories have elucidated, examined, delineated particular areas. The nursing theory considered for this paper is Imogene King’s theory of goal attainment. One of the basic suppositions of this nursing theory is that human beings are basically open systems that are in incessant interaction with their environment. Therefore, in that regard, he or she has a right to self-knowledge and taking part in decisions that have an impact on their health and life. Another key assumption of the theory is that the nurse and the patient communicate and relay information, set goals together and subsequently partake in actions to attain such goals. Nursing is perceived to be an interpersonal procedure of action, reaction, interrelation, and transaction. Health is deemed to be a changing state…
nursing theory practice setting.
Provide an overview of the theory
Myra Estrin Levine is known as the most important Nursing theorist for developing "The Conservation Model." Levine got a diploma in 1944 and obtained her B.S in 1949 and finished M.S.N in 1962 from Wayne State College. She acted as a specialist to healthcare facilities and colleges of nursing. Furthermore, she offered a teaching format for the medical or surgical sector of nursing and developed "The 4 Conservation Fundamentals." "She clearly connected wellness to the procedure of conservation design and viewed wellness as one of its necessary elements" (Levine, 1991).
The 3 significant ideas of the Conservation Model are 1) wholeness, 2) adaption, and 3) conservation. "Whole, wellness, hale all are sourced from the Anglo-Saxon word hal" (Levine, 1973, p. 11). Myra Levine formulated her take of wholeness as an open system, which meant checking out the components of the…
Alligood, Martha Raile (2010). Nursing theory: Utilization and application. Toronto: Mosby Elsevier.
Chinn, P.L., & Kramer, M.K. (2011). Integrated knowledge development in nursing (8th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Current Nursing (2010). Levine's four conservation principles. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Levin_four_conservation_principles.html .
Levine, M.E. (1973). Introduction to Clinical Nursing (2nd Ed.). Philadelphia F.A. Davis.
The respondents who step out to be part of the research process should be protected from any unwanted intrusion or any other form of personal or group harassment (Smith & Liehr, 2008).
It is formal to have and conduct nursing research according to the set ethical frameworks where the entire review of the proposal will be undertaken. Whether to be undertaken by the staff or students, this research should be subjected to ethical approvals, which will make sure that the research, proposal is directed at serving the nursing school dream and intentions. Using the Middle range theory, the nursing problems and challenges will be solved in various ways as follows (Smith & Liehr, 2003).
All the nursing researchers and educators, being the staff members, must have respect upon the dignity, interests, and rights of the nursing students and other staff members related and participating in practical and theoretical learning.
Basford, L., & Slevin, O. (2003). Theory and practice of nursing: An integrated approach to patient care. Cheltenham, U.K: Nelson Thornes.
Fitzpatrick, J.J., & Kazer, M.W. (2012). Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York:
Meleis, a.I. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia: Wolters
At times patients cannot care for themselves, and nurses must remedy these self-care deficits (Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory, 2011, Nursing Theories).
Whenever possible, patients should be empowered to act as best as they can to care for themselves. The nurse is viewed as an aid to remedy the self-care deficit in Orem's view. The nurse is not seen as superseding the patient's basic right to autonomy. Although some nurses know this intuitively, when busy or rushed sometimes it can be easy to forget the value of allowing patients to do as much as possible as they can for themselves, even if this is something as simple as eating and drinking or going to the bathroom.
Given the preponderance of lifestyle-related diseases today, Orem's stress upon patient self-knowledge and awareness is essential. Patients will care for themselves when they return home from a healthcare environment in most instances, and they must…
Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett
Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory. (2011, January 11). Nursing Theories.
Retrieved April 6, 2011 at http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html
227), and as such, the values of nursing practices were degrading. Nowadays we can pride on a much appreciative recognition of nursing theory with "models" being implemented regularly and indeed I can think of the Magis model of care carried out in Chicago in the first decade of the 2000's. This initiative was possible because of "several nursing theories along with information from the Institute of Family Centered Care" (Jasovsky et al., 2010, "Abstract") and led to such results as the change of nursing practice habits that, although proved sometimes uncomfortable for nurses, it meant proficient practicality (Jasovsky et al., 2010, p. 32); the results were deemed even more satisfactory when related to patients feedback, 90% of these having willed to further recommend the services of the hospital (Jasovsky et al., 2010, p. 35-36).
