Operant Conditioning Essays (Examples)

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Conditioning and Free Will Conditioning

Words: 453 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18995846

Classically, the dog's fear was a conditioned reflex to the sound -- in operant terms, the dog's climbing behavior was a conditioned by the "reward" of avoiding the shock.

Some critics of theories regarding conditioning suggest that it is distasteful to talk about conditioning humans, because this removes the idea that we have free will. It is possible to condition humans, of course. The purpose of spanking children, for example, is to try to condition them not to behave in certain way because it will result in pain. However, it is a misnomer to suggest that conditioning removes free will. It would be more accurate to suggest that conditioning is the outcome of free will combined with intelligence. Free will enables the animal or human to choose responses that are most rewarding, and conditioning teaches them what responses are likely to be most rewarding. It is always theoretically possible for…… [Read More]

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Instrumental Conditioning

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48791288

Instrumental Conditioning

One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to encourage the subject to engage in particular types of behavior. The basic idea behind this approach is to increase the chances that a specific kind of action will take place in the future. Once this happens, is when there can be a transformation in how the subject is reacting to the stimuli that they will see, hear or feel. (Cherry, 2011) This is significant, because it is showing how this is utilized as a basic strategy to subtly change the way someone is responding to various events. To fully understand this technique we will examine how this kind of conditioning is used by someone who is learning to ride a bike. This will be accomplished by: comparing positive / negative reinforcement that relate to the situation, examining the role…… [Read More]

References

Classical and Operant Conditioning. (2011). All Psych. Retrieved from: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/conditioning.html

Conditioned Responses. (2009). Emotional Competency. Retrieved from:  http://www.emotionalcompetency.com/conditioned.htm 

Cherry, K. (2011). What is Instrumental Conditioning. About.com. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/instrumental-conditioning.htm

Robbins, A. (1992). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
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Classic Conditioning

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77047698

Classic Conditioning

I have noticed consistently that people react differently when tickled. I decided to find out which of my friends was the most ticklish and see if I could create a conditioned reaction to the threat of being tickled. After considering and rejecting a few candidates for experimentation, I came across a friend who is extremely ticklish. His entire torso is sensitive to the movement of tickling fingers and he bends in interesting positions in order to attempt to avoid the potential tickling. So, for several days when I approached him, I would tickle him. I would keep tickling him until he made that familiar bending action. He became wary of whenever I approached and guarded himself against me. I took to approaching from behind. Now, he has learned to associate my presence with tickling and either bends himself before I come near or he backs away to avoid…… [Read More]

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Instrumental Conditioning A Description of

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77270022

(Kimble; Hilgad; Maquis, 1961)

(c) Explain the ole of ewad and punishment in you selected leaning situation of 'How to ide a Bike'

A lot of avesive events ae thee inclusive of withholding einfocement i.e. extinction, emoving a positive einfoces i.e. esponse cost and pesenting an avesive event contingent on a behavio i.e. punishment. The same vaiables that influence the effectiveness of einfocement also influence the effectiveness of punishment, inclusive of the immediacy with which a negative event follows a behavio, the intensity of the event, and the schedule of punishment. It is impotant to compehend that punishment constitute an inescapable aspect of life which individuals tend to lean though both punishing consequences and positive consequences. Fo instance in the selected leaning situation of how to ide a bike, if the leane is not watching whee he is going, he will sustain a fall which is a punishment fo him.…… [Read More]

reference: core for occupation-based practice" SLACK Incorporated.

Dworkin, Barry R. (1993) "Learning and psychological regulation"

Gambrill, Eileen D. (2006) "Social Work Practice: A critical thinker's guide"

Kimble, Gregory A; Hilgard, Ernest Ropiequet; Marquis, Donald George. (1961) "Hilgard

and Marquis' Conditioning and Learning." Appleton-Century-Crofts: New York
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Learning Theory and Grief

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18936593

Operant Conditioning and Grief

Because grief is an emotional process, many people are reluctant to believe that grief can, in many ways, be explained through operant or classical conditioning principles. However, the biochemical underpinnings of many type of love relationships serve as reward systems that can actually condition a person to feel love, which can result in grief when the object of affection is no longer available. In both sexual relationships and parent-child relationships, the body releases chemicals at certain times during the relationship- sexual intercourse, nursing, holding an infant, and hugging are all related to the body's release of hormones. Classical or operant conditioning principles suggest, then, that the presence of the loved one will, eventually be sufficient to stimulate the release of those hormones. If the loved one resides with the person who has done the learning or spends sufficient time with them, then it seems clear that…… [Read More]

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Person Single Mom Who Lost Custody Over

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70848428

Person: Single mom, who lost custody over her children, has sex with multiple male partners, asks for money afterwards, and denies that she is prostitute because she doesn't charge money up front. The mother is hypercritical and unloving and her father has been an absent figure in her life. Her stepfather abused her.

