78 results for “Organ Donation”.
2009). The susceptibility is highest is the first month of the transplantation and decreases afterwards. it, however, remains high even after 12 following. Susceptibility is highest among kidney recipients who are more likely to develop the infection 12 months after the transplantation. They have a lower mortality rate than liver transplant recipients. The study also reflected a trend in increasing antimicrobial resistance among these susceptible recipients. The E-coli strain was shown to be the most common organism, which caused the gram-negative bloodstream infection after an organ transplant. The organism was also shown to be found most frequently in the urinary tract, which is the main source of bacteremia (Al_Hasan et al.).
Developing Tolerance to Transplants
Progress in transplant immunology in the past half of a century has been slower than expected (Lechler et al. 2005). Tolerance towards a foreign organ has been intentionally induced through non-myeloablative mixed chimerism induction in…
Al-Hasan M.M., et al. 2009, 'Incidence Rate and Outcome of Gram-Negative
Bloodstream Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients,' American Journal of Transplantation, (online), available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/591039
BBC 2007, 'Everyone Should Donate Organs,' BBC News, (online), available at:
Concern also focused on the imbalance of the trade because the market is for only those who can afford, therefore only gives chance for the well-off. The black market has been referred to as the transplant trade outside of the United States. Legalization of the international organ trade would lead to increased supply, lowering prices. Therefore the poor might be able to afford such organs as well.
ioethics is also concerned in issues of exploitation of the donor. Exploitation arguments generally come from two main areas, physical and financial exploitation. Physical exploitation argues that the operations are risky and they take place in third-world countries or what they say "black alleys" which adds to the risk. Although operations can be made safe, still there remains some threat and risk for the donor. Financial exploitation on the other hand says that donors are not paid enough, especially those from the Indian…
2. Richard Perez-Pena. "Turning the Grief-Stricken Toward Organ Donation." NY Times (the Metro Section) pg B1. Jan 16, 2007
3. Robert D. Truog, M.D. The Ethics of Organ Donation by Living Donors. The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353:444-446. August 4, 2005. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/organ-donation.Mayoclinic Staff. Organ donation: Don't let myths stand in your way. April 4, 2007.
That is especially true because in the vast majority of cases, prospective organ donors are younger than their surviving family members since only organs from relatively young people are suitable for use as transplant organs. However, those family members who do provide consent to harvest their loved one's organs invariably come to regard that choice as something that gives meaning to the untimely deaths of their loved ones. In many cases, the gratitude expressed by the recipients and their families helps the grieving families overcome their own tragedy of loss. Ultimately, proper training and sensitivity of the medical personnel responsible for approaching grieving family members can mitigate the potential harm to those families associated with the request.
The other principal objection to organ donation is the fear that life-saving procedures might be terminated prematurely on accident victims whose drivers licenses designate them as organ donors. Naturally, to the extent that…
The flaws have been reverted through the policy of no-give, no-take, "under this system in order to receive an organ the individual has to previously signed their organ donor card" (Alexander, 2004). The merit of such policy is that "it satisfies most people's moral intuitions, the people are comfortable with the morality of reciprocity, those who are willing to give should be the first to receive" (Alexander, 2004).
In 2004, ethical issues related to the death and organ donations were discussed by the Kennedy Institute Journal if Ethics in their September issue. The main highlight of the issue has been the proposal, "expanding donation beyond death and non-heart beating organ donation by redefining death and/or providing exceptions to the dead donor rule" (Nancy, 2005). The journal published the claim of an ethicist, which stated that the competent patient has the choice to remove the organs prior to death, provided that…
Nancy Valko. Should we be dying to donate? Voices Online Edition Vol. XX NO. 1. 2005. Pp. 7
Alexander Tabarrok. Life Saving Icentives: Consequences, costs and solutions to the organ shortage. The Library of Economic and Liberty. 2004. Pp. 5
H. Kliemt. A Superior Approach to Organ Allocation and Donation. Transplantation Vol. 70(4). 2000. pp. 699-707.
However, these side effects are a small price to pay in light of the alternative, which is often a severely compromised quality of life and early death. The donor should consider several topics. There is no additional financial risk to being an organ donor. Furthermore, the body is not disfigured during organ removal; thus, open casket funerals are possible. Also, donated organs will be used for transplants into recipients and will not be used for other purposes without prior permission.
In summary, the risk:benefit ratio of organ donation after death is extremely favorable. There is no risk to the appearance of the body or to finances of the survivors. Most importantly, these procedures are desperately needed given the lack of current donors and the increasing age of Americans. Overall, no good reason exists not to donate organs after death and all should consider this act.
Barcellos, F.C., Araujo, C.L.,…
Barcellos, F.C., Araujo, C.L., & da Costa, J.D. (2005). Organ donation: a population-based study. Clin Transplant, 19(1), 33-37.
Cantarovich, F. (2004). The role of education in increasing organ donation. Ann Transplant, 9(1), 39-42.
Cooper, a.B. (2004). Ethics of organ donation. Crit Care Med, 32(12), 2561; author reply 2561.
Dykstra, a. (2004). Should incentives be used to increase organ donation? Plast Surg Nurs, 24(2), 70-74.
Faith and medicine often work in parallel. They do not cross each other. While in grave medical situations, people may pray and have faith their loved ones will recover, often there is no intersection between both areas. When there is an intersection, that is when questions arise of whether a person should choose medicine over faith or vice versa. In the "Healing and Autonomy" case study, faith and medicine place a couple in a difficult situation of whether to choose faith or medicine or perhaps create a middle ground where both can seemingly exist.
The most issues facing Mike and Joanne in "Healing and Autonomy" are several. The first issue is treatment refusal. The couple refused their son James' kidney dialysis. Mike believed faith healing would be able to give James the ability to heal without any medical intervention. This led to complications for James and the eventual need for…
Crooks, R. (2015). Introduction to Christian Ethics (1st ed.). Routledge.
Wilson, J. (2016). Letting them die: parents refuse medical help for children in the name of Christ. the Guardian. Retrieved 23 November 2016, from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/apr/13/followers-of-christ-idaho-religious-sect-child-mortality-refusing-medical-help
There is a space for a small pink sticker on everyone's driver's license which you choose to affix or to leave off of the identification. The sticker signifies that, should you be in a car accident and are declared to be brain-dead with no chance of recuperating, you agree to allow medical professionals to donate your organs to people who are in very dire need of them. hen people think about the process of organ donation, they consider the process of removing an organ from one being and implanting it into another being. This is a very glib description of a very complicated issue. The moment that a person decides that they are willing to give up an organ, whether while they are alive or only after their death, they pledge that somewhere another individual will benefit from their body.
There are several ethical questions to address when…
Brezina, Corona. Organ Donation: Risks, Rewards, and Research. New York: Rosen Pub., 2010.
"Ethics of Organ Transplantation." Center for Bioethics. 2004. Print.
Green, Reg. The Gift That Heals: Stories of Hope, Renewal and Transformation through Organ
Some authors show that, contrary to the belief that health care professionals are less sensitive than the general public toward the manipulation of the body, they in fact have great difficulty in allowing action to be taken on the deceased donor, even actions as well accepted as transplantation. Various authors have reported that, as in the general public, knowing transplant patients has a parallel in the hospital setting, and therefore it would be useful to highlight the successful organ transplants within the hospital and to make sure that all the professionals know the success rates. Among nurses, this does not seem to be a fundamental factor, because although it is necessary to know transplant patients, it is also necessary to understand the transplant process well in order to avoid unfounded fears. Another significant factor is religion. The Catholic Church clearly accepts organ donation and transplantation, and Catholics are slowly becoming…
Brown, Jr., R.S., Higgins, R. And Pruett, T.L. (2009). The Evolution and Direction of OPTN
Oversight of Live Organ Donation and Transplantation in the United States. American Journal of Transplantation. 9(1), p.31-34.
Browne, Christina and Desmond, Deirdre M. (2008). Intention to consent to living organ donation: An exploratory study. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 13(5), p. 605-609.
Harrington, Maxine M. (2009). The Thin Flat Line: Redefining Who is Legally Dead in Organ
Moral Questions and Moral Theory: Organ Donation
The issue of organ donation seems as though it would be simple. When a person dies, he or she no longer needs organs and those organs could be used to save the life of someone else (Appel, 2005). However, the issue is not as black and white as that for many people. Some are very against organ donation because they do not believe in "playing God" in that way. There are ethical, moral, religious, and other reasons why people may be for or against organ donation (Moraes, et al., 2009). In order to understand the issue more thoroughly it is important to discuss the issue from various angles and provide all the information that is needed to make an informed decision regarding organ donation. A person may decide that he or she is for or against donating organs, but that person can and…
Appel, J. (2005). Organ Solicitation on the Internet: Every Man for Himself. The Hastings Center Report. Vol 35, No 3.
