As opposed to the vitamins and minerals on which the body's systems rely on to function, which are considered to be "essential" nutrients, the list of "accessory" nutrients includes several substances which the body naturally produces to assist and enhance functionality. Although not essential for optimal health, accessory nutrients are commonly ingested as a supplement by people seeking specific health benefits, with patients suffering from insomnia or other sleep-related ailments finding the effects of melatonin to be both therapeutic and curative in nature. The following description of a few widely used accessory nutrients is intended to answer several questions, including 1.) Where are they being sold? 2.) What is the price? 3.) Do they mention good manufacturing practices (GMPs)? 4.) How about dosage and ingredients? 5.) Can you find the Nutrition Facts Panel?.
According to Dan's Essentials, one of many online vendors which carry and distribute Carnitine,…… [Read More]
Water: An Overlooked Essential Nutrient
You are a egistered Dietitian, and you have been invited to a Lunch and Learn program at a very large law firm. The firm must make a decision about which company they will select for a year long beverage contract. The lawyers must choose water, Gatorade, or PowerAde. Of the 55 attorneys attending your presentation, 32 of them workout regularly for 1 hour five days out of the week.
The firm has requested that you address all of the questions mentioned in the introductory paragraph while creating a handout that compares water, Gatorade, and PowerAde on the following categories:
Daily recommendations for water are an average of 3.7 liters (125 oz) for men about 2.7 liters (95 oz) for women. Some individuals who have higher than average fluid and electrolyte needs may need more (GSSI).
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and…… [Read More]
Ecosystems, Energy, And Nutrient Cycles
Energy is the capacity to perform work, and it can only be measured in relation to how it affects matter. All organisms require energy to stay alive. All organisms also transform energy. Energy cannot be created or lost, it can only be transferred and transformed. Therefore, in order to perform any kind of function (or work) the body needs energy (the capacity to perform work), and since the body cannot create new energy, it must get energy from outside sources. All energy that is exerted within an organism is transformed into a new kind of energy, and all organisms are energy transformers. All chemical reactions in cells require energy.
Within an ecosystem, energy transfers from one organism to another. This begins with producers, then energy transfers to consumers, and then to more consumers. Producers make their own food by utilizing outside energy, such as plants…… [Read More]
Our company encourages that its personnel stay in good physical shape and exercise at least three times a week. Our employees' health and mental well being is a highest priority.
Because of this importance on health, it is essential to choose the most essential foods and beverages for the largest number of people.
Hydration during sporting activities is a necessity. Heat exhaustion and dehydration can lead to major health problems and even injuries.
According to nutrition experts, when exercising for less than 60 to 90 minutes, water should be adequate to meet one's fluid needs.
Water is a great source of fluid when exercising for one hour or less.
According to an article in the Journal of the American Dietary Association (by SM Kleiner, 1999, p. 200), the following are the standards for fluid intake.
Drink a minimum of 1 quart (4 cups) of fluid for every 1,000calories you eat…… [Read More]
iron an essential nutrient for normal growth in tomato plants?
Iron plays a role in chlorophyll synthesis, with chlorophyll responsible for creating energy for the plant. This suggests that without iron, a plant will not have the chlorophyll and hence the energy for normal growth to occur.
If a plant receives all essential nutrients except Iron, growth will be reduced, leaf color will be effected and leaf necrosis will be observed, as compared to a plant that receives all essential nutrients.
Materials and Methods
Two labelled brown two-liter jars with lids.
Calcium nitrate stock solution.
Potassium nitrate stock solution.
Magnesium sulfate stock solution.
Potassium phosphate stock solution.
EDTA Iron III stock solution.
Trace elements stock solution.
Two tomato plants.
Obtain two brown two-liter jars and label one as the control and one as the Fe-deficient plant.
2. Plunge each of the six stock…… [Read More]
The amount of carbohydrates, rather than the source, is the primary concern. lood glucose levels are influenced by the food preparation process, the amount of food, sugar absorption and the combination of foods.
Carbohydrate counting assigns certain carbohydrate grams or exchanges these with specific foods. Computations determine insulin need, which lead to a better control of blood glucose levels over a broad range of foods. Diabetics may even add moderate amounts of sugar as long as these are carefully monitored (Rasberry).#
Jenkins, Emma. Carbohydrates Counting: Successful Dietary Management of Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Nursing S.. Communications, 2006.