Moreover, Cody believed that nurses found it difficult to adopt or even try to understand nursing…
Cody, William K. (2003). Nursing Theory as a Guide to Practice. Nursing Science Quaterly, 16(3), 225-231. Retrieved from http://nsq.sagepub.com
Jasovsky, D.A., Morrow, M.R., Clementi, P.S., & Hindle P.A. (2010). Theories in Action and How Nursing Practice Changed. Nursing Science Quaterly, 23(I), 29-38. Retrieved from
Cody uses a lot of fancy words and makes mention of philosophy and nursing as a study and a science but it gets a little too sweet and sugary to the point of almost being self-serving or sycophantic, with the only real question whether Cody is trying to make himself look good, nursing as an industry/career/educational pursuit look good or a combination of the two. First, he makes mention of nursing possibly dying off as a science and that is simply specious. The form and function of nursing shall certainly change as the years change but it's NEVE going to go away. It may be called something else someday just like PTSD used to be called shell shock. However, the root nature of the job and the role is not going to change in its basic function, to ease pain and treat the sick.
Another dimension of the treatise mentioned…
Cody, W. (2003). Nursing Theory as a Guide to Practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 16, 225-231.
It is important to understand nursing theory for a couple of reasons. The first is that nursing theory forms the basis for how the nursing role has evolved in health care today. There is a saying that in order to understand where one is going, it is necessary to understand where one has been. For this reason alone, it is important to understand how nursing theory has evolved over time, and how nurses today see their roles, and how those roles fit within the greater context of the health care system. If we look at seminal works like Jacox (1974) we can get a pretty good picture of how nursing was viewed up until the modern age, but then we need to see how the profession has evolved in the information age as well. The sorts of philosophical debates about what nursing is and what it should be form the…
ange Theory in Nursing
The credibility of a profession is mainly based on the professional's ability to create and apply the appropriate theory. Theories are notions or concepts used for inferring observations, elucidating experiences, and unfolding relationships of project results. Theories are derived from conceptual models. The main function of a theory is to narrow and fully specify the phenomena that is contained in the conceptual model. The theory should also provide a relatively concrete and specific structure for interpreting the initially puzzling situations, behavior, and events. A nursing theory is defined as a set of concepts, relationships, definitions, and assumptions that are derived from nursing models and project a systematic view of phenomena by designing particular inter-relationships among concepts with the purpose of explaining, describing, predicting, and prescribing. Theories are derived using either deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning (Smith & Liehr, 2013). Nurses make use of various theories in…
Davydov, M. (2014). Middle-Range Theory for Nursing. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 30(6), 316.
Fawcett, J. (2005). Middle range nursing theories are necessary for the advancement of the discipline. Aquichan, 5(1), 32-43.
Imenda, S. (2014). Is there a conceptual difference between theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Journal of Social Sciences, 38(2), 185-195.
Lenz, E. R., Pugh, L. C., Milligan, R. A., Gift, A., & Suppe, F. (1997). The middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms: an update. Advances in Nursing Science, 19(3), 14-27.
Nursing Theory -- oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation Model is one of the most commonly cited and used options when it comes to nursing theories. It has been in existence since 1976, and has had a number of years to be adjusted and changed to work with the adjustments that have occurred in the field of nursing over time (Alligood, 2011). Being able to adapt and change is a very important part of nursing, because all patients are different. Additionally, treatments and medications change rapidly, and that can be difficult to keep up with if a nurse is not focused on adapting his or her style and beliefs to the changing nature of medicine. Here, the importance of nursing theory will be explored, along with the key points that are used in the oy Adaptation Model. The views and ideas that the model provides when it comes to nursing…
Alligood, M.R. (2011). The power of theoretical knowledge. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 304-305.
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2013). Essentials of nursing research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Roy, C. (2011). Extending the Roy adaptation model to meet changing global needs. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 345-351.
Roy, C. (2011). Research based on the Roy Adaptation Model last 25 years. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 312-320.
MAKETING VS. CS
Henderson Nursing Philosophy
classification of theories Grid
She graduated from her first nursing program in 1921 and her career was at its apex in the 1970's as she was one of the more prominent authors of nursing textbooks through the 1970's (and before that dating back to the late 1950's). She was a research associated at Yale until she died in 1996. She died that same year at the age of 1998. Basically, her career was active in some form for nearly seven decades but it was highest in the middle part from the 1950's to 1970's.
Virginia Henderson started her medicine career after she graduated from the United States Army School of Nursing in about 1921. She later received her bachelor's degree in 1931 and her master's degree. Her Bachelor of Science as well as her master's from…
AAHN. (2015, January 21). Home. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.aahn.org/gravesites/henderson.html
McBride, Angela Barron (1996). "Remembering the first lady of nursing." Reflections in Nursing Leadership (Sigma Theta Tau).
