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What is the role of learning in change processes? Pay particular attention to the ideas of Naomi aab
Learning is a galvanizing factor across all change processes in that it unifies each step in the process and over time creates an experience effect that creates greater levels of knowledge over time. The role of learning in change processes is also non-linear, a key finding of management and organizational design theorist Naomi aab. Her practice and writings show how effective the dissemination of learning is throughout organizations. The development of information and knowledge ecosystems throughout organizations is also predicated on this foundation of shared learning and the creation of a system of record from a cultural and learning standpoint.
Ms. aab's insights into how to heal hurting and dysfunctional companies also form the basis of her approaches to defining the role of learning in change processes. In defining strategies…
Beeby, M.L. (1999), "Consulting to a "hurt" or "upset" organization," Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 20(2), pp. 61-68.
Collin, K. (2004). The role of experience in work and learning among design engineers. International Journal of Training & Development, 8(2), 111-127.
Kimberly, J.R. (1984). The anatomy of organizational design. Journal of Management, 10(1), 109-109.
Ratten, V. (2004). The role of learning and information dissemination in logistics alliances. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 16(4), 65-81.
The concept of organizational learning has been around for a long time now but it was fully accepted and passionately pursued in the 1990s. It was at this time that many organizations recognized it and started involving it into their organizational systems. Due to this wide acceptance in this period, there were two consequences that came with it. The first being that it attracted the interest of many scholars especially of disciplines that there before had indicated to interest at all in this field. This meant that scholars attempted to outdo each other on which discipline gives the correct interpretation of organization learning. Secondly there was a scramble by organizations as well as consultants especially to display the commercial side of this concept. There have been efforts to try and give the correct and the ideal representation of organizational learning to the present times since the 1990s (William…
Mark Smith, (2001). Learning in Organizations. Retrieved March 3, 2013 from http://www.infed.org/biblio/organizational-learning.htm
William R. King, (2009). Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning. Retrieved March 3, 2013 from http://www.uky.edu/~gmswan3/575/KM_and_OL.pdf
Week 8 Discussion Question in working responses Discussion Question choose examples experience find cases Web discuss. Credit references make relevant examples real companies. Analyze journal article, Schilling, J.
Week 8 discussion question: Organizational learning article review
Organizational learning is deemed to be a critical component of individual learning: without 'organizational' learning, individual learning cannot take place in the workplace -- yet individuals make up the workplace so conversely individual learning is critical for OL to take place. Although this concept seems somewhat esoteric, Schilling & Kluge note in their literature review of the subject that "because individuals learn as representatives of their organization…all knowledge acquired must be retained appropriately (in the form of documents, routines, processes and structures, for instance) for it to remain available, even if an individual leaves the organization" (Schilling & Kluge 2008: 339).
Personal, organizational, and social barriers can exist to the fundamental OL…
Schilling, J. & Kluge, A. (2008). Barriers to organizational learning: an integration of theory and research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11 (3): 337-360
Smerd, J. (2009). Can a new corporate culture save General Motors? Crain's. Retrieved from:
The objective of this study is to address the question of if an organization cannot harvest the learning and teaching that is happening in a community of practice then does the organization as such learn? Secondly, this study will address the question of whether one can speak of organizational learning, even when the company has not learned anything as only the community of practice share the knowledge within their circle.
Defining Organizational Learning and the Community of Practice
Organizational learning is stated in the work of Schulz (2001) to be such that "denotes a change in organizational knowledge. Organizational learning typically adds to, transforms, or reduces organizational knowledge." (p.1) Organizational learning is reported by Schulz to be "captured in a learning cycle in which organizations responded to external shocks by adjusting the likelihood of reusing specific operating procedures (SOPs) A concept essentially equivalent to March and Simon's performance…
Wenger, E. (2006) Communities of Practice: A Brief Introduction. June 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.ewenger.com/theory/
Schulz, M. (2001) Organizational Learning in: Joel A.C. Baum (ed.) Companion to Organizations. Blackwell Publishers, 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~healdric/Classes/Soci245/Schulz.pdf
OL vs. LO
Herbert Simon (1969) defined organizational learning as "the growing insights and successful restructurings of organizational problems by individuals reflected in the structural elements and outcomes of the organization itself." This definition tells us a couple of important things about organizational learning. First, organizations as holistic entities cannot learn. Individuals within the organization, and working on behalf of the organization, do the learning, and they then pass their newfound knowledge onto the organization. Both the feedback loops by which they learn and the ways in which they pass their learning on flow through the organization in terms of the organization's structures, its culture, its strategies and its knowledge base. The latter can occur to a much stronger degree today than when this idea was first developed, because of our increased ability to gather, store and transmit information throughout the organization. This highlights the role of information systems in…
Simon, H. (1969) Sciences of the Artificial. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.