McKinley, J. (2008). "Surgeon Accused of Speeding a Death to Get Organs." The New York Time (The New York Times Company).
Meilaender, G. (2006). Gifts of the body. The New Atlantis (13): 25 -- 35.
Moraes BN, Bacal F, Teixeira MC, Fiorelli AI, Leite PL, Fiorelli LR, Stolf NA, Bocchi EA. (2009). (Behavior profile of family members of donors and nondonors of organs. Heart Institute (InCor) of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Heart Transplantation Unit, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Transplant Procedures, 41(3): 799-801.
Ethic - Organ Donation
The donation of organs and their eventual transplant have been regarded as a distinct way in which mankind shows and shares its compassion. Cutting out organs from one person and moving them into the body of another is one of the many 20th century medical discoveries that have grown rapidly from a trial and error kind of approach into a medical therapy of choice that treats many ailments and medical conditions today. Sadly and sarcastically the practice has turned into a victim of its own success. One of the greatest obstacles facing organ transplant globally today is the dire lack of donor organs. For instance in the year 2010 106,879 donor organs were transplanted, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), a figure that is reportedly less than 10% of the need. This means that the current supply of donor organs is far outstripped by the…
Rudge, C., Matesanz, R., Delmonico, F.L., & Chapman, J. (2012). International practices of organ donation. British Journal of Anesthesia, 108 (suppl 1), i48-i55.
Schicktanz, S. (Ed.). (2010). Teaching ethics in organ transplantation and tissue donation: cases and movies. UniversitatsverlagGottingen.
Fadare, J.O. (2010). Ethical issues in kidney transplantation-reflections from Nigeria. Transplant Research and Risk Management, 2, 87-91.
Buchler, A. (2012). The Joseph And Gwendolyn Straus Institute For The Advanced Study Of Law & Justice.
The focus is on understanding the way moral choices are presented than judging the outcome of the decisions made. Ethics can be situational, and certainly the dilemmas or morality and choice have different answers depending on the particular time and place they occur (MacIntyre, 2006).
Even prior to the formalization of the terms utilitarianism and deontology, the core ideas of each have been debated for centuries. The Ancient Greeks argued over the needs of the individual as opposed to the needs of the. Showing just how much this concept has permeated popular culture, the philosophical issue even made it to the modern motion picture screen. tilitarianism holds that the most ethical thing one can do is any action that will maximize the happiness within an organization or society. At the center of this debate is the notion that many remain dissatisfied with the definition of "good" or "appropriate" being at…
Utilitarianism and Deotology - At the very center of the debate on euthanasia lies the core of individual and societal ethics. Philosophically, ethics is a rubric used to understand and explain the way humans morally organize events or actions. The focus is on understanding the way moral choices are presented than judging the outcome of the decisions made. Ethics can be situational, and certainly the dilemmas or morality and choice have different answers depending on the particular time and place they occur (MacIntyre, 2006).
Even prior to the formalization of the terms utilitarianism and deontology, the core ideas of each have been debated for centuries. The Ancient Greeks argued over the needs of the individual as opposed to the needs of the. Showing just how much this concept has permeated popular culture, the philosophical issue even made it to the modern motion picture screen. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical thing one can do is any action that will maximize the happiness within an organization or society. At the center of this debate is the notion that many remain dissatisfied with the definition of "good" or "appropriate" being at the whim of a particular social order, or ruling elite. This debate may be found in Aristotle, Socrates, and Aquinas, leading to more contemporary political notions from Lock, Kant, and even Martin Luther King, Jr. Forming the core modern argument, for instance, Aquinas argued that there were certain universal behaviors that were either right or wrong as ordained by the Divine. Hobbes and Locke differed, and put forth the notion that there were natural rights, or "states of nature," but disagreed on the controlling factors of those natural tendencies. Kant took this further, reacting, and argued that a state or society must be organized by the way laws and justice was universally true, available, and, most importantly, justified by humanity. Yet, for Kant, these innate principles should be mindful of the freedom and choice (autonomy) of the individual. In this way Kant, prescribed that basic rights were necessary for civil society, and becomes a rubric by which we may understand modern utilitarian principles and their interdependence with the concept of human rights (Haydn, 2001). Actions have quantitative outcomes and the ethical choices that lead to the "greatest good for the greatest number" are the appropriate decisions, even if that means subsuming the rights of certain individuals (Troyer, 2003, 256-52). It is considered to be a consequential outlook in the sense that while outcomes cannot be predicted the judgment of an action is based on the outcome -- or, "the ends justify the means" (Robinson and Groves, 2003).
Deontology is a compatible, but alternative ethical system that has its roots in Ancient Greece, but is most often attributed to Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher writing about a century prior to Mill and Bentham. In
Further, the review of literature in this study will identify the method most effective in assessing the effectiveness of instruction ultimately resulting in the design and development of a study to be implemented in the community of Quincy, Massachusetts. This study will be one in which nursing professional provide information awareness to members of the community and then following make an assessment of the effectiveness of the instruction provided by the nursing professional to the community of Quincy, Massachusetts.
DATA COLLECTION & ANALYSIS
The proposed study is one will qualitatively conduct a literature review of both an extensive and thorough nature in regards to methodology and research design specifically as related to the provision of community information awareness. Secondly, this study will determine the most effective method for assessing the outcome of learning for individuals in the Quincy, Massachusetts community through identification of the same in the review of literature,…
Role of the Registered Professional Nurse in Organ and Tissue Donation (2008) New York State Nurses Association. Position Statement. Online available at http://www.nysna.org/practice/positions/position10_04.htm
Organ and Tissue Donation Research Proposal
ethical decision making in general and then in the nursing profession. It addresses two key questions. What are the different ethical decision making processes? How could the ethical dilemma of informed consent in the nursing profession be resolved using one of these processes? The sources used to collect information are books and academic journals. The teleological approach suggests that informed consent is ethical because its benefits exceed its costs. In other words, its consequences are more unfavourable than opposite.
Ethical decision making is the process by which individuals choose an approach to deal with a moral issue they encounter. In everyday life, professionals often have to deal with moral issues. Therefore, frameworks for dealing with ethical dilemmas are required.
"Ethics is the science of the moral life. It is concerned with human conduct in relation to character and a conception of the good, commonly referred to as the highest good.…
Caples, S.C., Hanna, M.D., Phelps, L. (2008). Linking Ethics Decisions to Philosophical Rationales: An Empirical Study. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues. 11 (2), pp.93+
Dresser, H.W. (1925). Ethics in Theory and Application. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
Lachman, V.D. (2006). Applied Ethics in Nursing. New York: Springer.
McConnell, T. (2000). Inalienable Rights: The Limits of Consent in Medicine and the Law. New York: Oxford University Press.
Donated body organs like hearts and kidneys contribute to the saving of hundreds of lives each year. The fact is that bequeathed tissues like skin, bone and heart valves could remarkably enhance the value of life for the persons receiving them. A patient who is dead following a cardiac arrest i.e. whose heartbeat has stopped permanently cannot be an organ donor but can be a tissue donor. Though in case of tissue donation the urgency of restoring a life by donation of liver or heart is absent, yet it is no way less critical to bring back vision by the help of a donated cornea, avert the severing of a leg using a bone donated by somebody or brighten the odds of survival of a patient having sustained burn injuries by skin donation.
Transplanted tissues offer advantages like it helps in alleviating trauma, assisting individuals to see again,…
Chabot-Long, Lynn. A Gift of Life: A Page from the Life of a Living Organ Donor,
Je-Lynn Publications, 1996
LaTour, Stephen A; Manrai, Ajay K. Interactive Impact of Informational and Normative influence on Donations. Journal of Marketing Research. Volume: 26; No: 3;
August, 1989, pp: 327-335.
Corneal Donation within Hospitals and Medical Communities: Issues Surrounding Post Mortem Donations of Tissue
The purpose of this study is to identify barriers to corneal donation within hospitals and medical communities. A large body of research has focused on issues surrounding the post mortem donations of tissue. This research will take a different approach, examining what barriers exist within hospital and medical communities in an attempt to determine how these barriers may be overcome.
The number of potential corneal donors far surpasses the number of people available for traditional organ donations and in some states consent of the medical examiner alone is enough to allow use of corneal donations (family consent not required) (Lewin, 2000).
