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Open Systems Models the Company That I
Words: 1240 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 48276783
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Open Systems Models

The company that I am going to study is Google. Their primary business is online advertising, where they are the industry leader. Google owns many of the world's top websites, and uses its immense database of information about user preferences to give it competitive advantage in this business. The company has also proven to be one of the most collaborative and innovative companies. Two of its other products -- the Android mobile operating system and the Chrome browser, are also market leaders, even though they do not generate significant revenue for the company. This paper will focus on open systems as Google, to illustrate how the principles of open systems work.

Open Systems Elements

There are several elements to systems, including inputs (resources), organization culture, organization structure, behavior, processes and technologies. All of this lead to outputs. When these elements work well together -- when they are…


Harrison, M. (2004). Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes (Applied Social Research Methods) (3rd ed.) Sage Publications.

Tapscott, D. (Artist), & TEDTalks, (Producer) (2012).Don Tapscott: Four principles for the open world [Web]. Retrieved from 

Innocentive. (2014). Google's 9 principles of innovation -- open innovation through culture. Innocentive. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from 

Google. (2014). Ten things we know to be true. Google. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from

Trends Benefits and Implementation Challenges Open Data
Words: 1808 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45306263
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Open Data: Trends, Benefits, and Implementation Challenges
Technology has revolutionized the way things are done. Today, thanks to advances in technology, information is being shared and distributed in ways that appeared impossible a few decades ago. With the Internet of Things (IoT) promising to further revolutionalize the availability and distribution of information, it would be fairly accurate to state that we are likely to witness greater possibilities on this front going forward. This text concerns itself with the trends in open data. In so doing, it will also highlight the benefits of open data as well as the implementation challenges that continue to be witnessed in various jurisdictions. The discussion will be founded on lessons and examples from India.
It is important to note, from the onset, that there is no single assigned definition of open data. This is to say that various definitions have been presented in…

Open and Closed Systems &Bull Differentiate Between
Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45724199
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Open and Closed Systems

• Differentiate between two types of management theories- open-system theories and closed-system theories with regard to criminal justice organizations. Which of the two theories would better suit the operation of the agency you chose?

When it comes to explaining behavior in organizations, "the closed-system models tend to focus on internal events when explaining organizational actions and behavior, while open-system model focus on events occurring external to the organization that influence changes within the organization" (Open vs. closed systems, 28). Closed-systems models tend to focus on the degree to which organizational culture produces certain results: for example, if there were accusations of racial profiling in 'stop and frisks' in a police department, a closed systems model would suggest examining how officers are trained and the ideas and incentives that are communicated to the officers through that training about who appears to be a criminal. The presumption of…


Community policing defined. (2014). DOJ. Retrieved from: 

Open vs. closed systems. Sage. Retrieved from:

Open Border Immigration the USA
Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38551473
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Loss of jobs: though most Americans are skilled unlike the unskilled Mexican population, there is a small number of Americans estimated at 10 million who lack high school degree who are under threat from job losses due to availability of cheap unskilled labor from the immigrants.

It is worth noting however, that the immigration issue does not only cover the Mexicans alone but also the Canadian immigrants into the U.S. As well. A good number of these are educated and skilled. What that portends for USA is that there would be someone who may take up a skilled job, at equal salary since they have same qualifications and education as an American. This may not benefit the community since it brings about the unfair competition for jobs between immigrants and the native-born Americans. Then again the issue of money circulation comes up since the Canadians will send the cash…


Centre for Immigration Studies (CIS) (2001). Immigration from Mexico

Study Examines Costs and Benefits for the United States. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from

Seattle Post, (2002). Dropout rates highest among Mexican immigrants, study says. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from 

The Boston Tea Party, (2011). Concerns about an Immediate Open Borders Policy. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from

Open vs Closed Healthcare Compare and Contrast
Words: 862 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41154526
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Open vs. Closed Healthcare

Compare and contrast the U.S. healthcare system with that of another developed country. What aspects of open and closed systems are exhibited by the United States and by your selected country?

The country that will be used for comparison is Great Britain, which operates its healthcare through the National Health Service (NHS, 2013). Most, but not all, of the healthcare in the country emanates and/or is regulated by the government. This stands in contrast with the United States which is basically the opposite in that there are a lot of taxpayer dollars spent on needs-based and age-based healthcare through programs like Medicare and Medicaid but most healthcare not directly tied to one or both of those services in the United States is ran by the private sector even if the government heavily regulates it as it operates. The United States spends roughly half its budget on…


Beck, M. (2013, July 29). More Doctors Steer Clear of Medicare - The Wall Street Journal - Breaking News, Business, Financial and Economic News, World News & Video - Wall Street Journal - Retrieved August 7, 2013, from 

CBPP. (2013, August 7). Policy Basics: Where Do Our Federal Tax Dollars Go? -- " Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved August 7, 2013, from 

NHS. (2013, August 7). NHS Choices - Your health, your choices. NHS Choices - Your health, your choices. Retrieved August 7, 2013, from 

Potempa, K. (2013, June 20). The Experts: Physician Shortage Solutions for the U.S. - The Wall Street Journal - Breaking News, Business, Financial and Economic News, World News & Video - Wall Street Journal - Retrieved August 7, 2013, from

Open Target Where America Is
Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 89368580
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An intriguing example that can be found in the book refers to the episode in which men under his command succeeded to sneak guns in areas which were supposed to be protected by screening devices. Through his experiment Ervin managed to demonstrate that the Transportation Security Administration authorities are definitely not doing a good job. Furthermore, the reaction of the authorities to the event demonstrate that they are more concerned with protecting their own image than fixing the things which don't function properly. Taking into account this episode one might think that Ervin's perspective is biased, but reading enough material about it and his attitude towards it makes us understand that the author of the book firmly believes in what he states and is honestly concerned with the fate of the U.S.A. security.

