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Where, sharp increases or decreases in the temperature could have an effect on the eco system. As any one of the vital pieces of the food system and their way of life; would have ripple effects based on slight changes in temperature. This has the possibility of setting off a mass extinction. (Garrison, 2008)
The obvious effect on land would be that humans depend on the ocean as a source of food. However, changes in the temperature of the ocean could have an effect on global temperatures. As sharp rises or decreases in temperature, could cause changes in the weather patterns. This is because the warmth of the ocean water will determine the overall severity of storms such as: hurricanes and cyclones (with both needing warm water to grow stronger). If the ocean temperature becomes to warm, it could cause these storms to become more serve. This would have a…
Challenger Expedition. (2010). Retrieved February 25, 2010 from National History Museum website: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/science-of-natural-history/expeditions-collecting/hms-challenger-expedition/index.html
History of Ocean Exploration and Marine Sciences. (n.d.) [Power Point slides] Retrieved from Biology Class.net website: www.biologyclass.net/historyocean.pptx
Plate Boundaries. (2005). Retrieved February 25, 2010 from Plate Tectonics website: http://www.platetectonics.com/book/page_5.asp
Plate Tectonics. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2010 from University of Oregon website: http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/geology/Geo_Lectures/Convergent.html
Comparing Approaches to the Carbon-Based Productivity odel: Assessing the Sensitivity of Remote Sensing-Derived Phytoplankton Productivity to ixed Layer Depth.
The purpose of this review is to compare approaches or variations of approaches that are being used to assess the sensitivity of phytoplankton productivity to mixed layer depth.
The challenge to clarifying controls on primary productivity and the related responses and feedbacks is a key objective of research on global change. In order to accomplish this, however, measurements of NPP and the quantification of its variability in space and time must be refined. Carvalho and Eyre (2012), for example, suggest that conventional approaches to OCR and CRR may be misleading. They propose methods for CRR and photosynthetic measurement that can more precisely measure the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in water. This paper will review broad variations of the carbon-based productivity model.
Behrenfeld, ., E. Boss, D. Siegel, and…
Milutinovic, S. Beherenfeld, M.J., Johannessen, A. And Johannessen, T. (2008). Sensitivity of remote sensing-derived phytoplankton productivity to mixed layer depth: Lessons from the carbon-based productivity model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23 (GB4005). doi: 10.1029.2008GB3431.
Townsend, D.W., L.M. Cammen, P.M. Holligan, D.E. Campbell, and N.R. Pettigrew (1994), Causes and consequences of variability in the timing of spring phytoplankton blooms, Deep Sea Res., Part I, 41(5 -- 6), 747 -- 765, doi:10.1016/0967-0637(94)90075-2.
Westberry, T., M.J. Behrenfeld, D.A. Siegel, and E. Boss (2008), Carbon- based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB2024, doi:10.1029 / 2007GB003078.
Calculate the distance from the mid-ocean ridge to each of the sites
The distance from the middle of the ocean ridge each of the different sites would include: 878 km for site 14; 556 km for site 15; 300 km for site 16; 711 km for site 17; 556 km for site 18; 1189 km for site 19 and 1522 km for site 20.
How many kilometers correspond to 1o?
Where is the oldest sediment located? Why?
The oldest sediment is located at 21 degrees. The reason why is: because of the paleontological sentiment showing an age greater than 76 million years old.
Is this rate reasonable for sediment thickness vs. age of the first sediment?
The rate for the age of the sediment thickness of 1,000 cm, for every 1,000 cm years is to low. This is because the report said that there was a rate of…
Glomar Challenger. (2010). Retrieved March 16, 2010 from Book Regs website:
Maxwell, a. (1969). Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. National Science Foundation, 461 -- 465.
On January 11 at 3:00 AM, high tide reaches its first peak at 31.248 feet at high tide. The corresponding low tide of this same day hits at 10 am at around 3.517 feet. There is a dramatic difference between the two tides occurring twice a day. On that same day, the second round high tide is at a height of 29.588 at 5 pm, a lesser degree than the first tide -- but the low tide is still incredibly different, at 5.09 feet at 11 pm. Then around the 16, the tides move towards the more neutral disparity that was seen earlier in the month. Only to once again increase in disparity later on in the month, this shows a pattern of an increase twice a month.
According to its location on the Eastern seaboard of the Atlantic Ocean, New London experiences a semi-diurnal tide. Further south…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010). Types and cause of tidal cycles. Tides and Water Levels. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/tides/tides07_cycles.html
Ocean Link. (2010). Tides: what causes tides to change in the ocean? Ocean News. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from http://oceanlink.island.net/oinfo/tides/tides.html
Pidwirny, Michael. (2008). Ocean tides. Physical Geography: Fundamentals eBook. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/8r.html
Diurnal tides are the daily ones, and have a single high tide and low tide, respectively, each day. Semidiurnal tides have two high tides and low tides each lunar day, both of which are always at the same height. Mixed tides are when there's two high tides and two low tides, but the high tides are at different heights and the low tides are at different heights.
Ocean depth and rotational velocity also influence the heights and times of tides at any given location.
Spring tides occur during full moons and new moons, and are the most extreme tides that affect the sway of the ocean's currents the most. These occur when the sun, the moon and the earth are aligned. This produces the highest high tide and the lowest low tide. The neap tide occurs during a crescent moon and during a three-quarters phase of the moon, and…
hey are responsible for transporting the heat from tropics to mid-latitudes. On the other hand, speed is said to be lower in the case of eastern currents (e.g. California Current) which transport cold water to the tropics where this is heated and pushed back to the poles by the western streams. Consequently, ocean surface currents help the Sun energy spread from the equator to the poles ((http://science.hq.nasa.gov/oceans/physical/OSC.html).
Swells, breaking surf, tsunami
Swells may be defined as "a long series of ocean waves, generally produced by wind, and lasting after the wind has ceased" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swell).hey may be generated thousand of miles away from the beach by tropical storms or wind systems. Such a genesis explains their higher stability in direction and frequency, and the major attractiveness that they exert on surfers. hus, swells are the so called wave trains which display considerable wavelength or period. his is a parameter measuring "the…
The swell speed (in miles per hour) may be calculated as a product between the period (in seconds) and 1.75. Thus, at a 10-second period, the speed is 17.5 mph; at a 12-second period, the speed is 21 mph and so on ( http://www.rodndtube.com/surf/info/SwellSpeed.shtml ).The depth (in feet) at which waves feel the ocean floor may be calculated as a product between the square number of seconds between swells and 2.256. For example, a 20-second period swell will have a depth of 1024 feet (Collins, 2007).
Sometimes waves have the tendency to break when they encounter shallow waters, when two opposite systems meet or when winds become so strong that they are able to remove the wave top. Breaking waves are very dangerous because they can overturn boats and crush ships due to the impressive pressure of up to 50 or 100 kilopascals (4-9 short tons per square yard). Their main treat refers to the speed of the wave crest which is equal to that of the wave itself. Consequently, the base isn't capable of supporting the top and this failure results in wave breaking ( http://seriesdrogue.com/coastguardreport/breaking_waves.htm ).