Retrieved on April 9, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOMDR/is_14_10/ai_n16689691/?tag=content;col1
Parcell, Allen C., Drummond, M. & Christopherson, D., et al. Glycemic and Insulin
Response to Popular Protein Supplements. Nutrition Research Newsletter: Frost & Sullivan, 2005. Retrieved on April 9, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_1_24/ai_n8968070/tag-content;col1
Raspberry, Catherine N. Carbohydrates. Nutrition and Well-eing a-Z:
Gale, Cengage Learning,…… [Read More]
The variability of salt consumption in horses makes it difficult to use salt as a carrier for other nutrients. It is preferable to offer a balanced feed that is designed for the type of horse you are feeding and simply provide free choice white salt" ("Don't forget the salt," CFC, 2006).
Treatment and prognosis for recovery
Horses that are salt starved "must be introduced to salt slowly. Salt poisoning is possible if salt is suddenly available. Symptoms of salt poisoning are digestive upset and cramps" if the horse indulges in too much salt at once ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). Salt is the only mineral which horses know they need. "Horses can be deficient in copper or any other mineral and not consume the needed amounts when they are available. But horses will eat salt if their body needs it" ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). hen…… [Read More]
Food Intake Analysis
Food Inake Analysis
Who does not want to be healthy? However, to achieve such an admirable goal, it will require diligence, motivation, and consistency. To many, this is quite a daunting task that is met with much resistance because of the level of commitment and consistency that it requires. Insomuch, with all the various types of fast foods available and society's life style, the challenge to reach and to maintain an ideal rate seems impossible. According to the Center for Disease Control (2012), the U.S. obesity rate at 35.7%; this demonstrates a significant increase since the 1990s. Since I am concern about my health and refuse to become a statistic, I will analyze my food intake for three days.
Below is my recorded 3-day food intake. Based on the data, several adjustments will should be made to reach the recommended dietary reference intake (USDA, 2012).…… [Read More]
The first and most noteworthy fact about my three-day food intake, when compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes that are recommended by medical experts, is the astonishing number of "Empty Calories" listed. The easiest way to examine this is by taking a closer look at one of the most deleterious items on my three-day menu, which was a McDonald's Double Quarter Pounder with Cheese. The Double Quarter Pounder with Cheese turns out to be a 748-Calorie sandwich, however the United States Department of Agriculture analysis estimates that 263 of those calories qualify as "Empty Calories." For a further breakdown, that includes 238 empty calories from "Solid Fats" (presumably from the cheese and meat) and an additional 25 empty calories from "Added Sugars" (this presumably just from the condiments, such as ketchup, included in the McDonald's Double Quarter Pounder with Cheese). It's obvious that the easiest way to improve…… [Read More]
Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon
Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).
Insulin and Glucagon
The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…… [Read More]
However, fruit juices, consumed in moderation, can be a healthy addition to a diet, as long as they are not consumed in lieu of actually eating any whole fruits.
My nutritional analysis revealed that I am not eating a balanced diet. I am consuming too much protein and too little fiber, issues that plague the diets of many Americans. To remedy these problems, I need to increase my intake of fruits, vegetables, and grain products, while reducing my intake of meat products. In addition, because my intake of milk products was also low, I need to look at how to increase my milk intake without increasing protein intake.
Here is the food displayed for jjohn90 on 9/10/2008
Select your serving sizes and specify how many servings you consumed for each. When you are done, click Save & Analyze to save your food entry information and to analyze your food…… [Read More]
Subject should also increase fat intake to better balance his diet.
Subject's fiber consumption was so far in excess of DV that negative digestive consequences cannot be ruled out.
Salt intake was more than the DV, but could be easily corrected with some minor dietary changes.
The Food Standards Agency has developed the Eat Well Plate as an easy to follow nutritional guideline.
The Eat Well Plate is a visual display and quick reference for consumers to better balance their diets in compliance with the DV's. Analysis revealed a shortfall in fruits and vegetables as well as bread, rice and pasta - the two largest sections of the plate. Subjects fat consumptions were well below the DV's, but per the Eat Well Plate are the smallest category recommended.
ecommendations for Subject's improved nutritional balance would include increased caloric intake, weighted heavily in the fruits and vegetables, breads, rice and pasta…… [Read More]
Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…… [Read More]
vitamin and mineral supplement products which are presently used, and compare and analyze its' amount of nutrients with the generally established nutrient guidelines per day, specifically by considering the DA or AI and UL of the nutrients in question as related to women from 19 to 30 years of age, together with evaluating the daily use of those two products of choice.