Traditionally the most significant barrier to organ donation and transplantation has been acquisition of organs and tissues (Murray et. al, 2002). The need for cornea tissue is rising. The average wait time for…
Gortmaker SL, Beasley CL, Brigham LE, Franz HG, Garrison RN, Lucas BA, Patterson RH, Sobol AM, Grenvik NA, Evanisko MJ. Organ donor potential and performance: size and nature of the organ donor shortfall. Crit Care Med 1996; 24(3):432-9.
Halloran, P.F. (2003). "Transmission of Donor Melanoma to Multiple Organ Transplant Recipients." American Journal of Transplantation, Vol. 4 Issue
Hawkins, B.R. (1993). "The HLA System and Transplantation Matching in the 1990s." Journal of the Hong Kong Medical Association, 45 (2): 77-86
Jensen, T.R. (2000). "Organ Procurement: Various Systems and Their Effectiveness." Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 22, Issue 3.
When it comes to the sale of organs from one party to another, there are usually two "camps" that people fall within. Those camps are inclusive of people that rae entirely against the practice in any form and then there are those that feel that some level of person-to-person sales should be allowed for so long as the parties involved face certain rules. Even with the concerns about organs going to the highest bidder, there are diametrically opposed concerns and assertions including the right of an owner of a kidney being able to sell to who he or she wants and the fact that the proceeds from such a transaction can be life-changing in nature. While it may be controversial and problematic to some, there is a middle ground to be had between allowing organ sales between people with no limitation and never doing so under any circumstances.…
This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.
It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for…
Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Medical News Today (MNT). (2008). Kidney Donation Websites Raise Ethical Concerns - Public Solicitation For Organs May Favor White, Educated And Wealthy Recipients. Wiley Blackwell Publishing. Online at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/125649.php
Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants:
The consideration of the possible negative socio-ethical repercussions of allowing people to buy and sell their non-vital body organs for transplant fortifies the argument of all opponents to the proposition. As stated in the U.S. Constitution, human beings are created equal and given the un-separable rights to life, freedom, and the pursuit of happiness. While in the pursuit of these rights, the American society has learnt that the end does not always justify the means and as such, necessary legislation has been instituted to help protect minorities from majorities, the poor from the wealthy, and the weak from the strong. A society in which people could buy and sell organs for transplant would further ruin the pursuit for equality and frustrate the liberty of generosity needed for living a happy life.
Opposing the proposition does not mean that one believes society bears no duty…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (n.d.). Kidneys for Sale. Retrieved from Santa Clara University -- The Jesuit University in Silicon Valley website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n2/kidneys.html
Mayes, G. (2003.) Buying and Selling Organs for Transplantation in the U.S.: National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) Bans Buying and Selling. Medscape Education, 4(2). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/465200_2
"Statistics." (n.d.). Donate Life America. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from http://donatelife.net/understanding-donation/statistics/
Mayor, S. (2009). "UK sees rise in people donating a kidney to unknown recipients." British medical journal 338(7710), pp. 1521.
In this brief yet highly relevant article, the author describes a recently observed trend of increasing live-donor kidney donations for unknown recipients. hough living donors for family members with a need for transplant have been relatively common for sometime, the idea of donating a kidney while still living for a person unknown to the donor is a very recent development in kidney translation and availability. hough the reasons for this increase are not yet clear, as no research has been undertaken to determine the causal effect of this observed trend, initial results suggest that simple awareness of the need for renal donation and the normalcy of life following the donation of a kidney is a major factor.
Nakamura, Y.; Konno, O.; Matsuno, N.; Yokoyama, ., et al. (2008). "How can…
Though various methods and schema for renal transplantation exist, this study points out the benefits of living donor donation in the combating of end-stage renal failure, in Japan specifically. Citing a decreased need for recipient medication and an increased likelihood of successful transplantation when kidneys used in transplantation come from living donors, the authors of this study examine various methods for increasing rates of living donorship. A new surgical procedure developed by the authors limits the invasiveness and the blood loss in an elective living donor surgery, and combined with higher donorship rates could greatly increase the successful treatment of renal disease.
Testa, G.; Angelos, P.; Crowley-Matoka, M. & Siegler, M. (2009). "Elective surgical patients as living donors: A clinical and ethical innovation." American journal of transplantation 9(10), pp. 2400-5.
An innovative new schema for encouraging organ donation is put forth in this article. Specifically, the authors suggest that patients slated for laporoscopic cholecystectomy be given the opportunity to undergo a more invasive surgical correction and donate a kidney as a living donor at the same time. This would eliminate (or greatly reduce) the need for living donors to become surgical candidates with no health benefit to them; the same surgery and level of invasiveness would both correct the patients' problem and allow for donorship. This is the reverse of the current living donor schema, in which donors become surgical candidates specifically for donor purposes, raising ethical and medical concerns.
His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as "utopias." The word is of Greek origin, a play on the Greek word eutopos, meaning "good place." In the book, More describes a pagan and communist city-state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. The order and dignity of the state in this book contrasted sharply with the reality of statecraft in Christian Europe at the time, a region divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches. The book was also an expression of More's form of Humanism (Maynard 41). The term can also have broader application as a reference to any plans of government or schemes for social improvement which present the possibilities of a good society.
The society depicted in Never Let Me Go…
Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
Maynard, Theodore. Humanist as Hero: The Life of Sir Thomas More. New York: Macmillan, 1947.
ethics regarding organ donation by brain-damaged people. The writer explores how a brain-damaged person is defined, and whether or not the donation of organs from that person is ethical. There were 15 sources used to complete this paper.
The field of medicine has advanced mankind to arenas never before thought possible. Today doctors can take entire organ systems out of one person and place them in another and the recipient can live for many years with transplanted organs. Hearts, lungs, kidneys, livers, eyes and many combinations of them are just a few of the organs that are transplanted worldwide today. As the medical community continues to advance age and quality of life the need for more organs has reached the critical stage. One of the most argued and passionate debates in the medical community today is whether or not it is ethical to remove organs in the case of a…
BROOKER Michelle, The gift of life after death., The Press (Canterbury, New Zealand), 08-10-2002, pp 3.
CAROL ANN CAMPBELL, Staff Writer, TV SHOW ANGERS ORGAN DONOR GROUPS., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 11-13-1996, pp a09.
Author not available, [Thoughts of The Times] An Explanation of Brain Death., The Korea Times (Seoul, S. Korea), 02-09-2000.
Author not available, Pre-transplant brain-death test done on man in his 20s., Kyodo World News Service, 06-13-1999.
Futile medical care is the ongoing provision of medical treatment or care to a patient who does not show any hope of recovery. It is either that his condition is not curable and therefore the treatment that he is receiving is of no benefit. The common examples of these are that a surgeon is performing a surgery on a patient with terminal cancer. Patients who have terminal cancer have gotten the cancer spread all throughout their body. It is only until time that their organs will go into failure and they will pass away. Another example is of keeping brain dead people on life support for other reasons. As it would be expected, this is quite a sensitive area and it would involve arguments with the patient's relatives and friends.
It is understandable that the loved ones do want to do anything they can to keep the patient in front…
Appel, J. (2009). What's So Wrong with "Death Panels"?. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jacob-m-appel/whats-so-wrong-with-death_b_366804.html [Accessed: 26 Jul 2013].
Doyle, D. (2010). WebmedCentral.com:: Baby K. A Landmark Case In Futile Medical Care. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/969 [Accessed: 26 Jul 2013].
Gardent, P. And Reeves, S. (2009). Ethics Conflicts in Rural Communities: Allocation of Scarce Resources. [e-book] Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England. http://geiselmed.dartmouth.edu/cfm/resources/ethics/chapter-09.pdf [Accessed: 26th July, 2013].
Pomerance, J., Morrison, A., Williams, R. And Schifrin, B. (1989). Anencephalic infants: life expectancy and organ donation.. Journal of perinatology, 9 (1), pp. 33-37.
There is great variation in the ways orthodox Jews practice their religion, and in what they believe. Many of the variations depend on cultural factors, as Jews are scattered all over the world. However, the basic tenets of the religion are all rooted in monotheism (belief in only one supreme God). The principles of the religion also include a firm belief in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) as being the word of God. This means interpreting the Torah in a manner that impacts daily life choices and lifestyle, including the observance of Kosher dietary habits and the Sabbath day. The practice of Orthodox Judaism emphasizes ritual and tradition, family and community life.