Tsunamis occur where the sea floor undergoes severe deformations that vertically displace enormous amounts of water. Some of the causes responsible for this phenomenon may be earthquakes, meteorite impacts, eruptions, underwater explosion and so forth. Unlike surf swells, tsunamis display a huge energy that remains fairly constant, despite the great distance they travel. Moreover, they behave as shallow waters with an average speed of 400 to 500 mph and extremely long periods or wavelength. Therefore, tsunamis may not be even noticed by ships sailing in the open ocean. The striking effect is released when reaching
It is difficult to assess to what extent these changes be contributed to global warming, however, due to the relatively short history of observation available to oceanographers. The events put forth in the Pentagon eport are a plausible scenario, although many scientists contest the events as something which is not likely to happen in the near future. There is every possibility though that if climate change continues due to global warming then at some point in the near future ocean currents may become affected in such a way as to stop.
Bryden, H.L., Longworth, H.. And Cunningham, S.A. (2005) Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25°N. Nature, 438, 655-665.
Danovaro, ., Dell'Anno, a., Fabiano, M., Pusceddu, a. And Tselepides, a. (2001) Deep-sea ecosystem response to climate changes: the eastern Mediterranean case study. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16(9), 505-510.
Hakkinen, S. And hines, P.B. (2004) Decline of…
Bryden, H.L., Longworth, H.R. And Cunningham, S.A. (2005) Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25°N. Nature, 438, 655-665.
Danovaro, R., Dell'Anno, a., Fabiano, M., Pusceddu, a. And Tselepides, a. (2001) Deep-sea ecosystem response to climate changes: the eastern Mediterranean case study. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16(9), 505-510.
Hakkinen, S. And Rhines, P.B. (2004) Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s. Science, 304(5670), 555-559.
Loder, J., Yashayaev, I. And Geshelin, Y. (2006) Water masses and currents in Orphan Basin of the North Atlantic. EOS Trans. AGU, 87(52) Suppl., AGU Fall Meeting.
SUVIVAL STATEGIES: BENTHIC VS. PELAGIC ZOOPLANKTON
Oceanography, Marine Organisms
Phytoplankton is the primary food source for most marine organisms, either directly or indirectly. Since phytoplankton converts sunlight into energy, in the form of carbohydrates, their habitat is necessarily confined to the upper pelagic layers. The organisms that feed on the phytoplankton, the zooplankton, are thus forced to either remain in the upper pelagic layers or migrate vertically between the upper and lower layers. An important functional division within zooplankton is the ability to actively travel from location to location (nekton) or simply drift with the ocean currents (plankton) (Miller, 2004, p. 111). Whether an organism can swim or not determines to a significant extent what survival strategies are utilized.
Since plankton can't evade predators they rely on more passive defense mechanisms. Gastropods grow hard shells with narrow openings or elaborate sharp spines, and microalgae restrict the production of…
De Meester, Luc, Weider, Lawrence J., and Tollrain, Ralph. (1995). Alternative antipredator defences and genetic polymorphism in a pelagic predator-prey system. Nature, 378, 483-485.
Duffy, J. Emmett and Hay, Mark E. (2004). The ecology and evolution of marine consumer-prey interactions. In M.D. Bertness, S.D. Gaines, and M.E. Hay, (Eds.), Marine Community Ecology (pp. 131-157). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Miller, Charles B. (2004). Biological Oceanography. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science Ltd.
Earth's Ocean Surface Current Patterns And How They Are Produced
The major ocean surface currents vary in speed, size, and depth by location, but generally help to dictate much of the weather patterns coming from the ocean's surface. This is due to the transfer of heat from one location to another on the planet. These current patterns create larger swirls of mixing currents in some locations called gyres. One of the largest gyres in the world, the Pacific Gyre is located in the waters between the cost of California and Hawai'i (McWilliams and estrepo, 1999). In other locations, currents form a connective band of moving water between oceans and seas where creatures are carried. Many of these currents mix downward and influence deeper currents as well (Mills, 2011).
Surface currents move and are created by the sun due to unequal heating of the Earth's surface. More specifically, these patterns are…
McWilliams, J.C. And J.M. Restrepo. (1999) "The wave-driven ocean circulation."
Journal of Physics and Oceanography. Vol. 29, No. 1. Pp. 2523 -- 2540.
Mills, E.L. (2011). The Fluid Envelope of our Planet: How the Study of Ocean
Currents Became a Science. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Harmful Algal Blooms
Weather events can impact ocean conditions in a variety of different manners. First, extreme events like hurricanes, coastal storms, and floods can physically transport organisms from part of the ocean to another part of the ocean, causing the type of disruption that leads to a harmful algal bloom. Second, extreme weather conditions like El ino and La ina can cause temperature changes that impact growing conditions in the ocean.
Ocean nutrients play a role in algal blooms because the blooms occur when nutrients are sufficiently abundant to feed the algae. utrient levels are impacted by other species in the water, temperature, and pollution.
Pollution may contribute to algal blooms because pollution can provide the nutrients these harmful algae need to survive and kill predator species that normally keep harmful algae levels in a safe range.
Harmful Algal Blooms: an Overview
Harmful algae blooms are microscopic, single-celled plants…
National Ocean Service. (2011, Oct. 14). Preventing HABs before they happen. Retrieved November 4, 2011
from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/hab/
National Ocean Service. (2011, Oct. 14). Identifying and monitoring HABs. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website:
Kinsler defines acoustics as the science of sound: the generation, transmission and reception of energy in the form of vibrational waves in matter. This covers a large range of disciplines and problems, including noise control, vibration and structural acoustics, and underwater acoustics. Underwater acoustics is using acoustic energy to detect objects in the oceans or sea beds - underwater - just like using radar to detect objects in the air. Acoustics systems guide underwater vessels, such as submarines, through ocean depths in the pursuit (Acoustical Society of America 2002).
We know that sound is transmitted in very long distances, even hundreds of miles, through the wave environment, which makes sound a very important tool for both commercial and military purposes. (ASA) Acoustics signals detect the presence and location of commercially useful fish, map the ocean floor to establish the safest paths for supertankers, explore the earth's geological formations and discover…
Acoustical Society of America, The. Acoustics and You, 2002
Federation of American Scientists (FSA). Underwater Acoustics. Military Analysis
3. Ford, John. An Ocean of Sound: an Exploration of Underwater Acoustics, 2001
4. Kinsler, L. E, et al. What is acoustics? Fundamentals of Acoustics. third edition.
The larger particles can influence the absorption rates of solar energy by a factor of three over particulates such as phytoplankton and minerals (Stramski and Woz'niak, 2005). This means that a small concentration of these particles can do a lot for the absorption rates of the water they are suspended in. The smaller particles can also have this effect, but their concentrations need to be proportionately higher to exact this same influence. The smaller particles are more influential as far as backscattering is concerned, and represent a massive shift in the way that scientists think about light diffusion and backscattering within the ocean. Previously, scientists thought that only the larger of these particles combined with other particulates were responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption (Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L., 1981). Now scientists understand that in shallow, mineral-rich waters, even a small presence of these tiniest of…
Babin, Marcel, and Dariusz Stramski. (2004). "Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water." Limnology Oceanography. 49(3), pp. 756 -- 767.
Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L. (1981). "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea
(yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains." Limnology, Oceanography 26 (1). pp.43-53.
Dera, J., S. Sagan, and D. Stramski. (1993). "Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new results from the Black Sea." Oceanologia, 34. pp. 13-25.
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.
Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.
Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.
Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).
Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton
Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton
It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…
Alvarez Cobelas, M., J.L. Velasco, a. Rubio, and C. Rojo. (1994). The time course of phytoplankton biomass and related limnological factors in shallow and deep lakes: a multivariate approach. Hydrobiologia 275/276:139-151.
Anya, M. (1996). Phytoplankton biodiversity.(Marine Biodiversity) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Biomass distribution of phytoplankton" (2006). [Available online] www.astro.temple.edu/~sanders1/balance.gif
Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson. (1985). Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639.
" (SD, 1)
McClintock goes on to connect this to pointedly negative consequences for marine life, arguing that many invertebrates are distinctly vulnerable because their protective shells require many of the nutrients naturally available in their surrounding water to maintain hardness or to develop at all. This is a concern which is also raised in the article by Monroe (2009), where the results of an experiment designed to confirm this effect were as expected. Accordingly, "[Victoria] Fabry, a biological oceanographer and visiting researcher at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, studies the effects of ocean acidification on the mollusks known as pteropods. In one experiment, only 48 hours of exposure to slightly corrosive seawater caused normally smooth shells to become frayed at the edges on their way to eventual dissolution, severely diminishing their owners' chances of survival." (Monroe, 1)
This demonstrates that the increased acidification of the ocean's…
ANI. (2010). CO2 Negatively Affecting Environment of World's Oceans. Thaindian News.
Monroe, R. (2009). Carbonated Oceans. Explorations: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Pechenik, J. (2004). Biology of the Invertebrates. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math.
Pinet, P.R. (2009). Invitation to Oceanography. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Speed here is of essence and spices like flying fish are able to jump out of water to escape predators. Others that lack like jellies are transparent. Turtles will have a shell to protect them. Gills enable animals to manage different water pressures like the sharks while whales have the capability of holding their breaths for longer periods. On the other hand, since the benthic zone does not allow sunlight to reach it due to its depth (beyond 600 feet), some fish and crustaceans, at this level do not see, in fact half of the species at this level are blind. In this sense, the organisms have adapted to produce their own lights from their specialized parts in their bodies known as photophores. In addition, since there is lack of phytoplacton to start the food chain, life is limited and fish have adapted to fulfill their needs. For instance, some…
Crouse, R. (n.d.). Waves: Tsunamis/Seismic sea waves. Water encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Tw-Z/Waves.html
Gardiner, L. (2010, January 8). Surface ocean currents. windows.ucar.edu. Retrieved from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/ocean_currents.html
Lee, H.J., and Normark, W.R. (2009). Earth science in urban ocean: The Southern California continental borderland. New York, U.S.: Geological Society of America.
Makai. (n.d). Threats to marine ecosystems. Waianae ecological characteristics. Retrieved from http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/czm/initiative/wec/html/sea/marine/threats.htm
brevis blooms are not a new phenomenon, and fish kills that result from red tides caused by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico have been described in the scientific literature since 1960 or so and have been reported anecdotally for more than two centuries (Naar et al. 2002). In this regard, Backer and her associates (2005) emphasize that, "The human health effects from consuming shellfish with high concentrations of brevetoxins in their tissues have been well documented. However, there is very little information describing human health effects from environmental exposures. It is ironic that we know the least about the aspects of the Florida red tide problem that poses the greatest public health hazard in terms of number of people affected" (645). Today, K. brevis blooms are monitored closely in order to mitigate the foregoing health hazards that are related to the consumption of shellfish and shellfish harvesting is…
Aguirre, A. Alonso, Richard S. Ostfeld, Gary M. Tabor, Carol House and Mary C. Pearl.
Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice. New York: Oxford University
Backer, Lorraine C., Barbara Kirkpatrick, Lora E. Fleming, Yung Sung Cheng, Richard Pierce,
hat are the different types of seafloor sediments?
The three main types / categories of seafloor sediments are Terrigenous sediment, Biogenous sediment, and Hydrogenous sediments. Terrigenous sediment covers about 45% of the ocean floors, and originated from the erosion of land near the ocean's edge, from volcanic eruptions, and from dust that has blown from land to the oceans (Garrison, 2011).
Terrigenous sediments are composed of quartz sand, clays, and estuarine mud. Biogenous sediment results from the organic accumulation of materials broken down from some marine organisms. Biogenous sediment makes up about 55% of the ocean floor, and is composed of "…calcareous and siliceous oozes" (Garrison). In short, some Biogenous materials originate from corals, from the shells of mollusks (as they deteriorate their particles sink to the bottom of the oceans).
Meanwhile only about one percent of the sediment on the ocean floor is composed of hydrogenous materials,…
Garrison, T. (2011). Essentials of Oceanography. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Open University (1998). The Ocean Basins: Their Structure and Evolution. Oxford, UK:
life I have been a go-getter. I graduated from high school at 16 because I was eager to begin my college education. Currently I am working on dual Bachelor degrees. One will be in Biochemistry and the other will be in Psychology. The same personality trait that has allowed me to graduate from high school early, pursue a dual degree program and many other accomplishments, is what will turn me into a service orientated and dedicated dentist.
One of the things I have pursued as a University of California, San Diego student, is my membership in the campus "For Los Angelitos" club. One of the things we did as a club was to travel to poverty stricken areas and provide lessons about oral hygiene. Equipped with small bags filled with oral care products, we traveled to Tijuana, Mexico where we provided oral care education to the children of the area.…
TSC: What Is eality?
We pursue virtual reality not because we seek to embrace reality, but because we seek to escape it. The availability of virtual reality technology enables us to create a controllable world which 'feels' real, but without any of the actual consequences of inhabiting reality. In virtually real games, we can act violently; become sports stars; take on entirely different personas in a consequence-free universe. One of the definitions of technology is that it technology involves the use of various created implements to make our lives seem 'easier.' To some extent, this is true of virtual reality technology, given that virtually real universes do not hold within them the risks of actually fighting, pursuing death-defying sports, or confronting supernatural beings in strange realms. However, the risks of virtual reality are great, namely that we will enter into the 'real' world after 'playtime' with a less secure grasp…
Kass, L (2001). TNR Online (The New Republic Online). Retrieved:
If anything, Jessica's apparent equating of reading speed as an indication of reading well undermines her comprehension more than technical difficulty.
Jessica understood the main idea, in general but possibility too literally: she retitled the story "What Comes Around Goes Around," and incorrectly attributed a direct cause-and- effect relationship to Leonard's charity and Riley's fate. Instead of characterizing events as an unfortunate but coincidental relationship between a genuine act of charity and an accident,
Jessica apparently assumed that Riley's misfortune might have been related to Leonard's revenge.
