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The popularity of the case made celebrities out of the judge, lawyers and criminal justice officials participating in the case. Today, 11 years after the case ended, the debate continues.
Guilty or Not?
Evidence displayed by the prosecution included a genetic match between Simpson's blood and blood found at the crime scene and proof that blood matching both Goldman's and Nicole Simpson's was found in Simpson's Ford ronco and in his home.
The defense team argued that the blood evidence was either the result of poor police work or had been planted by racist police officers (C, 1995). The defense showed tapes of Mark Fuhrman, one of the LAPD officers to search Simpson's house after the murders, using racist terms in a 1994 interview. The defense attorney compared Fuhrman to Adolf Hitler and pleaded with the jury to "do the right thing" and send the police a message about racism…… [Read More]
O.J. Simpson Trials: Criminal vs. Civil
One of the most confusing aspects of the OJ Simpson saga for laypersons was that Simpson was apparently tried twice for his crimes, despite the protection against 'double jeopardy' or being retried for the same offense. In the American justice system, once a defendant is tried for murder, even if new evidence is discovered against him or her, there can be no retrial for the same crime (Grubbs 2016). The distinction is that Simpson was first tried in criminal court and was found guilty but was then tried in civil court in a suit brought by the family of the victims of the crimes, who demanded financial restitution for the wrongful death of Nicole Brown Simpson and on Goldman (Grubbs 2016). The burden of proof in civil court is far less onerous than in criminal court, given that defendants can only be penalized with…… [Read More]
O.J. and Nicole
The case of O.J. Simpson, who was found guilty in civil court for the wrongful deaths of Nicole Brown and her friend Ronald Goldman, was the ex-husband of Nicole and had been charged in the past, during their marriage with spousal abuse. It may be said that in this case study, the theory of victim precipitation (passive) could be applied, as Nicole's friendship with Ronald following so soon upon her separation and divorce from O.J. could be said to be the reason that O.J. attacked and killed both -- or to use the parlance of the civil court case, the reason that O.J. was "responsible" for the deaths of Nicole and Ronald.
O.J. Simpson was a professional football player in the NFL. He was also a popular entertainer and had appeared in films like The Naked Gun and each of their sequels, also starring Leslie Nielson. He…… [Read More]
The Los Angeles Police Department and the Coroner's Office apparently did allow enough room for error to make it difficult for the prosecution to meet its burden of proof and those mistakes were no doubt compounded by the decision to put Detective Mark Fuhrman on the stand without sufficiently investigating his reputation. The focus on race was largely the responsibility of a deliberate defense strategy in connection with the (unspoken and never acknowledged) apparent intention of the defense team to take advantage of the phenomenon of juror nullification to issue a verdict that was contrary to the weight of the evidence and predicated more on the perception of racial injustice in general than on the merits of the actual case before the jury.
Dershowitz, a. (1996). easonable Doubts. New York: Simon & Schuster.… [Read More]
OJ Simpson Versus the People: Impact on Criminal justice
The American criminal justice process and system are responsible for shaping the present-day US laws; influential entities include even 19th-century governmental authorities and political leaders. The system, which comprises law enforcement bodies like local police forces, correctional facilities and criminal courts, was primarily created for ensuring American citizens’ safety. It constitutes a structural framework that facilitates the maintenance of law and order in American society (Zedner & Ashworth, 2012; \"Justice, Western Theories\", 2018; Baldwin, 1912).
According to Mueller (1996), the structuring of the US criminal justice system has gone through several modifications after historic events occurred within the criminal law context that uncovered the system’s shortcomings (Mueller, 1996). These events, perhaps, influenced lawmakers to enforce amendments and change the case execution process, for appropriately upholding justice. One such case is that of OJ Simpson, who was tried for killing Nicole Brown…… [Read More]
Although in this particular case it seemed that Scott Peterson was guilty, even if the evidence was just circumstantial, this type of evidence has sent many people to death, only to find out later that they were not guilty. This is actually a flaw of the jury system. The European continental system lets a judge appreciate whether a person is guilty or not of some crime. Since judges have to pass an exam in order to be appointed and since they are not elected for some period of time, their complete independence is assured. This way, an impartial judge would be indifferent to the media pressure and would weigh the evidence better than any jury, since a judge certainly has more experience than any juror. However, the American legal system chose to put ordinary people to judge other ordinary people, with the "guilty beyond reasonable doubt" principle as the only…… [Read More]
"The criterion for the admissibility of a confession has thus evolved into the quality of voluntariness. The aim of admitting into evidence only voluntary confessions is to prevent the introduction of unreliable evidence. & #8230; the result is that judges may exclude confessions where the coercion is blatant and obvious but not exclude confessions where the coercion" is more subtle -- the jury is left to decide the confession's veracity in this case (akefield & Underwager 20009).
Discuss and provide examples pertaining to the waiver of privilege against self-incrimination.