Not all the points that Ervin makes are against the official authorities. According to him the situation…

Open Before Making Assumptions and
Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38144741
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Watergate was a viable accusation because it could be proved with recordings of the entire affair. Clinton's sexgate could be proved because there were people, individuals, who could vouch for what had happened. However, in this case, there is no actual proof, only mere assertions.

One of the things that is entirely bothersome in this book, tied to what was mentioned previously, is the fact that Michael Moore seems to find an incredible talent of blaming any insignificant dysfunctional issue in the American society on the White House and the Administration in general. In my opinion, one of the very strong examples in this sense is revealed in the very first chapter of the book, entitled "The Sad and Sordid Whereabouts of bin Cheney and bin ush."

Already, the title itself expresses the very aggressive, subjective stance that Michael Moore is choosing to use in this book. You can actually…


1. Moore, Michael. Stupid White Men...and Other Sorry Excuses for the State of the Nation! Regan Books; 1 edition (February 19, 2002

Stupid White Men: Online Chapters "The Sad and Sordid Whereabouts of bin Cheney and bin Bush" a Free Online Chapter addition to "Stupid White Men" Part One: "What Does a 99-cent Bic Lighter Tell Us About the Bush War on Terrorism?." On the Internet at  retrieved on June 8, 2007

Open-Ended Questions Have Certain Challenges
Words: 392 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90247253
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A restricted sample is restricted to one or more narrow criteria, where the sample is not representative of the population as a whole. An unrestricted sample is representative.


In simple random sampling, all samples of the same size have an equal chance of selection. Complex random sampling can take a variety of forms, such as stratified or cluster sampling.


Convenience sampling relies on sample representatives that are available at any given time or place. Purpose sampling selects a sample subjectively, according to the purpose of the research.


Sample accuracy refers to the position of the sample relative to the true value, while precision refers to the relative closeness of measurements on the same sample.


When measuring variance within a single data source, this is referred to as systematic variance. Error variance refers to all other sources of variability.


Variable parameters have not type, while…

Open Systems Theory According to
Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 36476166
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The Congruence Model for Organizational Analysis appears thorough in terms of both the internal and external environment. The model operates on the basis of inputs, throughputs and outputs, with the external environment providing feedback on inputs and outputs. The organization is regarded as a dynamic system, which is influenced by means of a number of variables. Of all the models, this one appears to be the most applicable to Walgreens.

Tichy's TPC Framework and Diagnosing Group and Individual ehavior are also regarded as particularly applicable to Walgreens, as a result of the significant influence of the environment. Tichy's model increases the complexity of the internal environment by recognizing that some relationships among variables are stronger than others. Environmental influence is recognized through inputs, outputs and the feedback loop. Diagnosing Individual and Group ehavior focuses mainly upon human relationships within the internal environment. It is also assumed that there are minimal…


Falletta, S.V. (2005)

Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review and Synthesis. Retrieved at

Walgreens Health Services. (2009).


Open System Model and Organizational Change
Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83367091
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The rate of teacher burn out has reached alarming numbers. Each year teachers are fleeing from the field as they become overwhelmed following the first few years in a classroom. This school system has voted to incorporate a new organizational structure using the open system model as its guide. The new system will utilize a Consult Team of senior experienced teachers who will be trained in how to assist the new teachers in their first five years of the career ladder. This team will be compensated at a higher rate of pay and will be relieved of their extra duties within their school day so that they may be available to work more closely with their assigned new teachers in helping them settle in and learn to navigate the balance between teaching and career building. The system will be revisited in five years to determine whether it has had…


Klein, Stuart (1994) Communication strategies for successful organizational

Industrial Management;

Luneburg, Fred and Ornstein, Alan

Manz, Charles Bastien, David Hostager (1991) Executive leadership during organizational change:

Open Skies Agreements on Domestic
Words: 4470 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64771870
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S. domestic carriers are at period in the industry's history when these factors are already beleaguered by downturns in the global economy, increasing competition from international carriers, and the aforementioned high costs of energy.

Chapter 2: The Impact of Open Skies Agreements on Domestic and International Carriers

Under an open skies agreement, both signatories to the agreement enjoy open access to international airline routes between the two countries as well as eliminating virtually all domestic restrictions on international carriers (Lick, 1998). In an effort to develop more closely integrated pricing and route schedules, signatories to these agreements typically also seek to gain immunity from national antitrust laws (Commercial aviation: Legacy airlines must further reduce costs to restore profitability, 2004). The U.S. Department of Transportation reviews these types of airline alliances from an antitrust perspective and refuses to approval an alliance without a reciprocal open skies agreement with the foreign airline's…


Baker, C. (2004, March 1). Air France-KLM approved; competition regulators in Brussels have approved Air France's takeover of KLM, deciding the consumer comes out of the deal as a net winner. Washington also says it will not oppose the deal. Airline Business, 9.

Bilotkach, V. (2002). Asymmetric regulation and airport dominance in international aviation:

Evidence from the London-New York market. Southern Economic Journal, 74(2), 505-

Doganis, R. (2002). Flying off course: The economics of international airlines. London:

Open Minded Person and a Closed Minded
Words: 404 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56153198
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open minded person and a closed minded person. There are four references used for this paper.

Some people are considered open minded, while others are looked upon as closed minded. It is important to examine the characteristics of each type of person and the psychology of peace and conflict.

Open vs. Closed

An open minded person accepts new ideas, but sometimes is incorrectly viewed as one who is "open to any new idea no matter how wrong or useless (www.importanceof" Some characteristics of open minded people include "not strongly rejecting disbeliefs, not sharply dividing belief and disbelief systems, or lumping together varieties of disbelief systems. They are more likely to view the world as a generally friendly place, and will not structure their world around the views of a particular authority figure (" An open minded person is "able to talk with someone who holds an opposing view without…


(A Plea for Open-Mindedness. (accessed 18 February 2004).