Jessica reads and comprehends well above her grade level. This is likely a function of her enjoyment of reading. Jessica clearly enjoys reading about subjects of interest but is comparatively easily frustrated by assigned reading outside her intrinsic interests. Jessica possesses good reading mechanics that enable her to deduce pronunciation and contextual meaning of unfamiliar words, but her ability to make…
Life lessons, relationship lessons, even artistic, music, and performance sharing could take place (imagine, a NeoPet "Grease" production using a global cast)?
Conclusions and Implications -- NeoPets obviously provides a niche about which some consumers are excited. Like many technological entertainment devises, though, there is certainly potential for abuse. One would not necessarily want their children to sit in front of a NASCA racing program, replete with ads, for hours at a time and never have any physical activity. It is not the place of technology to mandate other behavior, but the wisdom of parents and society to create a balance. Ensuring that this will not be a fad is quite simple -- continue to evolve, to grow, to become more sophisticated in content and interaction. In a similar way, funding could come from private foundations that might sponsor a segment (e.g. Boeing on history of flight; Microsoft on computing…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
"Adults Play Neopets." (2009). Neopets. Cited in: www.neopets.com/~grownups
Ireton, D. (2003), Internet-Based Market Research, Advanced Systems Development.
Ha, K. (September 14, 2004). "Neopets site for children stirs Controversy." the
San Jose Mercury News. Cited in:
As part of the 1977 National Academy of Sciences Energy and Climate Panel, he discovered "forty percent of the anthropogenic [human-generated] carbon dioxide has remained in the atmosphere, two-thirds of that from fossil fuel, and one-third from the clearing of forests." (oger evelle, 2010, p.2). evelle's presence on the panel would demonstrate the long-standing nature of global warming. evelle could also discuss why taking action on global warming has been so difficult politically, despite mounting scientific evidence that the phenomenon exists for so many years. evelle began his work in oceanography but gradually expanded his focus to population studies, enabling him to bring his expertise in both fields to the panel (oger evelle, 2010, p.3).
Michael Pollan, the author of the Omnivore's Dilemma and Food ules, has devoted his career to exposing the harms of commercial agriculture on the environment and upon human health. Pollan details simple ways…
Peter, Tom. (2008, May 19). Interview: Jane Goodall. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 9, 2010 at http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/Wildlife/2008/0521/interview-jane-goodall-embraces-a-broader-mission
Pollan, Michael. (2007, December 16). Our decrepit food factories. The New York Times.
Retrieved August 9, 2010 at http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/our-decrepit-food-factories/
Roger Revelle. (2010). Earth Observatory. NASA.
The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.
Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).
Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.
London: Icon Books Ltd.
Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer
An article in the Saturday Evening Post relates the story of a scientific party in a whaling boat on the Bering Sea in the early 20th Century "witnessed an awesome sight when, with mighty roars, fire and smoke and exploded lava shot out of the water, casting ashes and pumice all over" (Hubbard, p. 10). and, Hubbard adds, "Not infrequently huge gas bubbles hurtle upward from the ocean bottom to burst with a roar and allow the separated waters to crash back into place, sending huge geysers into the air."
Conclusion: There is much to be learned about the formation, age, and tectonic truths of ancient seafloor ridges like Bowers and Shirshov, but in this writer's opinion, the evidence points to those ridges having been formed by volcanic activity (hotspots and spreading) but at this time they are likely subduction zones.
Hubbard, Bernard R. "The Disappearing Island." The…
Hubbard, Bernard R. "The Disappearing Island." The Saturday Evening Post. December 17, 1932. pp. 10-11, 50-52.
New Geology. "Shock Dynamics: Alaska." Retrieved May 4, 2008, at http://www.newgeology.us/presentation14.html .
Scholl, David W. "Viewing the Tectonic Evolution of the Kamchatka-Aleutian (KAT)
Connection With an Alaska Crustal Extrusion Perspective." In Volcanism and Subduction:
This makes the issue a complex one without a clear answer; carbon dioxide is preferable to other potential byproducts of fossil fuel combustion due to the ease with which it can be trapped and its relative innocuousness in these sinks, but undesirable due to its volume and the lack of current capabilities to provide adequate sinks.
7) While it is understandable that the EPA would desire to increase public safety by revising standards for ground level ozone production and concentration, in reality this move is not entirely necessary. As business owners and operators, you know all too well the incessant environmental regulation can create significant operational difficulties and reduce if to eliminate profitability, often with no effect on environmental risks or damage. The EPA itself has found that ground-level ozone quickly dissipates and presents a minimal danger to health if properly vented and dispersed, yet they are revising regulations as…
Clegg, S. & Abbatt, J. (2001). Oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 on ice surfaces at 228 K: a sink for SO2 in ice clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 1:77-92.
EPA. (2011). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks. Washington, DC.
Garrison, T. (2004). Oceanography. New York: Thomson Brooks.
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…
Amazon rainforest destruction at 10-year high
By Raymond Colitt in Sao Paulo (accessed 5-19-05)
Published: May 20, 2005 03:00 | Last updated: May 20, 2005 03:00
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/4ea07b74-c8cd-11d9-87c9-00000e2511c8.html rainforest (accessed 5-19-05)
Similar to Physical Science and Life Science, Earth Science will contain multiple choice and constructed response questions. A sample constructed response question from the Earth Science test is:
ased on the chart, explain various agricultural practices and how it affects the success of a yearly harvest.
This is a sample constructed response question. The student should carefully read and answer this question in essay form. Upon reading the question, the student should note that the question is requesting two separate answers
Praxis 7 because the question is a two-part question. Therefore, it is very important that the student reads the entire question and determine what information it is requesting before writing out his/her response. (Edge)
In conclusion, in most states, all students who wish to become teachers in the areas of Science or any other discipline will have to complete the Praxis test. The Praxis II test, code 0014…
Educational Testing Service General Information. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from www.ets.gov
Educational Testing Service (2006) General Information and Study Tips.
Fitzer, Penelope and Bristor, Valerie (2005) Prentice Hall Publishing, New Jersey.
Burdette, Laurel, (2005) Study Notes for the Middle School Science Praxis II Exam, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
His son, Michael, oversaw the final stages of publication, after his death, of Verne's last written story the Lighthouse at the End of the orld.
CHAPTER 2: THE ORKS of JULES VERNE
Of course, Jules Verne was and remains one of the most well-known writers of fiction in the modern age. Although he was doubtlessly a gifted writer, and used a handful of literary mechanisms that were relatively innovative for his time, his enduring appeal as an author remains the fantastical subject matter of his stories. In this way, far more than any other writer from his age, Verne was a visionary. Though he failed to completely alter the primary literary conventions of the nineteenth century, he was instrumental in the invention of what has come to be the science fiction genre. Furthermore, his tales have revealed a level of foresight and scientific foresight that may never be equaled in…
Angenot, Marc. "Jules Vern and French Literary Criticism." Science Fiction Studies, I, number 1, Spring 1973.
Butcher, William. "Jules Verne: A Reappraisal." 2006. Available:
Butcher, William. Verne's Journey to the Center of the Self. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.
