Psycho Therapeutic Encounter
In the world of psychology, therapy is an important part in helping patients to accept the different issues they are dealing with. Over the years, various techniques and tactics have been used with numerous degrees of success. The film One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest is the classic example of this. It is focused on how a mental institution is run during the 1960s and the way various forms of therapy are having an effect on patients. To fully understand what is happening requires describing / analyzing the therapeutic process, important skills used by mental health professionals and their impact. Together, these different elements will show the way certain disciplines will influence the quality of care provided to patients. (Douglas & Foreman, 1975)
Background One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest
One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest is focusing on the experiences andal McMurphy goes through. He is…… [Read More]
One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest is a 1975 film based on the novel of the same name. The film addresses multiple themes related to the ineffectiveness of mental health treatment models and the ironies inherent in attempts to control or modify deviant behavior. Although set in a mental institution, protagonist Randle McMurphy has been processed through the criminal justice system. Therefore, the film also reveals the intersections between criminal justice and mental health. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest has also been instrumental at altering public perceptions of both mental illness and the institutionalization of psychiatric treatments. One study shows how the film increased negative attitudes towards both mental health care and mental illness (Domino, 1983). In fact, the film does effectively demonstrate some of the shortcomings of mental health treatment that have changed due to an increased interest in ethical and evidence-based care.
Multiple types of mental illness…… [Read More]
Ken Kesey's novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest offers an ironic portrayal of mental health and mental illness. The story of Randle McMurphy, told through the eyes and ears of Chief Bromden, shows how restrictive social norms and behavioral constraints are what cause mental illness. Mental illness and deviance are socially constructed. The men in the institution have been labeled as deviants, many of them as criminals too. Yet Kesey shows how the institution is the real problem, not mental illness. Nurse Ratched symbolizes oppression and social control, with Randle McMurphy as her foil. McMurphy is no angel, but he helps the institutional inmates to gain a broader understanding of both their own psyche and of the ways society has essentially made them insane. Furthermore, Kesey shows that of the main ways society and its institutions enforce social conformity is through the process of shaming. Shaming is a method…… [Read More]
Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
Ken Kesey's novel "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" is set in a mental hospital in the 1960's. The main character, Randle Partick McMurphy has conned his way into the hospital trying to get an easier sentence from his most recent encounter with the law. There he discovers life is no picnic for the patients, mainly due to the head nurse, Nurse Ratched, who runs the wards more like torture rooms than a hospital. Chief Bromden is a six foot two Indian who has pretended to be deaf and dumb for the past thirty years. The story is told in first person narration by Bromden (Kesey 1979).
McMurphy rebels against Nurse Ratched and her ward rules every chance he gets and soon rallies the other men, who cower under her charge, to challenge her. Bromden begins to speaks again. McMurphy also takes up their causes…… [Read More]
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey was written after its author worked as an orderly in a psychiatric ward. Yet the novel also demonstrates significant research that manages to elevate it to the level of a serious critique. Published in 1962, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is thus an artistic contribution to that decade's emerging critique of societal handling of mental illness, a loose affiliation of scholarly critics that would include the British psychiatrist R.D. Laing and Canadian sociologist Erving Goffmann and would in 1967 be collectively nicknamed the "anti-psychiatry movement." I think we can understand Kesey's role in this movement by focusing on the narrator of his novel, Chief Bromden. By examining Kesey's handling of Bromden's mental state, both as medical fact and as metaphorical device, the novel's criticism of psychiatry in its year of publication may be seen as part of a…… [Read More]
Flew ver the Cuckoo's Nest"
Independent films have become such a mainstay of American cinema that it is difficult to tell what should be considered independent and what should be considered a major production these days. Small, independent film studios can gain such a following that they are soon producing movies that are seen by millions. f course, this was not always the case because the reason there are indie films is because of the rebellion over the control of the large studios. In the case of the movie "ne Flew ver the Cuckoo's Nest" it was an indie film, but it was seen by a large audience. Like many indie films of that time and this though, it had a flare that could not be seen in major motion pictures. Since major motion picture studios were interested more in the bottom line and worried about turning a profit for…… [Read More]
It is through this opportunity that the novelist reveals the extent to which Nurse Ratchet actually dominates the rest of the staff as much as she dominates the daily lives of the patients. In some ways, she represents the hypocrisy of mental institutions, especially in that day and age. Specifically, the outward appearance of the institution and of all of its employees (including the nurses) is perfectly clean and sanitary and (as represented by the white uniforms), innocence. Nurse Ratched, in particular, is polite and proper to a fault and obviously masking the true dark nature of her character. In reality, Ratchet is cold-hearted person who deliberately enforces arbitrary decisions and rules even though she has the authority to make relatively meaningless and harmless adjustments that would improve the daily life and circumstances of her patients.