(HealthSouth: Context, Leader and Culture. (accessed 18 February 2004).


Sources of birth defects in older mothers
Words: 2999 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81598052
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High-Risk Pregnancies

Having a baby is a dream that many families have. Women in particular are associated with the idea and "dream" of having a child but men are pretty excited about it to when it comes, albeit also nervous. However, there is a danger when it comes to waiting too long before starting a family in terms of age. Whether it is career concerns, finding the right, the delaying of the marriage or what have you, there are multiple reasons that are common in today's society whereby women put off having families. An unfortunate byproduct of this pattern is that the risk of birth defects is much higher with children born of women over the age of 35. This report shall explore the precise and specific reasons that these birth defects why it is more common for women beyond the line stated in this proposal. Even with the increasing…

Open Communication System
Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 26962946
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Open communication

Open communications is a concept that forms the central nerve of the entire communication system within many contemporary organizations. Open communication is considered the virtue of the employees and the management within an organization to effectively share information about the company with trust to each other and also allow the customers to have access to the information if there is need for this (Kristina G. & Sanchez Y., 2005). The deliberate sharing of information, some of which could be sensitive, must be supported by the management who will also participate in the communication process. There are different platforms that organizations can share information like the social network and the regular meetings, at time through teleconferencing and video link, that are held for employees to have a time to share their concerns and also to ask the management questions. There are several benefits that come with the embracing…


Business Knowledge Sources, (2014). How to create an open line of communication between you and your employees. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from 

Hahn L.K.,, (n.d). Survey of Communication Study: Organizational Communication. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from 

Johnson R., (2008). What Are the Benefits of Effective Communication in the Workplace? Retrieved November 29, 2012 from 

Kristina G. & Sanchez Y., (2005). Workplace Communication. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from

Open to Learning Conversations to
Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 99550827
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I recognized that the teachers might have a different perspective and wanted to learn about their views and perspective upon the testing. By the end of the conversation, I had communicated my need for consistent testing and tracking and underscored the need to meet expectations and goals regarding the use of such data as well as learned more about teacher perceptions. Had I entered into the conversation in a confrontational manner I would likely have accomplished less and created an atmosphere of hostility and resistance and also learned less.

5c. Future learning: On the basis of the analysis of your own theory that you have completed, please explain what you think you now need to learn in order to become more skilled in open to learning conversations. Consider what challenges might make this difficult.

During the actual conversation, I believe I was able to approach the subject matter with an…

Sources of Funds
Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 21725353
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Sources of Funds

What are the best sources of raising funds that the financial managers of the Nike Inc. can use? Why?

In contrast to smaller entities, larger corporations often have far more available sources of revenue from which to raise capital. Instead of borrowing from the bank, seeking angel investors, or asking for help from friends and families, corporations can sell bonds: a "bond is a written promise to pay back a specific amount of money at a certain date or dates in the future. In the interim, bondholders receive interest payments at fixed rates on specified dates. Holders can sell bonds to someone else before they are due" (How corporations raise capital, 2013, U.S. Department of State). Many investors prefer bonds because of the greater security they offer as investments, even though the rate of return is lower.

Unlike stocks, if a company experiences financial difficulties, because…


How corporations raise capital. (2013). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from: 

How corporations raise capital. (2013). American History. Retrieved:

Open-Ended Question I Don't Know About Organizational
Words: 1954 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19591150
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open-ended question. I don't know about organizational thinking -- individuals think; an organization has no brain. I do know, however, that strategy is set within organizations on the basis of all manner of internal and external variables. Several frameworks have been developed to help understand how this process works, and if there are any differences between long-term and short-term approaches to strategy and environmental analysis. A dichotomous time-frame might be an oversimplification, since everything has a unique time-frame, but it works in a generic sense.

Environmental scanning is a critical element of strategic thinking at all levels of the organization. Porter (2008) devise the five forces that shape competitive strategy. These focus on competitive factors in the external environment, and competitive factors often reflect economic and social factors in particular. Intensity of rivalry, for example, derives largely from the competitive structure of the industry -- basic microeconomics. Social factors determine…


Berger, M. (1989). Giving women credit: The strengths and limitations of credit as a tool for alleviating poverty. World Development. Vol. 17 (7) 1017-1032.

Bhagwati, J. (2010). Why international assistance does not alleviate poverty: Review essay. Foreign Affairs. Vol. 89 (1) 120-125.

Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved January 14, 2014 from 

Grossman, G. & Kruger, A. (1995). Economic growth and the environment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. Vol. 110 (2) 353-377.

Open for Cost and Economic Analysis Class
Words: 1933 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70916931
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Economic Analysis

Application of Cost Benefit Analysis

EU Proposed Project Overview

Traffic Forecast

Investment Costs

Positive Impact of the Project

Economic Net Present Value (ENPV)

Cost benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process of comparing and calculating the cost benefit of a project. Recent business uncertainties within business environment make increasing number of businesses to implement cost benefit analysis to make a sound investment decision. Cost-benefit analysis is also an explicit or implicit method to assess the benefits and costs of a project. Typically, an organization is likely to go ahead with a project if the Benefits (B) > Costs (C). Cost-benefit analysis is often used by private organizations or government to evaluate the desirability of a project. (Anthony, David, Aidan.). The CBA is used to analyze the expected benefits and costs. However, cost effectiveness analysis is closely related to cost benefit analysis. Although both concepts attempt to achieve the…

Works Cited

Anthony Boardman, David Greenberg, Aidan Vining. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice, 4/E. 2010.