Life is sacred, but there are no hard rules about when life begins. egarding abortion, "even among Orthodox Jews it may be construed as 'a personal matter," ("What do Orthodox Jews think about abortion and why?" 2000).…
Baeke, G., Wils, J.P. & Broeckaert, B. (2011). There is a time to be born and a time to die. Journal of Religious Health 50(4): 778-795.
Donin, H.H. (1991). To Be a Jew. Basic.
Moss, A. (n.d.). Organ donation. Chabad. Retrieved online: http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/635401/jewish/Organ-Donation.htm
Rich, T.R. (2011). Olam Ha-Ba: The Afterlife. Retrieved online: http://www.jewfaq.org/olamhaba.htm
Transforming Scheduled Death Into Renewed Life
One of the harsh realities of living in an otherwise-free society is the fact that the United States incarcerates far more of its citizens than other leading industrialized nations, and it one of the few countries in the world that retains the death penalty on its books. hen capital offenders are executed, there exists the opportunity to turn this scheduled death into renewed through organ donations. At present, while an individual has the right to say whether their organs should be donated, death-row inmates are considered wards of the state and it is the position of this study that the state should have the corresponding right to harvest their organs as a means of execution in order to save and improve the quality of the lives of others. To determine whether the potential exists for such an approach, this study examines the relevant peer-reviewed…
"Abolish the death penalty." (2011). Amnesty International. [Online]. Available: http://www.
Beard, T. Randolph, David L. Kaserman and Richard P. Saba. (2006). "Inefficiency in cadaveric organ procurement." Southern Economic Journal, 73(1): 13-14.
Ben-David, Orit F. Organ Donation and Transplantation: Body Organs as an Exchangeable
As many forms of live donation do not cause harm to others, and as we allow the donation of blood for payment, we violate the categorical imperative by banning the sale of human organs.
It has been argued by some that banning organ donation is within the bounds of Kantian ethics because we have collectively agreed to the conviction that "such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity" (Cohen, 2002). Yet, we do not prohibit the donation of blood or of bone marrow. Indeed, most among us would agree that such donations are necessary and beneficial. Lives are saved. There is nothing morally wrong about saving lives -- indeed live donations today are conducted voluntarily and without any moral consequence.
Allowing live organ donations is ethically consistent with our established principles regarding blood donation and voluntary, unpaid live organ donation. It will increase the supply of…
Holcberg, David. (2008). Allow the Sale of Human Organs. Chicago Sun-Times. April 18, 2008.
Cohen, Cynthia B. (2002). Public Policy and the Sale of Human Organs. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Vol. 12, No. 1, March 2002, pp. 47-64.
Mullen, Shannon. (2009). Sale of Human Organs in New Jersey a Worldwide Scandal. Asbury Park Press. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.app.com/article/20090726/NEWS/907260350/1004/NEWS01
MacDonald, Nikki. (2005). Live Donors the Key to Organ Shortage. Give Life NZ. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.givelife.org.nz/latest_news_and_press_cuttings/live_donors_the_key_to_organ_shortage.cfm
The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.
Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).
From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…
Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group
Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.
Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association
Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & acon.
In this popular text, the author provides a comprehensive overview of both qualitative as well as quantitative research methodologies, including techniques to improve the reliability and validity of social research approaches that involve questionnaire and interviews.
Statz, S.E. (2006). Finding the winning combination: How blending organ procurement systems used internationally can reduce the organ shortage. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39(5), 1677-1678.
Author presents a useful background and overview of organ donation practices used in the West with those used in Iran and Pakistan and provides a pragmatic analysis of how paid organ donations may represent a viable alternative to current Western practices if certain ethical issues are taken into account and steps taken to ensure that donors are not coerced by family members or others whose economic motivations and incentives outweigh the…
Brown, J.B., Karley, M.L., Boudville, N., Bullas, N., Garg, A.M. & Muirhead, N. (2008). The experience of living kidney donors. Health and Social Work, 33(2), 93-94.
This recent study of kidney donations in provided the general framework for the proposed study as well as the initial semi-structured interview questions that would be used to identify additional themes, common metaphors and key words in subsequent interviews. The interview guide at Appendix A will be used to probe further in follow-up questioning.
Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
In this popular text, the author provides a comprehensive overview of both qualitative as well as quantitative research methodologies, including techniques to improve the reliability and validity of social research approaches that involve questionnaire and interviews.
The field of nursing is shaped by a range of ethical principles; while all of these concepts are important, one could argue that perhaps the most crucial ethical principle is that of beneficence. "Beneficence is the obligation to do good and avoid harm. Nurses help others to gain what is beneficial to them, which promotes well-being and reduces the risk of harm" (Young et al., 2009, p. 75). Having a clear understanding of beneficence is important as nurses are often presented with a range of complex ethical situations and dilemmas and they need strong principles to help guide their actions and nursing practice. As Young and colleagues explain, avoiding the harm that comes to a patient involves balancing this against the perceived amount of benefit. Other theorists see this concept in a slightly different perspective: "Beneficence is the principle of promoting the legitimate and important aims and interests of…
Addington-Hall, J.M., Bruera, E., Higginson, I.J., & Payne, S. (2007). Research methods in palliative care. Oxford: Oxford Publishing.
Cedar, S.H. (2006). Stem cell and related therapies. Nursing Ethics, 13(292),
Hitchcock, J.E., Schubert, P.E., & Thomas, S.A. (2003).Community health nursing: Caring in action. Clifton Park: Delmar.
Randall, F.M. (1999). Ethical issues in palliative care. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 43(9), 954-6.
Hospital Case Study
If the first requirement of any successful case study is a detailed and analytical examination of the situation, the emotional component of so called "high stakes" issues can make this requirement difficult, indeed. The simple fact, however, is in order to find good solutions and policies regarding the problem presented in the case study, one must apply the three main questions of "situation," "remedy/s," and "method/s." Although this may seem difficult in some situations, the emotional component must not be considered.
A good example of this fact occurs in the examination of an unfortunate case involving the botched heart/lung transplant of a 16-year-old girl, much like the recent incident at Duke Hospital. In this case, a young girl died as a result of receiving miss-matched organs. Unfortunately, in this case, all of the supposed safeguards of the system, imposed to assure that proper blood typing of both…
Chibbaro, Lou. (2004) Victory Claimed in HIV Suits. Washington Blade. Web site. Retrieved on August 8, 2004, at http://www.washblade.com/print.cfm?content_id=2771
Colorado State University Writing Center. "Case Studies." Retrieved from Web site on August 2, 2004 http://writing.colostate.edu/references/research/casestudy/com2a1.cfm
CTDN. California Donors Network. (2004) Facts about organ and tissue donation. Web site. Retrieved on August 8, 2004, at http://www.ctdn.org/resources/faqs.php?id=3&NoHeader=1
Duke University. (2004). UNOS and DUH Safeguards for Organ Transplant Safety. Duke Medical News. Retrieved on August 7, 2004, at http://dukemednews.org/filebank/2003/06/28/UNOS%20and%20DUH%20Safeguards%20for%20Organ%20Transplant%20Safety.doc
1993). Within medical settings in particular, physicians and supervisors are often too over-burdened with their myriad formal responsibilities to take note of minor irregularities in protocols and procedures. Because coworkers are often in the best possible situation to notice inadequacies, it is important for all levels of employees to be equally involved in the overall CQI process.
Optimal implementation of an effective CQI process also requires a culture of openness to suggestion and confidentiality with respect to reporting more serious issues such as those that result from negligence or willful misconduct on the part of co-workers.
11. The textbook states that "an organization's most vital component in costly resource is its staff." With this being the case, the human resource function plays a very important role. Should the human resource function be part of the senior management team?
In terms of policy implementation and organizational philosophy, the human resources function…
Horine, P.D., Pohiala, E.D., Luecke, R.W. (1993) Healthcare Financial Managers and CQI: Implementing Continuous Quality Improvement; Healthcare Financial Management.
Humphry, D. (1991) Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide for the Dying. Secaucus: Carol Publishing
Russell-Walling, E. (2005) Fifty Management Ideas You Really Need to Know. London: Quercus
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.
Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.