The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.
hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name…
Coleman, John. "The Amazing Story behind the Global Warming Scam." http://www.kusi.com/weather/colemanscorner/38574742.html
"Gore's Grave New World." http://www.americanthinker.com/printpage/?url=http://www.americanthinker.com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world.html
Henderson, Mark. "Why Global Warming is Not Natural." http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article516179.ece
Oreskes, Naomis. "Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf
MacDougall may point out these facts but whilst doing so he refrains from the typical alarmism that often accompanies these tracts. It is unlikely that Earth will be (as per many of the alarmists) transformed into another melting Venus, and the oceans can still absorb much of the CO2 that we are creating, although MacDougall does admit that we are destroying hordes of the marine population at the same time. He also says that our ability to release carbon emission into the atmosphere will decrease with time since our known oil deposits are rapidly dwindling.
Earth has already experienced one interglacial warming period; the extra carbon in the atmosphere aggravates the situation. Earth too is impeded form reflecting the sun's energy back into space due to the constant melting of the polar ice caps and other glaciers, thus the warming is accelerated and intensified.
The last 20,000 years have been…
MacDougall, D. (2011) Why Geology Matters University of California Press, USA
Stopping Looting of Classic Greek and Roman Underwater Antiquities Sites
Cultural artifacts that both describe how a group of people lived and demonstrates the art they contrived is precious to the people who consider themselves present members of that culture or, at the very least, are residents of the nation from which the culture originated. Unfortunately, the removal and sale of these artifacts has a long history, and the trade is only recently being regulated and stopped. There are many problems with the methods used to stop the trade however and no one nation or regulatory body has been able to devise a solid means by which these treasures can be returned to the people who claim them as heritage. The heritage argument and the ability to return the artifacts becomes even more clouded when the items in question are found underwater. Although there has been a concerted…
AFP. "A Rich Greek Archeology Frontier Lying Underwater." Khaleej Times (2005, June 24).
Aiken, Jonathan. "Antiquities Diplomacy." The American Spectator 42.1 (2009): 58-60.
Akal, Tuncay. "Surveillance and Protection of Underwater Archaeological Sites: Sea Guard." (accessed November 2, 2012) http://www.acoustics.org/press/155th/akal.htm
Carver, Martin. "Editorial." Antiquity 82.315 (2008): 7-9.
In the wake of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, about thirty percent of the oil, and "the most volatile fraction" of it, evaporated in a period of about ten hours (Handwerk, 2011). This was the primary aerosol emanation Another ten to twenty percent evaporated over the course of the next few days, and those turned into a wide plume of aerosol that was later identified as being comprised of intermediate or semi-volatile organic compounds (Xie, 2011). This secondary aerosol was composed of both light and heavy types of hydrocarbons, which have contributed to air pollution over a wide area (Handwerk, 2011). Ironically, the pattern of aerosol evaporation from the oil spill has advanced scientific understanding of how secondary aerosols form after the initial chemical conversion from their most volatile compounds (Xie, 2011). According to the EPA (2014), in addition to volatile organic compounds, the oil spill…
Handwerk, B. (2011). Gulf oil spill helps explain air pollution mystery. National Geographic News. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/03/110310-gulf-oil-spill-air-pollution-science-nation/
National Wildlife Federation (2014). How Does the BP Oil Spill Impact Wildlife and Habitat? Retrieved online: http://www.nwf.org/What-We-Do/Protect-Habitat/Gulf-Restoration/Oil-Spill/Effects-on-Wildlife.aspx
Radermacher, M. (n.d.). Bioremediation of marine oil spills. Retrieved online: http://home.eng.iastate.edu/~tge/ce421-521/matt-r.pdf
Stewart, R.R. (2005). Atmospheric structure and pollution sources. Retrieved online: Atmospheric Structure and Pollution Sources. Retrieved online: http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/atmosphere.html
Oceans on Human Life:
ecent economic, political, and environmental developments
One of the oldest forms of transport is sailing: long before airplanes or cars were invented, people turned to the sea as method of moving goods and people from one place to another. But oceans still play a critical role in the modern economy. In fact, an estimated one of every 6 jobs in the U.S. is in some way tied to the oceans and "over 1/3rd of the annual U.S. Gross National Product originates in coastal areas -- approximately $700 billion… U.S. maritime transport carries 95% of the nation's foreign trade" ("Oceans impact the economy" 2015). The importance of ocean-related shipping has increased rather than decreased in recent years, due to the rise in global trade. Although cheaper and more convenient airplane-related travel has retracted the importance of human-driven transport by sea, ocean-related trade has increased.
The creation of…
Bucker, C. (et al. 2014). Chapter 1: The earth's climate system. World Ocean Review.
Bucker, C. (et al. 2014). Chapter 8: Global shipping: A dynamic market. World Ocean Review.
Therefore, to manage climate change, which is a global nightmare, regulations must be in place to limit the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouses gases released to atmosphere irrespective of the countries status in development.
On a different note, Spencer Richard argues in his November 17, 2008 article "Gap Between China's Rich and Poor," that countries like China, that have experienced rapid developments has left parts of the country in poor conditions. The rapid growth has widened the gap between the poor and the rich, creating even extra hurdles to the fast growing economy. ithin a span of three decades, greater percentage of Chinese citizens have benefited from the economic growth that has been export-oriented. However, the faster growth rate has led to low consumption rates both domestic and foreign.
As Spencer claims, lack of proper government policies that did not mind the welfare of the workers, have forced…
Eilperin, Juliet. "Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly." The Washington Post, 3 March 2006.
Web. 9 March 2010.
Spencer, Richard. "Gap Between China's Rich and Poor Threatening Economy." Telegrah.co.uk,
17 Nov. 2008. Web. 9 Mar. 2010.
Another salient feature of this delta is that it has low salinity levels when compared to other bays in the Texas region. This is because there is a great volume of water in the Guadalupe river and the adjacent bays where it empties itself is shallow. This makes it more like a freshwater delta than a saline one.
The low-salinity levels helps the growth of unique fishes that are very different from what can be seen in the other delta regions of Texas. Some endangered species found here include Malaclemys terrapin littoralis, Texas diamondback terrapin, whopping crane, white-tailed hawk and reddish egret. However, there is very little plant life in these marshes because they are in a semi-arid climate that makes it difficult for plants to grow. Instead, there are numerous different kinds of facies or sedimentary deposits that is found in different parts of this delta. These marsh sediments…
The Guadalupe River delta is found immediately across from the Guadalupe Bay site. Overall, geologists have divided this complex delta into two major parts: an older, "Old River" delta whose formation surrounded Green Lake, and a younger "Guadalupe" delta, that partly encloses Mission Bay and remains under construction. Regrettably, there is no radiocarbon estimate to accurately determine the ages of the two main deltas or that of the incorporated subdeltas. Researchers think the delta began to build upon San Antonio Bay some 2,000 years ago. Absent such radiocarbon dates for the delta proper, they must rely upon archeological finds from local digs to calculate the history of the various subdeltas.
It is generally accepted that the oldest delta (formed by the Guadalupe) first prograded to the southeast, and in later periods changed and prograded to the northeast, which isolated the upper part of San Antonio Bay, forming Green Lake. The…
It didn't matter that I'd not know the Thai language. I no longer wanted to speak to anyone. I never had.