European Union. Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Project. Regional European Union. 1997, Retrieved March 25, 2013.from 

European Commission. EVA-TREN: Improved decision-aid methods and tools to support evaluation of investment for transport and energy networks in Europe, Deliverable 2, Brussels. 2007.

Levin, Henry and McEwen, Patrick. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 2nd Edition Sage Publications 2001.

Open Economy' a 'Closed Economy'
Words: 2351 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1122420
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Based on the findings then, it is important for the Army National Guard to develop its infrastructure so that it responds to the KM needs. At the second level, the ANG has to align its scopes and objectives with the knowledge management effort. At this stage, the risk resides in the inability to understand and apply knowledge management in the military setting. In order to overcome this, the company will translate its military objectives into applicable KM goals.

Throughout the second and most complex phase, the Army National Guard will set out to create the architecture and design for knowledge management implementation. At this level, it will place intense emphasis on the elaboration of its infrastructure for information sharing through the creation of a collaborative platform (). Then, the ANG conducts an internal audit to assess the assets of knowledge management and to identify their threats and weaknesses.

According to…


Levinson, M. Knowledge management definition and solutions. CIO.  on October 12, 2012

McIntyre, S.G., Gauvin, M., Waruszynski, B. (2008). Knowledge management in the military context. Canadian Military Journal.  accessed on October 12, 2012

Quast, L. (2012). Why knowledge management is important to the success of your company. Forbes.  / accessed on October 12, 2012

(2008). Army knowledge management and information technology. Federation of American scientists.  accessed on October 12, 2012

Open & Unfair Hostility Towards Police
Words: 2928 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94773728
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Law Enforcement Opinion

This report will cover a topic that has always been controversial. However, there have been some events as of late, most of them racially and otherwise socially charged, that have forced the argument the subject firmly back into the forefront. Of course, that topic would be law enforcement. While gun violence, politics and so forth are all the rage in the modern blogosphere and social media realms, the topic of law enforcement is high on the minds of many regular people and activists due to, among other things, the events and details surrounding what happened to people like Eric Garner, Freddie Gray, Michael Brown and so forth. There are plenty of talking heads that would paint the police as abusive and authoritarians. However, that is far from being the true picture that should be painted and this report shall aim to fill in the rest of the…


Baker, A. (2015). In Eric Garner Case, Judge Rules Against Releasing Grand Jury Evidence. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from 

Barrabi, T. (2014). Michael Brown Robbed Convenience Store, Stole Cigarillos Before Darren Wilson Shooting, Dorian Johnson Says. International Business Times. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from 

CBS,. (2015). Family defends Trayvon Martin amid claims he was aggressor in deadly confrontation. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from 

FindLaw,. (2015). Are DUI Checkpoints Legal? - FindLaw. Findlaw. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from

Risk Management Sources of Work-Related
Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38326680
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This is one of the destructive sources of stress. Employees often consider background noise as a distractive element experienced in various working environments. However, it is difficult to control most of the noise in organizations, for instance, telephone ringing in an open office and loud conversations. When the intensity of noise is very high in the office, some employees lack concentration and eventually produce low quality work (Ozcelik, Langton & Aldrich, 2008).

Loud noise may also reduce their motivation level. In controlling the intensity of noise generated from within the organization, the organization should encourage employees to close their office doors and focus in their tasks. A closed door reduces the distractions coming from the outside environment. Lack of concentration caused by loud noise increases the intensity of stress. This may alter the concentration and attitude of works towards their work. The employee in this case is unable to execute…


Bakker AB, Demerouti E (2007). The job demands-resources model: state of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology 22, 309 -- 328.

Bond SA, Tuckey MR, Dollard MF (2010). Psychosocial safety climate, workplace bullying, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Organization Development Journal 28, 37 -- 56.

Folk man, S. (2011). Stress, health, and coping: Synthesis, commentary, and future directions. In S. Folk man (Ed.), the Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping (pp. 453 -- 462). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ozcelik H, Langton N, Aldrich H (2008). Doing well and doing good; the relationship between leadership practices that facilitate a positive emotional climate and organizational performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology 23, 186 -- 203.

Words: 1582 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71217675
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Open Group Architecture Framework (togaf) Federal Enterprise Architecture (feaf)

The objective of this study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEAF). This study will answer the questions of how The Enterprise Architecture Framework components used by FEAF and TOGAF similar and what need they are addressing and how they are different and why. This study will answer as to whether both of these frameworks equally useful for all situations and provide examples and examine their strengths and weaknesses.

Today's organizations are reported to be in the process of "deploying enterprise architecture functions at the heart of their organizations in order to maximize the impact, effectiveness, and therefore benefits of enterprise architecture." (Chief Information Officer Council, 2001, p. 5) However, it is reported that there is a great risk of failure and the enterprise architecture that is 'World-class…is the result of…


World-Class Enterprise Architecture" Framework Guidance and TOGAF 9 Example. The Open Group. April 2010.

A Practical Guide to Federal Enterprise Architecture. (2001) Chief Information Officer Council. February 2001.

Huang, GQ, et al. (2009) Proceedings of the 6th CIRP -- Sponsored International Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology. Springer Science & Business Media. 12 Dec 2009. Retrieved from:,+feaf&source=gbs_navlinks_s 

The Open Source Group (2007) cited in Huang, GQ, et al. (2009) Proceedings of the 6th CIRP -- Sponsored International Conference on Digital Enterprise Technology. Springer Science & Business Media. 12 Dec 2009. Retrieved from:

Comparison of Austria and German in Terms of Open Data
Words: 3215 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36570119
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tatus of Open Data in Europe

Open Data

Open data refers to the idea of having certain data freely available for people to republish and use as they wish (Open Government Data, n.d). There are no restrictions like patents, mechanism control, or copyright placed on the person using the data. Open data is mainly aimed at allowing governments to share their information with the public. This brings about Open Government Data that refers to any data commissioned or produced by a government that can be freely used, redistributed, and reused by anyone. For data to be considered open, it should be readily available and the person requiring the data should not have to make a request (Bedini et al.). The advancement of the internet and World Wide Web has pushed for open government data. The advancements made on the internet have allowed people from across the world to access data…

Sheridan, J., & Tennison, J. (2010). Linking UK Government Data. Paper presented at the LDOW.

