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Object Oriented Programming
The programming language that is organized around data rather than actions, and objects instead of actions is referred to as object oriented programming Mitchell, 2003.
A program has always been viewed as a logical procedure which accepts input data, processes the data, and produces some output. Object oriented programming was developed out of the need to write the logic instead of how to define the data. In object oriented programming the objects that the programmer wants to manipulate take center stage and not the required logic of manipulating the objects. An object is defined as a composition of nouns like strings, variables or numbers and verbs like functions. A program that is object oriented is a collection of objects that are interacting. A conventional program model was viewed as a list of tasks that the program was required to perform. Each of the objects used in OOP…
Bruce, K.B. (2002). Foundations of Object-Oriented Languages: Types and Semantics. Cambridge, MA: Mit Press.
Craig, I. (2007). Object-Oriented Programming Languages: Interpretation. London WC1X 8HB: Springer.
Marrer, G. Fundamentals of Programming: With Object Orientated Programming. Glendale, Arizona: Gary Marrer.
Mitchell, J.C. (2003). Concepts in Programming Languages. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
This is one of the greatest limitations of this technology. A second major disadvantage of DBMS-based systems is their lack of support for image- and spatial-based databases that include Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, 3D rendering and model-based data. Their table-based structure is inefficient in defining the attributes of these data types and lacks the necessary data tagging and data types to manage imaging and CAD-based design files and data sets. Object-Oriented Database Management Systems (OODBMS) are more adept at managing graphical data elements and indexing them for future use (Lungu, Velicanu, Botha, 2009). A third limitation of DBMS architectures is the lack of support for defining complex interrelationships of data, which is often required for data mining and the intensive analysis used for sentiment and content analysis of social networks for example (Seng, 2003). The emerging areas of latent semantic indexing (LSI) and linguistic analysis, two critical technologies the Google…
Antoniotti, M., Carreras, M., Antonella, F., Mauri, G., Merico, D., & Zoppis, I.. (2010). An application of kernel methods to gene cluster temporal meta-analysis. Computers & Operations Research, 37(8), 1361.
Thomas M. Connolly, & Carolyn E. Begg. (2006). A Constructivist-Based Approach to Teaching Database Analysis and Design. Journal of Information Systems Education, 17(1), 43-53.
Evermann, J., & Wand, Y.. (2009). Ontology-Based Object-Oriented Domain Modeling: Representing Behavior. Journal of Database Management, 20(1), 48-77.
Zhen He, & Jerome Darmont. (2005). Evaluating the Dynamic Behavior of Database Applications. Journal of Database Management, 16(2), 21-45.
Object Oriented Hypermedia design model and the four-step process involved in the development of the model. This section will provide an explanation for each step in the process. Then we will discuss the past, present and future business uses of the model. This will explore the importance of the model in business applications that are conducted through the Internet. e will also provide details about the compatibility of the model and compare the model to similar applications such as HDM and OOHM. Finally, we will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the model. Including that navigational design of the model and the costly overhead and training involved in implementing the application.
There will be several types of sources used during the course of this discussion. Most of these sources will be essays and articles written by Rossi and Schwabe who invented the Object Oriented Hypermedia Design Method. In addition there…
Abrahao, S., Fons, J., Pastor, O. "Building E-Commerce Applications from Object-Oriented Conceptual Models" 2000. http://www.acm.org/sigs/sigecom/exchanges/volume_2_ (01)/2.2-Pastor.pdf
Ashman H., Bieber, M., Kukkonen H.. "Hypertext Functionality: introduction to the special issue." Journal of Digital Information. 1999. Volume 1 Issue 4. http://jodi.ecs.soton.ac.uk/Articles/v01/i04/editorial/
Hypermedia. 2001 http://raven.ubalt.edu/programs/hypermedia/faq.cfm#definition
Lang, Michael. "Hypermedia Systems Development: Do We Really Need New Methods?" Informing Science. 2002. (Online). http://ecommerce.lebow.drexel.edu/eli/2002Proceedings/papers/Lang148Hyper.pdf
Structured Design and Object-Oriented Design
This report attempts to distinguish between two information technology design philosophies; namely, the basic differences between structured design and object-oriented design. The report also addresses the kinds of systems that are naturally more inclined to function with a hierarchy and those which function better through interacting objects. The report also goes on to discuss how systems were designed and when the methods used were most effective.
A structured approach was the original information technology design methodology and began in the early 1960's. Although industry insiders were very familiar with the concepts and processes, structured design gained a greater designation and popularity in 1979 when Larry Constantine and Edward Yourdon released a book on the topic known as the 'orange book' that was published by Prentice Hall. Many copycats followed and the structured design process became a standard. From that point forward, software engineers had a…
Connor, M.F. (1980). "SADT: Structured Analysis and Design Technique Introduction," SofTech, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts, May 22, 1980. Proceedings of Guide 50, Houston, Texas, 1980.
Goldberg, A. And A. Kay. (1976). Editors, Smalltalk-72 Instructional Manual, Technical Report SSL-76-6, Xerox PARC, Palo Alto, California, March 1976.
Crimes in Prison
Summary of "A Laboratory for Teaching Object-Oriented Thinking"
"A Laboratory For Teaching Object-Oriented Thinking" describes a novel method for teaching programmers to think about programs in terms of objects instead of procedures in an attempt so solve the problem of programmers not adapting well to object-oriented programming. Programmers are introduced to the concepts of object-oriented programming without involving the specifics of any given language so that they can be taught to think in objects before they actually write object-oriented programs. The method consists of having programmers write down the class name, responsibilities and collaborators of each object on a separate note card, called a CRC card. Use of physical cards allows the programmer to represent relationships between objects spatially. The use of CRC cards has a high success rate for teaching programmers to solve problems using objects, rather than trying to add procedural techniques to an object-oriented…
This method of coding is (theoretically) the type of coding that UML enforces.
The Rational Unified Process (RUP) is a standard that describes the development of a complex software solution. It is broken into four steps: inception, the phase in which profit and revenue models are constructed to generate a timeline for development; elaboration, the phase in which the project scope is more thoroughly detailed; construction, the phase in which components and features are designed; and transition, in which the product moves to the end user. This process is used in the context of iterative development, which encourages the solution to be scaled to its final state in steps; ideally, those steps result in a result reviewable by the end-user, which provides an opportunity for revising and refining of the project scope.
Rational Software." IBM. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www-306.ibm.com/software/rational.
Rational Unified Process." IBM. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www-306.ibm.com/software/awdtools/rup/.
Rational Software." IBM. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www-306.ibm.com/software/rational .
Rational Unified Process." IBM. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www-306.ibm.com/software/awdtools/rup/ .
The Object Management Group (OMG)." OMG. 23 Aug. 2006. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www.omg.com/ .
Minoan and omantic movements
Describe the earlier historical art period, characteristics of the style, and social conditions that may have contributed to the advent of this style.
Within the history of the Ancients, the story of Classical Greek art and architecture is prefaced by the earliest epoch of the seafaring Cretan civilization, Minos. The Palace of King Minosis is a magical structure reflective of this early world of classical lyricism. It is in fact, Homer's reference to the island, and its legendary king, in Book XIX of the Odyssey, that has informed us of Aegean cultures, and our fascination with all things Minoan. The central locus of exchange for communique with other civilizations of antiquity such as the nearby lands of Pharonic Ancient Egypt, the Palace of King Minos is our greatest resource for inquiry into the roots of ancient classical civilization.
obust in economy and in cultural…
Art. Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Retrieved from: http://www.oxfordartonline.com de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. (1980). Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York: Harcourt and Brace.
Vaughan, W. (2010). Romanticism. Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Retrieved from:
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
peception of objects in infants elated to IQ duing adolescence?