Meleis, A. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress (Fifth ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
"Virginia Avenel Henderson." Virginia Nursing Hall of Fame, Virginia Nursing Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Tompkins-McCaw Library, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Applying atson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment" describes the validness and authentication of the nursing theory of care by Jean atson. She was of the view that the best which a nurse can give to the patient is care as humans are naturally gifted with it and it is irrespective of ethnical, racial, cultural or social basis. The article describes the implications of this theory in such environment where the nurses and their patients have ethnical and cultural difference and they do not even understand each other's language. It is a case study designed to explore Saudi patient's perceptions of important caring behaviors by staff nurses. It was concluded by the data obtained that the patients rated overall caring behaviors as most important irrespective of their cultural differences with the caregiver. Hence atson's theory was proved in a multicultural environment, but…
Nicely, Bruce. (2011). Virginia Henderson's principles and practice of nursing applied to organ donation after brain death. Progress in Transplantation, Vol 21, No. 1, March 2011.
Wakifa et.al. (2009). Applying Watson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment. Joumal of Nursing Research, VOL 17, NO 4, DECEMBER 2009.
Walling, Allan. (2006). Therapeutic modulation of the psycho-neuroimmune system by medical acupuncture creates enhanced feelings of well being. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners; Apr 2006; 18, 4; ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source pg. 135
Nursing Concept Analysis: Caring
Caring is a concept central to nursing theory. Indeed, an esteemed constellation of nurses throughout history, including Nightingale, Watson, Henderson, and Benner, have integrated the concept of care into their theory and praxis. Caring has been considered a foundational element of nursing such that "compassion and therapeutic relationships" are viewed as essential "underpinnings" of nursing (Skillings, 2008). As with most disciplines, the complexities that accompany professional practice in contemporary settings can pose unanticipated challenges. The ethic of caring that is fundamental to nursing endures an onslaught of competing priorities, barriers to compassionate practice, and adaptations inherent to modern healthcare institutions (Skillings, 2008).
Most behaviors that the nursing discipline considers caring are readily recognized, such as "attentive listening, comforting, honest, patient, responsibility, providing information to the patient can make an informed decision, touch, sensitivity, respect, calling the patient by name" (Vance, 2003). Categorically, many nurse practitioners…
Brenner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Dewar, B. & Cook, G. (2013). Developing compassion through a relationship centered appreciative leadership programme. Nurse Education Today, 14(9), 1258-1264.
Fry, N.A. (1993). Beyond professional caring: teaching nursing students the art of Christian caring. Paper delivered at the Faith and Learning Seminar at Union College in Lincoln, Nebraska in June of 1993. Retrieved from http://ict.aiias.edu/vol_10/10cc_167-185.htm
Leininger, M.M. (1991). Culture care, diversity and universality: A theory of nursing. New York, NY: National League of Nursing Press, p. 35.
This will give her a good idea of the level of understanding the patient has and then she can tailor her teachings to fit the patient's level of understanding.
It is also a good idea for the nurse to give the patient as much printed information on the topic as she can because the patient can always use these materials as a reference in case the nurse is not readily available. If he teaching is about following a menu plan that will assist the patient in a speedy recovery, the nurse can have the patient keep a food journal of what he ate for a week or so and they can go over it together to determine what is working and what isn't. The same goes for the patient needing to be educated on any type of physical activities he must perform in order to improve and maintain his health.…
Baker, Lois K. And Denyes, Mary J. (2008). Predictors of self-care in adolescents with cystic fibrosis: A test of Orem's theories of self-care and self-care deficit. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 23(1), 37-48.
Cleary, Michelle and Freeman, Adele. (2006). Enhancing nurse care partnerships: A self-
directed learning approach. Nurse Education in Practice, 6, 224-231.
Griswold-Pierce, Anne and Smith, Jennifer A. (2008). The ethics curriculum for doctor of nursing practice programs. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(5), 270-274.
Personal Definition of Nursing
Like most facilities, my institution stresses that it cares for its patients. Its belief in the value of caring and the place of caring at the center of nursing practice has caused it to make Jean Watson's Human Caring Theory the core of its philosophy. Watson's theory states that caring is an interpersonal science and a "caring environment is one that offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for himself or herself at a given point in time" (Jean Watson's theory of nursing, 2012, Current Nursing). One critical assumption that I see implemented in my practice is the idea that "caring is more 'healthogenic' than is curing. A science of caring is complementary to the science of curing" (Jean Watson's theory of nursing, 2012, Current Nursing). Nursing may be a science, but nurses must always remember that…
Jean Watson's theory of nursing. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Nursing models of care. (2013). Highland Hospital. Retrieved:
Although ultimately nursing is about patient care, theory is ultimately what guides best practices, ensures consistency of care across multiple modalities, and also informs how nurses view themselves, their colleagues, and their role in healthcare. Nursing theory might seem like an abstract issue, but throughout the history of the profession, nurses have consistently demonstrated the importance of clarifying their theoretical perspectives and nursing philosophies. Nursing theory is important to the nursing profession because theory undergirds practice.