Vienna City Administration. (N.D,). Open Data in Vienna, from 


Frontier Defense and the Open Door the
Words: 1577 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31643126
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Frontier Defense and the Open Door

The Author's Thesis. Hunt's view of history and the world's events is that as an historian, he should go beyond researching "historical simplicities" - and that by grasping a more "authentic version" of history, a historian and his informed society can "better cope" with today's - and future - dynamics. Further, Hunt believes that there are "relatively narrow limits" within which one country can expect to "bring its influence to bear" on another nation. Also, he continues, a "realistic definition" of those "narrow limits" of influence "presupposes" an equally realistic understanding of the nation being affected. And the bottom line to his thesis is that the U.S., and its diplomats with contacts in China, and its policymakers with reference to China, have "traditionally slighted" the Chinese. This "misjudgment" on the part of America towards China should be - and in his book, certainly is…


Hunt, Michael H. Frontier Defense and the Open Door: Manchuria in Chinese-American

Relations, 1895-1911. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.

OSI Reference Model the Open
Words: 355 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80150823
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The Data Link Layer, Layer 2, provides the means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the layer beneath it, the Physical Layer. This bottom layer is responsible for: establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium; participation in the process where communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users and; conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel.

Individual layers are not exposed to how the layers above and below them function; they only know how to pass data to them (the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model). Isolating network communications functions in this way minimizes the impact of changes on the entire protocol suite (the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model).


Open Systems Interconnection -- Reference Model (OSI -- RM).

The 7 layers…


Open Systems Interconnection -- Reference Model (OSI -- RM). 

The 7 layers of the OSI Model (2008, March 3). Webopedia. 

The seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model.

Google as an Open System
Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 36537648
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Applying Open Systems Theory to Google

Open systems theory may be used as one approach to examining an organization. An interesting organization, which was also forth on Fortunes 2011 list of the 100 best companies to work for is Google (Fortune, 2011). Google is a firm where there is a great deal of influence between the internal and the external environments due to the porous boundaries of the firm.

One of the most important and influential components of Google are the employees, they are also one of the most porous elements as the employees may be members of multiple systems and their performance in the workplace may be influenced by many external forces. Motivation theory, such as Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, indicates that employees will have different needs; these may depend on many external influences, based on their personal psychological well being and attitudes, and other factors, such as…


Cowley, MC, (2012), Not A Happy Accident: How Google Deliberately Designs Workplace Satisfaction, ACCESSED AT 

Fortune, (2011), 100 Best Companies to Work For, accessed at 

Google, (2014), 10k, accessed at 

Scott, W.R. (2002). Organizations: Rational, natural, and open systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Owen Should Open Owen's Pet Store as
Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36429572
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Owen should open Owen's Pet Store as a sole proprietorship, as this will provide him with the greatest freedom and flexibility during his initial period of slim earnings and his planned but uncertain expansion (Cross & Miller, 2012). This does leave Owen somewhat exposed in terms of risk to his personal finances, but from the brief details provided in the case it appears as though he is in a highly flexible position and is ready to invest himself and his finances in the business, and thus a sole proprietorship would not carry unnecessary risk for him. This would free Owen from any consideration to investment partners and would limit his costs to the government, and though he does not expect to turn a profit for two years as long as he keeps the overall debt level to a minimum he should be able to walk away with relatively little damage…


Cross, F. & Miller, R. (2012). The Legal Environment of Business. Mason, OH: Cengage.

Karayan, J. & Swenson, C. (2006). Strategic Business Tax Planning. New York: Wiley.

Sniffen, C. (2001). Incorporating Your Business For Dummies. New York: Wiley. (2009). How to start a union. Accessed 14 June 2012.

Business Plan The Plan Open a Gym
Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 91941738
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Business Plan. The plan open a gym "Slim Gym." I Competitive Analysis written, a marketing section, I attached list questions answered part "Marketing Section Due Document." I attached a background project "Operations Slim Gym Document" document information complete Competitive Analysis.

Competitive Analysis

Describe your competition here! Include your SWOT analysis, show why you will be better than your competitors, and convince your investors of the same! Don't forget your "indirect" competitors: for example, grocery store direct competitors are other grocery stores; indirect competitors are restaurants, Schwan's home delivery trucks, and Omaha Steaks!

Questions you may address in your Competitive analysis:

Who are the key competitors?

What are their strengths and weaknesses?

What is their approximate market share?

How will you take share away from them?

How will they most likely try to stop you if you are successful?

How can you react to these competitors' actions?

Who are your indirect…

Historians Study Historical Sources They
Words: 798 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17847962
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When they select materials for their secondary analyses, historical researchers will invariably seek out those sources that conform to their preconceptions about what took place or who did what and will use these sources to support their perspectives.

Unfortunately, because people are just people, these processes are unavoidable when history is recorded in any fashion, and even modern cinematography and photojournalism that provides viewers with concrete and instantaneous images of events only manages to provide a "snapshot" view of a particular event, again through the unique view of the researchers or journalists involved. Witness the toppling of the statues of Saddam Hussein that were featured prominently on American television followed Gulf War II or the crowds waving Iraqi flags in the street in seeming celebration. Well, it turns out that these events were either staged by the American forces or were otherwise manipulated to convince the American public that their…


Loewen, J.W. (1995). Lies my teacher told me: Everything your high school history textbook got wrong. New York: Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group.