Initially, McMurphy takes everything that happens somewhat lightly and he is a constant source…… [Read More]
Despite his being the most lucid among the inmates, he was still not immune to psychiatric intervention that led to his eventual defeat against Nurse atched. This makes society all the more oppressive, not accepting any dissent or differing perspective and eliminating those it cannot subdue. Thus, the story resonates Szasz's argument that mental illness is a myth and that psychiatry is a practice masquerading as a science to exert control over behavior by medical treatment that do not necessarily have physio-biological bases.
Disturbing as it is, both book and movie teaches the valuable lesson that even so-called social misfits or people relegated to being mentally deranged do find their sense of self given the right motivations and under positive and uplifting circumstances. McMurphy's character highlights the need for man to challenge the norm, not necessarily for the benefit of the self but more so for others. In his journey…… [Read More]
For his trouble, Murphy receives a frontal lobotomy as a "treatment" for his unwillingness to cooperate and abide by the rules and norms, a touch that gives him a Christ-like quality that gives his ultimate fate as that of a martyr to the cause of the promotion of humanity. Indeed, humanity is ultimately indebted to those brave few in the human race who defiantly dare to confront and challenge the conventional thinking patterns and then willingly (or unwillingly) suffer the ultimate price for their ideals (McEver, 1998).
To recap, the author in this paper, has will applied sociological concepts such as groupthink, doublespeak and doublethink, and sociological experiments that speak to us as social groups about socialization and religion in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey. Although this book was originally made for entertainment purposes, this author finds that it is a key factor in the learning…… [Read More]
inston is impressed by a man named O'Brien who is supposed to be very powerful member of the party, but he believes in his heart that O'Brien is actually a member of the Brotherhood which is a group dedicated to overthrowing the Party (Orwell, 1977).
inston looks to O'Brien in the same way that Bromend looks to McMurphy in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. O'Brien is someone that inston comes to admire and follow.
He is still afraid to rebel himself at first. He has thought crimes about the way he is paid to change the history books so they will fit the Party's version of history but he is afraid to speak up about his own memories which tell a completely different story.
inston uses every evening to walk through the poor neighborhoods where the lowest members of society live. They live extremely poverty stricken lives but because…… [Read More]
The fog is actually generated by two painful experiences in Chief's past: first, the fog in his mind is a recurrence of the brain treatments ordered by Nurse Ratched, and secondly, the fog is a direct reference to the actual fog machine of World War II operated by military intelligence in order to obscure what was occurring on the airfield (Lupack 70) as Chief recalls: "Whenever intelligence figured there might be a bombing attack, or if the generals had something secret they wanted to pull -- out of sight, hid so good that even the spies on the base couldn't see what went on -- they fogged the field" (Kesey 116).
Generally speaking, the themes of a particular novel cannot be fully understood outside the social context of the plot. This also largely applies to "One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest" whose plot is set in the 1950s which also…… [Read More]
He is the narrator of the novel, so the reader is privileged to understand how sane he really is, despite the fact he has been subjected to horrible electroshock treatments, which are administered more as punishments than as treatment.