In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls.…
Above all it has followed the delibeate maketing of health cae (in association with touism) as medical cae has gadually moved away fom the public secto to the pivate secto, ensuing that a gowing majoity of people, especially in the ichest counties, and paticulaly in the United States, must pay -- often consideably -- fo health cae. Finally, gowing inteest in cosmetic sugey, involving such elective pocedues as hinoplasty, liposuction, beast enhancement o eduction, LASIK eye sugey and so on, o moe simply the emoval of tattoos, have ceated new demands. Vaious foms of dental sugey, especially cosmetic dental sugey, ae not coveed by insuance in counties like the UK and Austalia; hence dental touism has become paticulaly common. In Asia these tends ae 'the unlikely child of new global ealities: the fallout of teoism, the Asian economic downtun, intenet access to pice infomation, and the globalisation of health sevices'…
references because the family vetoes it, in part because they were never made known. For a grieving and bereft family, a request for organ donation is difficult to agree to because they can only guess at the wishes of the deceased and if there were any doubt at all, would not the natural answer be a rejection? If relatives had severe objections, they should be taken into account for to do otherwise raises the spectre of the swastika, but the point remains that by changing the default position of organ donation it is a veto clearly against the deceased's wishes, which would be rather more unlikely to take place than the current veto due to a simple lack of information. It is not that the PC system is ethically unsound (Hatfield and Walker 1998).
It can be argued that presumed consent is superior to the opt-in system because it truly ensures autonomy by giving effect to choices each person makes. It gives legal effect to individual autonomy and it ensures truly informed consent when accompanied by public education and information, instead of intuitive responses to organ donation. But one has to question how comfortable the deceased family will be when they come to realise that their relatives' kidney is being placed into someone who is HIV positive. This is likely to be an ethical and morale matter rather than a discriminatory one (Williams, 1999).
Nonetheless, some problems with presumed consent have been pointed out. Patient autonomy lies at the very heart of modern medicine and medical research. This is partly a reaction against medical paternalism and an increasing awareness of the integrity of the individual. It may be argued that a presumed consent (PC) system is paternalistic - but it concomitantly reinforces individual autonomy and preserves the dignity and integrity of the individual especially in comparison to, for example, an organs market. (Brooks).
McLean points out that underpinning the system of organ donation is the fundamental view that organ transplantation should be a gift relationship and should not be based on the type of disease a person has. This underlines that HIV sufferers are just as entitled to a kidney transplant as those who are looking for a heart transplant. John Morris doubts that proposals to change legislation to allow presumed consent to be introduced are likely to be publicly accepted. However, why is presumed consent any less a gift? It does not mean widespread harvesting of major organs. It means greater public awareness and individual choice that is made concrete.
In today's modern, the reality is that HIV / AIDS is at a crossroads where the economic and political niches of the contemporary modern condition provide both the possibility to raise scientific research in order to create a means of effective pandemic or the new religion of globalize capital may only serve as to extend HIV / AIDS to become the biggest social issue of all history. There is a huge issue with regards to donor transplantation and especially kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, some patients with Human Immunodeficiency Disease are denied equal access to kidney transplantation and the same priorities of other people who are suffering from other serious diseases. Therefore, in this research, evidence will be provided to proof HIV patients have the same rights as others to get a kidney transplant regardless if they appear completely diseased.
Using a philosophical approach, there is typically no one single "right" answer given, but rather a process with which to think about, and analyze, a given set of problems. For instance, is euthanasia "always" right; certainly not, but under the right set of circumstances, it might be the kindest option available in a moral sense, but still not acceptable legally.
Create common ground- Common ground is created in medical ethics by finding a process to utilize disparate data and find a more appropriate solution.
Construct a more comprehensive understanding- No "system" or organization is capable of judgment, so it is up to the human professional to decide what is in the best interest of the client. To find a comprehensive understanding, one must pull from the templates and definitions of medical ethics: autonomy, justice, fidelity, beneficence, veracity, non-maleficence, and paternalism (ICN, 2006).
eflect and test the understanding -- Let us…
Research to Promote Healthy and Safe Employment in Health Care. Public Health Reports. 119 (1): 60- 73. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih
ICN. (2006). "The International Code of Ethics for Nurses." International Council of Nurses. Retrieved from: http://www.icn.ch/icncode.pdf
Kozier, B., Erb, G. & Blais, K. (1997), Professional nursing practice (3rd edition),
Health Care & Faith Diversity
It is quite obvious how different religions hold different philosophical views on various aspects and even when it comes to healing. Each religion highly upholds their spiritual values hence the need for health practitioners to be cautious while handling varied clientele whether they hold the same religious sentiments or not. In this research we will major on the views held by the Sikh, Buddhist and Judaist religions in comparison to the Christian belief on healing.
The Sikh hold the belief that when one is sick it is the will of God and that He is merciful to heal; however one has to consider medical treatment in order to get well. During illness: Sikh patients engage in prayers to seek God for help, seek to obtain peace by remembering Gods name, recite sacred hymns (Gurbani) which are words from the holy scriptures (Guru Granth…
Dharma Haven, (2005).Tools for Healing Relaxing and Awakening. Retrieved March 30,
Manitoba, (2006). Core Competencies for Spiritual health care Practitioners. Retrieved March 30, 2012 from http://ahpcc.org.uk/pdf/compaudittool.pdf
Marinell & James (2009). Jewish Views of Illness and Healing. Retrieved March 30, 2012
Ad located: http://Www.topdesignmag.com/Awesome-Collection-of-Print-Ads/
The France ADOT advertisement for organ donation has an intended audience of all healthy people, who are in the position of registering for being official organ donors. The means of persuasion is emotional, as the image is of a hospital bed and a man hugging a transparent, ghost-like image of an elder. The suggestion is that the elder has passed on, and that the organs of that person are keeping alive the young man in the bed. A strong story is being told, given that the organ donor is of a different ethnic background from the recipient. The suggestion is that organ donation can help save the life of a total stranger. The method of persuasion is emotional and explicit, showing that it will help others to register as an organ donor, because once a person is dead, those organs can either be used to save the…
Chopin, K. "Story of an Hour."
Journey "Don't Stop Believin." [Song]
Percy, M. "Belly Good."
More than 98% of respondents had heard of the term "brain death," but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was "brain dead" was legally dead. Using a utilitarian approach, organ donation does provide good for others; and, when managed appropriated, can provide a greater good for society at large. However, utilizing a population for organ harvesting, or changing the model so that organ donation is seen as a profit-center as opposed to a humanitarian endeavor, certainly muddies the waters a bit.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. etrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/EICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&EICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&EICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNT 2-eteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. etrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. eligion and Globalization. The eview of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. Retrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNTR 2-Reteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202R%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. Religion and Globalization. The Review of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Nilsen, D., Kowske, B., Anthony, K. Managing a Diverse, Global Environment is Critical. HR Magazine Review. 50 (8): 41-9. Retrieved from: http://www.shrm.org/Publications / hrmagazine/EditorialContent/Pages/0805tools.aspx
Applying atson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment" describes the validness and authentication of the nursing theory of care by Jean atson. She was of the view that the best which a nurse can give to the patient is care as humans are naturally gifted with it and it is irrespective of ethnical, racial, cultural or social basis. The article describes the implications of this theory in such environment where the nurses and their patients have ethnical and cultural difference and they do not even understand each other's language. It is a case study designed to explore Saudi patient's perceptions of important caring behaviors by staff nurses. It was concluded by the data obtained that the patients rated overall caring behaviors as most important irrespective of their cultural differences with the caregiver. Hence atson's theory was proved in a multicultural environment, but…
Nicely, Bruce. (2011). Virginia Henderson's principles and practice of nursing applied to organ donation after brain death. Progress in Transplantation, Vol 21, No. 1, March 2011.
Wakifa et.al. (2009). Applying Watson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment. Joumal of Nursing Research, VOL 17, NO 4, DECEMBER 2009.
Walling, Allan. (2006). Therapeutic modulation of the psycho-neuroimmune system by medical acupuncture creates enhanced feelings of well being. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners; Apr 2006; 18, 4; ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source pg. 135
Nursing and eligion Practice
ELIGION AND NUSING PACTICE
Nursing success depends on the ability to put the patient in a state of rest and comfort as much as it is about administering the prescriptions of the doctor. To secure the rest of the patient, nurses need to understand their needs and show respect to their beliefs and values. This requires courteous and open communication with the patient and adopting a patient-centric orientation. Along with other factors, the religious background of the patient makes a lot of difference to their values and expectations. eligious doctrines and practices may differ across religions and denominations such as Jehovah's Witnesses, Muslims, Seventh Day Adventists and Scientologists and may impose restrictions on certain kinds of interaction between nurse and patient or on certain forms of treatment. Moreover, people with a different religious background are not usually aware of such differences. Therefore, it is necessary for…
Banja, J.D. (2010). Overriding the Jehovah's Witness patient's refusal of blood: A reply to Cahana, Weibel, and Hurst. Pain Medicine, 10(5), 878-882. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00648.x.