Three days later, the motor conked out. No gas. We floated south in the current, or so we thought. All the mountains and land had vanished. Thanh said he had made a mistake and didn't know where we were now. Once in a while we would see a ship, but we could never row to it. We didn't think we should. That was the same day our fresh water ran out. The smell of salt was unbearable afterwards. All of us knew that we should have been on the Thai island by now. We rowed desperately, but this made us thirsty. One of the women passed out from dehydration. Then another. And another. It was probably two days, I couldn't tell, when I saw the grim image. A black…
At the American coastline, the estimated age is between 1 and 60 million years. Finally, at the borderline with the Philippine and the Australian Plates, the approximated age is somewhere between 160, up to 180, or even 200 million years.
6) the Atlantic Ocean plate is similar to that of the Pacific Ocean in the meaning that its age differs. Just like with the Pacific crust, the Atlantic crust is younger at one border, to grow older towards the middle of the ocean, and even older as it reaches the opposite border.
7) the spatial pattern of the crustal age is consistent with the theory of the plate tectonics, which argues that -- at one point in time (or even at several times) -- the entire lands on the planet were joined together (ockhounding Arkansas, 1998). The pattern of the crustal age is consistent with this theory as it reveals…
Orfano, F., 2010, Topography of the ocean floor, Bright Hub, http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/civil/articles/63495.aspx last accessed on January 6, 2011
Patchett, P.J., Samson, S.D., 2003, Ages and growth of the continental crust from radiogenic isotopes, the Crust, Vol. 3
1998, Our changing Earth, Rockhounding Arkansas, http://www.rockhoundingar.com/geology/condrift.html last accessed on January 6, 2011
Crustal age, National Geographic Data Center, http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/WorldCrustalAge.gif last accessed on January 6, 2011
We do believe our design will help the kooma people to get access to cheap and clean drinking water from within their very own communities, and in addition to providing them with the health and cost benefits of having a readily available supply of clean drinking water, and make their life better and bit more comfortable.
We as a team struggled at first because of the initial delays to our progress in both the research and the design phases of this project due to various reasons. Eventually, however, everyone became engaged in the work allocated by the team leader to each individual person, and with each one of us as a team working really hard to achieve our goals we achieved much greater satisfaction from the project. The newfound fervor with which the team approached this project began with discussions on a number of various of different designs,…
Near the middle of the sea in what is now Kansas sediments were deposited at a fast rate creating about an inch of compacted chalk each 700 years. Some of the worlds finest fossils have been discovered here. The crinoid Uintacrinus and fish Ichthyodectes are two examples. (Fossilmuseum.net NP)
hen other regions have such finds they are news, while the shelf and chalk deposit areas of the estern Interior Seaway boast finds nearly every digging season, by both hobbyists and professional scholars. hile other scholars are quick to point out that marine fossils are abundant the vertebrate fossil record is relatively barren, this is likely due to the significantly fossil bearing conditions of the silt sea bottom and its storm driven record keeping system, where large silt deposits moved rapidly over large areas in short periods of time and created a relative recording of the living and dead creatures in…
Baldridge, W.S. (2004). Geology of the American Southwest: a journey through two billion years of plate-tectonic history. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
Brigham, a.P. (1905). A Textbook of Geology. New York, NY: D. Appleton and Co.
Everhart, M. (2010). Oceans of Kansas Paleontology. Retrieved November 17, 2010, from Oceans of Kansas: http://www.oceansofkansas.com/
Everhart, M. (2007). Seamonsters: Prehistoric Creatures of theDeedp . Washington, DC: National Geographic Press.
The fact that at any instant in time uncountable trillions or quadrillions of individual water molecules are either entering or leaving the ocean makes the prospect of measuring the number of water molecules in the Atlantic Ocean absolutely impossible. The same observation applies to the prospect of counting every single grain of sand along the vast Atlantic Ocean shores.
However, neither Thorndike nor Ludlow would ever have argued that the Atlantic Ocean does not exist. Therefore, even at the macro level of ordinary matter (i.e. individual water molecules and grains of sand) the only defensible interpretation of the Thorndike/Ludlow expression is that it presumes the same concept as expressed by Galton. In that regard, there is no question that an unquantifiable phenomenon may indeed exist notwithstanding its defiance of measurement. the, the meaning of the phrase "If it exists, it can be measured; if it can't be measured, it doesn't…
Feynman R. (1995). Six Easy Pieces. New York: Helix.
Hawking S. (2002). The Theory of Everything: The Origin and Fate of the Universe.
Beverly Hills, CA: New Millennium Press.
Ludlow LH. (1998). "Galton: The First Psychometrician?" Popular Measurement (Spring
Just as the physical properties of ocean water and lake water differ from one another in some ways but relatively similar in others, that is also the case with much of the biological life in the respective environments. On one hand, many freshwater animals (such as beaver, muskrat, mink, and otter) typically live in lakes but also spend a significant amount of time on land. Meanwhile, ocean seals and penguins spend much more time in the water by comparison. Likewise, the organisms living in the ocean tend to grow much larger than their freshwater counterparts.
On the other hand, some of the freshwater dolphin, sharks, and other lake and river-dwelling species also grow quite large. Furthermore, there is also reliable evidence that some of the largest saltwater predators such as bull sharks sometimes hunt in freshwater environments as well. Other similarities between saltwater and freshwater species are quite evident even…
For example, due to prevailing oceanic currents and environmental issues, a significant amount of marine debris is both generated and deposited in Korean Coastal waterways. The Korean government has removed almost 100 tons of debris in the past decade, but realizes the problem is ongoing. To reduce their own costs and improve efficiency, the Korean government incents fishermen to collect marine debris during fishing. This idea, certainly applicable to any nation with coastal waters, bot improves the efficiency of governmental collection programs, and in the long run, helps educate and compensate local fishermen (Cho, 2008).
These, and other management programs, continue to develop among the world's fishing nations. Agencies are focused on three major goals: educate young people in all countries that the world is interdependent and the oceans must be maintained for the health of the planet; educate the public, private, tourist, and fishing populations to their individual…
"South Korean divers combat marine debris and raise funds for underwater conservation on Earth Day." Project Aware. Cited in:
See the treaty, resources, and commentary in "Oceans and Law of the Sea," Cited in: http://www.un.org/los/ .
As a Platoon Commander Petty Officer in 2007, I was responsible for 26 midshipmen, of which several were from varied ethic backgrounds. Furthermore, some come from vastly different backgrounds from my own.
This experience was enhanced during my work as Company Honor Board Chairman Petty Office in 2007. I was responsible in that role for instilling values of honor for over 150 midshipmen. In this group were represented not only a wide range of ethnic groups but socioeconomic groups as well. Given that my role involved instilling a common set of values in such a disparate group, I gained extensive experience in handling individuals with different backgrounds and therefore different philosophies with regards to the concept of honor. Many individuals required one-on-one training because their backgrounds were so different from the concept of honor that I was trying to instill. This gave me an amazing amount of direct experience dealing…
Ambrose wonders why this art form faded, and speculates that because making well-designed pottery was so "labor-intensive" that it required special tools and hence became "too burdensome to descendent settlers" who no doubt had "increasing local social priorities" (Ambrose 2003 p. 214).