Chief Bromden is diagnosed as paranoid, although he really seems to see things more clearly than anyone else on the ward, even McMurphy. The Chief does show some features of mental illness, however. He often sees things in a fog, and has trouble feeling emotionally connected to disturbing events at first. He begins the novel unable to laugh, smile, or remember much of his past, and he has very disturbing dreams. His watchfulness, however, makes him a good rather than an unreliable narrator, despite his mental problems.
Chief Bromden says that the hospital is not a place to make people saner, but to encourage people to conform and to fit into…… [Read More]
Once again, research reveals a healthcare setting where professionals are supposed to be trained to help those with mental deficiencies. But something is wrong here. This is not comparable with Cuckoo's Nest, but it reflects bad management, which leads - at the very least - to poor service at the patient level, and at worst, brutal abuses of the kind that were seen in Cuckoo's Nest.
Doctors, nurses and medical students in nursing and doctor training are pivotal actors in the fight to detect, prevent, and somehow manage substance abuse among patients; that is a given when it comes to mental health services across the board. But in London a recent study reveals that "...many doctors and nurses can have a negative attitude towards the management of drug and alcohol problems" of patients and of their own community of professionals (O'Gara, et al., 2005, p. 328). Doctors themselves "are at…… [Read More]
One Flew Over the Cucoo's Nest. (1990). etrieved October 2010, from Internet Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0073486/
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. (2010, January). etrieved October 2010, from AMC Greatest Films Filmsite: http://www.filmsite.org/onef.html
Cooper, C. (2001, April). Modern Literature's Depiction of Nervous Ailments. etrieved October 2010, from Literature Study Online: http://www.literature-study-online.com/essays/bellow_kesey.html
Kubler-oss, E. (2005). On Grief and Grieving: Finding the meaning of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Madden, F. (1986). Sanity and esponsibility: Big Chief as narrator and Executioner. Modern Fiction Studies, 32(2), 203-17.
Perring, C. (2003, March). eview - One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. etrieved October 2010, from Metapsychology: http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=1849… [Read More]
It takes an encounter with madness to appreciate the finer things in life and through successful characterization, Kesey brings this issue to the forefront. The struggle between man and those wishing to control him is not new because it is intrinsically human to desire freedom. hen we are caged, we rebel, even if that rebellion comes with a high price. McMurphy emerges triumphant because he demonstrates to the other men that they can be free and they do not have to let the system crush them. Bromden is heroic as well, because he discovers himself after a long separation from who he actually is. He would have never taken the steps he did without McMurphy and his antics. They are modern-day heroes fighting the age-old war of man vs. authority.
Fick, Thomas. "The Hipster, the Hero, and the Psychic Frontier in 'One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest.'" Rocky…… [Read More]
Sometimes the worst disabilities are those which are invisible to the naked eye; people who have a mental illness or disability are overwhelmingly stigmatized by society and discrimination against them is both widespread and fully condoned in our culture. (Johnstone, 2005). The disadvantages of mental disabilities are compounded by the fact that the abilities which are disabled, so to speak, tend to be those which are most useful in navigating the social provisions for the disabled, and by the lack of physical manifestations which may discourage outsiders from recognizing the need for intervention. Thus there are many particular challenges facing the mentally disabled, including a lack of social sensitivity to, acceptance of, and knowledge about these disabilities, and widespread institutional discrimination affecting employment, medical care, travel, residency, and many other aspects of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore the portrayal in film and literature of the…… [Read More]
beat generation are several strong principles, the most notable is associated with the founder, Jack Kerouac and his definition of the generation as a whole.
The road" has been a powerful metaphor for freedom from the constraints of ordinary life, ever since Jack Kerouac's On the Road became the Beatnik Bible in the 1950's. Kerouac saw beauty in gas stations and freedom on the road. The metaphor caught the imagination of a generation. Many of the key phenomena of "the Sixties" developed in coherence with this metaphor... getting high on psychedelic drugs was called "taking a trip."