Cognitive self-regulation

Cognitive self-regulation theory, fashioned by Bandura, believes that human behavior is motivated and regulated by the influence that one has over the self. This self-influence works through three key mechanisms: monitoring one's behavior, causes of one's behavior, and the effects of that behavior; judging one's behavior in contrast to personal standards; and regulating the feelings / moods (affect) of one's conduct / behavior. Higher goals lead to enhanced behavior and this results in a certain mindset. Self-regulation is continuous and never-ending. And is also effectuated by self-reinforcement that result in self-efficacy. It is intentional and…… [Read More]

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Psychology of Learning and Obesity

Words: 2133 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51315269



Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.

Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…… [Read More]

References

David N. Perkins, (1992). Transfer of Learning. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from  http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/traencyn.htm 

Encyclopedia Britannica, (2011 ). Insight in Learning Theory. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289152/insight

Gonzalez, J.J. (2002). Modeling Erosion of Security and Safety Awareness. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference of the System Dynamics Society July 28 - August 1, 2002 Palermo, Italy, Vol., 200. Retrieved on April 10, 2010 from www.ikt.hia.no/.../Modeling%20Instrumental%20Conditioning%20(HICSS'36%20pap

Jeffry Ricker, (2011). What is Stimulus Generalization & Discrimination? Retrieved December
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Consumer Behavior for Marketing Understanding Consumer Behavior

Words: 3123 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5001570

Consumer Behavior for Marketing

Understanding Consumer Behavior

Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]

References

Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm

Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.

Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
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Psychology Explain the Similarities and

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74591111



The first stage of language acquisition is talking one word at a time. The child uses that single word to make requests and direct activities. The individual at this stage can be considered an "emergent communicator." Their use of language for the purpose of communication is in its beginning period. Thus, the articulations consists mainly of a single word, this word may capture an entire sentence.

In stage, two the individual builds on the foundation of stage one as their vocabulary increases to beyond 75 words. At this stage, they are able to fuse words together and make simple phrases. They may continue at this stage to rely on single words but two word phrases begin to be used more frequently and with greater assuredness. During this stage some individuals may improve their vocabulary to upwards of two hundred words or more.

For stage three, the individual begins using morphemes.…… [Read More]

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Learning and Behavioral Analysis Learning

Words: 1261 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67415605



Provide an example of something you learned through positive reinforcement; provide an example of something you learned through negative reinforcement.

Through positive reinforcement, I learned how to throw a ball. My father taught me in the backyard, and the farther I threw it, the more he told me I had done a 'good job.' I learned through negative reinforcement not to breathe through my nose while swimming -- every time I breathed incorrectly, I would always choke on the water, which made me extremely aware of how I was breathing.

Provide an example (and the steps involved) of something you can teach a child or a pet through shaping.

You can housebreak a puppy through shaping. First, you keep the puppy in a crate because it does not want to soil its den, and only let it out of the crate when you can observe the puppy. When the puppy…… [Read More]

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Ethical Concern That May Arise When Using the Above Methods

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801380

Psychology Concepts

Psychology is a term derived from two Greek words that translate to life explanation, which makes it an important element of daily life. The field of psychology can be described as a discipline that focuses on the study of mind and behavior (Stangor, 2010, p.7). This discipline is characterized by several concepts and approaches that are used by psychologists in understanding human behavior. Since psychology is a broad field, psychologists not only use these concepts and approaches but also conduct scientific research that enables them to understand human behavior. Some of the most common psychological concepts that are used to modify or change an individual's behavior include operant conditioning, positive and negative punishment, and positive and negative reinforcement.

Operant condition can be described as a learning method that is used to modify or change a person's behavior through experiences and consequences. While it is part of the process…… [Read More]

Reference:

Stangor, C. (2010). Introduction to psychology. Washington, DC: Flat World Knowledge, L.L.C.
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Introductory College Psychology

Words: 3620 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88161373

psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.

