Object Relation, Attachment Theories, And Dissertation

Length: 90 pages Sources: 152 Subject: Children Type: Dissertation Paper: #34405449 Related Topics: Object Relations Theory, Object Oriented, Sensitive Mothering, Countertransference
Excerpt from Dissertation :

S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.

For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.

Research Questions

What is Winnicott's Relational Model Theory?

What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?

What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?

How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for this clinical case study dissertation's focus?

Enhancing Understanding

During the course of this study, as this researcher implements the previously identified, purported principles in an effort to treat, as an adjunct to anti-depressive medication, a 43-year-old woman, referred to this researcher by her psychiatrist for individual psychotherapy, the introductory thought by Bowlby (1985, p. 20; cited by MacDonald, 2001, ¶ 3) serves as poignant pointed prompt. While conducting this study, holding the view that a patient's internal world reflects their external world and that "there is a constant interaction," this researcher regularly recounts the fact that understanding one of the patient's world mandates that this researcher understands the other. During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to the fact verbal abuse signs prove more difficult to recognize and prove than the more obvious signs of physical abuse. (Vardiganm, 2008)

During this clinical case study dissertation's Literature Review chapter, this researcher presents information, as well as diverse contentions accessed from a barrage, more than 25, of credible sources, including books, journals and websites. Themes explored during this study's segment include emotional abuse/maltreatment, along with theories and techniques other than Freudian, specifically those relating to Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology.

2.2 Emotional Abuse/Maltreatment

According to Vardiganm (2008) in his web post article, reviewed by Bruce Linton, PhD, a psychoanalyst specializing in marriage and family counseling in Berkeley, California, the following denote signs that a child is or has been verbally abuse.

Negative self-image: This sign denotes "the most common and pervasive effect of verbal abuse." child may verbalize statements such as "I'm stupid," or, "Nobody likes me."

He/she may appear withdrawn, sullen, or depressed, other signs a person possesses a poor self-image. The National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse defines emotional abuse by explaining that "attacks a child's... sense of self-worth." (Vardiganm, 2008)

Self-destructive acts: "Cutting," using razor blades or knives to cut oneself, and numerous other forms of self-injury, as well as a number of reckless activities that put a child in danger indicate a problem exists.

Antisocial behavior. According to the New Hampshire study, verbally abused children exhibited more physical aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal...

...

Verbally abused children may hit their siblings and friends. They may quarrel regularly with their classmates, and/or abuse/torture animals.

Delayed development.

A verbally abused child may display delayed development signs in his/her physical, academic, social, and/or emotional development. he/she may experience problems making/keeping friends. he/she may also fall behind in his/her schoolwork, and/or engage in regressive acts as bed-wetting, rocking, and thumb-sucking. (Vardiganm, 2008)

Discipline vs. Abuse



May (2008) points out a number of differences between discipline of a child and abuse, as the following figure (1) portrays. He also stresses, albeit, that both discipline and abuse are taught by example.

Figure 1: Differences Between Discipline and Abuse (adapted from May, 2008)

The following table (1) depicts numerous physical and behavioral indicators of abuse.

Table 1: Physical and Behavioral Indicators of Abuse (May, 2008)

Type of Abuse

Physical Indicators

Behavioral Indicators

Physical Abuse

Unexplained bruises (in various stages of healing)

Unexplained burns, especially cigarette burns or immersion burns

Unexplained fractures, lacerations or abrasions

Swollen areas

Evidence of delayed or inappropriate treatment for injuries

Self-destructive

Withdrawn and/or aggressive - behavioral extremes

Arrives at school early or stays late as if afraid to be at home

Chronic runaway (adolescents)

Complains of soreness or moves uncomfortably

Wears clothing inappropriate to weather, to cover body

Bizarre explanation of injuries

Wary of adult contact

Physical Neglect

Abandonment

Unattended medical needs

Consistent lack of supervision

Consistent hunger, inappropriate dress, poor hygiene

Lice, distended stomach, emaciated

Inadequate nutrition

Regularly displays fatigue or listlessness, falls asleep in class

Steals food, begs from classmates

Reports that no caretaker is at home

Frequently absent or tardy

Self-destructive

School dropout (adolescents)

Extreme loneliness and need for affection

Sexual Abuse

Sexual abuse may be non-touching: obscene language, pornography, exposure - or touching: fondling, molesting, oral sex, intercourse