Conclusion: Certainly a greater volume of information about Lapita people and their ceramic skills will be forthcoming through future research. Meantime, an interesting discovery was made in 2005, as reported in an Australian National University (ANU) media release prepared by Tim inkler. "Headless skeletons of the Lapita people…were excavated by ANU archaeologists Professor Matthew Spriggs and Dr. Stuart Bedford" (http://info.anu.edu.au). Very few complete Lapita pots "have ever been found," the release asserts, and this one was a "flat-bottomed dish placed upside down… [and] around its sides were designs of human faces" (ANU). hen the pot was lifted up out of the sand, the scientists realized it was the…
Ambrose, Wal. "The implements of Lapita ceramic stamped ornamentation." The Australian
National University / Department of Archaeology and Natural History, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. Retrieved April 28, 2009, from http://www.epress.anu.edu.au/terra_australis/ta26/pdr/ch13.pdf.
Felgate, Matthew Walter. "Reading Lapita in Near Oceania: Intertidal and Shallow-Water
Pottery Scatters, Roviana Lagoon, New Georgia, Solomon Islands." The University of Auckland (2003). Retrieved April 27, 2009, from http://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz .
It should not be a difficult question to answer: we must begin reducing ocean pollution and taking steps to prohibit overfishing of our ocean shallows.
The plan that is formulated to address the overfishing and man-made pollutants in the coral reefs must be conducted by authorities in marine and ecological sciences. It must be conducted on two levels: the fishing industry associated with the catches on the coral reefs; and the pollutants that are introduced into the coral reefs through contact with man. This can be done by monitoring commercial tourism and diving industries, which claim there is no residual effect on the coral reefs (Carrier, James, and McLeod, Donald, 2005, p. 315).
The Plan for Preserving the Coral eefs
Action Items in the correct order)
esearch and identify the effects of overfishing of species found in coral reefs.
eview fishing data as it pertains to catches,…
BBC/Discovery Channel (2006). Planet Earth: Shallow Seas, documentary film,
Discovery Channel, 12 October 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009915994
Carrier, J.G., & Macleod, D.V. (2005). Bursting the Bubble: The Socio-Cultural Context of Ecotourism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(2), 315+. Retrieved October 26, 2008, from Questia database:
Still there are those who hope that the billions of dollars, the energy, and the time that have been spent to protect Venice from high tides will resolve the water problems which Venice experiences every day, and that in the future there will still be a city to live in, and to visit for its beauty and worth (Lyss710, p. 1).
Bon, E. (2002). Acqua alta (high water). Venice Court. etrieved April 20, 2008 at http://www.comune.venezia.it/flex/cm/pages/ServeBLOB.php/L/EN/IDPagina/1066.
Hale, E. (2003). Can Venice be saved? USA Today. etrieved April 20, 2008 at http://www.usatoday.com/travel/news/2003/2003-03-05-venice.htm.
Italy Heaven. (2008). Tourist guide to Venice. Italy Heaven. Website. etrieved April 20, 2008 at http://www.italyheaven.co.uk/veneto/venice/index.html.
Lysse710. (2001). Coming soon: Venice underwater? Travelocity. etrieved April 20, 2008 at http://www.igougo.com/travelcontent/journalEntryFreeForm.aspx?reviewID=1214417.
Poggoli, S. (2008). Venice offers lessons on coping with rising seas. NP: All Things Considered, January 7, 2008. etrieved April 19, 2008 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=17910734.
Willey, D. (2007). Venice…
Bon, E. (2002). Acqua alta (high water). Venice Court. Retrieved April 20, 2008 at http://www.comune.venezia.it/flex/cm/pages/ServeBLOB.php/L/EN/IDPagina/1066 .
Hale, E. (2003). Can Venice be saved? USA Today. Retrieved April 20, 2008 at http://www.usatoday.com/travel/news/2003/2003-03-05-venice.htm .
Italy Heaven. (2008). Tourist guide to Venice. Italy Heaven. Website. Retrieved April 20, 2008 at http://www.italyheaven.co.uk/veneto/venice/index.html .
Lysse710. (2001). Coming soon: Venice underwater? Travelocity. Retrieved April 20, 2008 at http://www.igougo.com/travelcontent/journalEntryFreeForm.aspx?reviewID=1214417 .
Hamilton explains that while Continental Lithosphere is as much as 93 miles thick, the "Oceanic Lithosphere" is much thinner - up to perhaps six miles. Indeed, the oceanic crust makes up only 0.099% of earth's mass, according to Hamilton. Oceanic lithosphere is a product of the volcanic magma that pushes up to force tectonic plates aside. As new oceanic lithosphere is actually formed the heat that comes up with the magma "escapes the interior as this new lithosphere emerges from below" in the Red Sea and elsewhere where there are tectonic plates spreading.
As the lithosphere cools, it contracts and then "moves away from the ridge, traveling across the seafloor to subduction zones." This process is technically called "seafloor spreading." After the lithosphere has been on the Red Sea floor for a while, it thickens up, Hamilton writes, and as it becomes even denser than the mantle just below…
Coleman, Robert G. (1993). Geologic Evolution of the Red Sea. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hamilton, Rosanna L. (1997). Earth's Interior & Plate Tectonics. Los Alamos National
Laboratory. Retrieved April 11, 2008, at http://www.solarviews.com/eng/earthint.htm .
Lovgren, Stefan. (2006). Red Sea Region Parting in Massive Split. National Geographic News.
The contribution of these discoveries to the field is significant. It could for example contribute to a greater understanding of the origin of life on earth. Scientists for example can further study the creatures discovered around the vents for the purpose of such an understanding. Further implications relate to the cycle of heat and chemicals to the seafloor and the waters overlying it. In related disciplines, it is possible that many of the large ore bodies on land are believed to have been formed as a result of these vent systems.
This relates to a long-term interdisciplinary study funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. In addition to studying the vent system, ecosystem, and waters around the chimney, scientists are now also able to gain information relating to how earthquakes work.
iscoveries and studies such as the one described in the article prove that, vast though the body of human…
Discoveries and studies such as the one described in the article prove that, vast though the body of human knowledge is, it still only scratches the surface of what is available to still discover. This serves both a humbling and encouraging function. Scientists can be humbled by the extent of what they do not yet know, as well as by the vast area of knowledge opened up by the new discovery. They are now able to study millions of years of evolution on the basis of the ocean floor structure and its vent systems. On the other hand, scientists can be encouraged for the same reasons: many new fields of discovery have been made possible both by the fact that new studies can be based upon the results, and also by the understanding that many other misconceptions may exist in other scientific fields. Furthermore, scientists can also be encouraged by the fact that many different disciplines are now involved in making the discoveries described in the article. Scientists who have never before had reasons to work together can now become teams of investigators to further knowledge and an understanding of how the world around us works.