To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.

Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…… [Read More]

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Psychology According to The Father

Words: 374 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91379657



2. The following is a learning scenario using operant conditioning. A girl is mad at her boyfriend because he doesn't do the dishes enough. The boyfriend is the learner, and the behavior that needs to be learned is doing the dishes. Using operant conditioning, the girlfriend can teach the boyfriend to participate more in household chores by either withholding sex from the boyfriend (punishment); yelling at him (negative reinforcement); or being extra nice to him when he does do the dishes (positive reinforcement).

3. Mnemonic devices are one of the best ways to improve memory in certain situations. One way a person could apply mnemonic devices is to try to memorize people's names, something that can be hard to do at a party. So if a woman's name is Meg and has blonde hair, the person can remember her name by associating it with Meg Ryan. Or if a guy…… [Read More]

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Road Is Not Just the

Words: 2197 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93749944

These values can be as operational for the parent/child association as it is for the owner/pet relationship.

Strategy for communication

The objective of any family is for all members to live in agreement with each other. It is the first basis of a Childs education and moral standards (Gouze & Wendel, 2007). With that said, a strategy called floor planning is what will be utilized for Jeff and Roger.

Floor Planning

This method should also be done throughout the instigating stages of counseling for Jeff and Roger. Jeff and Roger will be requested to draw a floor plan of their house. They will then be asked to remember the odors, sounds, colors, and people that are in their home. While they are drawing particular questions are asked regarding the environment such as;

What room does the family gather in?

What conversations take place in the various rooms?

Are any rooms…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gouze, K.R., & Wendel, R. (2007). INTEGRATIVE MODULE-BASED FAMILY THERAPY: APPLICATION AND TRAINING. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 286-296.

Hogarty, G.E., Greenwald, D., Ulrich, R.F., Kornblith, S.J., & a, e. (1997). Three-year trials of personal therapy among schizophrenic patients living with or independent of family, II: Effects on adjustment of patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 56-89.

Kissane, D.W., & McKenzie, M. (2006). Family Focused Grief Therapy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Palliative Care and Bereavement. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 56-78.

Lund, L.K., Zimmerman, T.S., & Haddock, S.A. (2002). The theory, structure, and techniques for the inclusion of children in family therapy: A literature review. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 67-89.
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Person Would Learn From the Material Will

Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4520133

person would learn from the material? Will the article help someone become more self-aware? This research would enable one to understand how a research article is put together and to draw insightful conclusions from it.

Identify the article, the author(s) and the date of publication, both in the body of the paper and in an attached eference list, and the focus of the research

Annesi, James J., et al. "Effects of the coach approach intervention on adherence to exercise in obese women: assessing mediation of social cognitive theory factors." esearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 82.1 (2011): 99+. Academic OneFile. Web. 11 Apr. 2011.

Describe the hypothesis of the study

The hypothesis for this study is that as obese individuals exercised, they were monitored to see if there was an improvement for "physical self-concept, exercise self-efficacy, total mood disturbance and body area satisfaction" (Annesi, 2011). One wanted to see if…… [Read More]

References

Annesi, James J., et al. "Effects of the coach approach intervention on adherence to exercise in obese women: assessing mediation of social cognitive theory factors." Research

Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 82.1 (2011): 99+. Academic OneFile. Web. 11 Apr.
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Psychology Psychoanalysis Is a Theory

Words: 816 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65468279

It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.

The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th edition).

Donaldson, J. (2008). Oh, behave!: Dogs from Pavlov to Premack to Pinker. Dogwise Publishing.

Mitchell, S.A. & Black, M.J. (1996). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.

Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. (2nd edition). Routledge.
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Psychological Learning Theories There Are

Words: 1412 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98009598

Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.

Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.