The tem "social cognition" epesents the fundamental capabilities of childen to peceive an object, categoize, emembe, evaluate, thing and eact appopiately (Dilalla, 2007). This poposal ecognizes the boad definition of the tem, but it emphasizes on the multidisciplinay quality of eseach fo this pape. Nevetheless, scientific disciplines vay in thei emphasis on vaious elements of this sophisticated constuct. In social psychology, the tem illustates a wide ange of happenings including moal easoning, fomation of attitudes and steeotyping. In neuoscience, it defines the tem as the capability to peceive the intentions and dispositions of othe people. On the othe hand, developmental psychology descibes the tem as the theoy of mind, the ecognition that people have beliefs and inteests divegent, and it is possible to explain behavio by efeing to the beliefs and inteests.
This poposal adopts the above definition because acoss…
references for novel and familiar stimuli. Advances in infancy research, 5, 69-95.
McCall, R.B., & Carriger, M. (1993). A meta-analysis of infant habituation and recognition memory performance as predictors of later IQ. Child Development, 64, 57-
Quinn, P.C., & Johnson, M.H. (2000). Global before basic object categorization. Infancy, 1, 31-
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
That is, until an infant ealizes that she is looking at heself in the mio athe than anothe baby, the concept of self cannot begin to fom (Johnston, 1996). As childen matue, the link between cognition and self-concept becomes moe illuminated. In olde childen, pat of the matuation pocess is the ability to solve poblems and pocess infomation (Siegle and Alibali, 2004). The fact that childen use a vaiety of stategies and behave diffeently when ovecoming obstacles to each a common goal eflects diffeences not only in thei cognitive abilities but also how they see themselves -- "I don't give up easily; I always ty my best; I lean well; I don't like myself," etc. (Measelle et al., 2005).
If, as ealie suggested, by five to seven yeas of age, childen ae able to give accuate self-desciptions of themselves, then the pecusos of self-concept clealy evolve aound the toddle and…
references, discussing negative emotions, engaging children in conversations, discovering unique attributes, and the like all have Western upbringing tones. In other cultures, these norms may not be norms at all and hence the psychometric procedures used to generate traditionally Western self-description may not apply, say among Chinese or Asian children (Wang, 2004). The Chinese, as opposed to the autonomy-oriented European-Americans, are interdependent and put value in kinship such that a person's identity is often tied to his social responsibilities. Social rules exist in the Chinese culture that promotes humility and self-criticism for the sake of social harmony (Chin, 1988, in Wang, 2004). This, of course, is in contrast to Western culture that promotes self-enhancement.
A recent study on the comparative autobiographical memories and self-description in 3- to 8-year-old American and Chinese children considered the following differences and used a relatively novel, open-ended narrative method to examine the development of self-constructs. The results of the study are consistent with the cultural outlines above. American children tend to describe themselves in terms of their personal attributes and inner disposition in a generally light tone. Chinese children, on the other hand, focused on specific relationships, social roles, observable behavior, and situation bound features in a modest tone (Wang, 2004). The implication of this study is that self-concept is culture-specific and that the early emergence of cultural self-constructs may prepare children to become competent members of their respective societies (Wang, 2004).
In summary, this paper illustrates that the development of self is a product of cognitive achievement, everyday experiences, and cultural values. The role of child-parent interactions and differing cultural beliefs are emphasized as crucial in shaping self-concept among children.
Web Services in the context of an SOA framework are designed to be the catalyst of greater order accuracy and speed, further increasing performance of the entire company in the process. The collection of Web Services is meant to not replace the traditional and highly engrained EP systems in a company; rather Web Services are meant to extend and enhance their performance and making them more agile over time (Alonso, Kuno, Casati, Machiraju, 2004). Theorists have suggested that the SOA framework is only as successful as the approaches taken to creating a unified Web Services strategy that creates a single system of record of customer data the entire company standardizes on (Kobielus, 2007). This concept of the system of record is defined as Master Data Management (MDM) and is the basis of analytics and Business Intelligence (BI), which are fueling more focus on measuring the value of SOA frameworks from…
Alonso, Kuno, Casati, and Machiraju, 2004, Web Services: Concepts, Architectures and Applications. Springer-Verlag Publishing. 1 January 2004. London. ISBN 3540440089
Bohm, K., S. Etalle, J. den Hartog, C. Hutter, S. Trabelsi, D. Trivellato, and N. Zannone. 2010. A Flexible Architecture for Privacy-Aware Trust Management. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research 5, no. 2, (August 1): 77-96.
Cobarzan, a.. 2010. Consuming Web Services on Mobile Platforms. Informatica Economica 14, no. 3, (July 1): 98-105.
Drissen-Silva, M., and R. Rabelo. 2009. A collaborative decision support framework for managing the evolution of virtual enterprises. International Journal of Production Research 47, no. 17, (September 1): 4833.
egardless of numerous efforts to define data, knowledge, and information, there are still some uncertainties and lack of clarity regarding what these three things are and the relationships that exist between them. While many descriptions of the three are relevant, most of these definitions are far from providing the clear picture of what the three really are. However, there are considerable differences between data, knowledge, and information though they have some relationships between them. The main relationship is that data is described in relation to information, information defined on the basis of data and knowledge, and knowledge explained in terms of information.
The differences between data, knowledge, and information can be explained in terms of their basic definitions, purposes, and how each is formed. Under definitions, data can be described as basic, unprocessed, and unfiltered information whereas information is described as more developed data that has evolved to a…
Benner, T. (n.d.). Why Use A Database? Retrieved February 29, 2012, from http://www.masteradobe.com/MasterAdobe_MACinTUTOR/Why_Database.html
"Lesson 5: Types of Database Management Systems." (n.d.). Topic: Database Fundamentals.
Retrieved from The Pennsylvania State University website: http://www.personal.psu.edu/glh10/ist110/topic/topic07/topic07_06.html
Liew, A. (2007, June). Understanding Data, Information, Knowledge And Their Inter-
object-oriented (OO) and component-based development. It begins by describing the evolution of the abstraction process and the emergence of OO programming. Next, the limitations of OO programming are discussed along with an explanation of how component-based development was born to serve as a complimentary extension to OO to overcome its primary disadvantages. Given the differences between objects and components, this paper makes recommendations for developing systems using both constructs. Finally, the future of objects and components is discussed.
Assembly languages started the abstraction process by coding the binary-based machine code, or pulse train of successive 0s and 1s, into assemblies representing particular machine code sequences (Hoagland). Next, higher level languages made coding closer to human readable. The language and its compilers were coordinated such that the output would give a computational valid result. OO programming raised the level of abstraction in programming even further. OO programming is a programming language…
Atkinson, M., Altair, F., DeWitt, D., Kittrich, K., Maier, D., Zdonik, S. (1989). The object-oriented database system manifesto. Retrieved November 28, 2003 from Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science Web site: http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/People/clamen/OODBMS/Manifesto/htManifesto/Manifesto.html
Henderson-Sellers, B., Pradhan, R., Szyperski, C., Taivalsaari, A, and Wills, A. Are components objects? Retrieved 28, 2003 from Association for Computing Machinery Web Site: http://www.acm.org/sigplan/oopsla/oopsla99/2_ap/tech/2d1a_arecmp.html
Hoagland, J. From object oriented to component-based software. Components Online. Retrieved November 28, 2003 from Components Online Web Site: http://www.components-online.com/Component/Software/default.htm
Hurwitz, J. (1998, May) Component Directions. DBMS Magazine. Retrieved November 28, 2003 from DBMS Magazine Web Site: http://www.dbmsmag.com/9805d04.html
This is unlikely to change short of an amazing new technological innovation that takes "natural" language capability and programming to a new level. Let us now compare how COOL meets the needs of organizations working in various industries. The next section will help clarify why COOL is in such demand among commercial enterprises worldwide.
Chapter 3 - COOL and Organizational Goals
This section analyses how COOL supports organizational goals. COOL supports organizational goals in many ways. It is an adept and multi-faceted programming language that provides organizations the ability to manage data in many departments. It is useful for financial analysis, for shipping and inventory maintenance, for the creation of reports and data management systems and for linking various units within the organization. Each of these key features is described in more detail below.
Decision support systems such as that COOL can help facilitate are critical for supporting all levels…
ANSI. (2007). COBOL, Standards. American National Standards Institute. Accessed 29,
Columbia Encyclopedia. (2004). "Programming Language." The Columbia
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press.