Sears the Four Sources Can Be Found
Words: 1519 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53013675
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The four sources can be found in two different fields. One is to use the information available with Sears itself, namely through the websites it has and through its press statements. This forms the first set and the second set is the books and periodicals that use the position and history of Sears as examples in discussing various aspects of management. The primary source is the company statements and they are numerous and deal with many branches and aspects of the company. The merger and the creation of Sears's holdings have brought changes in the perceptions and activities and this information are from the company information release, SCDigest's On-Target E-Magazine and the general press releases. The analysis of the Sears system can be done with the parameters that have been stated for a modern information system. Such a system ought to have better tracking functions, and other customer related…


Alstete, Jeffrey W; Halpern, David. (2008) "Aligning Knowledge Management Drivers with Business Strategy Implications" Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, vol. 9, no. 3, pp: 17-21.

Articlesbase. (2009) "Strategy Management A case study of Wal-Mart Inc."

Retrieved 7 November 2011 from 

Cascio, Wayne F; Boudreau, John W. (2008) "Investing in people: financial impact of human resource initiatives" FT Press.

Multimedia History Women Primary Source Videos a
Words: 2348 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52179949
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Multimedia History omen Primary source videos a rich source information a historical time period, portray assumptions minutia daily life a text . This true Hollywood films footage actual events.

This essay discusses with regard to women during and consequent to the Second orld ar. The essay relates to a series of videos and interviews in an attempt to shed more light on the role of women during this period. By emphasizing the fact that women developed a strong connection with the military as a result of the conflict and because of their tendency to exploit the matter to their own advantage, the paper is meant to demonstrate that orld ar Two actually assisted women in removing many stereotypes and in society as a whole acknowledging that it was wrong for it to discriminate on account of gender.

In spite of the fact that society progressed significantly during the early twentieth…

Works cited:

Cook, Bernard A., "Women and War: A Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present," (ABC-CLIO)

Hepburn, Stephanie, James Simon, Rita, "Women's Roles and Statuses the World Over," (Lexington Books, 2007)

Hacker, Barton, and Vining, Margaret, "A Companion to Women's Military History," (BRILL, 17.08.2012)

"Early Women Soldiers," Retrieved June 7, 2013, from the Website:

Primary Source Analysis Ashoka's Inscriptions
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39875069
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State resources were used for useful public works like the importation and cultivation of medical herbs, the building of rest houses, the digging of wells at regular intervals along main roads and the planting of fruit and shade trees. To ensue that these reforms and projects were carried out, Asoka made himself more accessible to his subjects by going on frequent inspection tours and he expected his district officers to follow his example. To the same end, he gave orders that important state business or petitions were never to be kept from him no matter what he was doing at the time.

According to Indianetzone (2009), Ashoka's inscriptions provide sufficient and reliable knowledge about the religion of Ashoka. His inscriptions are found on the rock, and pillars scattered from the Himalyas to Mysore; and Orissa to Kathiawar. The object of his inscriptions is religious and ethical. Broadly speaking, these inscriptions…

Reptiles and Amphibians as Sources
Words: 893 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14910306
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Even if giant salamanders may feed more individuals, they too are not sustainable sources of food because of their scarcity. However, turtles may not pose such sustainability or scarcity issues, and turtle soup has been popular throughout the ages. The popularity of turtle meat in Cajun cuisine, combined with the hardiness of turtles might make turtle meat a likely candidate for more widespread consumption: "Turtle soup is a great delicacy in Louisiana. The flavor of the turtle meat is both delicate and intense; there are supposedly seven distinct flavors of meat within the turtle (Turtle Soup, 2010, Gumbo). The fact that turtles are larger and have a wider variety of culinary applications than frogs makes them potentially superior as a food source. However, turtles raised in captivity have also been implicated in environmental problems: "turtles regularly escape or are purposely set free into the wild. They establish populations and damage…


About typical French food. (2008). French Food and Cook. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at 

Alligator: The last truly local meat? (2009, October). The Atlantic. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at 

Black, Richard. (2005, September 19). Hunting threat to big amphibians. BBC News. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at 

California upholds ban on importation of nonnative frogs and turtles for food. (2010, June 10).

Analyzing Geothermal Closed Loop & Open Loop Systems
Words: 3162 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53046007
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Geothermal Closed Loop & Open Loop Systems

The concept of GHPs (Geothermal Heat Pumps) was first used during the latter part of the 1940s. The pumps employ the earth's constant temperature as their medium for exchange, rather than the temperature of outside air. Ground temperature will be more than that of air over it in winter, whereas in summer, the ground will be cooler. GHPs make use of this phenomenon -- they exchange heat energy with the ground using ground heat exchangers. A ground loop system can be either open loop or closed loop. The former has one or more wells, while the latter system comes in three forms -- pond/lake, horizontal, and vertical. It is a lot easier to affix an open loop system. Designing of closed loops necessitate substantial installer knowledge about the system. An open loop system has the advantages of steady EWT (entering water temperature); therefore,…


Energy.Gov, (n.d.). GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS [WWW Document]. URL 

Goldscheider, N. & Bechtel, T.D. (2009). Editors' message: The housing crisis from underground -- damage to a historic town by geothermal drillings through anhydrite, Staufen, Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 17 (3): 491-493.