Charles, C.E., & Daroszewski, E.B. (2012). Culturally competent nursing care of the Muslim patient, Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 33(1), 61-63. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2011.596613.
Cort, M., & Cort, D. (2008). Willingness to participate in organ donation among Black Seventh-Day Adventist college students. Journal of American College Health, 56(6), p. 691-697. Retrieved from EBSCO Academic Search Primer.
Effa-Heap, G. (2009). Blood transfusion: Implications of treating a Jehovah's Witness patient. British journal of nursing, 18(3), 174-177.
Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.
Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.
Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).
Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:
Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.
The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).
This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…
Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)
Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html
Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York
Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
yes, I do see a parallel between being paid to be a surrogate and the prohibition against being paid to donate one's organs. The prohibition is clearly designed at least in part to prevent people who are financially desperate being exploited by wealthier individuals. We cannot have a caste system in our nation where the bodies of the poor can be bought by the wealthy. Yet surrogacy does that very same thing, in effect paying less financially well-off women to carry the babies of wealthier women. A not atypical scenario for a surrogacy is a poorer young women being paid by an older, more educated dual income couple that has postponed childbirth so they have time to develop their careers. In almost all instances, the couple is more educated and financially well-off than the surrogate, effectively create a power relationship that is highly asymmetrical.
Pregnancy, like organ donation, is not…
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
The next objection of IVF separating the procreation and marital aspects of marriage and in the end damaging the marital relationship was totally untrue in this case. This couple had a very strong relationship and going through the process of gestational surrogacy strengthen their martial relationship as opposed to damaging it. The last objection of adoption is a better answer to the trouble of childlessness may very well be true for a lot of people. One cannot argue the fact that there are a lot of children out there that need to have good homes and there are many couples that could benefit tremendously from this avenue. But in the case of the couple in this article the idea of having a biological child was something that was very strong from them, thus making the path that they took the best one for them.
IVF, just like many other things…
Kuczynski, Alex. 2008. "Her Body, My Baby." Web. 5 July 2011. <
Singer, Peter. IVF: The Simple Case. Biomedical Ethics. By Degrazia, David, Mappes,
Thomas A. And Brand-Ballard, Jeffrey. 2010. 7th ed. Columbus: McGraw-Hill. 2010.
Typically a Japanese funeral follows the sequence: when someone dies, they are placed to rest in their homes. The corpse was placed with the head pointing the North, copying the deathbed of Gautama, and the head of the bed is well decorated. Then the previously mentioned encoffinment process. The first night after one's death is called the Tsuya; and it is for close family and friends to remember their beloved. In the morning, a cleansing meal is served called Okiyome. The funeral is thereafter carried out where the Jukai rite also known as receipt of commandments gives the dead an opportunity to receive the Buddhist commandments, automatically making the dead a disciple of the Buddha, and the dead person is accepted into Buddha hood.
After all this, the deceased embarks on the journey to the other world as the coffin is carried out of the house and burnt in a…
Kimura, R (1996).Death and dying in Japan. "Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal," Vol. 6, No.
4,The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 374-378.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2007).The Definition of Death
Within this clash of cultures, the Lee family did not know how to cope with the medical system in place to help Lia and her epilepsy. When they refused to give her the medications, Lia was removed from the home and placed in foster care. When the foster care parents gave her the prescribed medication, her condition worsened in several important ways. The foster parents believe that Lia's parents realized that, and that this is why they did not give her the medication, but did not have the cultural and language skills to communicate this to the medical staff.
Fadiman points out through example after example that the medical staff looked at Lia only as her illness, not as an individual, and certainly not as an individual part of a strongly developed culture that was markedly different than the hospital culture within which the doctors worked. Through a translator, a…
The less stable the identities of the individual on the outside, the more impact the routines of life on the 'inside.' The deprivations of the prison culture (as described by Sykes) intensify the effects of immersion. These losses include the "loss or deprivation of liberty, the loss or deprivation of goods and services, the loss or deprivation of heterosexual relationships, the loss or deprivation of autonomy, and the loss or deprivation of security."
Conclusion: The possibility of redemption for the redeemable; redeeming the incorrigibles -- and managing the unredeemable
Prisons have three main goals: to redeem the redeemables; to manage the incorrigibles (the unredeemable, such as those serving life terms) and convert at least some incorrigibles into being redeemable (through rehabilitation). To aid in the process of redeeming those who are redeemable, many prisons today have half-way houses and offer opportunities for prisoners to learn meaningful trades, so when they…
Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community. Boston: The Christopher Publishing House.
Goffman, E. (1960). Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. New York: Anchor.
Sykes, G.M. (1958). The society of captives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Covered entities must develop and implement written privacy policies that are consistent with the Privacy Rule (OCR, 2003). This policy must address several components. One is that there must be a privacy official. The privacy official is responsible for developing and implementing privacy policies. There must also be a contact person responsible for the receipt of complaints (Ibid.).
The written policy must also cover other key areas. These included workforce training, which should also include any employee under the direct control of the covered entity, even if they are under contract and not an employee of the entity. There must be data safeguards as well, so the written policy needs to include specific procedures for verification of identity, release of information and disposal of PHI.
There must also be a policy with respect to the handling of complaints. This procedure must be outlined in the notice that…
Office for Civil Rights: Health Information Privacy. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/index.html
No author. (2003). What is HIPAA? HIPAAps.com. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://www.hipaaps.com/main/background.html
Francis, Theo (2006). Spread of Records Stirs Fear of Privacy Erosion. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06362/749444-114.stm
Office for Civil Rights: HIPAA Privacy Rule FAQ. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/familyhealthhistoryfaqs.pdf
These, then, eventually die leaving the transfer of oxygen in your blood being absolutely limited and far below the point at which the flow of oxygen needs to be in a human body. The flow of blood and transfer of oxygen eventually slows down tremendously and can cause terrible pain as well as make the immune system to be vulnerable to a variety of different diseases. There are many medical procedures that can allow the individual to find a relief (Lozoff et al., 2003).
In our case study, we will mainly highlight how the mother's approach was tentative and skeptical and how the four points that have been mentioned initially (communication, social organization, spatial dynamics and locus of control) are impacted through her approach. The first important thing to note about the attitude of the mother is that she does seem very forthcoming to find out as much as she…
Black R. (2003) Micronutrient deficiency -- an underlying cause of morbidity and mortality. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 81:79.
Dr Izumi, S., (2008) Japanese Patients' Descriptions of 'The Good Nurse', accessed on February 28, 2009.
Kino*****a, J., & Palevsky, N. (1992) Gateway to Japan (Rev. ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International.
Lozoff B, De Andraca I, Castillo M, Smith JB, Walter T, Pino P. (2003) Behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron-deficiency anemia in healthy full-term infants. Pediatrics.112:846-854.
Japanese: Cultural Interview and Nursing Assessment
Presentation of client and scenario
This interview was conducted with a Ms. X, a Japanese national visiting friends in another country. She was, over the course of the interview, asked about a number of personal and culturally sensitive factors about her native culture that might affect a nursing intervention.
It is important for a nursing practitioner to keep this in mind as, in the 2000 census, 796,700 residents of the U.S. identified their "race" as Japanese,
Thus it is useful for all nursing practitioners, particularly those residing on the est Coast to keep abreast of Japanese cultural traditions. (Tanabo, 2001) Also, even when residing in Japan, Japanese first-generation immigrants have traditionally seemed less eager than other immigrant groups to assimilate into the hegemonic culture. One measure of this is that compared to other Americans of Asian background, a lower percentage of Japanese elders speak…
Tanabo, Marianne. (2001) "Health and Health Care: Japanese." Stanford Ethnography e-Books. Retrieved 10 Mar 2005 at http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/ebooks/japanese_american.pdf
hospitals with regard to postmortem care. In particular, the procedures used in postmortem care involve methods for appropriate care of the body after death, sensitive and appropriate notification of death to the significant other and family, as well as notification to the coroner. The various departments within hospitals have different criteria regarding policies and procedures pertaining to postmortem care. The following outlines the procedures generally followed as well as policies followed with regard to postmortem care within different departments of the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.
Following the death of a patient, a final nursing assessment is generally performed including documentation regarding several details pertaining to the patient's death. These details include: the name of the patient, time that the physician was contacted, and the pronunciation of death; individuals present at the time of death, including family, friends, and healthcare workers; the time of the assessment; general appearance of…
Lousiana State University Health Sciences Center -- Shreveport. (2011). Post-mortem care. Hospital Policy Manual. Retrieved 10 March 2012 from http://www.sh.lsuhsc.edu/policies/policy_manuals_via_ms_word/hospital_policy/h_5.40.0.pdf.