Research shows how important nursing theory is for nurse education. One Finnish study shows that an empathic and caring nursing theory promotes a constructive learning environment that promotes optimal professional development (Mikkonen, Kyngas & Kääriäinen, 2015). Because nurse education programs are where all professionals receive their formative training and experience, it is important to provide nursing students with the theoretical viewpoints that will guide their practice throughout their careers. McEwen & Wills (2017) also…
Remote Nursing Theory
Remote Nursing and Jean Watson's Theory of Caring
Despite the identification of a clear role and responsibility for nurses in the area of remote and rural medical care, providing primary medical assistance to individuals and communities in geographically isolated areas, there have been significant barriers demonstrated to the effective networking and planning of nursing efforts, resources, and personnel in this area (Coyle et al. 2010). Though this problem is largely one that is practical in nature and requires a fix found in policy and infrastructure, the problem can ultimately be seen as one that is rooted in theory and philosophy. Simply put, nurses attempting to provide care to remote individuals and communities are not equipped with the proper tools, training, or resources to provide effective care, and this has also affected the focus of nursing in this arena such that results of nursing attempts in this area…
An application of Jean Watson's Theory of Caring in Nursing could definitely help to provide a renewed focus on those aspects of rural and remote care that are most essential to patient needs, and that will lead to a greater level of satisfaction and involvement by nurses. Essentially, this theory of nursing insists that the carative rather than the curative aspects of nursing practice and patient outcomes be focused on, which also automatically means treating the whole patient and improving their quality of life rather than simply trying to address specific symptoms and/or diseases (Watson 199; Rafael 2000). Caring for the patient rather than trying to cure the patient leads to a very different perspective in nursing, and this perspective can be applied to whole communities as well as to individuals.
The usefulness of this theory in regards to rural and remote nursing care and practice is difficult to overstate. By approaching rural communities and individuals simply with the focus of providing the best possible care, rather than attempting to provide cures that seem more readily available in less remote settings, nurses would be able to achieve greater levels of self-defined efficacy while at the same time improving the quality of life and the quality of care for their patients (Watson 1999; Rafael 2000). An application of this theory would not immediately address the practical problems of policy and infrastructure that face rural and remote care, but it would provide a solid foundation for the improvement of care in this area -- improvement that research has shown must be brought about by nurses (Coyale et al. 2010). This foundation can then be used to encourage greater official attention to and coordination of the issue.
Incorporating this theory into this area of practice begins simply with changing the mental and emotional fous of care.
Dorothea Orem Nursing Theory
A theory is related concepts, and propositions used to guide a professional practice. Moreover, nursing theory serves as the interrelated concepts, predictive in nature, statement explanatory that assists in understanding the nursing phenomenon, which helps to explain and predict the nursing outcomes. Nursing theory is an organized body of knowledge used to explain the phenomena and supporting the nursing practice. Moreover, the nursing theory is defined as a set of definitions, concepts, assumptions, and relationships or propositions that are derived from the nursing model. However, the nursing theories consist of grand and middle-ranged theory. The middle ranged theory is the testable theory, limited in scope, limited in a variable, and used for the clinical research. More importantly, nursing theory serves as the body of knowledge that assists in carrying out the nursing research.
The objective of this study is to use the Dorothea Orem theory to…
Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in nursing education. Retrieved May 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/
Maria, O. (2015). Application of Dorothea Orem's Theory of Self-Care to the Elderly Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal 41(5): 495-498.
Roussel, L. (2013). Management and Leadership for Nurse Administrators, Sixth Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Wong, C. L., Ip, W. Y., Choi, K. C., & Lam, L. W. (2015). Examining Self-Care Behaviors and Their Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls With Dysmenorrhea: An Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(3), 219-227. doi:10.1111/jnu.12134
The broad definition of the term 'theory' is development and elucidation of any aspect or field of cognition. Theory then is a collection of interrelated propositions that must forecast, describe, influence, or explain events. Theories of learning have attempted to offer explanations about learning as well as its application. In the last century, educational researchers and psychologists have postulated a number of theories to account for how people attain, organize and apply knowledge and skills. Rather than offering a specific theory, educational psychology provides multiple approaches and theories about the process of learning and the motivation for change and learning in individuals. Understanding theories of learning, (essentially educational psychology), is central to the field of education, for enabling nursing educators to offer an atmosphere conducive to learning, enhancing the educational system's efficiency and education harmonization. In the previous century, learning theory formulation and assessment has greatly facilitated the…
Ahmed, S. (n.d.) Theories and models of nursing practice. College of nursing/university of Baghdad. Retrieved from: http://www.conursing.uobaghdad.edu.iq/uploads/others/conursing/leacture/theory.pdf
Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in nursing education. J Educ Health Promot. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/
Azimian, J., Negarandeh, R., & Movahedi, A. F. (2014). Factors Affecting Nurses' Coping With Transition: An Exploratory Qualitative Study . Global Journal of Health Science, 1916-9744.