The protection against self-incrimination does not apply to "non-testimonial evidence" such as giving examples of one's voice, police line-ups, blood samples or fingerprints (Lesson 12, 2009, Slide 4)
The principal restriction of impeachment by the use of evidence of misconduct can result in a conviction of a witness. Explain this concept and give examples.
Impeaching the testimony…… [Read More]
Both Andrew and Abby had been killed in a similar manner -- crushing blows to their skills from a hatchet (Tetimony of Bridget Sullivan in the Trial of Lizzie Borden).
Just prior to the murder there was a great deal of conflict at the Borden house. The two living Borden sisters, Lizzie and Emma, occupied the front of the house, while Andrew and Abby the rear. Meals were rarely served as a family; Andrew was very tight and rejected many modern conviencences and the two daughters, well past marriage age for this time period, argued with their Father about his decision to dive the valuable properties among extended relatives before his death instad of the estate going to them. Lizzie did not hate her step-mother, but did not really enjoy her company and the combination of Andrew's monetary views, the new social mores of the time, and Andrew's insistence that…… [Read More]
Media Coverage of Trials
Providing in-depth coverage of trials, including pretrial hearings and all events related to a case has become a prime topic for the television media. In the last five years, the television channel "Court TV" has acquired over twenty million viewers (Lassiter, 1996). In addition, a body of research exists demonstrating that pretrial media coverage affects the outcomes of some trials (ruschke & Loges, 1999). A variety of experts including lawyers, psychologists, and communication experts have all suggested that pretrial publicity, when negative, may influence juries negatively against defendants (Dixon & Linz, 2002) in spite of the fact that under our legal system, a person is considered innocent unless and until proven guilty in a court of law.
ut at the same time, one of the most cherish rights given to us in the Constitution is freedom of the press -- the right of the media to…… [Read More]
Civil vs. Criminal Law
The American justice system differentiates between civil (tort) and criminal law, with the most significant distinction being that the state generally has the authority to prosecute crimes but not torts, while individuals have the power to directly bring civil but not criminal charges. The goals of a criminal case are to determine the guilt or innocence of the accused, but also to uphold the tenets of the law, protecting the public safety and in many cases offering some form of victim restitution to promote principled justice (“The Difference Between Torts and Crimes,” 2004).
The distinction is due to the perception that crimes are affronts to the state, and require no individual plaintiff. On the other hand, tort law covers contracts between parties and not between one party and the state. The general public represented by a jury plays a part in criminal but not…… [Read More]
The discussion below is an analysis of a criminal prosecution case that was celebrated
The OJ Simpson Case; Criminal Procedures
The presiding judge indicated that she was satisfied with the prosecutions argument. Judge Kathleen pointed out that she was convinced that Mr. Simpson had questions to answer in the superior court about the murder of Nicole Brown Simpson and onald L. Gold man on 12th June night. This ruling was a conclusion of a hearing that ran for six days to determine whether the prosecution had a strong case against Mr. Simpson to enable it to proceed to trial. Lawyer Shapiro, representing Mr. Simpson, argued for the dismissal of the case. The case was one of the most celebrated ones in nearly a decade. He further pointed out that the police should be allowed to complete their investigations at the very minimum for the case to continue. Detectives…… [Read More]
2. Freedman, Jonathan. (2007). "No real evidence for TV violence causing real violence."
Retrieved July 7, 2010 from:
This source is an Internet editorial article published online on April 27, 2007 by Jonathan
Freedman, a Psychology professor and former department chairperson at the University
of Toronto. Professor Freedman has taught previously at Stanford University and Columbia University and has chaired the department at the University of Toronto.
Professor Freedman's central thesis is his fundamental opposition to the position taken in
2007 by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) that violence in media is a causal factor in actual aggression and violence in society. According to Professor
Freedman, the FCC relied on inaccurate information on the number of relevant studies, and also failed to distinguish between empirically valid information and anecdotal information in reaching their position on the issue. Professor Freedman also suggests the need to differentiate between depictions of…… [Read More]
Research Question and Introduction Development
Topic: Safeguarding the criminal justice system from wrongful convictions through an efficient innocence program
Research Question: What aspects of the innocence program need improvement, and in what ways, in order to guard the judicial system from wrongful convictions? (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, 2004)
Wrongful conviction is an abuse of justice. It entails the sentencing and subsequent punishment of someone for crimes they never committed (Huff & Killias, 2013). Wrongful convictions can happen in civil and criminal cases alike. Many criminal justice processes have been tailored to overcome this possibility and overturn such erroneous judicial decisions. It is quite difficult to achieve this, however, due to fundamental challenges in the judicial system. Wrongful convictions may take years or decades to overturn. In some instances the discovery of innocence happens after a person has already served their time in prison, after they are dead or after…… [Read More]
Rational for Selecting Juries
Page 3 Generalizations about juries
Page 4 General comments: jury service
Page 4 General comments: summoning juries
Page 5 General comments: Simpson jury
Page 6 Jurors errors and DNA analysis
Role of Juries
Close Scrutiny of Juries and Jury Selection
Role of Juries
There is rarely any debate when it comes to the pivotal role of juries in the United States' system of justice. It is the "foundation of the American justice system" and is "Vital to our democracy and our system of checks and balances," according to the American Judicature Society (AJS). The AJS goes on to call the jury system " ... the fundamental safeguard of our constitutional liberties." Certainly it is not perfect and it can be manipulated by shrew lawyers in some cases, but true, fair, outcomes are possible and those outcomes depend on the quality of the jurors who are chosen…… [Read More]
Generally, product manufacturers and marketers do everything possible to maintain their products in the most positive light possible, avoiding negative associations at all costs. In many respects, and as a general rule, that is an approach that is highly likely to be beneficial to sales revenue. However, there are several dramatic examples that seem to illustrate that publicity and notoriety can be tremendously beneficial even when that publicity and notoriety arises in connection with obviously negative connotations.