With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…… [Read More]

References

Chang, Min-Yu S. (1998). "Learning Theory and Advertising." CIA Advertising. 23,

October 2004, Available: http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_spring/theory/learning.html

Klein, S.B. (2002). "Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning." Mississippi

State University. McGraw Hill. Education. 22, October, 2004, Available:
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Improving Human Resource Management at Great Northern

Words: 1845 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50914166

Improving Human esource Management at Great Northern America

Because all organizations are comprised of people, there will always be human resource issues involved and the manner in which these issues are resolved can spell the difference between organizational success and failure. This was the situation facing Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern America as he sought to formulate timely and responsive solutions to his company's human resource problems in order to save his company and achieve a competitive advantage in the future. To gain some fresh insights concerning how the president of this company could approach these problems, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to explain why employees need to understand the importance of how people form perceptions and make attributions, an evaluation of the applicability of social learning theory to the circumstances, followed by an examination of ways that the president could use social learning theory…… [Read More]

References

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Demirbas, M. & Yagbasan, R. (2006, May). An evaluative study of social learning theory-based scientific attitudes on academic success, gender and socio-economical level. Kuram ve

Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 6(2), 37-39.
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Development of Canine Behavior Genetics vs Environment

Words: 4662 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91836586

Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment

The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]

References

Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.

Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
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Respondent Learning Theory and the

Words: 2048 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77575647



An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.

OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain

Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.

Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction

Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),
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Criminal Theory - Operational Implementation

Words: 1089 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38364082



In terms of correctional program implementation, operant conditioning principles provide the basis for motivating cooperation and other desirable behaviors (including reduction of undesirable behaviors) in a quid pro quo arrangement. Typical examples of operational implementation of operant conditioning would include so-called "token economies" and other bilateral agreements, arrangements, or understandings that certain desired behaviors provide specific rewards (Van Voorhis 2007). Operant conditioning principles are particularly useful in parenting, such as between teenagers rewarded with late weekend curfews for good grades; it is also a proven method of increasing inmate compliance within correctional institutions where good behavior is rewarded with increased privileges and undesirable behaviors are punished through privilege reduction (Spiegler & Guevremont 1993). Generally, the most important fundamental element of successful implementation of operant conditioning principles in behavior modification is the gradual phasing out of the reward-based motivation for compliance (Van Voorhis 2007). The goal of any such operational conditioning-based…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, P.G. (2005) Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson

Goldstein, Glick, and Gibbs. (1986) Aggression Replacement Training, pp 1-68

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercus
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Learning Cognitive Theory of Learning

Words: 5035 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711915

When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.

ognitive Theory of Learning

Introduction

The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]

Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.

Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.

Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
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Learning Educational Psychology Multiple Choice

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64594759



A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior

Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability

Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition

If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws

Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences

Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible

APA rules for research studies

Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject

Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions

Trace conditioning…… [Read More]

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Ape Speech Research Has Been

Words: 5500 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66875718



Another theorist with a different view is Chomsky (1988). Chomsky sees the acquisition of language as a process of input-output, what he calls a Cartesian view of language acquisition and language structure. He states: "We have an organism of which we know nothing. We know, or we can discover, what kind of data is available to it, and the first question we must try to answer is: what kind of mental structure does the organism develop when that evidence is presented to it?" (Chomsky, 1988, p. 102). Once we find an answer to this question, we can ask what sorts of processes have intervened leading form the data available to the knowledge that resulted. Chomsky explains:

The input-output situation is this: a child who initially does not have knowledge of a language constructs for himself knowledge of a language on the basis of a certain amount of data; the input…… [Read More]

References

Aitchison, J. (1998). The articulate mammal: An introduction to psycholinguistics. London:Routledge.

Appel, A. (2005) 'Dinner conversation' proof of ape speech? National Geographic News.

Brown, G. (1958). Words and things. New York: The Free Press.

Brain circuitry involved in language reveals differences in man, non-human primates (2001, September 5). Science Daily. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/09/010905071926.html.
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Lisa Was a Sophomore and While in

Words: 3300 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98681383

Lisa was a sophomore and while in the Alternative school, as was the case in the regular high school, she had been a student who had been in trouble frequently for talking back to and swearing at teachers, skipping class, not doing homework, hanging out after school and violating many of the community rules that were established by the group including smoking on school grounds, lying, being late for classes, and doing drugs. She hung out with what teachers called "the wrong crowd" after school: kids from a nearby community that were not as well off, and were part of a street gang. Lisa was white, but many of her friends were black, and the kids in this gang were vocally resistant to the inequalities that they saw in wealthy Scarsdale that were not in their poor community. Some of her afterschool friends were dropping out, and others were fighting…… [Read More]

References

Lapsley, D. Moral Stage Theory. In Killen, M. & Smetana, J. (Ed). Handbook of Moral Development.