C++ programming language. Specifically, it will discuss the creation of the language and some of its applications. C++ is one of the most important programming languages in use today. It has revolutionized the computing world, and applications using the language are utilized by millions of people around the world every day.
Bell Labs scientist Bjarne Stroustrup developed C++ Programming Language between 1983 and 1985. Initially, Stroustrup simply added some features to the C. Programming Language, and called it "C with Classes." Stroustrup added more alterations and functions and finally came up with C++, an Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) language. C++ evolved from a long line of languages that began in the 1960s with languages like FOTAN and Combined Programming Language (CPL) ("History," 2000). CPL eventually evolved into C (which first stood for "Cambridge" where it was developed, and later "Christopher," for Christopher Strachey, the scientist who helped develop it (Lohr, 2001,…
Author not Available. (2000). History of C++. Retrieved from the Cplusplus.com Web site: http://www.cplusplus.com/info/history.html28 May 2004.
Lohr, S. (2001). Go to: The story of the math majors, bridge players, engineers, chess wizards, maverick scientists, and iconoclasts, the programmers who created the software revolution. New York: Basic Books.
Stroustrup, Bjarne. (24 May 2004). C++ applications. Retrieved from the Research ATT.com Web site: http://www.research.att.com/~bs/applications.html28 May 2004.
"Sometimes abbreviated as WP, a word processor is a software program capable of creating, storing, and printing documents. Unlike the standard typewriter, users using word processors have the ability of creating a document and making any changes anywhere in the document. This document can also be saved for modification at a later time or to be opened on any other computer using the same word processor. (Computer Hope, 2011)" Microsoft's Word is a word processor and there are other ones as well such as Apple iWork, Corel WordPerfect, and Sun StarOffice. Amongst the various office automated systems, the word processor is one of the most used thereto.
This type of database is one of the first of its kind and is still present in older or legacy systems. "Each cell in a table may have a table underneath it, which is similar to the…
Best Priced Computers UK. (2009). Decision support systems. Retrieved July 31, 2011 from http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/decision-support-systems.htm
Computer Hope. (2011). Word processor. Retrieved July 31, 2011 from http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/w/wordssor.htm
Hernandez, G. (2011, August 8). DB types. Retrieved July 31, 2011 from http://www.georgehernandez.com/h/xComputers/Databases/aaIntro/DBTypes.asp
Introduction to HIS. (2007). Retrieved July 31, 2011 from http://faculty.yu.edu.jo
Systems Media Table: Comparison
The main purpose of this program is to construct sentences of the perceived information and manipulate paragraphs to form a word document. The program uses a display format 'what-you-see-is-what-you-get' to enhance the quality of the expected hardcopy.
WordPerfect and Microsoft Word are mostly superseded by both organization and personal computers to perform functions such as word formatting, letter processing and some simple designing. Accordingly, it is the most frequently used program in day-to-day operation.
It is used to type the text, save, and format and print the text.
It is used to insert pictures into the text page.
It is used to spell check the text document.
It is used to prepare letters and other word documents.
This kind of database system is to display a structure that would relieve the presentation of information using parent to child relationship. The…
AJ, W., & al, e. (2007). The role of decision aids in promoting evidence-based patient choice in Edwards A and Elwyn E (eds) Evidence-based patient choice:. O'Connor A and Edwards A.
European Commission DG Health and Consumer. (2012). Guidlines on the Qualification and Classification of Stand-alone Software used in Healthcare withing the Regulatory Framework of Medical Devices. Articles of Directive 93/42/EEC .
Eysenbach, G., Powell, J., Gunter, T.D., & Terry, N.P. (2005). The Emergence of National Electronic Health Record Architectures in the United States and Australia: Models, Costs, and Questions. Journal of Medical Internet Research: The Leading Peer-reviewed Internet Journal.
Fesenko, N. (2007). Compression Technologyes of Graphic Information. International Journal "Information Theories & Applications."
As the business changes, developers can more easily map business process changes to applications and then implement the appropriate it changes.
SOA facilitates business connections. With business processes packaged as modular, accessible business services, enterprises can connect them where and when they are needed to optimize processes across customers, partners, suppliers, and their own internal applications
SOA enhances business control. Because services model business processes, the flow of data and transactions through service-oriented applications is valuable business data. SOA infrastructure actively manages service flows and can provide flexible and dynamic access to this data, which enterprises can use to analyze and optimize business results and process costs.
As flexible, service-based applications make business change easier and faster, business people will take advantage of their new found agility to drive competitive advantage through a faster cycle of introducing new capabilities and optimizing core processes. To guide this faster optimization cycle and…
ESB and EAI buyers do more SOA -- as do testing-tool buyers. Buyers of software tools and infrastructure for enterprise software buses (ESBs), enterprise application integration (EAI), and software testing have notably higher end of 2006 adoption of SOA at 72%, 73%, and 73%, respectively, as compared with 53% of all survey respondents from LWC Research and AMR Research surveys. Higher adoption among ESB and EAI buyers makes perfect sense -- many use such products within their SOA platform -- but researchers often hears of SOA adopters wrestling with testing issues, too. As with other factors above, effective use of testing tools requires a greater level of organizational discipline. Among other types of software infrastructure, the next highest end of 2006 SOA adoption correlations, ranging from 63% to 66%, are with buyers of portal servers, content management, business process management, and application design and development tools.
Recommendations for best Practices
From extensive research on enterprises doing SOA, it has been concluded that there are many, many different ways that firms evolve their way into SOA. In most cases, initial SOA implementations are small-scale and low cost -- and achieve only a small part of the full range of flexibility that the full market hype of SOA promises. But that small part is enough, as the above data shows, to prompt nearly 70% of SOA users to expand their SOA deployments. It is this type of market experience -- and its dramatic difference over the days of OO and CBD -- that makes SOA safe, prudent, and a high priority for enterprise adoption. If organizations are not already using SOA they need to move forthrightly toward adoption, start small, and evolve their SOA strategies from there.
Vertically integrated information systems then are key to many company's competitive advantage in being able to respond quickly to the needs of their distribution channel partners and customers. Supply chains are the most complex type of vertically integrated information system in manufacturing firms.
3. What is a client/server system? What is a client? What is a server? Why would an organization choose to implement a client/server system?
A client/server system is also referred to as a client/server network as it relies on a series of integrated systems in which the processing power is distributed between a central server and a number of client computers (Brown, DeHayes, Hoffer, Martin, Perkins, 2009). A client can be either an application, as is the case with Salesforce.com accessing customer data for example on a remote server through a Web browser, or a complete computer system accessing a server. Increasingly clients are Web browser-based and…
Alnoor Bhimani, & Mthuli Ncube. (2006). Virtual integration costs and the limits of supply chain scalability. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 25(4), 390-408.
Brown, C.V., DeHayes, D.W, Hoffer, J.A., Martin, W.E., Perkins, W.C. (2009). Managing information technology: (6th ed.).Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780131789548
Scott M. Lewandowski. (1998). Frameworks for Component-Based Client/Server Computing. ACM Computing Surveys, 30(1), 3-27.
N GPC Mahalik, & SK Lee. (2002). Client server-based distributed architecture for concurrent design of DCS networks: A case study. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 13(1), 47.
Relationship Model Should Build Up in the Following Structure or Order:
Student to the billing counter
Billing counter to the understanding of registration
Registration to verification of subjects and courses
Authorize if the student has finished prescribed courses
Confirmation from the corresponding course coordinators
Final billing contrived on the student to make payment of his/her fees.
In this unmitigated routine one has to comprehend what the needs of the student are and then one must bill him/her as per the fulfillment of the course in which he/she is certain to engage. There should not be a dark system of billing everyone without any function. Consequently, in this example, the affirmation of subjects and needs must be elucidated at all details.
Agile methods are flexible in constitution. Their quality is to take in and adapt variation. Another thing to note is the agile processes core on people rather than process so…
To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. Remarked Kleem (online): "Endy envisions plant-based environmental monitors, programmed tissues and even medical devices that "make Fantastic Voyage come true," (Kleem, 04.02.13).
In the first (grainy) image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology --.