In 1994, O.J. Simpson, a retired NFL all-star and Hollywood actor murdered his ex-wife, Nicole Brown-Simpson and, onald Goldman, a friend of hers in cold blood. Although he was acquitted in a controversial criminal trial in 1995, his guilt was fairly obvious from the start and in 1997, Simpson was found liable to the parents of onald Goldman for the wrongful death of their son. During the trial, the prosecution introduced…… [Read More]
Media in the Courtroom
High profile court cases, especially murder trials and celebrity cases are more likely to attract the national media than ordinary cases that usually of no interest beyond the local level. These are also the kinds of cases when the issue of TV cameras in the courtroom is most significant, and when judges have to give serious thought to handing down gag orders that block all public discussion of the case for the duration of the trial. In this era of Internet, Facebook, 24-hour cable news and YouTube, any events or statements in the court can easily become 'viral' and be seen instantly by millions of people around the world. For most of the 20th Century, recording devices and movie and TV cameras were not allowed in the courts, but only reports from the print media and drawings by sketch artists. This technology existed for many decades…… [Read More]
In the scientific literature it is difficult to find a useful concept for the news craze. In Media Matters (1994) John Fiske uses the word 'media event'. These kinds of events have their own reality and their own patterns. "The term media event is an indication that in a postmodern world we can no longer rely on a stable relationship or clear distinction between a 'real' event and its mediated representation. A media event, then, is not mere a representation of what happened, but it has its own reality, which gathers up into itself the reality of the event that may or may not have preceded it." The media construct a 'hyperreality', in which a struggle is going on about the interpretation and meanings of what is going on in the world.
This kind 'hyperreality' applies to all forms of communication. According to an article in "
Wired Magazine,"…… [Read More]
Even before the civil trial where it was determined that he did, in fact, kill two people, there was substantial evidence to any objective observer that Simpson obviously was responsible for the gruesome crime scene at his ex-wife's house. He fled the state the next morning, left traces of his own blood at the murder scene, and even managed to drip his ex-wife's blood into the interior of his vehicle. Meanwhile, as he led California police on a nationally-televised slow-speed highway chase, thousands of supporters came out with signs and banners supporting him. Because he once ran fast holding a ball.
During the time that Simpson was on trial for murder, the public also learned that he had an extensive history of physically abusing his ex-wife for years prior to their divorce and even saw Polaroid pictures of her bloody and swollen face that she had preserved in her safety…… [Read More]
Social psychologists have shown that a group can be heavily influenced by the dominating, authoritarian decision making of one or more strong supporters of the death penalty.
Despite the democratic process of picking jury members, many typical jury selection practices later lead the group of twelve picked to be of a certain caliber, based on the characteristics of those chosen and how those characteristics relate within a group setting. Since the 1970's, social psychologists have been used by counsel to help ensure victory in the outcome of certain cases. Due to the influential potential of a jury's opinion, venue becomes essential in the outcome of the case. The trial of the police officers in the Rodney King beating was set in Simi Valley; the general population being extremely conservative and too many, racist. Modern professionals trained in jury selection based on social psychology findings are known in today's industry as…… [Read More]
If police officers are not sufficiently deterred by the prospect of evidence being suppressed at a hearing where a person's liberty is in jeopardy, it is a fortiori that they will not be deterred by the possibility of suppression at a civil forfeiture hearing where only the person's property is in jeopardy.
Law enforcement officials have much to gain in the outcome of the issues raised in Scott, and will likely bring challenges to the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture. While the court's trend is moving away from applying the exclusionary rule in civil contexts, law enforcement agencies are increasingly relying on civil tools to attack crime. At the forefront of this movement is the use of civil forfeiture to seize the fruits and instrumentalities of the narcotics trade. Civil forfeiture statutes allow law enforcement officers to seize privately held assets that have been used in a crime, a practice…… [Read More]
Cable television also opened up the medium to numerous types of television programming that had previously been excluded, simply because it could never have competed with the demand for mainstream types of programs during the same time slot.