Moral Development and Moral Education: An Overview http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html

Week 9: (October 22): Self development and Social Contexts

http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm
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Memory and Intelligence Theory

Words: 1203 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68917984

Memory

In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.

ABC/123 Version X

Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

Sensory memory

Meaningful organization

Short-term memory

Encoding

Storage

Grouping

ehearsal

Association

Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. etrieved from:

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:BZ81rE0CqEcJ:college.cengage.com/collegesurvival/hopper/practicing_college/4e/prepare/ppt/hopper_ch04_how_memory_works.ppt+&cd=10&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Computing IQ Essay

Consider the following scenario:

Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.

According to Sternberg, what is Kara's IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.

Kara's IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. "Sternberg's discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should…… [Read More]

References

Lane, C. (20008). Gardner's multiple intelligences. The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html

McLeod, S. A. (2010). Long-term memory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/long-term-memory.html McLeod, S. A. (2014). Classical Conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.html

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner - operant conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

Paik, H. (2001). One intelligence or many? Alternative approaches to cognitive abilities. Personality Research.
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Starting From 19th Century Psychology School of

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16938592

Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.

During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]

Work cited

Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.

Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN

Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez 

Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
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Information Security Behaviors

Words: 2050 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21568248

security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.

Consumer behavior

Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…… [Read More]

References

Allen, C.T. And Madden, T.J. (1985), "A Closer Look at Classical Conditioning," Journal of Consumer Research, 12, December, pp. 301- 315

Barry, T.E. And Howard, D. (1990), "A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising," International Journal of Advertising, 9, pp. 121-135

Elliot, R. (1996), "Discourse analysis: exploring action, function and conflict in social texts," Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 65-68

Feinberg, R.A. (1986), "Credit Cards as Spending Facilitating Stimuli: A Conditioning Interpretation," Journal of Consumer Research, 13, December, pp. 348-356
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Embarrasses or Shames Them to

Words: 3460 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88984669



People are aware of the impact that major stressful events can have on a person's life. In general, society is solicitous of people undergoing major stressors like major illness, divorce, or a death in the family. However, it is interesting to note that, for the individual, small stressors can actually be more significant than major stressors. For example, a friend of mine was fired from her job the day before 9-11. The day of 9-11, when everyone else was so stressed out about the idea of a terrorist attack, she was far more worried about the source of her next paycheck. While she realized, intellectually, that the national impact of 9-11 was certainly greater than the national impact of her being fired, in her life she experienced the loss of her job as a more stressful event. In fact, the most stressful part of 9-11 was that, with its resultant…… [Read More]

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Psychology Offers a Vast Network

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21775891

The behavior conditioning arises from the punishment not being liked, and therefore the behavior is avoided.

The last form of reinforcement, extinction, occurs when a reaction to a certain behavior is denied and removed, and resultantly the unwanted behavior is decreased, if not terminated. An example of extinction reinforcement includes a child who hides behind furniture in an attempt to gain attention - which is a response that has previously been positively reinforced. hen the child's attention-seeking actions are subsequently ignored, the behavior decreases, if not stops.

Research indicates positive reinforcement is the most powerful of the reinforcement paradigms (Heffner). Other methods of operant conditioning, such as punishment, can potentially summon additional negative responses such as anger and resentment. In situations of positive reinforcement, both parties involved focus on the positive aspects of the experience, which adds to the fulfillment of the desired behavior.

Examples of reinforcement principles from my…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Heffner, C. "Psychology 101." AllPsych Online the Virtual Psychology Classroom. Heffner Media Group, Inc., 01 Apr 2001. Web. 7 Apr 2011.

.
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Learning and Cognition Definition of Learning Merriam-Webster

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81943194

Learning and Cognition

Definition of Learning

Merriam-Webster defines learning as "knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study; modification of a behavioral tendency by experience (as exposure to conditioning)" (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Other experts defines learning as a process, one that leads to behavioral change or potential behavior change that is relatively permanent. That is, as people learn, his or her learning alters the way one perceives the environment, the way he or she interprets incoming stimuli, and therefore, the way one interacts or behaves (Introduction to Learning Theory, 2004). According to Cherry (2011), learning is a permanent change in behavior that is the result of experience. The common characteristic that all these definitions share is their identification of a behavioral component as part of the process of learning. In other words, for learning to occur, a change in behavior takes place.