Duchscher (2015). Transition Theory. Nursing the Future. Retrieved from: http://nursingthefuture.ca/transition_theory
Nursing Concepts and Theory
Conceptual-Theoretical Structure paper
Personal belief about nursing theory and knowledge development process for nursing practice
All nursing theories play an important role in defining nursing and giving the roles that nurses need to play. Originally, the role of nurses was simply to carry out activities as instructed by doctors, however, over the years, this role has been changed to include more responsibilities as the nursing world has evolved. Nursing theories describe, predict and explain the various phenomena in nursing practice and thus create foundations for nursing practice. They also help to generate knowledge in the field of nursing and to point the direction which the field should develop in future. This view is supported by Carper (1978)
who states that nursing theories elaborate nursing practice and create professional boundaries for the profession. Nursing knowledge comes from research that has been conducted on nursing which forms scientific…
Anderson, A.M. (2005). Nursing Leadership, Management, and Professional Practice for the LPN/LVN (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
Carper, B. (1978). Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(1), 13-23.
Clark, M.J. (2003). Community health nursing: Caring for populations (Fourth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dayer-Berenson, L. (2010). Cultural Competencies for Nurses: Impact on Health and Illness. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Nursing in the Contemporary World
Nurses as the Most Highly Trusted Health Professional
ecent studies indicate that nurses are the most highly trusted health professional group.
ecent studies indicate that nurses are the most highly trusted health professional group.
Discuss the components of nursing's contemporary image that places nurses in this position of trust
Nursing profession has undergone tremendous development to attain the respect and valuation within the society. The current trend states that nursing ranks as the highly trusted health professional group. One of the components for this development is the tremendous efforts put by women to wrestle the profession from men in the historic periods. This struggle towards development of the profession reflects on different perspectives: environmental, political, cultural, and social. Extensive nursing education in the contemporary world supplements the efforts of nurses in their service provision (Im & Ju, 2012). This helps to put nursing professional group…
Cherry, B., & Jacob, S.R. (2011). Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, & management. St.
Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Mosby.
Im, E., & Ju Chang,, . (2012). Current Trends in Nursing Theories. Journal of Nursing
Scholarship, 44(2), 156-164. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2012.01440.x
"From an historical standpoint, her concept of nursing enhanced nursing science this has been particularly important in the area of nursing education." ("Virginia Henderson's Need...," 2008) Principles of Henderson's theory, published in numerous primary nursing textbooks utilized from the 1930s through the 1960s, along with principles embodied by the 14 activities continue to prove vital in evaluating nursing care in thee21st century, not only in cases such as Keri's, but in a myriad of others benefiting from nursing.
Kearney, Kathleen M., the Nurse's Duty to eport Child Abuse vs. The Attorney's Duty of Confidentiality: The Nurse Attorney's Dilemma Journal of Nursing Law. Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.; January 25, 2007. etrieved September 25, 2007, at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1256366.
esuggan, ay N;PN;MN. (Last Modified: August 17, 2008). "Virginia Avernal Henderson." Nurses.info. etrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_henderson_virginia_.htm.
Singleton, Joanne K. "Nurses' perspectives of encouraging clients' care-of-self in a short-term rehabilitation unit within…
Kearney, Kathleen M., the Nurse's Duty to Report Child Abuse vs. The Attorney's Duty of Confidentiality: The Nurse Attorney's Dilemma Journal of Nursing Law. Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.; January 25, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007, at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1256366 .
Resuggan, Ray RN;RPN;MRN. (Last Modified: August 17, 2008). "Virginia Avernal Henderson." Nurses.info. Retrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_henderson_virginia_.htm.
Singleton, Joanne K. "Nurses' perspectives of encouraging clients' care-of-self in a short-term rehabilitation unit within a long-term care facility," Rehabilitation Nursing, January 1, 2000. Retrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P348282208.html .
Trail Ross, Mary Ellen. (1993). "Linking Ethical Principles With Community Practice." Journal of Community Health Nursing, Vol. 10. Retrieved September 25, 2007, at http://www.questia.com/read/95780716?title=Linking%20Ethical%20Principles%20W%20Community%20Practice .
One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The…
Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner
Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).
Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.
McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
The death of a child is significant and in this case avoidable and a plaintiff has the right to seek compensatory damages as is allowed by law.
Case Study 1 Part B
At the end of the night shift, Nurse Brown took a verbal handover and then noticed the observation chart had not been filled in. To assist her friend, Nurse Harvey, whom she knew had a busy night, filled in the observation chart and fluid balance chart for the hours from 0200-0600 hrs.