Initially, cable television was only available in the largest markets like New York and Los Angeles and it was priced out of the range of most consumers. The technology also required a cable connecting the television to the channel box, which often was the size of small dinner platter. Within a few years, the technology advanced to the point of providing microwave remote controls that were no larger than those already included with many television sets.
The addition of virtually unlimited available channels resulted in the creation of dozens of specialty-interest program content such as cable television channels dedicated exclusively to history, science, nature, sports, politics, and comedy, to name just several.…… [Read More]
Casey Anthony Trial
The murder trial Florida vs. Casey Marie Anthony turned into a national sensation because of the alleged attempt by 25-year-old Casey Anthony to cover up the murder of her own 2-year-old daughter, Caylee Anthony (Alvarez, 2011). On July 5, 2011, after nearly six weeks of courtroom testimony and just 11 hours of deliberation, the jury found Casey Anthony not guilty. The prosecution's failure to convince the jury of her guilt was widely perceived to be the result of the circumstantial nature of the evidence presented at trial.
Casey Anthony had initially blamed the disappearance of her daughter on a kidnapping by a babysitter called Zenaida Herndandez-Gonzalez (Lohr, n.d.), but a series of lies, a month-long delay before contacting the police, a nonexistent babysitter with that name, and reports of partying since her daughter went missing, helped the prosecution cast Casey as a mother capable killing her own…… [Read More]
Menendez Brothers Case
The Menendez murder case happened more than a quarter century ago but it is still one of the more notorious murder cases in the United States. It was the case of two men that were barely adults and how they shot and killed their parents. There are so many themes that could be looked at when assessing this case including affluence, child abuse, murder motives and the proper way to do a jury or judge-ran trial when so many of these factors exist. While there are many other notorious trials out there, the Menendez case is probably only eclipsed by the O.J. Simpson case in terms of how notorious and theme-laden it was (Blacno, J, 2015; CBS News, 2015; Time, 2015).
The case was a curious one. Indeed, Erik and Lyle Menendez had returned home around the same time that their parents had returned home from going…… [Read More]
real problems faced by real people in the world, it might seem foolish to analyze a fictitious character. But sometimes it is easier to understand human nature when we look to art or fiction, in part because art provides us with some needed distance at times and in part because fictitious characters are often relatively pure distillations of character types. This is the case with the character of Grace from the television show "Grace Under Pressure." This paper provides an analysis of this character using first the Adlerian therapy model, then analyzing her through a behavior model and then finally suggesting a treatment plan for a person with the profile of Grace.
Grace's character - to begin with a thumbnail of her - is presented in the series as a no-nonsense, take-no-guff survivor of a bad marriage that was often abusive (at least in psychological terms). After eight years of…… [Read More]
The author of this report is charged with comparing and contrasting two example lawsuits that many people would deem frivolous. One of the cases relates to a man that apparently thought that the Winnebago motor homes could drive and steer themselves on par with the self-driven Google cars that are coming out just now in 2015. The other case pertains to a man that literally sued for $54 million because a dry cleaner lost a pair of his pants and they had the audacity to say that "satisfaction was guaranteed." Both cases are an abomination of justice, ranging from the laws that were used to bring them, the judges that allowed them to be heard, the insipid lawyers that helped their "plaintiffs" bring their case and the amount of time it took to bring resolution to any of the matters in question. While the civil court system and…… [Read More]
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…… [Read More]
Justice for All
The title itself is an ironic play on words, because as this film plays out, nobody is treated justly -- every character, even the central protagonist played by Al Pacino has either been screwed by the system of justice, or is part of the system that screws others. The "justice" shown in this film is only lip service to a system that is rotten from top to bottom. This is a satire, and a comedy, but there are deeper issues brewing here, because although what happens is an exaggeration of the twisted justice in real life, it also shows the heart beat of how power and politics and justice flourish side-by-side-by-side in the real world.
Anyone who reads the newspapers or watches serious news programs on TV knows that political personalities, individuals in the justice system, corporations, even the media members themselves, are in the news frequently,…… [Read More]
Programs and Services
§ Briefly describe the major programs and services, and the population intended to be served.