(Excerpted from Keim, B Computers Made Out of DNA, lime and Other trange tuff
Timothy Lu, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is taking this idea further by building cellular computers…
Brumfiel, G (March 29, 2013) Tiny DNA Switches Aim to Revolutionize 'Cellular' Computing. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2013/03/29/175604770/tiny-dna-switches-aim-to-revolutionize-cellular-computing
Lovgren, Stefan (2003-02-24). Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes. National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/02/0224_030224_DNAcomputer.html
Heaven D (02 April 2013) DNA transistors pave way for living computers Newscientishttp://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23337-dna-transistors-pave-way-for-living-computers.html
Strain D (June 2, 2011 ) Flexible DNA computer finds square roots Science News http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/330621/description/Flexible_DNA_computer_finds_square_roots_
The authors pointed out the fact that the integration of semantic Web with the existing remote sensing processes can help in solving the problem. The ability of the remote sensing of information to provide certain functions in an online environment is superb. This results in dynamic transfer of information across the web. The authors further points out the fact that semantic information processing gives rise to semantic-based service reasoning and descriptions. This leads to an automatic web. The building of an environment fuelled by the semantic web leads to the combining of various advantages of various aspects and respects while conducting a service-oriented study. This result in a deeper appreciation of semantic services in providing richer and improved services for various users. Li et al. (2008) provide a discussion of the various classifications of remote sensing and information processing services as well as an ontology-based service that makes use of…
Astels, D.(2002): Refactoring with UML, In Proceedings of 3rd International Conferenceon
eXtreme Programming and Flexible processes in Software Engineering (XP2002), (2002) 67-70
Banko et al. (2006).Open Information Extraction from the Web
Chiu, PH.,Lo, CC.Chao, KM (2009)Integrating Semantic Web and Object-Oriented
spelling instruction are presented and compared in the article, 'Three paradigms of spelling instruction in grades 3 to 6' (Taylor-Heald, 1998).
In this article the three paradigms are identified as the traditional, the transitional, and the student-oriented. Each of these paradigms is a model for teaching children the basic and fundamental concept of spelling.
In this research paper, Taylor-Heald's article will be used as a basis for identifying each of the methods. Firstly, from the article by Taylor-Heald we will describe each method, how it is utilized and also discuss Taylor-Heald's view on each of the methods.
After looking at each of the methods separately, we will then briefly examine the major differences between the methods.
We will then discuss the implications of each of the methods, including how each method is used and the benefits of each method. This will also include looking at various other research studies that…
Davidson, M., & Jenkins, J.R. (1994). "Effects of phonemic processes on word reading and spelling." Journal of Educational Research, 87, 148-157.
Darch, C., Kim, S., Johnson, S., & James, H. (2000). "The strategic spelling skills of students with learning disabilities: The results of two studies." Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27, 15-27.
Hume, D. (1975). Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Scott, C.M. (2000). "Principles and methods of spelling instruction: Applications for poor spellers." Topics in Language Disorders, 20, 66- 79.
To implement this algorithm, it is essential to simulate locking of what the books mentions as an item X that has been transcribed by transaction T
is either committed or aborted. This algorithm is not what would turn into deadlock, for the reason that T. waits for T
only if TS (T) > TS (T
) (Elmasri, 2011).
According to the book, strict timestamp ordering differs from basic timestamp ordering because basic timestamp ordering is utilized whenever some transaction T. attempts to subject a read item (X) or a write item (X) operation, the basic to algorithm is the one that compares the timestamp of T. with read_TS (X) and write_TS (X) to ensure that the timestamp where as the strict timestamp does not. Another difference is the fact that the basic lets us know that if the proper order is violated, then transaction T. is the one…
Elmasri, R. & . (2011). Fundamentals of database systems (6th ed). Boston, MA:.: Addison-Wesley.
Fortunately, due to a dramatic reduction in the number of manufacturers since the 1950s, Batesville is well-equipped to remain the market leader. They kept pace with industry trends (e.g. In materials and style), and realized that it was necessary to retain loyalty from the Funeral Director side of the house in order to maintain share. Note below that while overall casket sales seem to be declining from the1 1970s, current trends have not fallen below production in the 1960s -- and the potential aging population continues to increase (CFSA, 2008).:
Thus, for Batesville, the idea of combining a ground up approach to a technological problem, and the acumen and patience (not to mention foresight) to utilize object-oriented programming to find a way to streamline distribution and customer service, allows the company a continued standard of excellence. Funeral homes will not tie up funds with back inventory of caskets -- next…
Casket and Funeral Supply Association of America. (2008). Cited in:
Harris, D. (2007). Grave matters: A Journey Through the Modern Funeral Industry. Simon and Schuster.
Martin, E.W. (1992). "Batesville Casket Company." Research on the Management of Information Systems. Kelley School of Business, Indiana University.
The reward for the effort of learning is access to a vocabulary that is shared by a very large population across all industries globally" (p. 214). Moreover, according to Bell, because UML is a language rather than a methodology, practitioners who are familiar with UML can join a project at any point from anywhere in the world and become productive right away. Therefore, Web applications that are built using UML provide a useful approach to helping professionals gain access to the information they need when they need it.
Overview of the Study
This paper used a five-chapter format to achieve the above-stated research purpose. Chapter one of the study was used to introduce the topic under consideration, provide a statement of the problem, the purpose of the study and its importance of the study. Chapter two of the study provides a review of the related peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning…
Ontology Definition Metamodel (ODM)
The programming design class gives the student many tools that they will need on the job, but there is much more to the design process than having the right tools. The ability to apply those tools to the situations that will arise on the job is one of the most important skills that the designer will have. However, this is not always easy to teach in the classroom. Therefore, it is important for the design student to read as many outside sources as possible. They must understand the various philosophies and approaches to the design process. They must understand the strengths and weaknesses of those approaches and how they relate to various customer projects. The computer program design student must develop the broadest knowledge base possible in order to deliver a quality product to the customer.
Din, J. & Idris, S. (2009). Object-Oriented Design Process Model. International Journal of…
Din, J. & Idris, S. (2009). Object-Oriented Design Process Model. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security. 9 (10): 71-79.
Guzman, J., Mitre, H. & Amescua, a. et al. (2010). Integration of strategic management, process improvement and quantitative measurement for managing the competitiveness of software engineering organizations. Software Quality Journal. DOI: 10.1007/s11219-
9094-7 Retrieved May 31, 2010 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/58k83507v1j7w653/?p=318712de7adb48cfa387cb4
The Extreme Programming is also tailored towards a single project to be developed and maintained by a single team, however, in real life many organizations prefer to keep the crucial aspects of software development like data management and release management concerns outside the purview of regulations of a single project manager. The Extreme Programming technique is quite susceptible to adversely affect the 'bad apple' developers that do not have necessary inclination to work well with others and knowing it all, and/or are not inclined to share their 'superior' code with others. Even though these developers are an obstacle to any project and sometime prove detrimental to the organization in the long run, the dependence of Extreme Programming on communication and teamwork simply bars them from the group activity. (Adopting Extreme Programming: Successful integration of XP into your organization requires the support and buy-in of senior management - Technology Information)
Ambler, Scott W. Adopting Extreme Programming: Successful integration of XP into your organization requires the support and buy-in of senior management - Technology Information
Computing Canada. 14 April, 2000.
Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CGC/is_8_26/ai_61531766Accessed on 5 December, 2004
Ann LeBlanc, Dee. When eXtreme Programming Makes Sense. Dev Source. June, 2004.
Generally, the classification of model transformation tools is based on whether it is declarative or operational, directionality or multiplicity.
The study further discusses the sub-categories of model transformation that include:
hybrid transformation tools, graph transformation, relational, template based, operational based, structure driven and direct manipulation.
All the sub-categories of model transformation have the following features:
Hybrid transformation combines two or more transformation approaches;
Graph transformation focuses on graph rewriting over variation and extensions of labeled graphs.
Relational approach uses declarative approach-based mathematical relations; template approach uses model template specifications.