Overcome by the events of the last 24 hrs, Nurse Harvey and Nurse Brown go to the local tavern for a few drinks before Nurse Harvey goes on duty. They discussed Mr. Spencer and his son. John, a friend of Mr. Spencer, overheard the conversation and joined them. He was also upset by the events of the day and was most keen to discuss the accident…
Hall, J. (1960). General Principles of Criminal Law (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Markesinis, B.S., & Deakin, S.F. (1999). Tort Law (4th ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
ANCI Competency Standards for the Enrolled Nurse at http://www.anmc.org.au/docs/Publications/Competency%20standards%20EN.pdf
Scope of Nursing Practice Decision Making Framework, 2006 at http://www.nursingboardtas.org.au/nbtonline.nsf/attachment/SoPDMFFinal/$File/Scope%20of%20Nursing%20Practice%20Decision%20Making%20Framework.pdf
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…
Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Neyhart, C. & Colaneri, J. (2004). Living Anonymous kidney donation: A solution to the organ donor shortage? Nephrology Nursing Journal. Online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ICF/is_3_31/ai_n17207253/
Watson, J. (2007). Theory of Human Caring: Theory Evolution. University of Colorado at Denver. Online at http://www.nursing.ucdenver.edu/faculty/jw_evolution.htm
Nurse Eduactor Strategic Plan
Nurse educator strategic plan
A strategic plan for a nurse educator
At present, I would say that my greatest strength as a nurse educator is my willingness to challenge myself in the pursuit of excellence. Within the next year, I will obtain my MSN with a specific concentration in education. Previously, I obtained certification as a Basic Life Support instructor (BLS). Also within the next year I intend to seek out certification in Advance Cardiac Live Support (ACLS) and Pediatric Life Support Instructor (PAL) with the intention of becoming both an ACLS and PALS instructor. These will enhance my capabilities as a nurse educator and provide greater specificity in the range and types of teaching I will be able to convey.
My second great strength as a nurse educator is the compassion I have for my patients and my genuine love of teaching. A nurse is…
Covey, S. (2012). 7 habits of highly effective people. Franklin Covey.
Gardner, H. (2007). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic
Professional Nurse Educator's Group. (2013). Official Website. Retrieved from:
The main focus of this essay is going to concern the nurse-patient relationship idea, and why it is important. This was chosen because the researcher desired to achieve a better accepting of how a helpful nurse-patient relationship can be advanced and even from different theorists who have discovered this idea. In this essay, the researcher sets out to demonstrate what they have learnt regarding the nurse-patient relation concept and how this connection can utilized in the clinical practice setting. T The nurse patient connection, according to a study done by Press Gamey Associates Inc., creates the quality of the care experience and generates an influential influence on patient gratification. Nurses will a lot of their time with patients. Patients see nurses' relations with people among the care team and make their own conclusions about the hospital founded on what they are observing. Furthermore, nurses' approaches toward their vocation,…
Berdes, C. & . (2001). Race relations and caregiving relationships: A qualitative examination of perspectives from residents and nurses aides in three nursing homes. Research on Aging, 23(1), 109-126.
Biering, P. (2002). Caring for the involuntarily hospitalized adolescent: The issue of power in the nurse-patient relationship. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 16(2), 65-74.
Heijkenskjold, K.B. (2010). The patients dignity from the nurses perspective. Nursing Ethics, 6(3), 313-24.
LaSala, C.A.-B. (2007). The role of the clinical nurse specialist in promoting evidence-based practice and effecting positive patient outcomes. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 38(6), 262-70.
Concept Synthesis on Personal Nursing Philosophy
My interest in nursing peaked at an early age when I attended Clara Barton High School for health professions in Brooklyn NY and graduated in 1991. I first worked as a nurse's aide and home health aide for about two years and found this position to be quite rewarding. I subsequently moved to North Carolina where I took the CNA course in 1995 and began working as a CNA at various nursing homes and hospitals in the regional area. My experience as a CNA certainly helped me in my journey and provided the foundation for the later developments in my career.
Later I moved to Las Vegas in 1997 where I got married in 1998. After forming this union I went back to school for my BSN in 2002 while working as a CNA. I finished my BSN from Nevada…
Andrews, H., & Roy, C. (1991). The Adaptive Model. Norwalk: Appleton and Lange.
Denler, H., Wolters, C., & Benzon, M. (2013). Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from Education: http://www.education.com/reference/article/social-cognitive-theory/
Farlex. (2011). The Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Farlex: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adaptation+model
Nursing Theory. (2011). Sister Callista Roy. Retrieved from Nursing Theory: http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Sister-Callista-Roy.php
For the 21st century, I feel that the Theory of Community Empowerment is a model that will work well. When we consider the challenges of health care in the 21st century, we realize that technology advancements and new drugs are doing a lot of the technical work on physical healing, but these are the sorts of remedies that come about only after someone gets sick. Ultimately, medical procedures and drugs are not a pathway to sustainable health. As I understand the Theory of Community Empowerment, one of the most important roles of the nurse is to work with people, connect with them, and then help them to help themselves. We, as a community, are responsible for our own health, for making the right choices that can help us avoid having health problems in the first place.