Before choosing the programs it is pointed out that about three decades ago, the term 'organizational culture', came in vogue. It resulted in a study of the different styles of organizing. Today the organizational change can be achieved easily and the methods of conducting programs themselves can be a part of a project that involves multiple organizations. Non-profits also came into the scrutiny of these concepts. (Wright, 1994)
The theory now is to see that maximum benefits and opportunities are extended to the subjects by the organization in this case the disadvantaged groups, particularly women and children. The programs seem to be created and managed on the general principles that all organizations follow. There does not seem to be any specific study that was done to incorporate the persons who belong to…… [Read More]
Race continues to play a role in American culture and policy in the 21st century. Average incomes in the United tates are demonstrably dissimilar, affirmative action policies allow campuses to use race as a determining factor when creating student bodies, and race continues to define media and culture to a significant degree. To some extent, these factors should escape our criticism, as it can't be considered desirable for all people from all races and cultural backgrounds to converge into a national monoculture. However, to the extent that people are excluded from opportunities as a result of race rather than merit, we have no choice but to find fault and look for solutions. As Richard Payne writes in Getting Beyond Race, "General racial classifications ignore the obvious biological reality that each individual within the human species, with the exception of identical twins, is genetically unique." (Payne, pg. 1)
The essentialist articulation…… [Read More]
victims and defendants rights extended by the Criminal Justice System. Followed by introduction is the comparison of both sides detailing the rights of victims and defendants by the Criminal Justice System. Conclusion given at the end shows that the Criminal Justice System has more rights to the defendants; however, rights for victims are also increasing in several states.
It has been during the last two decades that the rights of crime victims started to be known in the law. Earlier, none of the crime victims had rights during the criminal justice process. For example, they did not have any right that could notify them of court trial or the arrest or release of the defendant. Further to that they had no right to be presented during the trial or other hearings, or to make a statement to the court at sentencing or at other proceedings (Emmet County).
But now, nations…… [Read More]
extended definition of the abstract concept of jealousy. Jealousy is an emotion, but it is also a concept, and not necessarily one of the most positive and helpful emotions a person can have. Jealousy depends on others to feed it, and so, jealousy cannot survive in a vacuum. Jealousy can be destructive and debilitating, and it is an emotion that can cause great emotional pain and self-doubt.
What is jealousy? Dictionary.com defines jealousy as "A jealous attitude or disposition or close vigilance." However, this succinct definition does not tell the whole story. Jealousy is much more than an attitude or disposition. For some, it is a way of life, and for others, it can consume their life, changing it forever. Take the case of California socialite Betty Broderick, who found her husband with his secretary/lover and killed them both in a jealous rage (Cupach and Spitzberg 33). Jealousy can be…… [Read More]
e should be thankful for this amazing technological development," (Hatch, 2000).
The death penalty must be altered, not abolished. In all new cases, if DNA evidence is not provided as conclusive for the conviction of the arrested, then capital punishment should not even be a consideration. There are already appeals processes in place for those who presently serve on Death Row, and in many of these cases, the inmates have pleaded for DNA testing. This should be executed on a case-by-case basis, pending the jurisdiction of the local judicial system. It was found in the research for this analysis that many of the authors who approve of using DNA testing for exoneration, oppose DNA evidence that has been presented during the time of trial. Much like those who oppose the death penalty and those who support it, there will be continued debate over this new science, which is offering legendary…… [Read More]
death penalty and its effect on crime. The death penalty does not eliminate murder and it ties up our legal system because of appeals and postponements. One state is now even trying to apply the capital punishment rule to other crimes. The legal system has used the capital punishment laws as a way to control minority groups. I am against the death penalty and capital punishment.
The legal system has been very incompetent when it comes to capital punishment. "There are serious and disturbing questions about the convictions of a number of inmates facing execution, particularly in those cases that were tried years ago by unqualified lawyers lacking adequate resources," Dan Goyette said. "e should not proceed with executions until this independent evaluation is completed and we are assured that due process has been fully and properly provided in each and every case. To do otherwise would cast significant doubt…… [Read More]
The consequences of impermissible detention and searches without sufficient probable cause or reasonable suspicion of criminal conduct can result in civil liability on the part of the police agency involved. The most serious types of criminal procedure violations, such as those depriving individuals of fundamental civil rights and freedoms can also trigger serious criminal violations under federal law in addition to civil monetary penalties (Schmalleger, 2008; Zalman, 2008).
Modern American criminal procedure establishes very strict rules that limit the authority of police to question or interrogate criminal suspects as well. Once an individual has been validly arrested, police must advise the individual of his Fifth Amendment rights against self-incrimination and of his Sixth Amendment right to the presence of legal counsel during any questioning before police conduct any interrogation.
The consequences of failing to understand the requirements of criminal procedure in this respect can potentially negate the entire value of…… [Read More]
America's sprawling territories makes it easy for people to leave their families and connections, making it easier to kill or be killed. On one hand, the inventions of the Fair and the belief in commercialism and industry makes spectacle possible in a way that is not easily replicated anywhere else, Eiffel Tower aside. More so than anywhere else, the belief in newness and self-creation seems to be a kind of religion in America. Chicago would recreate itself, and so would Holmes. Science would set America free, leaving older primitive cultures to curiosity cabinets and freak shows, and science would give Holmes the tools to create the perfect murders, and then to profit by selling the remains, letting nothing go to waste in this little 'business' he was running. For both Holmes and Chicago, eradication of the 'dark city' beneath the image of a white facade was the essence of the…… [Read More]
While it may not be just to hold an organization liable, absolutely, for every instance of employee negligence, there is a rationale for imposing such liability in many cases. For example, many types of industries entail potential danger to others that are inherent to the industry.