Idaho Geothermal, (n.d.). Open Loop vs. Closed Loop [WWW document]. URL 

Kavanaugh, S.P. & Rafferty, K. (1997). Ground-Source Heat Pumps, ASHRAE, Atlanta, Georgia

Why Google Loves the Open-Plan No Cubicle Workspace
Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80394431
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Global Issues in Design and Visuality in the 21st Century

Global Design & Visuality

Headline: Cubicles Rise in a Brave New orld of Publishing

The New York Times

The open-plan office space complete with cubicles has broken down the once hallowed walls of Manhattan's literary elite: publishing houses. Editors, who once prided themselves on their well-appointed offices reminiscent of British gentlemen's clubs, must eschew their former reclusiveness in favor of chummy shoulder-to-shoulder camaraderie. The change is driven by falling profit margins and the desire to maintain headquarters within Manhattan, close to the literary agents and media outlets that are the wheels on the publishing vehicle. Many editors consider the idea of open-plan offices and cubicles anathema to the intellectual work publishing entails. Those needing more quiet spaces are forced to work at home in the evenings or slink off to the tiny conference rooms known as "quiet cars." Open-plan offices…

Works Cited

Mahler, John. "Cubicles Rise in a Brave New World of Publishing. The New York Times, 9 November 2014. 10 November 2014.

Environmental Hazards Open Dumps an
Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77953367
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Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.

Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (epa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top…


Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from,d.ZWU 

Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from 

Skye, J. (2011).Environmental problems: Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from

James A Michener Open a
Words: 2499 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28274644
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and, as no two individuals can have had completely identical experiences, it follows that no two individuals can view events in exactly the same way. Thus, they will make different choices, and choose different course of action.

So important to Michener are all the minute events that go to make up a life, that prior to undertaking a new narrative, he sets himself the enormous task of finding out everything he possibly can about his subject.

The causal relationship between the characters and the social milieu is complex. In Michener's... novels, this complex interaction between characters and their environment is typically portrayed in finely detailed sketches that beg the question of which causes which. Michener, for example, goes so far as to provide incredible details about the land and environment, reflecting a Montesquieu-like interest in the causal nexus between geography, climate, and history. However, there can be little doubt that…


Adhikari, Madhumalati. (December 2002). "History and Story: Unconventional History in Michael Ondaatje's the English Patient and James a. Michener's Tales of the South Pacific." History and Theory 41, Theme Issue 41, 43-55

Carty, T. (2001). The Catholic Question: Religious Liberty and Jfk's Pursuit of the 1960 Democratic Presidential Nomination. The Historian, 63(3), 577. 

Grobel, L. (1999). Talking with Michener. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. 

Mackenzie, G.C. (1996). The Irony of Reform: Roots of American Political Disenchantment. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Gender Studies -- the World Split Open
Words: 2036 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43732110
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Gender Studies -- the orld Split Open

hy were American women unhappy? In building her case regarding the unhappiness that women in America experienced in the 1950s, the author of The orld Split Open: How the Modern omen's Movement Changed America -- Ruth Rosen -- goes into great detail. On page 13 Rosen points out that after II in the American culture, women getting pregnant and having babies, was extremely common and normal. In fact, a woman who was not married was "an embarrassment," and the author quotes actress Debbie Reynolds (from the film The Tender Trap) as saying that marriage is "the most important thing in the world" and that a woman is not "really a woman" until she has a wedding and babies (Rosen, 13).

But after taking care of babies all day, doing housework, running errands and cooking dinner for the family -- all the while using…

Works Cited

Rosen, Ruth. The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America.

New York: Viking, 2000.

Tapping Into the Sources of Innovation
Words: 1139 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37656053
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Tapping Into the


Bower, J.L. & Christensen, Clayton M. (1995). Disruptive technology: Catching the wave. Harvard Business Review.

Chesbrough, H.W. & Appleyard, M.M. (2007). Open innovation and strategy. California Management Review, 50(1): 57-76.

Shehabuddeen, N. (2007). Innovation in real life - a hands-on guide to genuine innovation. NY: Open Innovation Ltd.

von Hippel, E. (1988). The sources of innovation. NY: Oxford University Press.

Ethics-Criminal Justice System Details of the Source
Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67098573
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Details of the Source

When does police mistake become murder?

The Christian Science Monitor,

Date of publication: 04-05-1999,

Summary of Facts

Racial profiling is probably the biggest concern of minorities groups in our country because it has been the cause of numerous injustices against them. Our law enforcement agencies appear to be ruthlessly biased in their exercise of duty as is clear from this article. The author shows that racial profiling has resulted in prosecution and death of many innocent immigrants. The article argues that when death results from irresponsible actions of the police, it should be counted as murder because it violates basic civil rights provided by the constitution to every citizen regardless of color or creed. However it has been noticed that our police would open fire on any immigrant who appears to be a threat. The author asks: "Should the police officer be tried…

Online Sources and Their Reliability and Accuracy
Words: 2309 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8754425
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Online Sources

Using the Online Environment

he availability of online information has made a tremendous difference in many fields of endeavor including daily interactions. Many journals now have articles that are 'online first' before print; others comment on these online articles and critique even before the print issue exists. Online access also broadens the ease of accessing materials without a nearby extensive library. his is true in nearly every profession: science, economics, finance, business, nursing, medicine, hairdressing, and etc., (Leiner et al., 2003). Access to online information has changed the information paradigm. here is now a necessity and obligation to understand what appropriate online information consists of.

Use of social media and online tools for information-searching and access has increased considerably in recent years. Information is not only proliferating but is being shared more quickly than when print was the only medium available. he use of online media is a…

The European History Highway: A Guide to Internet Resources. (Dennis A. Trinkle, 1996) <

Vardi, M.Y. 2012. Predatory Scholarly Publishing Communications of the ACM, 2012:55(7)p.510. Available at: [accessed 24 January 2015].

WebMD. 2015. Hypertension/High Blood Pressure Health Center, Available at: [accessed 24 January 2015].