The ole of Behavior

For the early part of…… [Read More]

References

Bietz, K. (2011). The relationship between learning and cognition. Bright Hub. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from  http://www.brighthub.com/education/early-childhood/articles/101060.aspx 

Cherry, K. (2011). Learning Study Guide. About.com Psychology. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/learning_sg.htm

Introduction to Learning Theory and Behavioral Psychology. (2004). Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/psychology101/learning.html

Merriam-Webster. (2011). Learning. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/learning?show=0&t=1309112968
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Personality Theoretical Perspective of the Approach According

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42749887

ersonality

Theoretical perspective of the approach

According to behavioral approach human behavior can be learned and unlearned. When a behavior is unlearned, new behaviors are learned in its place. This approach is primarily concerned with observable and measurable aspects of human behavior. Unacceptable behaviors are unlearned. This approach views development as a continuous process in which children play a positive role. This approach can be used in a clinical and educational set up. Behavioral theorists posit that real things are things that can be seen and observed (Bustamante, Howe-Tennant, & Ramo, 1996). The mind, the id, or the unconscious, cannot be seen, but people's actions, how they react, and behave can be seen. From ones behavior inferences can be made about the minds and the brain. However, the mind and the brain are not the primary focus of investigation. It is what people do that is subject of study and…… [Read More]

Pavlov is one of the pioneer behaviorist theorists. He was the first person who came up with the idea of conditioning. According to him behavior was reflexive. It took him some time to distinguish reflexive behaviors from instinctive behaviors. Instinctive behaviors are at times thought to be motivated. An animal has to hungry, be sexually aroused, or have nest building hormones before the instinctive behaviors can occur (SparkNotes, 2013). Pavlov averred that there was no basis for distinguishing between reflexes and reflexive behaviors. Pavlov was more concerned with the nervous system and to be specific the cerebral cortex. Pavlov thought that learning of elicited responses in animals and conceptual behaviors in humans was due to mechanisms of classical conditioning. This has thus been proved wrong (SparkNotes, 2013). None the less, his ideas were one of the greatest ideas of our culture.

John B. Watson is considered one of the most colorful personalities in realms of psychology. He was behaviorism's chief spokesman and protagonist. He believed that mechanism had a thing in explaining behavior. He averred that the study of mind is the province of philosophy and that the mind is the realm of speculation and endless word games. He was categorical that the mind has no place in psychology (SparkNotes, 2013). To him psychology has to be based on objective phenomena and ultimate explanation must be found in the central nervous system. Watson convinced psychologists that the real explanation of behavior lay in the nervous system. When the brain is understood a little better, most mysteries would be demystified. It was for Watson that many psychologists believed that what they called conditioning was so important.

Skinner described the principles of operant conditioning. He strongly believed that environment is a stimulus of ones behavior. He attributed certain behavior patterns to particular kinds of response tendencies. People will therefore learn to behave in particular ways over time. Behaviors with positive consequences will increase while those with negative consequences will decrease. Skinner never believed that childhood had a role in shaping ones personality (SparkNotes, 2013). To him, personality is something that whose development is lifelong process. People's responses change as they encounter new situations. Take the example of a man who lived in the suburbs when he was young who had developed a liking for fast driving because his friends rode with him and he never got speeding tickets. After leaving, college this man moved to the city. Whenever he drove
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Skinner Vers Huxley

Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45078716

.F. Skinner, a behavioral learning theorist, states that behaviors are learned and learning is represented by a permanent change in behavior. The components of this theory are reinforcers -- good or bad. Most people think of reinforcers as rewards for good behavior. There are actually two types of reinforcers -- positive and negative. Positive reinforcers are when a stimulus is given, and negative reinforcers are when a stimulus is taken away. However, negative reinforcers are different than punishments. Punishing is when either taking away a positive reinforcer or adding a negative reinforcer.