Individual workers are not likely to be capable of compensating victims of their negligence, but the employer benefits and profits financially by engaging in the particular industry. Therefore, the employer should not necessarily escape liability for compensating all harm caused by their activities, regardless of fault in particular instances.
10.A nurse is responsible for making an inquiry if there is uncertainty about the accuracy of a physician's medication order in a patient's record. Explain the process a nurse should use to evaluate whether or not to make an inquiry into the accuracy of the physician's medication order.
Like other highly trained professionals, experienced nurses…… [Read More]
Although the movie does concentrate on saving the black people on being stereotyped there is a contradiction, it doesn't defend their violent nature. Again the audience is faced with a raw clan which commits murder. lack, violent, illiterate people it is negative image that has been presented several times through the media. In spite of this it is worth considering that the director desire was not at all to depict black people as being very cult people, but he wanted to show two different perspectives about black people, one of them is that some are smart and educated and others have a more furious nature due to the fact that they lack education. The media in any case should not present an elementary part of the black culture. It is rather dazzling to see on the screen such a complex black character as Delacroix. The reviews revealed that people…… [Read More]
" In order to see how this influences the show's representation of the interpersonal relationships of the family, one may examine a scene from the first episode, in which the editing choices serve to identify the shop as a particular kind of expressive space.
The special role of the shop as a space of differential relationships and conversations can be seen in the first episode when Kourtney and Khloe are in the shop discussing a dinner Kourtney had with Scott the night before, where Scott acted aloof and generally impolite. The two sisters discuss Scott's astrological sign and the way it relates to Scott's personality, and later, when Scott arrives, the three of them discuss the variability of Kourtney and Scott's relationship in positive terms, highlighting the fact that they can make up so readily. All the while, Kris has been in the store, but she does not speak throughout…… [Read More]
Defendants and Characteristics of Victims
The criminal justice system has a seemingly impossible task: balancing the rights of the accused with the rights of victims. Further complicating this delicate balance is the demand to recognize the potential impact of prejudice upon the decision-making of police, prosecutors, jurors, and even judges. Although defendants can be members of every class, race, or gender, defendants who are African-American have been historically discriminated against by the criminal justice system. The rising population of Latinos within America has also created challenges, given that Latinos often face linguistic difficulties and assumptions (founded or unfounded) that they are likely to be illegal immigrants.
Discrimination and prejudice is not only suffered by defendants, however. For many years, women who were involved in rape trials would be treated like criminals by defense attorneys, and interrogated about their sexual practices and demeanor. Victims who are older, white, male and more…… [Read More]
Court Was Correct: Silva Deserves to Teach
OJ Simpson was one thing; this time, the courts got it right. Professor Silva used questionable teaching methods, yes, but the federal court's decision was correct: Any possible improprieties did not amount to sexual harassment, and indeed fell into the category of protected speech under the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. As a result, exonerating Silva and reinstituting him with pay is the only possible correct result.
J. Donald Silva was a tenured Communications professor at the University of New Hampshire's Thompson School of Applied Science. (Court, 1) In his lectures in class, Silva once compared writing's focus to sexual activity, and on another occasion elucidated the meaning of a simile with a famed belly dancer's description of her craft. (Greve, 12)
Several female students complained that Silva's comments were inappropriate, and the University Appeals Board suspended him without…… [Read More]
I have been a big fan of the Dallas Cowboys and especially Emmitt Smith for many years. For example, one of the most difficult moments in my appreciation of sports occurred when the Dallas Cowboys released Smith and he ended up on a lackluster Arizona Cardinals. This was after he had just surpassed the late great alter Payton to become the number one rushing running back in the history of the National Football League. "They are the two most punitive judgments that can be handed down for a running back: Too small, too slow. And yet that was the harsh assessment of Emmitt Smith, 5-foot-9 and 199 pounds, by the pro-scouts although he was an All-American at Florida. That same Emmitt Smith who skittered and stutter-stepped his way past the NFL rushing record held by his idol, alter Payton, and finished with 18,355 yards." (Schwartz) There are…… [Read More]
A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…… [Read More]
A fruit of the poisonous tree means any evidence that has been obtained through illegal manner. If a search of a home is conducted illegally and the murder weapon is found during that search the gun would be considered fruits of a poisonous tree because it was obtained by "dirty hands." And as fruits of the poisonous tree the defense would have a right to ask that the gun be banned from introduction as evidence.
If the entire trial is going to rest on evidence that the judge believes is fruits from a poisonous tree the judge may dismiss the entire case at that time.