Jack Kerouac and others developed through his mostly autobiographical works the "positive" concept or purpose of the retaliatory generation of the beats.
ithin the works of the small elite group of writers associated with the beat generation there are many messages about, life, the world and rejection of conformity. There is little doubt…… [Read More]
Here we see how McMurphy's effect works on Bromden. Elaine are observes, "Kesey exposes the hospital as a chamber of tortures. Bromden receives no help from the hospital because the environment is conducive to mental illness, not to mental health. Only through the support of McMurphy, another inmate of the hospital, does Bromden regain his strength and size and develop some self-confidence" (are 99).
It is a slow awakening but it is an awakening and we can be assured that it would have never occurred had McMurphy never arrived. McMurphy never conceived of changing men's lives in this way but it was something that he found he could do with little ease and even some pleasure.
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is an incredible look into the psyche of man. Human nature is seen in its most attractive and most hideous forms. Ratched and McMurphy become opposites struggling for…… [Read More]
Lupack points out that conventional male and female roles are "comically reversed" (Lupack 96), emphasizing the "underlying principle of ironic contrast and the reason for the novel's universal appeal... madness is sanity and sanity is madness" (96). In addition, we come to grasp the notion that the patents are more "sane" (96) than their caretakers are but they only become aware of this after they check themselves into the asylum. Lupack observes, "The Combine's order is actually chaos, and the random natural elements of the world outside provide the only real meaning and order in life" (96). hile life appears to be orderly, it is actually empty. In Brave New orld, the irony exists in the premise of what defines happiness. The Savage touches on it briefly when he realizes that without pain, there can be no real, measurable pleasure. In a sense, everything is equal and while this may…… [Read More]
There is still a great deal of prejudice and ignorance about the mentally ill, and how to treat patients suffering from psychological disorders. Professor Feudenthal was to show compassion, without ignoring the serious implications of mental illness. She was also able to show how psychological concepts were evident in our own psyches and lives, not just in the lives of our future patients.
Professor Feudenthal was a charismatic and caring teacher because she was genuinely interested in how people lived their lives and perceived their own state of wellness, as well as how textbooks defined mental health. Every time I interview a patient in my work as a mental health nurse, I am living Professor Feudenthal's teaching, and it was because of this professor that I became a mental health nurse.
This teacher seemed to draw her energy from her students, as well as inspire them. When she encouraged students…… [Read More]
Lobotomy is a popular medical procedure introduced in curing mentally ill individuals, which requires the removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain, the part of the brain wherein aggressive and violent behavior is triggered. However, in the movie, lobotomy is shown to have disastrous results: McMurphy's violent behavior is indeed abated, but as illustrated in the movie, the lobotomy had turned him into a 'vegetable' neither responding to his ward mates' call for attention nor displaying his usual rowdy, obnoxious, McMurphy self.
This instance in the movie is considered as patterned after the medical model of abnormal psychology, wherein "mental disorders are described as medical diseases with a biological origin" (450). ecause this is the prevalent thinking in medical science during the time the movie (and novel) was made, Nurse Ratched decided, in order to "treat" McMurphy, to let him undergo lobotomy. Subsistence to the medical…… [Read More]
For mental health professionals, working with patients can be challenging. This is because they will have issues that could be directly associated with their condition. In the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, it is discussing these problems. To fully understand how this relates to crisis theory and intervention requires comparing different scenes from the film that are relevant. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the precipitating event, identifying the type of crisis, examining the material / personal / social resources available, studying the different perspectives, looking at how it was handled by the protagonist, suggesting coping skills, discussing referral sources that are available and biblical perspectives. Together, these elements will provide specific insights as to the way it is illustrating crisis theory and intervention challenges.