The first supplement brought into question is Caltrate 600+D3, whose quantity of nutrients in a single tablet amounts to 800 IU of vitamin D3 and 600 mg of calcium. According to a 2010 re-evaluation of dietary reference intake, the Council for esponsible Nutrition agreed that the adequate value of calcium nutrient for women aged 19 to 50 falls between the AI of 1000 mg and the UL of 2500 mg (Dickinson, 2012). Thus, the recommended dose of one tablet of Caltrate 600+D3 per day would provide 60% of…… [Read More]
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
Water, Gatorades and Powerades
I am a registered dietician, presenting my piece of work on the different types of beverages. I am giving this presentation because water is an overlooked nutrient in the hydration process while it can be an excellent sports beverage. Water is the most essential nutrient in the body because death can occur rapidly in the absence of water than any other nutrient. Knowing this, does not take much imagination when dehydration occurs during sports performance or training. Around 60% of the human body is inside water called intracellular cells, and the muscle tissues have 70% of water which is critical during exercise.
Gatorade and PowerAde contain added proteins, sodium and carbohydrates, which help in increasing blood glucose levels and high cycling performance. PowerAde has low calories while Gatorade is lightly flavored with enhanced vitamins also with low calories. These power drinks are moderately isotonic because, they…… [Read More]
These worms play an integral part of the community. They do not have any digestive capacities, as they lack mouths and digestive systems. ather, they absorb the nutrient-rich waste products of the bacteria through their epidermal layers. They use hemoglobin produced inside their bodies to combine hydrogen sulfide, which is a necessity of many of the bacteria living in and around the vents. The worms transfer this hydrogen sulfide to the bacteria upon contact, and in return, the absorb the nutrients being produced by the bacteria. Additionally, one study examining vents off the coast of South Africa also found the presence of a new species of nematode, known as Halicephalobus mephisto (Borgonie et al., 2011). There are also a number of annelids as well as typical crustaceans, like snails, crabs, and shrimp are often common (Edmonds et al., 2003). There are also species of fish and octopi that form some…… [Read More]
Too much fat, on the other hand, leads to problems like high blood pressure, fatigue, joint problems, heart issues -- the list goes on. My recommended daily intake of calories from fat is 662.02 out of a total of 2364.36, or 28%. On Day Three, my total intake of calories from fat was 433.9 out of a total caloric intake of 1237.2, or 35%. This suggests that I need to watch the amount of fat I am including in my diet, even while it appears as though need to increase my basic caloric consumption.
The type of fat consumed is also important; 35.6% of the fat I consumed on Day Three was saturated, compared to the 32.1% recommended daily allowance. Though fats are essential, saturated fats really aren't, and taking in even less than the recommended daily allowance of saturated fats would be advisable. The fact that I am eating…… [Read More]
This study demonstrates that different total P. fraction releases may differ between two bodies of water under similar oxygen conditions (Kisand & Noges, 2003). This study is important in that it highlights the complexity of understanding P. fractions in any given body of water. There are a multitude of potential reactions in any body of water. Oxygen plays a role in the reactions of any individual lake, but one cannot make predictions based on oxygen level alone.
Shallow lakes differ from stratified lakes in many ways. A stratified lake typically reaches equilibria in such a manner that it becomes divided into regions. This is not the case with shallow lakes. With a shallow lake, the entire lake may change from clear water to macrophyte dominated to algae dominated, each phase has its own state of equilibrium (Dokulil & Teubner, 2003). Total chlorophyll to phosphorus ratios are different in these various…… [Read More]
According to the recently released Stock Status Ratings -- 2012: Status of the orld's Fisheries for Tuna, which was compiled by the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF), "there are 23 stocks of the major commercial tuna species worldwide (6 albacore, 4 bigeye, 4 blue-n, 5 skipjack and 4 yellow-n stocks) ... (and) globally, 52% of the stocks are at a healthy level of abundance, 39% are over-shed and 9% are at an intermediate level" (3). The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species has found that because "this species has been intensively fished since the early 1950s "estimated (that) spawning stock biomass has declined approximately 85% over the past 36 years (1973 -- 2009) and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding" (1). Today, the majority of canned tuna purchased by consumers is sourced from commercial "fish farms" and industrial fisheries that…… [Read More]
Gingko Biloba -- Part I
What are the author's general conclusions (summarized) on the effectiveness of Gingko Biloba as a cognitive enhancer?