Earthquakes Under Pacific Floor Reveal Unexpected Circulatory System. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 26, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com - / releases/2008/01/080109173830.htm
Island nations may be beautiful, but their isolation makes them vulnerable to outside forces that increasingly threaten their survival. Rising sea levels linked to global warming could submerge some altogether. Tuvalu, a est Pacific nation whose peak height rises just 5 meters over sea level, could be uninhabitable within 50 years, some experts say. A similar fate could also doom the Maldives, the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tokelau. Of all the threats facing island nations, the rise in sea level could be the most catastrophic....in the early 1990s, satellites began generating more comprehensive profiles of global sea level. Thanks to these orbiting systems, scientists now know that the average global rate of sea level rise has increased 50% during the last 12 years -- up to 3 millimeters per year from a 50-year annual average of 2 millimeters,...NASA..
hen we discuss this issue we often slide back to…
Mastny, Lisa. "More Evidence of Antarctic Melting Reported." World Watch July-Aug. 2005: 9.
Pitois, Sophie, Michael H. Jackson, and Brian J.B. Wood. "Sources of the Eutrophication Problems Associated with Toxic Algae: An Overview." Journal of Environmental Health 64.5 (2001): 25.
Schmidt, Charles W. "Keeping Afloat: A Strategy for Small Island Nations." Environmental Health Perspectives 113.9 (2005): 606.
Schwartz, Brian S., Cindy Parker, Thomas a. Glass, and Howard Hu. "Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do about it Now?." Environmental Health Perspectives 114.12 (2006): 1807.
The research submarine, the NR-1 is provided by the U.S. Navy, and is the country's only nuclear-powered submarine used for underwater research. The submarine holds video cameras, sample-collection equipment and other tools that will help the researchers in their quest to map the sea floor.
Other technology to help the researchers with their work includes "telepresence" technology. This technology will be used for both commercial and expedition-related purposes. In terms of the former, the general public and interested members of the scientific community will be able to follow the expedition in real-time. In terms of the expedition itself, the principal researchers will also use the technology to lead the expedition. During the expedition, these researchers will be located at Mystic Aquarium & Institute or Exploration, where they will use a remote science console for their interactions with the team.
Scuba dives themselves ae a vey impotant taget fo pactices that can ensue futue sustainability fo Califonia's ocean esouces.
The poblem is howeve that, like geneal pollution fom fo example plastic, many people, and even official in chage of oceanic potection often abuse thei powe by concealing fom the public the tuth about the state of pollution. By doing this, the public, including scuba dives, ae not awae of the tue extent of the poblem, and can theefoe not do anything to mitigate the poblem.
Specifically, accoding to Envionment Califonia (2006), only 30 of the 167 fish populations in the coasts of Califonia ae healthy; the othes being negatively affected by vaious foms of pollution. Accoding to the aticle, this numbe has shown no impovement between 2001 and 2006, the latte being the yea of witing. The blame fo this phenomenon is placed at the doo of govenmental agencies that…
references based on level of development. http://www.nysgextension.org/underwater/underwfiles/scubareport1.html
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
A three: 63% of Americans in a recent study believe that "regulations and laws" that are intended to protect our oceans are not strict enough, while 16% say laws are ok;
c) the knowledge most people have about the science related to the ocean and coast is not high.
A one: citizens are unaware of threats to the oceans, though the threats are immediate two: 50% of people recognize that factories are a pollution source, but only 24% recognize that "runoff" is what causes the pollution from factories and oil refineries three: 75% of people in one survey believed trees and forests give off more oxygen than oceans; and 60% of respondents didn't know that there are more plant and animal species on oceans than on land.
A four: about 45% of those polled between that between 11 and 20% of U.S. coastal regions are now in federally protected zones;…
Coyle, Kevin J. "Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy: How Public Opinion and Knowledge Research Helps Inform Ocean and Coastal Science Education Programming at NOAA." National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. 2005.
" (Science Daily, 2006) Scientists state that they suspect temperature as playing a critical role in dispersal of larvae because "metabolic processes in larvae are sensitive to temperature and similar among species." (Science Daily, 2006)
Certainly, the importance of knowledge gained in this area of science has never been so critical as the life in the world's ocean is faced with change after change due to the climate changes occurring. Furthermore the understanding garnered in this study is of critical importance when considering the temperature changes that are occurring and are due to occur as the ice shelves melt and drift into the ocean current and begin cooling down the presently ocean waters that are presently experiencing higher than usual temperatures. The future of marine life is critically important in the commercial fishery industry and as well is just as important in the food-supply of those living on earth.…
Game animals may have been negatively impacted so that both animals and humans had to move to better areas -- most likely along the rivers and coastlines of Southwestern Europe where they could hunt and fish. Solutrean artists left evidence in rock art, which shows sea mammals, deep water fish, and great auks.
Faunal collections also show Solutreans were making use of marine resources, which were available all year round. All this would have required tool kits, waterproof clothes, nets, harpoons, and watercraft.
The authors theorize that seal would have played a large role in their lives. Probably, the Solutreans developed techniques for hunting seal during a colder period, and when the weather got warmer they would have had to travel farther out to find seals, eventually making extended trips. They came to the Atlantic Coast by following the migration of Canadian seals. Some families decided to stay. The authors…
If the area they were placed in was prone to blizzards, earthquakes, terrorist outbreaks or anything else the public to be educated that if it heard the sirens it meant that specific disaster was likely occurring, had occurred or was about to occur.
The sirens are also universally recognized as a warning system therefore the process of installation and public education would not be significantly difficult to complete.
TSUNAMI WANING SYSTEM
The world was shocked and traumatized when the Indian Ocean Tsunami hit a few years ago and hundreds of thousands of people died as a result of that disaster.
When it struck there was very little or no warning for most of those who were impacted by its arrival.
Most people did not know it was coming until they saw the giant wave coming toward them as they stood on shore (Indian Ocean tsunami warning system (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4524642.stm).
Outdoor Warning System http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/EM/Disaster_Preparedness/sirens.php
Indian Ocean tsunami warning system http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4524642.stm
From the beginning of the play until the end, Nora and her family are victims of fate. They are stuck in a rut and the sea, their enemy, is personified through their suffering. Fate insists that fighting against the sea is futile. Nora knows this and she tries to convince Bartley before the sea takes his life. From this perspective, we see how mankind has no control over his destiny; he lives at the mercy of the universe.
The theme of death and the failure to overcome fate establish this play as one with a naturalist perspective. The characters in this play cannot overcome the elements of their environment. In fact, each one is picked off in a similar fashion and regardless of how these men think they can outsmart the sea, they fail. Bartley is hopeful when tells his mother and sister, "I'll ride down on the red mare,…
Synge, John. Riders to the Sea.
In the fall, they migrate from the summer feeding grounds, heading south along the coast of North America to Mexico, to the calving and nesting waters of the Sea of Cortez, where they seek shelter and the calmer waters of Scammon's Lagoon, at Baja, California. Calves are born in the shallow lagoons and bays from early January to mid February. Then the north bound journey begins in mid February to May, the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales can be seen migrating with newborn calves along the west coast of America. The new born calves have a pebbly appearance, like a slate gray 'dill pickle" -- this is an easy visual to identify them. Thanks to the whalewatch industry, that began in the 1970's, this is one of the best documented whale species on earth.
2) Humpback whale migration
During the summer months, humpbacks spend the majority of their…