American Society of Registered Nurses (2008). Postmortem care. Nursing Today. Retrieved 10 March 2012 from http://www.asrn.org/journal-nursing-today/310-postmortem-care.html.
The Importance of Patient Identifiers
Adverse events as a consequence of medical treatment are now recognized to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality around the world (World Health Organization [WHO], 2005). Somewhere between 3 and 5% of all hospital admissions in the United States result in an adverse event, and in 1999 it was estimated that the majority of the 44,000 to 98,000 deaths caused annually by medical mistakes could have been prevented (reviewed by Leape, 2000, and WHO, 2005).
The sources of adverse events can be divided into clinical practice, defective or poorly maintained products, improper procedures, or an organizational system. The World Health Organization (2005) concluded that systemic failures are the primary source of adverse events, and can be attributed to a particular organization's patient care strategy, culture, attitudes toward managing quality of care and risk prevention, and the ability to learn from mistakes.…
Resources. When taught in-house, hospital PHI guidelines will be included as course material. A formal 2-hour lecture will be presented, followed by a specified period for home study of the course material. A 1-hour supervised exam will then be administered to test the student's comprehension of the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules, and the significance of PSQIA.
Association of Surgical Technologists. (2006). Recommended Standards of Practice for Patient Identification. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://www.ast.org/pdf/Standards_of_Practice/RSOP_Patient_Identification.pdf
Brady, Anne-Marie, Malone, Anne-Marie, and Fleming, Sandra. (2009). A literature review of the individual and systems factors that contribute to medication errors in nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 679-697.
Brady, Anne-Marie, Redmond, Richard, Curtis, Elizabeth, Fleming, Sandra, Keenan, Paul, Malone, Anne-Marie et al. (2009). Adverse events in health care: a literature review. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 155-164.
Hawaiian elde cae pofessionals impove patient eldecae sevices to Japanese nationals, taking into consideation Japanese cultual noms and expectations
Caegiving fo eldely paents in Japan
Japan has witnessed a significant gowth in its elde population. In the yea 1950, 4.9% of the Japanese population was aged 65 yeas and above. This figue inceased to 14.8% (1995). By 2025, it is estimated to gow to 25.8% (Yamamoto & Wallhagen, 1997). Japan's 'vey old' population goup (aged 85 and above) is swiftly inceasing in numbe. It has been pojected that by 2025, the nation's 'vey old' population will account fo 4.3% of its total population -- a five-fold ise in thee decades. Futhemoe, it was pojected that as many as 2.62 million Japanese would be suffeing fom senile dementia by the yea 2015; the 1990 estimate fo senile dementia was about one million individuals (11WSA 1996).
Change in the pecentage of Japan's…
references, and Arrangement of End-of-life Care and Decision-Making among Japanese-American Older Adults, ProQuest LLC.
National Asian Pacific Center on Aging. (1998). Growing APA elderly population adds urgency to improving health services. Asian Pacific Affairs, 6 (Dr. 2-3.
SALDOV, M., KAKAI, H., McLAUGHLIN, L. & THOMAS, A. (1998). Cultural barriers in oncology: Issues in obtaining medical informed consent from Japanese-American elders in Hawaii, Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 13: 265-279.
Sato, S. (2015). THE IMPACT OF GENDER AND CULTURAL FACTORS ON THE PATTERNS OF ELDER CARE SERVICE UTILIZATION AMONG FAMILY CAREGIVERS OF JAPANESE ANCESTRY IN THE STATE OF HAWAII, ProQuest LLC
SOROCCO, K.H. (1998). BECOMING A HEALTH ACTIVE OLDER ADULT: THE EFFECTS OF A WORKSHOP FOR JAPANESE-American OLDER ADULTS. ProQuest Information and Learning
Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D
Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life support issue. For years, many all over the country have pondered, "What if a person were in some kind of an accident and the physicians told them that they were not going to make it?" And all that he or she could do is just lie there in extreme pain waiting for their life to the end. Or even worse case scenario what if they happened to end up completely brain dead? These debated questions are taken on by Dr. Schemmer in making his point that life support decisions may not necessarily be the decision of the family, the doctor or the patient but by a higher being that gives life and takes life. Schemmer uses these controversial questions in his…
Court backs right to die | terminally ill have right to refuse medical life support. (1984, Dec 28). The San Diego Union, pp. A.1-1.
Ackerman, T. (2005, Mar 27). Life support battle shifts / A decade ago, patients families had to press for 'right to die. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-B.1.
Allen, P. (2000, Oct 07). Right to die upheld despite new euro law, doctors can end life support rules judge. Daily Mail, pp. 33-33.
Dolan, M. (2001, Aug 10). Justices deal setback to right-to-die movement; health: State court bans removal of life support from conscious patients whose wishes are not clear. Los Angeles Times, pp. A.1-A.1.
Health Care Market
In discussing the market for a health care good or service, one must first understand that in speaking of "health care," one is actually speaking of the entire health care industry, along with each of the goods and services that are produced and exchanged within this market. From organ transplant operations and blood donation to therapeutic massages and nursing home activity programs, the span of health care goods and services is both vast and varied. Further, in viewing today's uncertain economy, the market for health care goods and services is one that brings with it many different questions that must be addressed in order for a stakeholder to fully comprehend what decisions need to made in order to turn a profit.
Scarcity of esources
Scarcity of resources within this market significantly influences the decisions that stakeholders are forced to make. With scarcity of resources comes limited action…
Case, K. And Fair, R. (2007). Principles of economics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Fullerton, D. (2008). How economists see the environment. Nature, 385(6701), p. 433.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…
Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Neyhart, C. & Colaneri, J. (2004). Living Anonymous kidney donation: A solution to the organ donor shortage? Nephrology Nursing Journal. Online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ICF/is_3_31/ai_n17207253/
Watson, J. (2007). Theory of Human Caring: Theory Evolution. University of Colorado at Denver. Online at http://www.nursing.ucdenver.edu/faculty/jw_evolution.htm
Henrietta Lacks born August 1, 1920, was an African-American female tobacco farmer who resided in Dundalk, Maryland. She was wife to her first cousin and mother of five children. At the age of 31, Lacks died from cervical cancer. Before she died, a doctor took a sample of her cervical cells. These cells, named HeLa cells, became the immortal cell line that provided a Polio vaccine, aided in cloning, among other scientific breakthroughs. "Henrietta's cells were the first immortal human cells ever grown in culture. They were essential to developing the polio vaccine" (Zielinski, 2010).
HeLa cells have become a benchmark in the study of cellular processes. However, here in lies the controversy. HeLa cells have benefitted many except for the family of the person the sample was derived from. Henrietta Lacks' children, for decades, lived in poverty, with one son homeless. Was it right for a doctor to, without…
Siminoff, L.A., & Traino, H.M. (2013). Consenting to donation: an examination of current practices in informed consent for tissue donation in the U.S Cell and Tissue Banking, 14(1), 85-95.
Skloot, R. (2010). The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown Publishers.
Truog, R.D., Kesselheim, A.S., & Joffe, S. (2012). Paying Patients for Their Tissue: The Legacy of Henrietta Lacks. Science, 337(6090), 37-38.
Zielinski, S. (2010, January 22). History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian. History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/henrietta-lacks-immortal-cells-6421299/
Boylan is a firm supporter of universal healthcare, stating without adequate healthcare the nation will soon realize a rapid decline in health, as evidenced by the increase of health status reported when healthcare was more readily available to community members in the past.
Creative Solution or Innovation
Guercia et al. (2005) provided a novel solution to the current healthcare crisis by suggesting hospitals and other healthcare agencies receive nonprofit status to encourage more charitable donations and grants of money to these organizations so they can provide charitable care. Individuals who qualify for charity care are more likely to seek healthcare when they need it most.
Derrington & Shapiro (2004) provide some evidence that early intervention may help prevent major healthcare crisis before they happen. This model is perhaps the best model to use to present a new and innovative solution to the current crisis in healthcare. ather than focusing on…
Boylan, M. (2001). A universal right to healthcare. Journal of Politics and Ethics. 1(3):
Derrington, T.M., Shapiro, B.J. (2004). Equity and disparity in access to services: An outcomes-based evaluation of early intervention child find in Hawaii. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 24(4): 199.
Giffords, E.D., Guercia, R., Kass, D., Weiss, D. & Wenze, L. (2005). Increasing access to healthcare: Examination of hospital community benefits and free care programs. Health and Social Work, 20(3): 213.