According to the author, effects of Gingko on cognition are perplexing because of its dual actions as following. It's seen improving short-term memory but at the same time it impairs digit recall ability. It slows down mental decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease but has lower dose response curve than acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Gingko slows mental decline during dementia owing to its action as an anti-oxidant and ability to combat stress. This action is of short-term and isn't seen chronically. Gingko has more scores for improvement seen in patients when compared to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil but has fewer efficacies than the later. Effects of Gingko are mainly attributable not to its direct action on improving memory but to its indirect action of improving attention…… [Read More]
Digestion and diabetes: Overview of the process
The digestive process begins even before food is consumed. Looking at or anticipating food causes salivation. Saliva aids digestion, along with chewing. For example, when Jane Doe looks at a plate consisting of a whole wheat turkey sandwich (garnished by vegetables and mayonnaise), potato chips, and apple juice, her body will begin to anticipate eating by secreting digestive juices. The first major involuntary muscular movement for Jane Doe will not occur until she consciously decides to swallow the food in front of her. "Although you are able to start swallowing by choice, once the swallow begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of the nerves" (Your digestive system, 2010, NIH). The swallowed food is pushed into the esophagus, the organ that connects the teeth, mouth, and tongue through the throat to the stomach. "At the junction of the esophagus and…… [Read More]
evolution and natural selection is the addition of information. The process of evolution requires massive amounts of new information be added to an existing gene pool. What most people refer to as evolution is, in fact, natural selection. Natural selection occurs when genes that already exist in an animals' DNA, or sometimes on defective genes that have lost information (called mutation) are somehow altered. Neither process adds information to the gene pool so cannot be considered to be evolution. The evolutionary process is a slow and meticulous one and is preceded by numerous incidents of natural selection. True evolution is truly rare and takes place over the span of many years. Natural selection occurs far more frequently and can occur in the space of several generations.
Natural field experiments are efforts by the scientific community to apply the scientific method to real life situations. This process allows scientists to test…… [Read More]
According to UNCEF, replacement of many nutrients such as protein, potassium, magnesium and zince is essential for recovery from malnutrition (http://www.unicefusa.org/news/news-from-the-field/treating-malnutrition-as.html).The organization mentions ready-to-use therapeutic foods such as F75 and Plumpy'nut. F75 is high in energy, fat, and protein, and provide a large amount of nutrients while Plumpy'nut contains vitamins A, B-complex, C, D, E, and K, and minerals calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, iodine, sodium, and selenium.
WHO advises that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables contains immune-system boosting mironutrients that can help those suffering from over nourishment to boost their body's natural defenses against infectious diseases (http://www.wpro.who.int/media_centre/press_releases/pr_20030304.htm)… [Read More]
he white paper cites several other studies as the basis for the argument, but does not provide a Reference List
Quendler, S. "Link Between Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Academic Achievement." Vienna University, Austria. (August, 2002): 1-2/. Available at http://chp.ilsi.org/NR/rdonlyres/AFE7EC1D-17D0-494C-BC0B-4E0E065627A8/0/linkbetweennutritionachievement.pdf Accessed 23 October 2008.
his study confirmed the connection between poor nutrition and academic performance. It also identified low-income children as being at particular risk of poor nutrition. his study supports the need for programs to improve childhood nutritional status.
Schultz, . "
Productive Benefits of Health: Evidence from Low-Income Countries,"
IZA Discussion Papers 1482, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (2005). Available at http://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp1482.html
Investment behavior and combined income of two people makes it difficult to link better health with economic prosperity. Heterogeneity in the sample also affected the survey results. his study highlights some of the factors that may affect this research study.
homas, D. And Frankenberg, E.…… [Read More]
There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.
Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…… [Read More]
etlands are the main link between the land and the water, and as such are vitally important to the ecology. etlands have been misunderstood and abused throughout the history of the United States -- and elsewhere in the world -- and that has led to enormous environmental losses. This paper explores all pertinent information with regard to wetlands.
hat are etlands?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as those "…transition zones where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients," along with the sun's energy, all meet in order to create "…a unique ecosystem characterized by hydrology, soils, and vegetation" (EPA). The four categories of wetlands are swamps, bogs, fens and marshes. The EPA describes marshes as wetlands that are "…dominated by soft-stemmed vegetation"; swamps are quite different, as they are composed of "mostly woody plants."
As for bogs, they are freshwater wetlands that were formed by glacier-made lakes;…… [Read More]
Producing a Healthier iscuit: Evidence for Adding Dietary Fiber
The importance of fiber
One common way to improve the health profile of baked goods is to add fiber, usually in the form of whole grain products vs. refined white flour. It is important to note when developing the nutritional profile of the proposed biscuit that not all types of fiber are created equal. There are two basic kinds of fiber: soluble and insoluble. The main difference between the two is that "soluble fiber dissolves in water. Insoluble fiber does not" (Zelman 2012). Soluble fiber attracts water and contributes to the body's sense of fullness, making dieting easier for many people. Insoluble fiber passes through the body undigested and thus is important for regular bowel movements. Oatmeal is a good source of soluble fiber; whole wheat is a good source of insoluble fiber and both could be tasty additions to a…… [Read More]
What are the steps of scientific method? What good is it? Does it prove anything? What's a variable? What a control vs. An experimental factor? What makes a good experiment?
Steps of scientific method:
Ask a question
Do background research
Construct a hypothesis
Test your hypothesis
Analyze your data
f. Communicate your results
The scientific method is good because it allows other scientists to repeat your experiment and all researchers to use the same method of investigation.
A variable is the thing in an experiment which varies from subject to subject.
A control in an experiment is the thing that remains the same. Experimental factors are the factors that are being tested and are changing.
e. Good data and accurate experimentation make a good experiment.
How does evolution explain the diversity of life we see today? What is natural selection and how does it work? What do we mean…… [Read More]
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Cardiac…… [Read More]
Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).
The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…… [Read More]
A report by Elliot (2009) also refers to other positive aspects of organically grown food. "…research found higher level of antioxidants -- which help the body to combat cancer and cardiovascular disease -- in organic foods" (Elliot, 2009).
In the final analysis it seems from the literature that there is overwhelming evidence to link pesticides in food with serious health issues and problems in children. This is especially critical with regard to very young children who may suffer from cancer and developmental problems as a result of exposure to food that has been contaminated by chemical pesticides. This leads to the recommendation that more should be done by the health authorities to ensure that young children in particular are not exposed to food that may be detrimental to their health.
Bunin G. ( 2000) What Causes Childhood Brain Tumors? Limited Knowledge, Many
Clues. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, pp. 321-326
Cancer…… [Read More]
Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]
In the UK for instance, there are no guidelines on the issue of nutritional labeling. In some cases nutritional information is ether missing totally or is present in a form which is too complex to be comprehended by the general public.
Therefore, the ongoing discussion between the industry players, health groups and regulators has a focus on making nutritional labeling compulsory as well as making the current system simpler to read and understand. This would the enable the consumers to make their own independent judgments on the type of food that they would like to purchase.
Several proposals have been advanced by the health regulators and watch groups. They include the placing of warning on food and beverages with high energy density as well as linking of the calorie consumption to the energy output by effectively stating how much exercise would be needed to burn off the 'extra' calories in…… [Read More]
Fantastic Voyage-Fem artery to ight lung
A Fantastic Voyage from the ight Femoral Artery to the ight Lung
The human body is an intricate system of labyrinths that work together to maintain essential functions and thus maintain an individuals physical health. Two systems that work together are the circulatory and cardiopulmonary systems. Together, these systems help to transport gasses, nutrients, wastes, and hormones to various organs in the body. While it is may be easy to get lost in the multitude of paths that lead to the rest of the body from the heart, finding one's way from the right femoral vein to the lower lobe of the right lung via the right pulmonary artery is much simpler than would be expected.