He also says that changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events, or stimuli, in the environment. When a particular Stimulus-Response pattern is reinforced, the individual is conditioned to respond. This pattern is known as Operant Conditioning, and the distinct characteristic of this is relative to previous forms of behaviorism, when the organism can…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blavatsky, H.P. Psychology -- The Science of the Soul. 12 December 2002. www.blavatsky.net/blavatsky/arts/PsychologyTheScienceOfTheSoul.htm

Brave New Look at Behavioral Psychology. Ed. Kilburn-Peterson, Christopher. May 11, 1999. 12 December 2002. www.princeton.edu/~wws320/projects/99Fiction/ChrisKilburn-Peterson.htm

Rozycki, Edward G. Skinner's Concept of Person. 12 December 2002. http://mywebpages.comcast.net/erozycki/PracPerson.html

Operant Conditioning." TIP: Theories. 12 December 2002. http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html
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Behavioral Theory Influence on Personality

Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83372965

In case a reinforcing stimulus does not ensue as a result of a behavior, the probability of a repetition of such a behavior decreases. Again, if a behavior is followed by an aversive stimulus, the probability of a repetition of such a behavior decreases. The removal of an aversive stimulus by an experimenter results in a negative reinforcement. If an aversive stimulus, which follows a certain type of behavior, is removed, the chance of repetition of such a behavior increases. The operant conditioning behavioral theory may find applications in the educational sphere for understanding and manipulating the behavior of students. However, it may not always be possible for teachers to determine positive and negative reinforcements for every situation or behavior. (Davis, 2006)

Another behaviorist whose theories added to the understanding of human behavior and how it influences personality was Albert Bandura. According to Bandura, people may learn new behavior by…… [Read More]

References

Boeree, C. George. (2006) "Alberta Bandura: 1925-Present" Retrieved 28 March,

2009 from  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html 

Colarelli, Stephen M. (2003) "No best way"

Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Learning and Memory in the

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46953791



This, in effect, links learning to memory. Memory is likened to the idea of cognitive maps, or at least the way cognitive maps operate in the mind of the individual. Memory is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). These processes that the individual goes through to create and retain memory is highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; operant conditioning described learning as the consequences in behavior of the person, linked also to the memory of an event and its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped out and retain in his/her mind.

orks Cited

Santrock,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology. McGraw-Hill.
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Associationism Remains Not Only One of the

Words: 2998 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40442078

associationism remains not only one of the earliest theories of leaning but it also comes across as being one of the most enduring. Basically, associationism holds that association of ideas can be used to explain mental processes. In this text, I will mainly concern myself with associationism as a learning theory. In so doing, I will highlight the main principles associated with the theory while making a mention of three theorists whose contribution towards the development of this theory as we know it today cannot be overstated. Further, this discussion will invoke associationism in explaining mental processes associated learning. I will also attempt to explain how associationism utilizes prior experience in explaining how learning in individuals takes place. Also, I will seek to explain how permanent change in behavior comes about by depicting the application of the theory. Lastly, a number of settings in which learning takes place will be…… [Read More]

References

Ebersohn, L. & Eloff, I. (2004). Keys to Educational Psychology. Juta and Company

Hays. R.T. (2006). The Science of Learning: A Systems Theory Perspective. Universal-Publishers

Harnish, R.M. (2002). Minds, Brains, Computers: An Historical Introduction to the Foundations of Cognitive Science. Wiley-Blackwell

Mishra, B.K. (2008). Psychology: A Study of Human Behavior. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
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Human Nature How Do They

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37655691

Similarly, a married man, though he has a wife, can feel a sense of lack sexually. This sense of lack can lead him to rape a female subordinate at work.

Describe the core behavioral characteristics of the criminal psychopath. Name and describe any five instruments used to measure psychopathy. What is the difference between criminal psychopathy and mental disorder?

a. The core characteristics of the criminal psychopath are a lack of empathy, egocentricity, lack of shame or remorse, and tendency for lying and manipulation

b. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist is a psycho-diagnostic tool used in tandem with the broader PCL-R inventory to measure a person's psychopathic profile.

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory is a self-report survey used to comprehensively index personality traits without explicitly referring to anti-social or criminal behaviors themselves.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures various components of person's personality with a self-report inventory. Each component is measured by…… [Read More]

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Moral Disengagement Within the Society Today There

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27059585

Moral Disengagement

Within the society today there are different people with their own different behaviors. Some might turn out to be meaningful people but others end up being a bother to the society. This paper will look out moral disengagement in the society.it will explain using behavioral theories why a person is more likely to drop out of the society to become a terrorist as opposed to dropping out to become a hermit or monk.it will also focus on Albert Bandura's model of moral disengagement and explain some techniques that might be used to justify the use of violence by individuals.