ATL Transformation Tool
The project reveals that ATL is one of the effective transformation tools used to semantic or syntactic translation and it is built on transformation Virtual Machine model. The ATL was developed from the ATLAS framework, which enabled the specification of one or more target models. The project further reveals that ATL is hybrid language providing the mix of…
Braun, P. & Marschall, F. BOTL The Bidirectional Object Oriented Transformation
Language. Institut fur Informatik Technische Universitat Munchen. 2003.
Cremers, A.B. Alda, S. & Rho, T. Chapter 13, Mapping Models to Code Object-Oriented Software .Construction. University of Bonn. German. 2009.
Einarsson, H.P. Refactoring UML Diagram and Models with Model-to-Model Transformation . Master of Science in Software Engineering, University of Iceland. 2011.
Internet Inter-OR Protocol (IIOP)
Java Network Computing Technologies
Internet Inter-OR Protocol (IIOP) is a protocol that enables distributed programs located anywhere in the Internet to communicate with each other. It is an interoperability protocol that supports heterogeneous environments. IIOP offers possible communication between applications regardless of the platform and programming elements used in their development.
IIOP is an element of Object Management Group's (OMG) standard architecture called CORA (Common Object Request roker Architecture). It is a TCP/IP-based protocol and a GIOP mapping that provides standard communication methods between ORs. OR (Object Request roker) is a communication mediator used by CORA during requests and data interchange between clients and servers.
CORA/IIOP is a solution to the complexity that web applications are now becoming. efore, protocols are specifically developed on the basis of applications to allow compatibility in communication. ut with CORA/IIOP, communication is possible between diverse application platforms.
IIOP technology is…
Curtis, David. IIOP: OMG's Internet Inter-ORB Protocol.
OMG. 08 June 2003. http://www.omg.org/library/iiop4.html
Golding, Michael. Java Socket Programming.
UEL.AC.UK. 09 June 2003. http://homepages.uel.ac.uk/2795l/pages/javaapps.htm
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
The development of the prototyping methodology
The Benefits of using Prototyping today
The evolution of apid Prototyping
The creation and development of three banking websites using prototypes
Prototyping for banking related GUI
sing mobile phones for banking
Banking systems using ATMs and ADCs
Prototyping in the Banking Field
What is Prototyping?
The Web defines prototyping as the term that is used to describe the process by which physical mock ups or models are made up out of the proposed designs. In the days before the wide usage of the computer aided technology, prototyping was done using traditional models. Today however, prototyping is done using three dimensional computer models. This method is definitely more efficient as well as quicker than the traditional methods. The computer-aided prototyping is also referred to as 'apid Prototyping'. (Fundamentals of Graphics Communication, 3/e) Sometimes, certain partial aspects of the program are created using…
"A Current Report of the Activities from the Banking Industry Technology Secretariat" BITS Bulletin. Retrieved From
http://www.bitsinfo.org/Feb99.pdf Accessed on 6 December, 2004
Brinck, Tom; Darren, Gergle. "The Design of Banking Websites: Diamond Bullet Design" Retrieved From http://www.diamondbullet.com/iterative.pdf Accessed on 6 December, 2004
"Chapter 14 - Programming and Languages" (2001-2002) Computing Essentials. Irwin McGraw Hill. Retrieved from http://www.mhhe.com/it/oleary/ce01-02/student/olc/glo_ch14.mhtml Accessed on 6 December, 2004
Visual Basic is an Event Driven language, which means that programs don't follow the sequential path of traditional languages such as Pascal. Instead bits and pieces of sequential code are associated with certain events such as the clicking of a button. Then when the program is run, events will occur in response to changes in the environment (such as the ticking of the computers internal clock) or by intervention from the user (such as clicking a button). When an event takes place the associated sequential code is then executed. Once this is completed the system will wait until the next event fires, and the whole process repeats (Henderson-Sellers, 2003).
One can leverage the knowledge of Visual Basic and use the Visual Basic programming environment without going through learning the scripting or manipulate HTML tags to develop a highly functional Web-based application, as one can separate designing the user interface from…
Chatzigeorgiou, a. (2003). Performance and power evaluation of C++ object-oriented programming in embedded processors. Information and Software Technology, 45, 4, 195.
Henderson-Sellers, B. (2003). Method engineering for OO systems development Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 46, 10, 73-74.
Attacks on the system security include password theft, back doors and bugs, social engineering, protocol failures, authentication failures, Denial of Service attacks, active attacks, botnets, exponential attacks including worms and viruses, and information leakage. (Fortify Software Inc., 2008); (Fortify Software, n. d.)
Servers are targets of security attacks due to the fact that servers contain valuable data and services. For instance, if a server contains personal information about employees, it can become a target for stealing identities. All types of servers, which include file, database, web, email and infrastructure management servers are vulnerable to security attacks with the threat coming from both external as well as internal sources.
Some of the server problems that can jeopardize its security include: (i) Weakly encrypted or unencrypted information, especially of a sensitive nature, can be intercepted for malicious use while being transmitted from server to client. (ii) Software bugs present in the server…
Bace, Rebecca Gurley; Bace, Rebecca. (2000) "Intrusion Detection"
Fortify Software Inc. (2008) "Fortify Taxonomy: Software Security Errors" Retrieved 17 November, 2008 at http://www.fortify.com/vulncat/en/vulncat/index.html
Fortify Software. (n. d.) "Seven Pernicious Kingdoms: A Taxonomy of Software Security
Analysis and Overview of Database ystems in the Enterprise
The pervasive adoption of databases for aggregating, analyzing, parsing, reporting and storing data continues to exponentially increase over time, as the information needs of companies continued to increase. The foundation fo nearly every enterprise-wide system and computing platform includes integration to databases of many types, from object-oriented to relational (Lungu, Velicanu, Botha, 2009). Every Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system today relies on databases for product, pricing, costing, production scheduling, service coordination and manufacturing execution task coordination as well (Bremer, Carey, 1987). Databases have become an essential component of every enterprise system in use today, from coordinating supply chains, sourcing, production and tracking customer activity and sales through Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems (Madduri, hi, Baker, Ayachitula, 2007). Object-oriented databases are pervasively used in Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD) applications as well, given their speed and accuracy in managing geographic and graphic primitives…
Sarkar, S.S. (1989). Architecture and language for a layered relational database. The University of Texas at Dallas). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 145
Toth, K.C. (1980). Distributed database architecture and query processing strategies. Carleton University (Canada)). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,,
Worboys, M. (1989). Relational databases: A theoretical primer. Information and Software Technology, 31(3), 115-115.
Lasnik (2001) examined the subject of object shift and concluded that if the verb does not raise in front of the object that was shifted, the resulting sentence is grammatically incorrect. When the object shift is applied to the sentence, "Carol read a book," it becomes, "Carol a book read," or "Carol a book did read." Neither of the latter is acceptable or understandable to the recipient as written. This case casts considerable doubt on Chomsky's EPP theory to be applied in every case.
osengren (2002) argues that the EPP is not feature driven and that it does not result in the erasure of features. It is further argued that it is not directly related to the condition of being a subject. Therefore, in the case of expletives, there is no association between the subject and the expletive. osengren further argues that languages can be divided into EPP and non-EPP…
Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky (2000). Minimalist Inquiries: The Framework. Step-by-Step: Essays on Minimalist
Syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik. Martin, r., D. Michaels and J. Uriagereka (eds).
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
ole-based EP systems are critical for the siloed, highly inefficient architectures of legacy EP systems to be made more relevant, contribute greater financial performance, and lead to higher levels of overall customer satisfaction.
c. Purpose of the study
The purpose the study is evaluate how enterprises who adopt role-based EP system implementations are able to attain higher levels of financial and operations-based performance vs. those that rely on silo-based, more functionally defined EP structures. ole-based EP systems have been proven to lead to greater order accuracy, velocity and customer satisfaction as a result. The ability to gain greater visibility throughout supply chains, better manage pricing, discounts, implement and maintain contract management systems, and also deliver consistently high customer service have all been attributed to role-based EP systems. Conversely siloed EP systems that are managed strictly to functional areas have been shown to severely limit the ability of enterprises to be…
Aberdeen Research (2005) -- New Product Development: Profiting from Innovation. Aberdeen Research. Boston, MA. December 2005
Abrams and Andrews 2005, Management Update: Client Issues for Service-Oriented Business Applications, 2005. Gartner Group. 20 July 2005.