Let us begin our journey in the right femoral vein. After a long and treacherous journey, we find ourselves in the right femoral vein and must figure out…… [Read More]
John Frewin is a young child who lives with his parents. The 12-year-old is on a sustaining income of his parents. The parents of the child are low-income earners. The amount they receive can only sustain partial needs of the family thus aspects of the poor state of the society. John Frewin was diagnosis of Crohn's disease was at the age of 10 through a critical examination in the health institution. The main objective of this research exercise is to integrate ABCD's of nutritional assessment in the evaluation of Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease or Crohn syndrome refers to a condition involving inflammation of the lining of the digestive system (Ferrara & Saccomano, 2012). This disease affects the intestines as well as rare cases in any place from the mouth to the end of the rectum. The cause of Crohn syndrome is unknown. Despite this aspect, various elements might contribute…… [Read More]
Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin
a) EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS, HEART AND BRAIN
Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.
Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell…… [Read More]
Supplements, Fatigue and Lethargy
DO THEY HELP?
Vitamin E (p 1- 1.5)
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and antioxidant, which inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species or ROS when fat is oxidized (NIH, 2013). The body produces ROS when it converts food into energy. As an antioxidant, Vitamin E protects body cells from the ill effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules containing an unshared electron. They damage cells and contribute to the development of heart diseases and cancer. Unshared electrons are very active and quickly react with oxygen to form ROS. Health experts conjecture that limiting the production of free radicals may, alone or through other mechanisms, help prevent or delay the formation of these dreaded chronic diseases associated with the action of free radicals. Vitamin E may serve that function (NIH).
As an antioxidant, it also plays a role in the immune function of the…… [Read More]
Lichens are commonly used as ecological signs or bio-indicators. If atmosphere is extremely contaminated with sulphur dioxide there could be no lichens existing, just eco-friendly algae might be identified. When the atmosphere is clear, shrubby, hairy as well as, leafy; lichens turn out to be plentiful. A small number of lichen varieties can put up with extremely high degrees of air pollution and therefore are generally seen on pavements, wall surfaces and also tree-bark in city locations. By far the most delicate lichens happen to be shrubby and leafy whilst the most resistant lichens are crusty in looks (Showman, 68; Nash and Gries, 1-29). A lichen area design might be noticed in big cities and towns or close to commercial buildings which matches the average degrees of sulphur dioxide encountered.
The resistant lichens are helpful bioindicators for atmosphere air pollution, particularly sulfur dioxide contamination, given that…… [Read More]
This implies that decomposition process goes on activated by the young earthworms in the soil, given that the soil is loose, moist and rich in organic matter for the worms to remain alive. The bacterium which is present in the alimentary canal of the earthworm converts organic water to natural fertilizers. The chemical alterations that the organic wastes are put to consist of deorderising and neutralizing. This implies that the pH of the castings is 7 which is neutral. (the tasteful garden)
The Latin meaning of vermes is worm from which the term vermiculture has been derived. Vermiculture is a process wherein the process of composting, containing the addition of some species of earthworms used to improve the process of conversion of waste and produce an improve product. Vemicomposting varies from composting in a number of ways. Mainly, vermicomposting consists of a mesophillic process in which the microorganisms are…… [Read More]
" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).
Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton
Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton
It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…… [Read More]
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
15,355…… [Read More]
There is a direct correlation between the lack of clean safe water for drinking and cooking with nutritional problems. The lack of clean drinking water leads to diseases like diarrhea. Nutritional deficiencies are directly related to lack of potable water. This is because a person does not get enough calories, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals in their body. Undernutrition has been associated with 45 percent of global deaths and nearly 7.4 percent of the world's children are at risk of undernutrition. Malnourished children have weakened immune systems that make them more susceptible to diarrhea when they are exposed to dirty water. The lack of clean water means that individuals will be living in non-sanitized environments and this increases the risk of suffering from diarrhea. People suffering from diarrhea will eat less and they are unable to absorb the nutrients they need from the food they eat, which results in…… [Read More]
A strictly vegetarian diet is best suited to the human body's needs, mankind's ability of survival on earth, and our inherent compassion. Switching to such a diet is fairly simple and creates the opportunity to lead a healthier, happier, and gentler life (Marcus, xi).