Liska, D., Brennan, N., & Bruen, B. (1998). State-level data book in healthcare access and financing (3rd ed). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…
.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://mrgrg-ms.org/
Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.
Birkey, a. (2010, July 21). Fraudulent vets charity raised big money in Minnesota. The Minnesota Independent, p. 3.
Burrelli, D. (2008, August 12). Military Health Care: The Issue of Promised Benefits. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-14.
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).
So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004; 82:Suppl 1:S240-S244.
Hwang, W.S., Roh, S.I., Lee, B.C., et al. -- Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SNCT blastocysts." Science 2005;308.
Magnus, David and Cho, Mildred K. "Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research." Science Express Magazine, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and Department of Pediatrics, Vol. 308. no. 5729, June 2005. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/308/5729/1747 .
McDonald, Chris. "Stem cells: a pluripotent challenge." BioScan Vol. 13, Iss. 4, (Toronto Biotechnology Initiative.) Fall 2001.
Death and Dying (general)
2009). The susceptibility is highest is the first month of the transplantation and decreases afterwards. it, however, remains high even after 12 following. Susceptibility is highest among kidney recipients…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Concern also focused on the imbalance of the trade because the market is for only those who can afford, therefore only gives chance for the well-off. The black market…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
That is especially true because in the vast majority of cases, prospective organ donors are younger than their surviving family members since only organs from relatively young people are…Read Full Paper ❯
Death and Dying (general)
The flaws have been reverted through the policy of no-give, no-take, "under this system in order to receive an organ the individual has to previously signed their organ donor…Read Full Paper ❯
Death and Dying (general)
However, these side effects are a small price to pay in light of the alternative, which is often a severely compromised quality of life and early death. The donor…Read Full Paper ❯
Faith and medicine often work in parallel. They do not cross each other. While in grave medical situations, people may pray and have faith their loved ones will recover,…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Organ Donation There is a space for a small pink sticker on everyone's driver's license which you choose to affix or to leave off of the identification. The sticker…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Some authors show that, contrary to the belief that health care professionals are less sensitive than the general public toward the manipulation of the body, they in fact have…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Moral Questions and Moral Theory: Organ Donation The issue of organ donation seems as though it would be simple. When a person dies, he or she no longer needs…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Ethic - Organ Donation The donation of organs and their eventual transplant have been regarded as a distinct way in which mankind shows and shares its compassion. Cutting out…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
The focus is on understanding the way moral choices are presented than judging the outcome of the decisions made. Ethics can be situational, and certainly the dilemmas or morality…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Further, the review of literature in this study will identify the method most effective in assessing the effectiveness of instruction ultimately resulting in the design and development of a…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
ethical decision making in general and then in the nursing profession. It addresses two key questions. What are the different ethical decision making processes? How could the ethical dilemma…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Tissue Donation Donated body organs like hearts and kidneys contribute to the saving of hundreds of lives each year. The fact is that bequeathed tissues like skin, bone and…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Corneal Donation within Hospitals and Medical Communities: Issues Surrounding Post Mortem Donations of Tissue Qualitative Study The purpose of this study is to identify barriers to corneal donation within…Read Full Paper ❯
Organ Sales When it comes to the sale of organs from one party to another, there are usually two "camps" that people fall within. Those camps are inclusive of…Read Full Paper ❯
This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives,…Read Full Paper ❯
Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants: The consideration of the possible negative socio-ethical repercussions of allowing people to buy and sell their non-vital body organs for transplant fortifies the…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Mayor, S. (2009). "UK sees rise in people donating a kidney to unknown recipients." British medical journal 338(7710), pp. 1521. In this brief yet highly relevant article, the author…Read Full Paper ❯
His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
ethics regarding organ donation by brain-damaged people. The writer explores how a brain-damaged person is defined, and whether or not the donation of organs from that person is ethical.…Read Full Paper ❯
Futile medical care is the ongoing provision of medical treatment or care to a patient who does not show any hope of recovery. It is either that his condition…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Orthodox Judaism There is great variation in the ways orthodox Jews practice their religion, and in what they believe. Many of the variations depend on cultural factors, as Jews…Read Full Paper ❯
Transforming Scheduled Death Into Renewed Life One of the harsh realities of living in an otherwise-free society is the fact that the United States incarcerates far more of its…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
As many forms of live donation do not cause harm to others, and as we allow the donation of blood for payment, we violate the categorical imperative by banning…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Abortion
The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & acon. In this popular text, the author provides a comprehensive overview of both…Read Full Paper ❯
Beneficence The field of nursing is shaped by a range of ethical principles; while all of these concepts are important, one could argue that perhaps the most crucial ethical…Read Full Paper ❯
Hospital Case Study If the first requirement of any successful case study is a detailed and analytical examination of the situation, the emotional component of so called "high stakes"…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
1993). Within medical settings in particular, physicians and supervisors are often too over-burdened with their myriad formal responsibilities to take note of minor irregularities in protocols and procedures. Because…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities. Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from…Read Full Paper ❯
Above all it has followed the delibeate maketing of health cae (in association with touism) as medical cae has gadually moved away fom the public secto to the pivate…Read Full Paper ❯
Using a philosophical approach, there is typically no one single "right" answer given, but rather a process with which to think about, and analyze, a given set of problems.…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Health Care & Faith Diversity It is quite obvious how different religions hold different philosophical views on various aspects and even when it comes to healing. Each religion highly…Read Full Paper ❯
Ad located: http://Www.topdesignmag.com/Awesome-Collection-of-Print-Ads/ The France ADOT advertisement for organ donation has an intended audience of all healthy people, who are in the position of registering for being official organ…Read Full Paper ❯
More than 98% of respondents had heard of the term "brain death," but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was "brain dead" was legally dead. Using a utilitarian…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Applying atson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment" describes the validness and authentication of the nursing theory of care by Jean…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Nursing and eligion Practice ELIGION AND NUSING PACTICE Nursing success depends on the ability to put the patient in a state of rest and comfort as much as it…Read Full Paper ❯
Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns. Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible…Read Full Paper ❯
Law - Constitutional Law
yes, I do see a parallel between being paid to be a surrogate and the prohibition against being paid to donate one's organs. The prohibition is clearly designed at…Read Full Paper ❯
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the…Read Full Paper ❯
The next objection of IVF separating the procreation and marital aspects of marriage and in the end damaging the marital relationship was totally untrue in this case. This couple…Read Full Paper ❯
Death and Dying (general)
Typically a Japanese funeral follows the sequence: when someone dies, they are placed to rest in their homes. The corpse was placed with the head pointing the North, copying…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Within this clash of cultures, the Lee family did not know how to cope with the medical system in place to help Lia and her epilepsy. When they refused…Read Full Paper ❯
The less stable the identities of the individual on the outside, the more impact the routines of life on the 'inside.' The deprivations of the prison culture (as described…Read Full Paper ❯
" ritten Policies Covered entities must develop and implement written privacy policies that are consistent with the Privacy Rule (OCR, 2003). This policy must address several components. One is…Read Full Paper ❯
These, then, eventually die leaving the transfer of oxygen in your blood being absolutely limited and far below the point at which the flow of oxygen needs to be…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
Japanese: Cultural Interview and Nursing Assessment Presentation of client and scenario This interview was conducted with a Ms. X, a Japanese national visiting friends in another country. She was,…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
hospitals with regard to postmortem care. In particular, the procedures used in postmortem care involve methods for appropriate care of the body after death, sensitive and appropriate notification of…Read Full Paper ❯
Patient Identifiers The Importance of Patient Identifiers Adverse events as a consequence of medical treatment are now recognized to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality around the…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Hawaiian elde cae pofessionals impove patient eldecae sevices to Japanese nationals, taking into consideation Japanese cultual noms and expectations Caegiving fo eldely paents in Japan Japan has witnessed a…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life…Read Full Paper ❯
Health Care Market In discussing the market for a health care good or service, one must first understand that in speaking of "health care," one is actually speaking of…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Henrietta Lacks born August 1, 1920, was an African-American female tobacco farmer who resided in Dundalk, Maryland. She was wife to her first cousin and mother of five children.…Read Full Paper ❯
Boylan is a firm supporter of universal healthcare, stating without adequate healthcare the nation will soon realize a rapid decline in health, as evidenced by the increase of health…Read Full Paper ❯
First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits…Read Full Paper ❯
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
Direct to Consumer Advertising HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN CREATING DEMAND DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING CAUSE F DEATH PRFIT UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND…Read Full Paper ❯
Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring…Read Full Paper ❯