Aimi, G. (2005).- AMR Research (2005, October 25). Retailers Save Money by Controlling in-Bound Logistics. (Alert). Boston, MA
Akkermans, H., & van Helden, K. 2002. Vicious and virtuous cycles in ERP
Strategic Information Systems'?
A strategic information system is a system that enables an organisation to alter the structure of its business strategy so that it can achieve a competitive advantage over others. This system also helps organisations in fastening the time it takes to react and adapt to several environmental changes that take place and makes the overall business structure more efficient. Within a strategic information system there exists a decision support system that helps align business goals and strategies with information systems and technologies.
Write down the various business models of internet.
The various business models of the internet include:
Advertising, Blogging, Affiliate, Community, Utility, Subscription, Brokerage, Merchant, Manufacturer.
Question 3: What is 'Network Bandwidth'?
The amount or volume of data which is being transmitted through a particular network at a given point in time is referred to as a network bandwidth. Network bandwidth's can be affected by software…
Technology Speech Science
Speech Quality Tests: An Analysis and eview of the Literature
The speech measurement technology to be evaluated in this research is a speech quality test. According to the research, a speech quality test is "a routine procedure for examining one or more empirically restrictive quality features of perceived speech with the aim of making a quantitative statement on those features" (). Essentially, people are constantly using undirected speech in ordinary conversations in order to exchange information through spoken sentences. Yet, when speech becomes directed by some third party or director, the speaker's speech may end up being modified by these directions. Here, the research suggests that "by using specific directives, the experimenter can, in directed communications, adjust the influence of each quality feature" (). A speech quality test can ascertain how biased perception may end up being in the case of directed speech. There are four primary…
Springer Science Media. (2011). Speech Quality Measurement Methods. Web. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fcontent%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9783642184628-c2.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45-1132963-p174099663&ei=FoN6U6PWOpOwoQSK-YCYCQ&usg=AFQjCNFpupv9bFCayRPt7dUNuB3u52LPeQ&sig2=0YtNG6fsnBc4royONWXuLg&bvm=bv.67229260,d.cGU
Stan, A., Yamagishi, J., King, S., & Aylett, M. (2011). The Romanian speech synthesis (RSS) corpus: Building a high quality HMM-based speech synthesis system using a high sampling rate. Speech Communication, 53(3), 442-450.
Valentini-Botinhao, C., Yamagishi, J., & King, S. (2011, May). Evaluation of objective measures for intelligibility prediction of HMM-based synthetic speech in noise. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 5112-5115). IEEE.
Students can collaborate with students in other schools and other countries as they develop ideas, skills, and products. Students in a class can collaborate outside class without having to meet in person. The theory behind collaborative learning is that the social construction of knowledge leads to deeper processing and understanding than does learning alone (Appalachian Education Laboratory, 2005).
The bulletin board and the chat room have become the backbone of many Web-based learning environments. Sophisticated Web-based collaborative learning environments incorporate not only real-time, text-based conversation, but also audio- and videoconferencing, and shared work spaces, where multiple users can collaboratively work on the same document or application. These multimedia shared work spaces are facilitated by software such as Microsoft's Netmeeting ( http://www. microsoft.com/netmeeting/), Intel's Proshare ( http://www.intel.com/proshare / conferencing/index.htm), and CU-SeeMe ( http://cu-seeme.cornell.edu / ). Multiuser object-oriented (MOO) text-based virtual reality environments now have a Web-based equivalent, WOOs (Web object oriented),…
Appalachian Education Laboratory. (2005). School improvement specialist training materials: Performance standards, improving schools, and literature review. Module 4 -- Effective Teaching. Charleston, WV: Edvantia.
Blumer, H. (2005). Symbolic interactionism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33, 3-15.
Bransford, J., Brown, a., & Cocking, R. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
ational XDE modeling tool
We recently received the ational XDE modeling tool for use in class and luckily I had some previous practice using it. "XDE Professional, originally released in February, is a tool that allows software developers to "model" -- or create graphical representations of -- their software, so they need to write less code to build applications." (Wong, 2002) This report aims to describe my understanding of XDE and gives some back ground to its potential for both modeling and drawing. In theory and in most cases ational XDE makes design and development faster by allowing the designer to work on two different aspects of software creation in one environment. ational as an organization also created the Unified Modeling Language or UML tool ational ose which is still a pretty well used modeling tool for Internet and object oriented design projects. "The original version of XDE for .Net…
Wong, Wylie (2002). Rational rethinks modeling tool for .Net. CNET News.com. Retrieved on February 1, 2005, from http://news.com.com/Rational+rethinks+modeling+tool+for+.Net/2100-1001_3-954425.html
Each onion router removes a layer of encryption to uncover routing instructions, and sends the message to the next router where this is repeated. This prevents these intermediary nodes from knowing the origin, destination, and contents of the message.
The predicted solution of the problems related to e-government administration depends on answering the following questions as brainstorming ideas to solve the problem and the features provided by the system or application.
1. An important step for processing of e-Government.
2. To ensure the confidentiality of information such as contracts for military weapons and other by Providing a high level of security as it is based on singing the data by combining multiple key values like user id, date stamp and transaction id which produce an encrypted key utilized and used only internally by the system for authentication and validation of user privileges. This procedure would make it…
Averyt, William. (2005). E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge Age. American Review of Canadian Studies 35(4): 769-770.
Chaffee, a. (2000-08-17). "What is a web application (or "webapp")?"
Cohen, JE. (2000). Examined Lives: Informational Privacy and the Subject as Object. Stanford Law Review 52(5): 1373.
Bourquard, J.A. (2003, March). What's Up with E-Government? Digital Government Isn't a Silver Bullet, but as Part of a Long-Term Plan it May Provide a Means to Reduce State
Database Using Access
Jorge Martinez Guzman
Information and Knowledge Management
Introduction to Databases
elational and Entity elational Databases
Cardinalities and oles in Database Design
Business ules and their eflection in the Entity elationship Diagrams
eviewing the Conceptual Model (Figure Q4.5)
Creating a Database Using Access
Primary Key epresentation
Using Microsoft Access
Computing technology has greatly aided human development and has presented new and more efficient methods to meet various objectives to be accomplished by users and their respective organizations. However, technology is most effective when it is properly aligned organizational outcomes, and thus it is important to understand how it can be implemented into operations in order to acquire maximum benefit out of these tools.
The aim of this research is to provide a detailed overview of the technological advantages and benefits that databases can…
Colonel, C., Morris, S., & Rob, P. (2012). Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management (10th edition). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. P150
Date, C., .J. (2005), Database in Depth: Relational Theory for Practitioners: The Relational Model for Practitioners, Oxford, and O'Reilly Media.
Fleming, C., C. & Halle, B., V. (1989). Handbook of Relational Database Design, New York, Addison-Wesley Professional.
Genero, M., Jimenez, L., & Piattini, M. (2000), Measuring the quality of entity relationship diagrams, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, 513-526.
The KPIs shown in Table 1 illustrate this fact.
Table 1: SOA Framework esults by Area of KPI Measurement
Areas of Measurement
Baseline: What to Measure
SOA Performance Evidence
Project costs and expenses
Use as a baseline for defining OI
Number of orders per year
Determine configuration's impact on inventory turns
Current inventory and costs
Inventory turn savings
Lifetime cost per customer; avg. deal size by customer
Order cycle time
Order cycle times reduction of 65% or more recorded with mftrs contacted
Cost of Sales
Days Sales Outstanding reduction from 60 to 29 days on average
Cross-sell and up-sell revenue
Increase of 33% on aggregate
Average sales price per order
Increase from 9% to 26%
Quoting and Ordering
Average costs to complete an order
95% reduction in cost per order
Special Pricing equests
Over 100% OI on automating Special Pricing equests
Bad or incomplete orders
Abrams and Andrews 2005, Management Update: Client Issues for Service-Oriented Business Applications, 2005. Gartner Group. 20 July 2005.