For numerous reasons, humanity has been increasingly taking to veganism since the last few years. Some vegan supporters assert their participation in a dietary regimen wherein consuming or utilizing animal products is unethical, according to their religious beliefs or values. Meanwhile, others put forward the argument of animal consciousness's ethicality and the industrial farming process. Those who claim to be vegans most probably do so owing to environmental, animal rights, or personal health concerns, which can alter with time. Several vegans begin as vegetarians, gradually ceasing consumption of milk, eggs and other animal by-products. Meanwhile, others turn purely vegan right from the outset. In…… [Read More]
These were categorized into three aspects, which the care provider could control for the benefit of the patients. These were satisfaction with the punctuality of the caregiver; the quality of interaction between the patient and the caregiver; and the overall dependability of health care. Promptness or punctuality with care or service was rated most highly by both groups. eing on time affected their functioning and comfort throughout the day, specifically with dressing, bathing and daily activities. Promptness was considered the easiest and most controllable aspect for the provider. The quality of interaction made the patients feel safe, respected and valued. And satisfaction with the overall dependability of health care mostly involved the caregiver's following through with the patient's suggestions, especially those by the more frail patients. This last aspect was also well within the control of the health care provider (Kolodonsky, et al.).#
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of…… [Read More]
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…… [Read More]
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…… [Read More]
Small fires, on the other hand, are less intense, and therefore cause less damage to the pine. The low air temperature in many areas of shortleaf pine growth help the heat of the fire dissipate, and therefore, more fire is required to raise the temperature of the plant cambium to the point of killing the tree. Also, if debris on the ground is only dry on top, but has moisture underneath, the fire is unable to spread to the base cambium, saving the pine (Little, 1978).
On the other hand, the frequency of fires in shortleaf pine areas also has an effect.
Young shortleaf pines sprout at the root if the crown of the tree is badly damaged, as mentioned. This ability, however, is confined to trees up to 8 inches in diameter, or the trees most likely damaged in a fire. Many of the sprouts on even these trees…… [Read More]
Nutrition and Stress
Stress affects eating habits by causing a person to exhibit patterns of disordered eating (Khansari, et al., 1990). Some people will choose to eat too much, and others will eat too little (Seaward, n.d.). Additionally, it is not just the amount of food a person is taking in, but the type of food that is being consumed. Comfort foods are commonly seen in the eating habits of people who are stressed, even if the person would not normally consume those foods or would not eat them as often (Khansari, et al., 1990). When a person is experiencing stress, though, he or she unconsciously reaches for foods that bring psychological comfort, and that can actually cause more harm to the body. It is very important that a person under stress focuses on eating properly, such as having three meals per day, eating only appropriate snacks, and avoiding a…… [Read More]
pregnant women go through stages of what is good to eat and what isn't. It is stated that eating organic food is healthy for the baby's growth, and development. Mothers are said to eat vegetables, fruits, and other foods in order to maintain a healthy diet. esearch has shown that eating organic food is healthy for babies and many claims by marketers suggest that formula for babies is a good approach to healthily feeding them. This paper will show how while some products attempt to "cash in" on the organic food craze by promoting themselves as organic, even though the food itself is not very healthy (such as "organic" sugary cereals), there is still validity to the claim that organic food diets that consist of wholesome, natural foods like vegetables, fruits and nuts are good for expecting mothers. However, the research shows that when it comes to breastfeeding, there is…… [Read More]
Animal Nutrition and Feed Evaluation
Qualitative, scientific-based evaluations of animal feed and the resultant nutrition of the animal are crucial for maintaining optimal animal health and responding to problems that develop as a result of diet. In the case of ruminants, this can be particularly important as their unique digestive system can complicate providing optimal nutrition from traditional feed sources and techniques. A balanced nutrient approach to ruminant diet must take into account not only the feed that is being given to the animal, but also, crucially, the way in which the animal's digestive system will process that feed and provide (or not) nutrition to the animal. Creating this type of qualitative knowledge about the digestive system and nutrition needs of rumens with regard to different feeds "developed most rapidly when isotope dilution techniques became easy to apply, facilitated by improved instrumentation and mathematical approaches" (1). From this information,…… [Read More]
Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).
Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).
usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…… [Read More]
The following study suggests that whilst macro and micronutrients are conducive to plant growth it is water that has the greatest impact on, and is the most crucial regulator of plant growth and, when regulated, can lead to the highest growth spurt. The author of this study, therefore, wished to test the effects of a pellet, one of whose elements originated from a microorganism, powder that sourced from a microorganism, and water. The hypothesis was that whilst each would contribute to plant growth, the greatest amount of growth would emerge from the water and that even thoguh all plants in each of the other 2 studies initially received the same amount of water in their feeding / growth process, addition of water to the experimental study of the Brassica rapa would -- due to water's enhanced absorption capacities -- evidence enhanced plant growth.. Formulating these hypotheses in a scientific manner:…… [Read More]
Nutritional needs vary depending on people and rely on other aspects such as weaknesses of genetics, disease predisposition, diet, age, health state, work, nutrition imbalance, climate, daily activities and emotional activities. Exposure to physical and mental stress may ridiculously cause an increase in certain amounts of nutrients, which exceeds the daily-recommended intake. Poor health will deny people the freedom to work towards achieving their goals and so on. In case of any health disorder, this will interfere with the normal functioning of an individual. The people who are mostly around that individual will be affected. Many of the daily activities would be affected, and relationships will suffer a terrific deal (Brug & Oenema, 2009).
Brug, J. Oenema, a. & Ferreira, I. (2009) Theory, evidence and intervention mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions. California: Cengage Learning.
Croll, K., Neumark-Sztainer, D. & Story, M. (2006) Healthy eating. Michigan:…… [Read More]
Pro and Cons of the Paleo Diet
It is widely accepted that some basic changes in lifestyle and diet that took place, following the Neolithic evolution, and mostly following the Industrial evolution and the Modern Era, are very recent, when weighed on an evolutionary time-measuring scale. This mismatch that exists between western lifestyles and diet, and our ancient physiology, triggers several modern day diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, epithelial cell cancers, etc., which were rarely or never seen in ancient non-westernized populations. It has therefore been proposed that one way of reducing these degenerative chronic diseases is to copy the diets and lifestyles of the ancient men. This research seeks to add to these issues by carrying out the analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of the Paleo diet to the health of humans through the nutrients it contributes to the human body (Coerdain 2011).
Purpose and Scope…… [Read More]
The researchers were testing whether an improved diet (increased nutritional density, high fiber, low sugar, and low nutrient 'empty' foods), would increase the students' academic performance. The data was collected from scores of standardized tests, the results of the data showed a statistically significant increase in the test scores, which in turn validated the hypothesis of the research study -- that an improved diet would improve academic performance. In the book "Eating for a's," Schauss and his collaborators developed an eating program that parents could follow in order to improve their own children's performance, both in academics and athletics. Inherent in the paradigm of the authors approach to designing the book, is the conceptualization that diets of children are sub-par.
Schauss et al. posit that through following a 12-week program of dietary changes, families can help their children reach those 'valued' societal ideals of high academic achievement, and…… [Read More]
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…… [Read More]
Bioreduction will be most effective in the future if researchers and engineers can develop more effective means of delivering needed nutrients to the microorganism strands used in remediation efforts, as well as tailor site conditions as needed. In the final analysis, it seems most likely that a combination of extractive and immobilization techniques will produce the best results, by each removing aspects of chromium contamination that the other cannot effectively eliminate.
Camargo, F.A.O., Okeke, B.C., Bento, F.M., and Frakenberger, .T. "In Vitro Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by a Cell-Free Extract of Bacillus sp. ES 29 Stimulated by CU2+." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 62.5/6 (Oct. 2003): 569-573.
Ciura, J., Poniedzialek, M., Jedrszczyk, E., and Sekara, a. "The Possibility of Using Crops as Metal Phytoremediants." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14.1 (2005): 17-22.
Kapoor, Anoop, and Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari. "Remediation of Chromium-Containing Soils by Heap Leaching: Column Study." Journal of Environmental…… [Read More]
Food Served in Public Schools
he school nutrition environment, consisting of school meals and competitive meals, has actually properly gotten terrific attention due to the fact that kids eat, usually, one-third of their everyday calorie consumption at school (Briefel et al., 2009).
Improving the dietary consumption of our country's kids is of crucial value given that one-third of school-age kids are obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Paper's Scope and significant areas:.
his research will clarify Kid Nutrition Reauthorization from FRAC. he research addresses school meal quality and gain access to (Hartline-Grafton, 2010). Moreover, the present research concentrates on competitive meals, which are extensively readily available in schools, mostly exempt from federal nutrition criteria, and have an unfavourable influence on the wellness and health of all pupils, particularly pupils from low-income households.
he semi-structured type of interview is utilized in the research in addition to the standardized…… [Read More]