If the evidence in question is allowed to be introduced at trial there are other ways to challenge it. If it is forensic evidence the defense can hire its own forensic experts who can testify that the testing done on the evidence may have been…… [Read More]
herefore, by increasing the costs of imprisonment by the three strikes law, it is intended that there will be less crime. Marwell and Moody express several difficulties with the laws in the 24 states: Criminals are not always aware of the laws, at least not initially; repeat criminals can be expected to serve substantial prison terms even in the absence of the laws; almost all of the states already had habitual criminal statutes where criminals with prior convictions could be given lengthy sentences under the judge's discretion; the deterrent effect on homicides is limited in any case because the law most likely does not increase sanctions for homicides. However, the law may reduce homicides by deterring robberies and other felonies where homicides may take place; some criminals may limit their expected costs by taking evasive action, such as moving to another jurisdiction or to other areas of crime where the…… [Read More]
In America, the right to a speedy trial is guaranteed inside the Constitution. The case involving the man arrested for manslaughter and jailed for six months brings into question if these protections are being practiced. To fully understand what is happening requires focusing on: the factors the judge should take into consideration when arriving at a decision, if the press has a right to be present during trials and the problems with allowing television cameras inside the courtroom. Together, these elements will highlight the how this provision is applied with changes in technology and the way laws are interpreted. (Vile, 2003)
What factors do you think the judge should take into consideration when trying to arrive at a decision on how to ensure the defendant's right to a public and speedy trial?
During the deliberations, the judge should consider the facts of the case if there is some…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the media has been known to slant certain criminal trials in particular directions. For example, the Casey Anthony trial of just a few years ago, some argue, was slanted in such a manner that the entire nation thought she was guilty. The jury, however, found her not guilty. Given the portrayal of this woman in the media, an entire nation thought that justice had not been served. Jurors were ridiculed and even threatened. An entire uproar had occurred. By allowing court proceedings to be covered by the media, there's a lack of authenticity which is surrendered for recording everything on television.
Furthermore, allowing court proceedings to be televised cheapens the process of justice, by making it a form of entertainment for the masses. This is simply unacceptable. It negates the entire reason that the judicial process was created: the judicial system was developed in order to employ a level…… [Read More]
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]
acism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. acial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…… [Read More]
John Rawls' philosophical theme centers on the topic of "justice as fairness." It's hard not to relate this to one of the growing topics of discussion, namely the importance of digital deception which might well include the idea of airbrushing photos and images. Technology has the capacity today to provide us all with a Veil of Ignorance (Freeman, 2009) that even Rawls did not see coming and one that has the capacity of wiping away the honest elements of rationality and reason that he believes is necessary for people to be able to work together toward a balanced and honest society that works well for everyone.
The issue of airbrushing models or maybe the basic characteristics of those we admire or who are the attention of a public event can mean nothing more than making pictures prettier. This as we know can mean relatively little, or it can lead…… [Read More]
From the beginning of a capital punishment trial, the focus of the legal process is on the perpetrator's rights. If found guilty of the crime for which he or she stands accused, and once the death penalty sentence is imposed, the subsequent legal processes and efforts continue to be focused on the perpetrator's legal rights, but gain the added dimension of his or her human rights. The victim and the victim's surviving family members' rights exist only during the investigation of the crime, when the focus is to bring the perpetrator to justice. Justice, however, is structured to protect the perpetrator's rights; the victim's rights cease once the case goes to trial. Each death sentence becomes a new argument against capital punishment by opponents of the death penalty whose advocacy is relentless. Abolitionists argue for life imprisonment, but the prison system in the United States is a system…… [Read More]
Dirt, mudslinging, hearsay and tittle-tattle are words synonymous with gossip. Encarta defines gossip as conversation about personal or intimate rumors or facts, especially when malicious; informal and chatty conversation or writing about recent and often personal events. Rumors are closely related to gossip in that rumors are usually gossip that is spread and repeated about a person's intimate details. According Robin Dunbar author of Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language, gossip is a natural part of the human species, as apes and monkeys, humanities closets kin used language to keep up-to-date on the happenings of friends and family, just as we do. Dunbar believes that we need conversation to stay in touch, and we need it in ways that will not be satisfied by teleconferencing, e-mail, or any other communication technology. From a religious perspective Rabbi Stephen Wylen suggests in his book The Power of the Word that "idle…… [Read More]
alarm clock will break and so you'll oversleep. When you do wake up, you will burn your lips, tongue and liver on your coffee. Your car will refuse to start, and when it does you will discover that one of your tires is flat. While changing your flat tire you will be bitten by a black-widow spider. Just as you arrive at the emergency room, the nurses will go out on strike. A small earthquake will then strike, crushing your car in the hospital garage. You will develop gangrene after you leave the hospital without being treated - but not before a bicyclist runs into you as you walk home, knocking you down and breaking your glasses.