Alonso, Kuno, Casati, and Machiraju, 2004, Web Services: Concepts, Architectures and Applications. Springer-Verlag Publishing. 1 January 2004. London. ISBN 3540440089
Andrews (2005) - Web Services Ripen for Strategic Use. Gartner Group. Turnbill, CT. 14 June 2005
AMR Research (2001) - Building a Case for the Private Trading Exchange. AMR Research Report. Boston, MA. Accessed with permission from the publisher.
Cognitive Development of Infants
Piaget's sensorimotor model provides the stage of cognitive human development showing that human experience consists of four stages of mental or cognitive starting from the first day a child is born to the adulthood. The first stage of human development is referred as the sensorimotor stage that starts at birth and end when a child is 24 months old. After the age of 24 months, a child moves to the operational stage starts when a child is 2 years old through the age of 7. A child moves into the final stage of behavioral and cognitive development at the age of adolescence that spans through adulthood. The objective of this study is to discuss the "six stages of Piaget's sensorimotor development." (Shaffer, & Kipp, 2010 p 253).
Piaget's sensorimotor Development
Piaget identifies the first two years of a child as the "sensorimotor stage of development." (Shaffer,…
Shaffer, D.D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescence: Childhood and Adolescence. Cengage Learning
Foot: Moral Beliefs
Philippa Foot's Moral Beliefs
The concept of moral relativism is extremely troubling for many. Indeed, the human animal is desperately in need of a certain "moral order," or an intense longing to have life's issues, events and decisions neatly classified into realms of "good" and "bad," "right" and wrong. However, as most individuals blessed with a life that stretches into adulthood know all too well, other's conceptions of good and bad actions often differ greatly from one's own -- and, even more puzzling, those "others" seem to genuinely believe in their own conception of reality just as much an individual how holds the completly opposite view. In her work Moral Beliefs, Philippa Foot gives her take on this issue; namely in her response to the viability of systems of belief that allow moral eccentrism (the foundation on which moral relativism is built), and her belief…
This would also mean that the shadowing process goes on behind the scenes, and one need not even be aware that the process is in fact going on at any point of time; it can go on without creating any sort of disturbance to the user of the application, at any point of time. (Shadow Files)
Another important advantage of using the shadowing of a database is that data would be immediately available, even when the primary database has failed due to some reason or another. Non-exclusive usage of the primary database is also permitted, and this means that the database will not be locked, and this in turn means that it can be updated and changed during the process of its creation. Computer resource can be conserved, and this is because of the fact that shadowing does not use any separate process; the database process gives the shadow database…
Database Shadowing System with data tags that select an operation of the save command"
Retrieved at http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5230075.html . Accessed 4 October, 2005
Data Recovery without data loss" Retrieved at http://www.enet.com/enet.com.nsf/PAGES_RRDF_Recov.html?OpenPage&charset=iso-8859-1Accessed 4 October, 2005
Eng, Audra. (July, 2004) "Sygate Secure Enterprise, 4.0" Retrieved at http://www.sygate.com/solutions/datasheets/wp/WP-Sygate-Secure-Enterprise.pdf. Accessed 4 October, 2005
Databases and egulatory Compliance Challenges
The advent of technology has increased the popularity of database usage in firms, yet the legislation regulating the field has yet to be finalized. The changing nature of the IT sector, coupled with the legislative traits, creates several situations in which the companies find it difficult to comply with the regulations. This paper recognizes some of those difficulties, and also proposes some solutions.
egulatory challenges for databases
No sector in the modern day society evolves as rapidly as the technologic domain. And the innovations developed at this level come to impact all aspects of life, from the spending of the leisure time to the completion of the most challenging professional tasks.
The applications of technology within the contemporaneous society are numerous and complex, one specific example in this sense being represented by superior capabilities for data management. The management of the information integrates the…
Rouse, M. (2006). Database. Search SQL Server. http://searchsqlserver.techtarget.com/definition/database accessed on October 23, 2012
Thomas, J. The advantages of using a database. Life123. http://www.life123.com/technology/computer-software/database-software/advantages-of-using-a-database.shtml accessed on October 25, 2012
(2006). Regulatory compliance and database management. Sandhill Consultants. http://www.sandhillconsultants.com/whitepapers/regulatory_compliance_and_database_management_whitepaper.pdf accessed on October 26, 2012
(2012). Database regulatory and compliance issues. Altius IT. http://www.altiusit.com/files/articles/articlewpdatabase.htm accessed on October 25, 2012
Mac Cocoa API
This report is meant to be a summary and review of one of the main facets and important parts of what is commonly referred to as the most advanced operating system in the world, that being Mac Operating System version 10, or Max OS X for short. Specifically, this report shall focus on what is known as Cocoa. In a nutshell, Cocoa is the application programming interface, commonly referred to as an API, that is built in to Mac OS X. If one knows about the history of Apple, they would know that Steve Jobs was a huge part of how Max OS X and the Cocoa API came to be in the first place and a lot of this pathway ended up not involving Apple directly. hile there are other options when it comes to programming in the Apple operating system, it is Cocoa that should…
Hillegass, Aaron. "What Is Cocoa? A Brief History of Cocoa.." Java Samples. n.p., 2016. Web. 29 June 2016.
Stevenson, Scott. Cocoa & Objective-C. Sebastopol, Calif.: O'Reilly, 2010. Print.
Thompson, Matt. "The Death of Cocoa." Nshipster.com. n.p., 2014. Web. 29 June 2016.
Product Returns is a third process area that Imperial Tobacco has to contend with, specifically from its distributors and channel partners. Typically Tobacco products are returned if a specific lot of tobacco or packaging has been found to be defective. There have at times been product recalls as defined by governments. A third reason for product returns is when a product has been discontinued and Imperial is not willing to pay price protection to cover the distribution partners' inventory carrying costs until they are sold. The Product Returns process begins with the issuance of a Return Material Authorization (RMA) that specifically states how much of a given product is being returned and for what reason.
The RMA is then sent to the distributor who then ships back the tobacco products to Imperial. Once the products have arrived back at the company, if they are defective, they are sent to Quality…
Intern Software Developer
• Describe a use case, complete with typical and alternate courses, that documents the event of a bank customer withdrawing money from an ATM
It is argued by Constantine & Lockwood that the use cases user interface design and software usability are of paramount importance. Use case can be used as a very effective in making better usability if the intentions are kept in mind and by avoiding elaboration and making the process simpler. (Harmelen, 2001) Therefore many extraneous possibilities are avoided and assumed that in such cases the customer will contact the customer care centre of the bank (for example: cash getting stuck, card getting stuck etc.). Thus in this use case the simple process is alone illustrated. In use cases of this type, there are more than one possibility depending on the technology available and the banking networks. The type of ATM is also in…
Anderson, James G; Goodman, Kenneth. (2002) "Ethics and Information Technology: A
Case-Based Approach to a Health Care System in Transition" Springer.
Bittner, Kurt; Spence, Ian. (2003) "Use Case Modeling"
Piaget's Cognitive Development
The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.
Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Using piaget's theory of cognitive development to understand the construction of healing narratives. Journal of College Counseling, 7(2), 177-186.
Goswami, U. (2001). Cognitive development: No stages please -- we're british. British Journal of Psychology, 92(00071269), 257-77.
Hinde, E., & Perry, N. (2007). Elementary teachers' application of jean piaget's theories of cognitive development during social studies curriculum debates in arizona. The Elementary School Journal, 108(1), 63.
Leppo, M., Davis, D., & Crim, B. (2000). The basics of exercising the mind and body. Childhood Education, 76(3), 142-147.
One such body is the American National Standards Institute or ANSI which is a non-profit private organization that surprisingly institutes standards the industry accepts voluntarily. Other influential standards organizations include the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers or IEEE and the Organization for Standardization or ISO. The IEEE was the organization that defined LAN standards in the Project 802 or the 802 series. These projects could be the blueprints that could be used to make XML more effective by using PAT Algebra Operators for query needs.