This theory has been expounded upon at length in nursing literature. To…
Fawcett, S., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V., Schultz, J., Richter, K., Williams, E., Lewis, R., Harris, K., Berkley, J., Fisher, J., Lopez, C. (1995). Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 23 (5) 677-697.
Persily, C. & Hildebrandt, E. (2008). Theory of Community Empowerment, excerpt from Middle Range Nursing Theories. Springer.
Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory of community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 15 (2) 121-148.
As such, a nurse is primarily to recognize herself as an individual in the world, with certain responses to this world. When a patient enters the hospital, such a patient is also to be seen as a unique individual who responds to the world and his or her environment in a certain way.
Humanistic nursing is then primarily experiential rather than experimental. This means that new knowledge is gained with every new patient that arrives for treatment. In giving treatment, responses are observed and noted for future reference in similar situations. It is not however assumed that a treatment will work because it did in the past and in similar conditions. Instead, hypotheses are based upon experiences of the past. The recognition that hypotheses may prove incorrect helps the nurse to be open to new experiences. Each human being is then seen as a "world," as it were, with the…
Cody, William K. & Kenney, Janet W. (2006). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett.
Collaboration for Academic Education in Nursing. (2009). Foundational Perspectives. http://www.caen.ca/content/view/46/133/
Current Nursing (2009, March 16). Nursing Theories. http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/development_of_nursing_theories.htm
Kleinman, Susan (2009). Humanistic Nursing Theory. http://www.humanistic-nursing.com/faq.htm
Nursing Theorist: Sr. oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation model for Nursing had its beginning when Sister Callista oy happened to get admitted in the Masters Program of pediatric nursing in the University of California, Los Angeles, in the year 1964. At that time, Sr. Callista was familiar with the idea of 'adaptation' in nursing, and it must be mentioned that Sr. Callista's adviser at that time was Dorothy E. Johnson, who believed firmly in the need to define nursing as a means of focusing the development of knowledge, for the practice of nursing. When Sr. Callista oy started working with children in the pediatric ward of the hospital, she was quite impressed with the basic resiliency of the small children who had been admitted into the wards for treatment. This was why when the first seminar in pediatric nursing was called for; Sr. Callista oy proposed that the basic…
"Callista Roy's Adaptation Model" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/callistaroy Accessed 28 October, 2005
'Case Study" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/casestudy.html Accessed 28 October, 2005
Fatigue and Compassion as Functions of Ethical Nursing
The American Nursing Association's Scope and Standards of Practice are designed to provide a blueprint for preempting and addressing the various challenges, pitfalls and procedurals norms of the profession. These help to draw a professional, ethical and practical connection that offers a basic outline for that which is expected of the registered nurse. Indeed, it is of critical benefit to the nursing professional and to the patient community that there exist some clearly elaborated set of ethical standards that pertains directly to sometimes difficult to identify challenges such as bedside manner and fatigue. The American Nursing Association (ANA) provides just such standards, and these function to significantly aid in the decision-making, workplace culture and treatment processes undertaken by nurse professionals.
Ethical orientation is an important feature of a nursing team, particularly as it impacts the morale of nurses and the treatment…
AIPPG. (2010). Betty Neuman's System Model. Nursing Theories.
American Nursing Association (ANA). (2004). Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Nursingbooks.
This is one of the many reasons I look forward to being able to work within my own community. Nurses are at the forefront of community outreach and community betterment. As I get to know the local physicians, administrators, and program leaders, I can become a more effective member of the health care community.
In the future I intend to serve my community in a position of leadership, as a coordinator for healthcare services. I want to apply family systems theory to my nursing practice, because I see a growing demand for more collaborative methods of intervention that support rather than deny the role of family systems. With a great sensitivity to diversity in terms of religion and culture, I will be of great service to the local patient population.
While with the Post Masters Nurse Practitioner Program, I will improve my communications and networking skills because I believe in…
" (1) What does the phrase "concept inventing" mean to you?
2) Does the process of concept inventing add clarity to a unique lived experience that aides in individualizing patient care? - or - Does the process of concept inventing add unnecessary jargon to the profession of nursing which creates barriers in collaboration with other disciplines? (3) State your stance on this issue and create a logical argument to defend your thoughts.
C. (1). "Concept inventing" can be thought of as a way to analyze situations in such a way as to contemplate their meaning to create understanding. Using both the aspects of science, including logic, rationality, and empirical analysis, and art, including intuition, emotion, integrity, honor, and compassion, nurses can process information in such a way as to create a complete conceptual picture of both the abstract aspects and concrete facts of a situation. In doing so, nurses can…
Chen, K.M. (2000, January.) The focus of the discipline of nursing: Caring in the holistic human health experience. Nursing (Graduate Research), 2(1). Retrieved Dec 3, 2006 from Graduate Research. Website: http://www.graduateresearch.com/kueimin2.htm.
