S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's Relational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for this clinical case study dissertation's focus?
During the course of this study, as this researcher implements the previously identified, purported principles in an effort to treat, as an adjunct to anti-depressive medication, a 43-year-old woman, referred to this researcher by her psychiatrist for individual psychotherapy, the introductory thought by Bowlby (1985, p. 20; cited by MacDonald, 2001, ¶ 3) serves as poignant pointed prompt. While conducting this study, holding the view that a patient's internal world reflects their external world and that "there is a constant interaction," this researcher regularly recounts the fact that understanding one of the patient's world mandates that this researcher understands the other. During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.
The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."
Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)
One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to the fact verbal abuse signs prove more difficult to recognize and prove than the more obvious signs of physical abuse. (Vardiganm, 2008)
During this clinical case study dissertation's Literature Review chapter, this researcher presents information, as well as diverse contentions accessed from a barrage, more than 25, of credible sources, including books, journals and websites. Themes explored during this study's segment include emotional abuse/maltreatment, along with theories and techniques other than Freudian, specifically those relating to Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology.
2.2 Emotional Abuse/Maltreatment
According to Vardiganm (2008) in his web post article, reviewed by Bruce Linton, PhD, a psychoanalyst specializing in marriage and family counseling in Berkeley, California, the following denote signs that a child is or has been verbally abuse.
Negative self-image: This sign denotes "the most common and pervasive effect of verbal abuse." child may verbalize statements such as "I'm stupid," or, "Nobody likes me."
He/she may appear withdrawn, sullen, or depressed, other signs a person possesses a poor self-image. The National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse defines emotional abuse by explaining that "attacks a child's... sense of self-worth." (Vardiganm, 2008)
Self-destructive acts: "Cutting," using razor blades or knives to cut oneself, and numerous other forms of self-injury, as well as a number of reckless activities that put a child in danger indicate a problem exists.
Antisocial behavior. According to the New Hampshire study, verbally abused children exhibited more physical aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal...
Verbally abused children may hit their siblings and friends. They may quarrel regularly with their classmates, and/or abuse/torture animals.
A verbally abused child may display delayed development signs in his/her physical, academic, social, and/or emotional development. he/she may experience problems making/keeping friends. he/she may also fall behind in his/her schoolwork, and/or engage in regressive acts as bed-wetting, rocking, and thumb-sucking. (Vardiganm, 2008)
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