Identify precipitating events
The main event is when andal Patrick McMurphy is sent to a mental hospital from the state prison.…… [Read More]
Earth for Me
Sheehan, Susan. (1983) Is here No Place On Earth for Me? New York: Vintage Books.
When Benjamin Wilder reminisced recently about Sylvia's summer in Chicago, he said he could have tolerated Sylvia's presence in his house for a few more weeks if he had had to, but she was taking such a toll on him that he had asked himself whether it was his mission in life to make her behave acceptably. His answer to that question was no. He felt that if she had stayed with him much longer, he would have lost his mind." (Sheehan, 1983, 223)
he book Is there no Place on Earth for me? is an account of Sylvia Frumkin, a pseudonym used to identify the true identity of a young woman who began suffering from schizophrenia in her teens. Sylvia was institutionalized early in her illness, and spent much of her…… [Read More]
Deinstitutionalization refers to releasing a mentally handicapped person from an institution whose main purpose was to provide treatment into a community with the intent of providing services through the community under the supervision of health-care professionals. There have been some positive outcomes from deinstitutionalization trend for society but there have also have been a wide array of drawbacks limiting care provided to these individuals. Among other things, crime, violent crime, and homeless are among the major consequences of releasing some of these patients to the public. Much of the trend began in the 1950s and the 1960s and the deinstitutionalization of institutional patients has been a trend that has impacted society on many levels and continues to this day.
There were a number of factors that were responsible for the reversal of the institutional framework that was built nationally to house the mentally damaged. After the Second…… [Read More]
In 1896, the pediatrician Dr. Antoine Bernard-Jean Marfan described the exceptionally long, slender limbs and physique of a 5-year-old girl, Gabrielle P., in front of the Medical Society of the Hospital of Paris (Enersen). It is unknown whether Gabrielle P. actually suffered from what is now known to be Marfan syndrome, but Dr. Henricus Jacubus Marie eve was recognized as the first person to use the term 'Marfan syndrome' to describe this common genetic disorder.
In the decades leading up to Dr. eve's use of Marfan syndrome to describe a patient's symptoms in 1931, other physicians had begun to document their encounters with this disease with the benefit of radiological images (Enersen). Drs. Henri Mery and Leon Baonneix studied Gabrielle P. anew using this new technology in 1902 and noted a misaligned spine, thoracic asymmetry, long digits, cardiovascular abnormalities, and dislocation of the ocular lens. During the same…… [Read More]
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…… [Read More]
construction of a person who feel disconnected from his social setting? What are the elements of a person's experiences that combine to disconnect him or her from his social environment, and create the archetype misfit? Sometimes the person's ethics create the desire within him to be separate from his social surroundings sometimes the person is thrust into a setting with which he does not share any connections. Sometimes the simple choices of the individual separate him or her form the social surroundings, and create an isolated individual who is searching for meaning, and purpose. Such is the case for the characters in Ethan Frome, and Recitatif.
In the case of Ethan Frome, to combat the silence, isolation, and loneliness in his life, he marries a woman who is dissimilar to him, names Zenobia Pierce after his mother's death. While Ethan wants to leave their home town of Starkfield, his new…… [Read More]
This entity follows the California Clean Air Act and the Federal Clean Air Act so that it is responsible for air monitoring, permitting, enforcement, long-range air quality planning, regulatory development, and education and public information activities with regard to air pollution.
A more recent concern has developed as the first cruise ship to enter Monterey ay since 1966 caused environmental groups to demand increased protection for marine sanctuaries and to increase regulation of the cruise ship industry. The water around Monterey ay has also been affected by sewage spills at local beaches, leading to viral and bacterial contamination. In 2000, four Monterey County beaches were closed because of sewage spills, and twenty-five warning advisories were issued. In 2001, there was one beach closure and eleven advisories. It has also been found that there is inadequate storm pipe maintenance in cities on the Monterey peninsula.
The California Ground Squirrel is a…… [Read More]