Nagai-Jacobson, M.G., & Burkhardt, M.A. (1996). Viewing persons as stories: A perspective for holistic care. Alternative Therapies, 2(4), 54-58.
Rogers, M.E. (1990). Nursing: Science of unitary, irreducible, human beings: In E.A.M. Barrett (Ed.), Rogers' Science-Based Nursing. New York, NY: National League for Nursing.
Wainwright, P. (1999). The art of nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 36, 379-385.
Charity, selflessness, altruism and entrepreneurship are, therefore, not contradictory. It is well-known that the well-paid traditional nurse is likely to be a better worker better able to devote more attention to her patient (Hardin & . Kaplow, 2001). Deductively, therefore, the independent nurse who is motivated to work well in order to be successfully self-employed would likely (although not necessarily) be a better nurse in terms of the intrinsic nursing characteristics than those employed by institutions.
Ironically, entrepreneur nursing can potentially make one into a better nurse, for aside from being motivated to perform excellently, the entrepreneur nurse can adopt her own style and afford to conduct thorough research into nursing theories and models that culminate in enhanced nursing.
The institutional nurse is classically overworked and, therefore, has little time for arbitrary activities; the entrepreneur nurse, on the other hand, can adequately fulfill the expectations of evidence-based nursing where she…
Hanink, E. (n.d.). Nurse Entrepreneurs. Working Nurse.
Hardin, D. & R. Kaplow (Eds.) (2001), Synergy for clinical excellence: The AACN Synergy Model for Patient Care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Johnson, P. (1977). Enemies of society. NY. Etheneum
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
In what ways did the wave of the nursing shortage in the 1980's and in 2000 support or constrain theoretical thinking? Why? Are there ways to influence the cycle of shortage and theoretical thinking? Identify one nursing theorist that would support your discussion/views. Provide rationale for selection of theorist.
Nursing shortages have been a problem in this country for a long time. It has been found that because of these shortages there needed to be a better way to incorporate theoretical thinking into nursing education so that nurses are better prepared to be the best that they can be. The accomplishment of critical thinking abilities has been recognized as an essential product of undergraduate nursing teaching. It has been found that nursing scholars learn best by way of experiential education. Kolb's experiential learning theory is the basis for a practice incorporation technique intended to offer critical thinking skills in undergraduate…
Experiential Learning (Kolb). (2008). Retrieved September 30, 2010, from Web site:
Kim, Hesook Suzie. (2010). The Nature of Theoretical Thinking in Nursing. Retrieved September 29, 2010, from Web site:
In the emergency room, this distinction can have a determinant impact on the ability of the staff to preserve life and diminish pain and suffering.
The introduction of a bioethical perspective into this dialogue invokes a question as to the primacy of an interest in pursuing to the utmost the well-being of the patient. This speaks to one of the core values associating the principles of the ANA with the treatment outcomes desired in patiences. An examination of the ANA's Code of Ethics reveals that a theoretical basis exists to contend a direct correlation between the nurse's self-interest and that which is best for any given patient. There exists an essential obligation for such healthcare practitioners to "examine the conflicts arising between their own personal and professional values, the values and interests of others who are responsible for patient care and health care decisions, as well as those of the…
American Nurse's Association (ANA). (2004). The Nurses Code of Ethics. The Center for Ethics and Human Rights. Online at .
The American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE). (2009). AONE Resource Center. www.aone.org.
Dimaria, R.A. & Ostrow, L. (2004). West Virginia University School of Nursing Makes the Move to Web-Based Learning. Technological Horizons in Education Journal, 31.
Emergency Nurses Association (ENA). (2008). Vision/Mission Statements and Code of Ethics. www.ena.org.
The nurse is often expected to act and react only with empirical information, however personal knowledge is considered equally as important by many nurse educators and researchers (Chinn & Kramer 2004). This also helps to explain why "health" and "environment" are considered distinct major components in the metastudy of nursing; both can be understood on highly subjective terms, with the concept of "good health" changing from patient to patient, or "person" to "person." Environment, too, has a major effect on the practice of nursing and the growth of the nursing body of knowledge.
My personal philosophy of nursing centers on the belief that each individual person under my care deserves full attention and the unique application of my knowledge in addressing their immediate and long-term needs and concerns. That is, each person should benefit as much as possible from the full extent of my nursing knowledge, while still being…
Chinn, P. & Kramer, M. (2004). Integrated knowledge development in nursing. St. Louis: Mosby.
Fawcett, J. (2006). "Commentary: Finding patterns of knowing in the work of Florence Nightingale." Nursing outlook 54(5), pp. 275-7.