Windmills as a Source of
Words: 1205 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20434288
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When finished, it will produce enough energy to power 8,000 Oahu homes and reduce carbon dramatically. The Kaheawa Wind Power farm expansion now has 14 more turbines which will make it a 50 megawatt production center with some capability for overnight battery storage. Even with the advances in technology, the idea of using wind -- a free resource that simply needs funding for equipment and maintenance, is increasingly important ("enewable Energy Sources," 2010).

Other companies are exploring the combination of solar and wind to produce energy for smaller projects. For example, alternative power generators could drive down the need for energy if just 20% of corporations used renewable energy. One case in point is the Parker ang, using a combination grid and tracking system that literally turns cells toward the sun and aims the wind turbines. This system was built in just 5 months, and will completely pay for itself…


"Hawaii Small-Scale Energy Projects," (2010). Cited in: 

"Hawaii Wind Energy News," (2010). Wind Energy Industry Today. Cited in:

Biology Qs the Primary Source
Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 82910581
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Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).


Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.


The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow…

Exposed to Many Useful Sources of Inspiration
Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74327114
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exposed to many useful sources of inspiration and opportunity. I truly embraced all of the diversity that existed in the highly urban melting pot in which I was raised. As a result, I was able to learn a great deal about numerous other cultures, cuisines and lifestyles. Many of my friends did not share my own ethnic background and so it was a continuously educational and didactic growth experience. Additionally, my home and upbringing certainly helped in the creation of my lasting passion for education and knowledge. My family was very supportive of my goals and childhood activities. They were also avid readers and insisted that I learn to read and write at a young age (much younger than any of my peers). I soon developed somewhat of an addiction to books and journals. I can remember many a rainy day spent buried in a good book or short story.…

Federalist No Primary Source Analysis on September
Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84719480
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Federalist No.

Primary Source Analysis

On September 17, 1787 the Constitution of the United States was signed by 39 delegates from 12 states in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, after spending the summer debating the final form in the first Constitutional Convention. The Constitution represented in part an attempt to prevent the dissolution of the confederacy of states formed by the shared goal of independence, by forming a strong federal government (hodenhamel, 1987, p. 6).

Once the Constitution had been signed it had to be ratified by at least nine states before the federal government could be formed. To urge the states to ratify, a series of influential essays were published in New York newspapers by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, under the pseudonym Publius (hodenhamel, 1987, p. 45). This collection of essays was called The Federalist Papers (Genovese, 2009).

Historians have since recognized that the most influential of…


Genovese, Michael A. (Ed.). (2009). The Federalist Papers. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Retrieved from 

Madison, James. (1787, Nov. 23). Federalist No. 10: The size and variety of the union as a check on faction. New York Packet. Retrieved from . Also available in Genovese, 2009, p. 49.

Rhodenhamel, John H. (1987). Letters of liberty: A documentary history of the U.S. Constitution. Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles. Microfiche.

How Globalization Can Be the Source of Conflict and Peace
Words: 4956 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92879387
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Conflict with Getting Minerals from the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) is Important to China's Economy

Globalization is a significant part of the business world. It offers many opportunities for change and growth, and helps people connect to one another even if they are across the world from each other. eing able to buy something from the next town over or the other side of the world can make a person very happy, and can also help companies expand and gain new clients. However, what the person is buying and where the items are coming from is very important. Some globalization has resulted in a desire for items that are coming from countries where the people are not being treated well. When that happens, it can be a serious violation of human rights and can cause a significant number of problems in the country from which the items are being…


Eichstaedt, Peter (2011). Consuming the Congo: War and Conflict Minerals in the World's Deadliest Place. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.

Ma, Tiffany. (2013). China and Congo's Coltan Connection. Project 2049 Institute: 1-7.

Magistad, Mary Kay (2011). Slideshow: Why Chinese Mineral Buyers are Eyeing Congo. Retrieved from 

Meale, David. (2009). China's Quest for Resources in Africa: Emerging Opportunities for New U.S. Policy Approaches. The Industrial College of the Armed Forces: 1-52.

Management Patents Are a Source of Protection
Words: 2503 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773799
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Patents are a source of protection for intellectual property in any industry. The value in a patent is that it allows a company that has developed a product or proprietary technique to enjoy monopoly power over that, thus enabling the company to recoup its investment in the development of the proprietary product or technique. Patents are published as a matter of public record, and this is not deemed harmful because of the strength of law protecting patents. The typical response of competitors to patents is that they either build on the patent in a meaningful way, so as to receive their own patent for a new product that may be built on the original product. Alternatively, a competitor may develop a similar product that performs the same function as the one covered by patent, and receive its own patent on the new product. Patents typically can only be held…


Cadigan, S. (2015). Nurturing a culture of innovation. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved July 25, 2015 from 

Morah, C. (2015). Patents are assets, so learn how to value them. Investopedia. Retrieved July 25, 2015 from 

QuickMBA (2010). The value chain. Retrieved July 25, 2015 from 

Waldron, D. (2013). Online education companies facing new disruption. Seeking Alpha. Retrieved July 25, 2015 from

Customer's Source States That There Are Various
Words: 810 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41145682
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customer's source] states that there are various types of qualitative approaches to research including the education filed approaches which includes the ecological psychology approach, the holistic ethnography approach, the cognitive anthropology approach, the ethnography of communication approach and symbolic interactionism. In the field of nursing, qualitative approaches to research are inclusive of phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and historical research. Also used in the field of education are anthropological perspectives, sociological perspectives, biological perspectives, case studies, personal accounts, cognitive studies and historical inquiries. In the field of sociology and nursing the grounded theory, ethnography, phenomenology, life histories, and conversational analysis are used. In the field of nursing used are phenomenology, ethnography, ethnoscience, and grounded theory. (Ibid, nd, p.7)

Research design that is qualitative is reported to begin with "philosophical assumptions that the inquirers make in deciding to undertake a qualitative study." (Ibid, nd, p.7) Researchers are reported to "bring their own…