Torn, stained or bloody underclothing

Pain, swelling or itching in genital area

Difficulty walking or sitting

Bruises or bleeding in genital area

Venereal disease

Frequent urinary or yeast infections

Excessive seductiveness

Role reversal, overly concerned for siblings

Massive weight change

Suicide attempts (especially adolescents)

Inappropriate sex play or premature understanding of sex

Threatened by physical contact, closeness

Emotional Abuse

Emotional abuse may be name-calling, insults, put-downs, etc., or it may be terrorization, isolation, humiliation, rejection, corruption, ignoring

Speech disorders

Delayed physical development

Substance abuse

Ulcers, asthma, severe allergies

Habit disorder (sucking, rocking, biting)

Antisocial, destructive

Neurotic traits (sleep disorders, inhibition of play)

Passive and aggressive - behavioral extremes

Delinquent behavior (especially adolescents)

Developmentally delayed

Crises Considerations

In regard to crises situations, such as suicide attempts, when perceived as "situational mediators that place an individual's typical defenses and resistances in question," a crisis state can help facilitate dynamic change. Winnicott's contributions to psychoanalytic theory provide positive groundwork in this area. His idea of a time-limited therapeutic consultation proves particularly useful for the brief nature of crisis work. When individuals experience suicidal ideations involving the use of a gun, according to Kohut (1971; cited by Romano, 2004), this type scenario portrays an idealizing self-object transference. The use of a gun permits the person to feel in control and exert dominance over other individuals in his/her life. (Feldman & Johnson; cited by Romano, 2004) Often within suicide attempts or other crises' contexts, the present crisis depicts only one of numerous unconscious expectations and reactions to external events perpetuating the situation. Change at a dynamic level can negate the necessity of repeating crisis-precipitating behaviors in the future. (Jerry, 1998)

May (2008) notes the following acronym proves helpful…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic

Books.


Cite this Document:

"Object Relation Attachment Theories And" (2008, October 08) Retrieved April 23, 2021, from
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/object-relation-attachment-theories-and-27758

"Object Relation Attachment Theories And" 08 October 2008. Web.23 April. 2021. <
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/object-relation-attachment-theories-and-27758>

"Object Relation Attachment Theories And", 08 October 2008, Accessed.23 April. 2021,
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/object-relation-attachment-theories-and-27758

Related Documents
Object Relations Theory
Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 95159815

Object Relations Theory What exactly is 'Object Relations Theory'? What does it deal with? What is it about? The Theory as such is based on the belief and conviction that every single person has within themselves a completely world of relations and relationships that may well be quite different and at times even infinitely more compelling and forceful and convincing than what actually is happening in their real world filled with

Therapeutic Alliance, Attachment Theory and
Words: 8108 Length: 30 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 12411999

An important point emphasized by many theorists was that it was essential for the therapeutic alliance to be flexible in order to accommodate the patient or client's perceptions. Another cardinal aspect that was emphasizes by clinicians and theorists was that the therapeutic alliance had the ability to create and promote change in the client. In other words, the therapeutic alliance should be varied enough to deal with the various levels

Therapy the Object Relations Theory of the
Words: 1242 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 80862424

Therapy The object relations theory of the personality developed from the study of the patient-therapist relationship as it relates to the earlier mother-infant dyad. Object relations theory emphasizes the infant's early experiences with its primary caregiver (typically the mother) as the fundamental determinant of the formation of adult personality. The infant's need for attachment is the primary motivating factor in the development of the self. Two schools of Object Relations theorists

Children, Grief, and Attachment Theory
Words: 22384 Length: 75 Pages Topic: Children Paper #: 77393541

Figure 1 portrays three of the scenes 20/20 presented March 15, 2010. Figure 1: Heather, Rachel, and Unnamed Girl in 20/20 Program (adapted from Stossel, 2010). Statement of the Problem For any individual, the death of a family member, friend, parent or sibling may often be overwhelming. For adolescents, the death of person close to them may prove much more traumatic as it can disrupt adolescent development. Diana Mahoney (2008), with the

Psychoanalytic Model Object Relations
Words: 3548 Length: 9 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 18922496

Psychoanalytic Model (Object Relations) In this paper, the object relations psychoanalytic model will be employed for solving a family issue; the family in question is taken from movie. The paper will further delineate key object relations concepts, the theory's assumptions, and its application to the aforementioned movie. The chosen model The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is

Theory Therapy Levy, Meehan, Kelly,
Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 86662734

Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of