That is, until an infant realizes that she is looking at herself in the mirror rather than another baby, the concept of self cannot begin to form (Johnston, 1996). As children mature, the link between cognition and self-concept becomes more illuminated. In older children, part of the maturation process is the ability to solve problems and process information (Siegler and Alibali, 2004). The fact that children use a variety of strategies and behave differently when overcoming obstacles to reach a common goal reflects differences not only in their cognitive abilities but also how they see themselves -- "I don't give up easily; I always try my best; I learn well; I don't like myself," etc. (Measelle et al., 2005).
If, as earlier suggested, by five to seven years of age, children are able to give accurate self-descriptions of themselves, then the precursors of self-concept clearly evolve around the toddler and pre-school years. If this is so, then the child's immediate environment and primary caregivers have an important role in the development of self. While it is generally accepted that a child's temperament -- presumably the baseline where self-concept builds upon -- is largely inherent, there are some empirical evidence to suggest that temperament and toddler self-control can be moderated by mother-child relationship quality.
In particular, it is hypothesized that "mother-infant synchrony is an antecedent of the emergence of self-control" (Feldman, Greenbaum, and Yirmiya, 1999). Longitudinal studies show that the experience of mutual synchrony during the first year is important in helping infants with difficult temperaments achieve self-control at two years (Feldman, Greenbaum, and Yirmiya, 1999). The experience of mutual synchrony is characterized by the ability of a mother to match a response to her child's mood change; share control over interaction with her child; and maintain visual contact during face-to-face interactions (Feldman, Greenbaum, and Yirmiya, 1999). Self-control marks the first expression of internalised socialization and is manifested by a child's obedience to parents' instructions and ability to wait when asked (Emde et al., 1991 in Feldman, Greenbaum, and Yirmiya, 1999). As such, it can be said that parents, especially mothers, are important agents of socialization.
Social behavior is but one of many dimensions that can be used to evaluate self-view among children. Dimensions may be positive like achievement and well-being or negative like aggression and alienation (Bird and Reese, 2006). When a child says about herself, "I am happiest when I am close to people,"...
For children to be able to view themselves as such, they must have connected that self-view to a concrete past event/events in their lives (Bird and Reese, 2006). In other words, a personal life history is believed to form the basis of a subjective self (Bird and Reese, 2006).
Children form an autobiographical self through an understanding of their personal experiences. In this, parents can again play an integral role by engaging their children in past event conversations and helping them understand the personal meaning of a particular experience (Bird and Reese, 2006). Trivial as that may seem, research suggests that parents who regularly discuss past events in an elaborate, as opposed to a redundant, manner are able to draw from their children important aspects of their self-view. It is hypothesized that events that children choose to discuss provide information about their preferences, interests, abilities, and values; in essence, their self-view (Bird and Reese, 2006). Further, event conversations where parents explain and resolve negative emotions in their children or evaluate positive outcomes are also likely to produce consistent self-views in children (Bird and Reese, 2006).
Finally, it is important to consider the influence of culture in the development of self. So far in this paper, references to self-view dimensions and norms are predominantly Western in context. For instance, putting value on one's thoughts and preferences, discussing negative emotions, engaging children in conversations, discovering unique attributes, and the like all have Western upbringing tones. In other cultures, these norms may not be norms at all and hence the psychometric procedures used to generate traditionally Western self-description may not apply, say among Chinese or Asian children (Wang, 2004). The Chinese, as opposed to the autonomy-oriented European-Americans, are interdependent and put value in kinship such that a person's identity is often tied to his social responsibilities. Social rules exist in the Chinese culture that promotes humility and self-criticism for the sake of social harmony (Chin, 1988, in Wang, 2004). This, of course, is in contrast to Western culture that promotes self-enhancement.
A recent study on the comparative autobiographical memories and self-description in 3- to 8-year-old American and Chinese children considered the following differences and used a relatively novel, open-ended narrative method to examine the development of self-constructs. The results of the study are consistent with the cultural outlines above. American children tend to describe themselves in terms of their personal attributes and inner disposition in a generally light tone. Chinese children, on the other hand, focused on specific relationships, social roles, observable behavior, and situation bound features in a modest tone (Wang, 2004). The implication of this study is that self-concept is culture-specific and that the early emergence…
One of the main reasons why proletarians were willing to risk their lives while going against their leaders relates to how most of them realized that they had very little to lose if they would not succeed, taking into account that they lived most of their lives being heartlessly exploited. Marxism does not necessarily involve violence as a means to reform, as, according to the ideology, change can also happen
Psychoanalytic Model (Object Relations) In this paper, the object relations psychoanalytic model will be employed for solving a family issue; the family in question is taken from movie. The paper will further delineate key object relations concepts, the theory's assumptions, and its application to the aforementioned movie. The chosen model The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is
Psychoanalytic Model (Object Relations) The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by aggressive and sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory puts forward the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any
, 2006). The proponents of the theory utilizing this method argue that open-ended questions require children productive use of information they already know, unaided by an external representation of the earth (e.g. globe or any other 3-D model). Using this method, superficial (memorization-based) knowledge is eliminated. This enables the experimenters to find out whether children fully understand the information they know (Vosniadou, Skopeliti, & Ikospentaki, 2005). Using the forced-question method, on
Construction design for safety in the construction industry encourages designers, contractors, project managers, site managers and engineers to design a safe construction site that, hopefully, reduces the risk and number of injuries and fatalities during the construction phase of a project. This study would focus on the different approaches used by the construction industry to ensure on-the-job safety and if there is one approach that is more efficient and effective
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self