XML PAT Algebra Operators
The internet is based on a foundation of distributed hypertext. There is also plenty of proof that the internet could be regarded as a large distributed database where there are million to billions of queries processed daily. "XML is too slow an exchange format for any large volume of data transfer. It is fine for exchange of small amounts of…
Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices In Network Security -- As The Networking Landscape Changes, So Must The Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid Of Imperfection When It Comes To Developing Those For Your Group. Network Computing.
Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at http://www.cert.org/encyc_article/tocencyc.html#Overview
Gast, Matthew. (2002, April 19). Wireless LAN Security: A Short History. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/wireless/2002/04/19/security.html
Oasis. (n.d.). XML: Overview. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at http://xml.coverpages.org/xml.html#overview
The first of these was co-designed with Sony, and established the modern layout for laptop computers that has remained popular ever since.
In 1994, Apple revamped its Macintosh line with the introduction of the Power Macintosh, which was based on the PowerPC line of processors developed by IM, Motorola and Apple. Apple's operating system software was adjusted so that most software written for the older processors could run in emulation on the PowerPC series.
After an internal power struggle with new CEO John Sculley in the 1980s, Jobs resigned from Apple and went on to found NeXT Inc., which Apple ultimately bought. This move brought Jobs back to Apple's management. On July 9, 1997, Gil Amelio stepped down as CEO of Apple after overseeing a 12-year record low stock price and crippling financial losses. Jobs stepped in as the interim CEO and began the critical restructuring of the company's product…
Apple Computer, Inc. Five-Year Financial History. Cupertino, California: 2005.
Apple Computer, Inc. Q2 2005 Unaudited Summary Data. Cupertino, California: 2005.
Apple Computer Inc." Quote.com. July 13, 2005. July 18, 2005 http://finance.lycos.com/qc/research/marketguide.aspx?pg=cafl&symbols=NASDAQ:AAPL .
Apple Computer, Inc. United States Securities and Exchange Commission: Form 10-K. Cupertino, California: November 30, 2004.
"More to the point," another authority advises, "the objective of a PMO is to establish the procedures, processes, and standards that lead to a Center of Excellence -- not so much for itself as for the projects and organization it supports" (Pohlman, 2002, cited in Thorn, 2003, p. 48).
In this regard, Thorn points out that there are three basic approaches that can be used to establish a PMO to help facilitate the integration of Six Sigma or other management techniques with the CMM:
Project epository -- The PMO serves as the primary source of information on project methodology and standards. It assumes, rightly or wrongly, that the organization has established and follows a cohesive set of tools for project design, management, and reporting. Often a first step in establishing the idea of consolidating or sharing management practices, it still falls short, both in direct project oversight and as a…
Bertels, T. (2003). Rath & Strong's Six Sigma leadership handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Cook, J., & Semouchtchak, V. (2004). Lean object-oriented software development. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 69(2), 12.
Hahn, G.I., Hill, W.J., Hoerl, R.W., & Zinkgraf, S.A. (1999). The impact of Six Sigma improvement -- A glimpse into the future of statistics. The American Statistician, 53(3),
Mccabe, P.T. (2004). Contemporary ergonomics 2004. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
DBMS and Data Warehouses
(1) in this writing assignment, you will create a brochure advertising your services as a data repository.
Powered By Excellence
Data epository Service
Powered By Excellence is the only data repository service with globally-located data centers across each continent, each with specific security, reliability and fault redundancy systems in place.
Our staff includes world-class experts on the following platforms: IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, MySQL, Informix, Sybase, Teradata and SAS expertise in-house as part of our consulting services division.
Analytics Advisory Services
Big Data Consultancy - Map and Hadoop expertise for gaining insights from very large datasets)
Custom Software Development
SaaS Application Support
Scalable File Storage
Private Cloud Hosting (Dedicated storage and unlimited virtual machines)
High performance with a world-class platform
24/7 Administrator Access
Unlimited Virtual Machine Use
Service Level Agreement (SLA) metrics available 24/7
Trusted Provider of Data epository Services:
(Benander, Benander, Fadlalla, Gregory, 2000)
Benander, A., Benander, B., Fadlalla, A., & Gregory, J. (2000). Data warehouse administration and management. Information Systems Management, 17(1), 71-80.
Choudhary, A.K., Harding, J.A., & Tiwari, M.K. (2009). Data mining in manufacturing: A review based on the kind of knowledge. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 20(5), 501-521.
He, Z., Lee, B.S., & Snapp, R. (2005). Self-tuning cost modeling of user-defined functions in an object-relational DBMS. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 30(3), 812-812.
The implementation stage of the iordan project may prove to be the most challenging yet, but one that is worth all the effort. It would take a team of experts in various fields to successfully see this stage successfully through to completion, it cannot be a one-man show. Several departments within the organization have to be given priority when it comes to rolling out the new human resource management system. Since this system is automated and rests on an Information Technology platform, the first two departments to consider would be the human resource management and Information Technology departments. All the teams of professionals within these departments would have to be part and parcel of the entire system design and development process. The other departments to consider would be those of finance and operations management as they too are a fundamental part of the organization's decision making framework.
 George, F.J., Valacich, B.J.S., & Hoffer, J.A. (2003). Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
 Satzinger, J.W., Jackson, R.B., & Burd, S.D. (2008). Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World. London, UK: Cengage Learning EMEA.
 Marciniak, J.J. (2002). Encyclopedia of Software Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Searching and Understanding a Case Study
Building Information Modeling (BIM) signifies the entire process of creation and usage of the computer produced design to imitate the planning, layout, building as well as functioning of the facility as displayed in Figure 1. The ensuing unit, a Building Information Model, is really a data-powered, object-oriented, smart as well as parametric electronic portrayal involving the premises, from where ideas and information suitable to numerous users' demands could be pulled and assessed to create info which can end up being utilized to make choices and also to enhance the entire process of presenting the center (AGC, 2005).
The main distinction between 2D CAD and BIM has been that the former explains a construction by separate 2D viewpoints like plans, portions as well as elevations. Modifying anyone of those views necessitates that all the other views should be examined and up-to-date, a mistake-prone procedure that…
Associated General Contractors of America. (2005). The Contractor's Guide to BIM, 1st ed. AGC Research Foundation, Las Vegas, NV.
Azhar, S., Hein, M. And Sketo, B. (2008). Building Information Modeling (BIM): Benefits, Risks and Challenges. Accessed from: http://ascpro.ascweb.org/chair/paper/CPGT182002008.pdf
Bernstein, P.G., and Pittman, J.H. (2005). "Barriers to the Adoption of Building Information Modeling in the Building Industry." Autodesk Building Solutions Whitepaper, Autodesk Inc., CA.
CIFE. (November 22, 2007). CIFE Technical Reports. Accessed from: http://cife.stanford.edu/Publications/index.html
IT ervices of BuildingDNA®
I am an IT consultant with the objectives of providing recommendations for BuildingDNA Inc. To assist the company increasing its output and the productivity in the competitive business environment. I am also to provide recommendations for the BuildingDNA on the strategy to employ in implementing IT infrastructure design to achieve a leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). The design packages are to assist the company to achieve a leading position in IT infrastructures that include: oftware Engineering, ystems Engineering, IT Management and Information Assurance.
More importantly, the goal of the project is to use the IT infrastructures to assist the BuildingDNA, Inc. To fuel very rapid growth by delivering 10-20 maps monthly and reach between 3,000 and 7,000 per month within 3 years. The project also identifies scalable, systematic process and procedure that BuildingDNA will employ in organizing, planning, tracking as well as evaluating the production of…
Butcher, D. And Rowley, J. (1998). The 7 R's of information management. Managing Information.5(3): 34 -- 36.
Crnkovic, I. Peter, M. & Larsson, H.(2002). Building Reliable Component-Based Software Systems. Texas. Artech House computing library.
Hawaii Government (2014). Information Assurance and Cyber Security Strategic Plan. USA.
McLaughlin, B., Pollice, G., and West, D. (2007). Head First: Object-oriented analysis & Design. Beijing, Cambridge, Koln, Sebastopol, Tokyo: O'Reilly.