Okay, maybe we haven't all had days that were exactly this bad, but sometimes they come close - which is no doubt one reason that many people are so attracted to conspiracy theories.…… [Read More]
hy I am Not the Perfect Kid
hen my best friend told me how perfect I was I actually blushed. hat was it that she said, "You have great parents, you're getting great grades in school, you don't drink or smoke, you've never even thought about trying drugs, you're single with no kids -- hell, all nineteen-year-olds should have your life -- It's perfect - ***** -- you're perfect." suppose I blushed because in my head I am not the perfect kid. Besides, what is perfection and why do I feel I have not achieved it? Do I even want to achieve it? hen I think of perfection I always think of the story of John Humphrey No/yes who died in 1886. No/yes was an outspoken religious and communal leader who in the 1860's helped found Oneida Community in central New York. No/yes had some crazy…… [Read More]
United tates Jury ystem
In United tates courts, the jury is a system by which, in theory, defendants are given a trial that is fair and unbiased. The ideal is that twelve persons from the same peer group as the defendant will be able to deliberate without prejudice the position of the defense, and the outcome of the trial. In reality however it is often the case that jury members are unable to arrive at a logical and fair conclusion due to several factors beyond their control, including interference from court systems and the law.
The jury system originated in England on June15, 1215 (Arnet). The jury system at this time took the form of a Magna Carta signed by King John. The liberties and rights of the population of England were thus established, among which was the rights pertaining to a jury trial. Individuals were granted to such a…… [Read More]
Rubin "Hurricane" Carter has become a symbol, both negative and positive, for American's judicial system.
Rubin carter's case has had a profound impact on accused and convicted criminals today. The advent of DNA technology has helped to reduce the number of wrongful convictions, and has also been instrumental in exonerating a number of convicted prisoners. hile DNA technology has had an important impact on the criminal justice system, experts argue that the number of wrongful convictions is an increasing problem in the United States. One website lists 22 potential wrongful convictions on Texas' death row alone. Racism played an important role in Carter's original conviction, and today allegations of racism continue to plague the criminal justice system. The legal damage to the right of habeas corpus by the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 has reduced the ability of prisoners to demand the right to be brought before…… [Read More]
forensic interviewing of rape victims. It addresses the often asked question to postpone the interview. That request comes from the victims and their families. This study provides evidence that it is important to conduct the interview with the victim within 72 hours of the attack.
On television, forensic interviewing is often dramatized to the point of being illegal. Interviewers on the big screen hit the interviewees, intimidate them, lead them and coerce them into providing the information needed to neatly wrap up the crime in the allotted hour. While this makes for good entertainment and it almost always leads to putting the bad guys away, it is far from realistic. In real life, forensic interviewing can be a tedious process that does not always bear fruit. Forensic interviewing is something that can help uncover valuable information or lead to a dead end. The key elements to how successful a forensic…… [Read More]
Culture and Marketing Strategy
About the print ad from http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2013/johnnie-walker-from-the-future/
The print ad is about a certain brand of alcoholic drink that is endorsed by a professional athlete. The athlete takes a sip from a glass of whisky and begins walking. This in a way appears to suggest that consumers of this particular brand of whisky can cover long distances after taking this whiskey. Information pertaining to alcoholic content and how the brand is matured are not clearly visible on the ad. The only visible thing is the image of the person who has endorsed the brand making some strides.
Assumptions made by the authors of the ad
The authors of the ad try to make the ad to be more appealing to the motives and desires of the consumers. They give form to people's deep-lying desires. They assume that they will best arrest the consumer's attention by tugging consumer's…… [Read More]
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…… [Read More]
Social Identity on Television
Keeping up with the Karashians is a reality television program that illustrates several different aspects of social identity as it is conceived of and witnessed in the United States today. One of the most salient factors of social identity that is regularly evinced on this particular television show pertains to notions of class. In fact, one can posit the notion that the very premise of the show is that it allows viewers to literally watch the life and times of those who are exceedingly rich. Social identity is represented in Keeping up with the Karashians as wealth and fame, as the most eminent members of this show inadvertently are.
From the show's inception, as well as the inception of many of its more notorious characters, wealth and fame have featured fairly prominently in its depiction of reality. Almost all of the major characters have enjoyed wealth…… [Read More]
Othello as a Tragic Hero
Thesis: Othello fits Aristotle’s definition of a tragic hero because he meets all four of the philosopher’s conditions: 1) he is great, 2) he demonstrates nobility or manly valor, 3) his character is authentic and true to real life, and 4) he is consistent. The play also fits Aristotle’s definition of a tragedy as it effects pity and fear in the audience.
a. Aristotle’s definition of tragedy and the tragic hero
b. Thesis statement
a. Othello is better than the average man—he is a hero of Venice and rightly so
b. Othello demonstrates manly valor and that is why he is beloved by the Venetians and by Desdemona
c. Othello is true to life—nothing about is so unbelievable that it makes the play unrealistic
d. Othello is consistent—his fall is a consequence of flaws in his character that are evident…… [Read More]