Behavioral theories

Observing the society today more people are getting involved in terrorist behavior as opposed to becoming monks or hermits. The likely hood of an individual becoming a terrorist is high compared to the same individual becoming a monk or hermit. This can be explained using behavioral theories.…… [Read More]

References

Kathiemm, N. (2010).Moral disengagement -- introduction. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from  http://engagingpeace.com/?p=31 

Cherry, K. (2012).Introduction to operant conditioning. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm
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Behavioral Theories

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80311294

Behaviorism

Compare and contrast 2 different behavioral theories/models of your choice.

Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

The father of behaviorism is widely acknowledged to be B.F. Skinner. Skinner attempted to develop an 'experimental' approach to human psychology, and based many of his foundational theories upon experiments with rats rather than humans. Skinner believed that operant conditioning was the best way to motivate individuals to adopt new behaviors, or to extinguish existing behavior patterns. "When a particular Stimulus-esponse (S-) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond" (Operant conditioning, 2012, Instructional Design). The focus of Skinner was upon externalities, rather than upon internal motivations of behavior.

For example, when dealing with someone who was a compulsive over-eater, rather than focusing on the psychological reasons the person felt compelled to overeat, Skinner instead would focus upon creating an environment that would reward healthy choices (such as buying a new…… [Read More]

References

Chin, Irene. (2012). An overview of behavioral theories. An Electronic Textbook on Instructional

Technology. Retrieved:  http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm 

Operant conditioning. (2012). Instructional Design. Retrieved:

 http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/operant-conditioning.html
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Assist an Adolescent to Increase Positive Affiliations

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66506844

assist an adolescent to increase positive affiliations and, therefore, turn away from delinquent behavior. Compare and contrast these two strategies and explain why you selected each, with particular emphasis on how each would help an adolescent become a productive citizen.

One strategy to elicit positive behaviors from adolescents is that of operant conditioning, or rewarding good behavior and punishing bad behavior (Bartol & Bartol 201: 89). arents often deploy this strategy because it seems both obvious and instinctive -- 'grounding' a misbehaving student, for example, while rewarding good grades with money, a trip, or a promised car. However, a more difficult yet ultimately rewarding strategy may be to strive to cultivate positive attachments for the adolescent, and foster good relationships between the parent and child through engaging in mutually supportive activities (such as having dinner together on a regular basis). Attachment theory suggests that delinquency is not caused so much…… [Read More]

Previous studies have indicated that insecure attachment experiences in adolescence often cause an increased tendency to use delinquency as a mode of self-fulfillment. If adolescents are insecure because parents and teachers do not support them during this critical time period when they are just developing a sense of self, they may seek an identity through delinquency. Delinquency also becomes a crude form of securing at least some form of attachment from parents or from the larger social order that the adolescent believes does not care about him or her (Allen et al. 2002: 57). Insecure attachments give rise to low self-esteem, which is also associated with delinquency. However, it should be noted that the theory of operant condition also allows for inadvertent encouragement of negative behaviors like delinquency through parental distance. It could be argued that a parent who ignores a teen except when the teen is in trouble in school is conditioning' that teen to continue to misbehave. According to attachment theory, delinquency is more of an unconscious form of self-expression, rather than the result of a 'conditioning' process (Allen et al. 2002: 63).

This comparison of the two theories is significant because of the implications for how delinquency is treated in schools and at home. For example, it is very common for delinquent behavior in the school system to be 'punished' with a suspension, with the presumption that the child will not want this on his or her permanent record. But a student who has little hope of graduating may find being suspended more of a reward than a punishment, and thus the conditioning process of punishment has actually been counter-productive. An attachment theorist would likewise say that school suspensions are ineffective, but for a different reason: taking students out of the community of the school merely makes them feel more isolated and thus more inclined to misbehave and lash out at others. It unintentionally affirms the delinquent's status as someone who is 'bad' and outside of the norm.

When applying operant conditioning, it is thus essential to ask what the student regards as punishment and what is regarded as a reward. With this in mind, some school districts have actually given monetary awards to at-risk students who improve their grades, demonstrating to them that the pleasures of behaving outweigh those of delinquency. Attachment theory would suggest a more subtle solution -- for example, fostering partnerships