Fiol, C. & Lyles, M. (1985). Organizational learning. The Academy of Management Review. Vol. 10 (4) 803-813.
Senge, P. (2003). Taking personal change seriously: The impact of organizational learning on management practice. Academy of Management Executive. Vol. 17 (2) 47-50.
Understandably, Alyeska is challenged by the logistics of training a workforce that is spread across the 800-mile pipeline. And because the company runs one of the most heavily regulated pipelines in the world -- the Department of Transportation, the Bureau of Land Management and the Alaska Department of Natural esources are just a few of the agencies regulating the pipeline, it is imperative to track learners' progress to ensure that they are meeting regulatory requirements (Case Study: Training on the Last Frontier (http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_section.asp?articleid=229&zoneid=101)."
This company's use of organizational learning is an exemplary example of how it can be done.
Much of the required training for the company is of a regulatory and technical nature. These areas and styles of training provide a perfect back drop for the steps in organizational learning.
One example of the use of organizational learning in the company is the developmental training that deals with…
Simple Introduction to Organizational Learning (accessed 06-10-06)
Case Study: Training on the Last Frontier (accessed 06-10-06)
Organizational Learning Dichotomy Case Study
Tsang (1997) presented in his research article the components of a case study that focused on the research methods on organizational learning. The focus of this paper is to highlight and describe the case study presented in this article that called for a two- pronged approach created to help in communicating the concepts and ideas related to "organizational learning." The main effort of this article examined how organizational learning has broken down into two separate approaches which causes problems and issues in how to approach the subject.
This essay will first give background information regarding this article and its contents by identifying the stakeholders presented in this writing. A general overview of what is at stake will also be presented before narrowing down ideas related to specifically identifying the problem that are at the core of this research case study. The possible solutions regarding the…
Garvin, D.A., Edmondson, A.C., & Gino, F. (2008). Is yours a learning organization?. Harvard business review, 86(3), 109.
Milway, K.S., & Saxton, A. (2011). The challenge of organizational learning .Stanford Social Innovation Review, 9(3), 44-49.
Tsang, E.W. (1997). Organizational learning and the learning organization: a dichotomy between descriptive and prescriptive research. Human relations, 50(1), 73-89.
Organizational Learning Culture: ICMT Strategy
Why is it important for an organization to be a learning organization in regards to creating and implementing an ICMT strategy?
A learning organization can be defined as an organization that assumes learning as a continuous process, and which consequently develops, adapts and transforms itself in response to the aspirations and needs of people, both within and without (Gray, 2012). In a learning organization, employees are not just passive players in the equation; rather, they are allowed to express their views and ideas, and to challenge themselves as a way of contributing to an improved environment in the organization. Employees are allowed to create the results that they truly desire, and to learn together for the betterment of the entire organization (Gray, 2012).
It is crucial for organizations to act as learning organizations when creating and implementing their ICMT strategies. This are several reasons why…
Gray, D. (2012). The Connected Company. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media Inc.
Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Business - Management Theory
Learning Organizations: Case Studies
Organizations may experience different levels of learning depending on their commitment and resources to the cause. This study has focused on four organizations two of which are performing well and the other performing poorly in their unique industries.
Apple Computing Corporation
The first company that this paper reviews is the Apple Inc. The firm is attractive as it offers an expounded culture of organization learning. Up to 1989, Apple Computing Corporation commanded only 1.2% of Japan's personal computer markets. Appointment of new company president illustrated a new era, as there were strategized drives towards increasing Apple's presence across market as well as acceleration of change. The company targeted to achieve annual sales revenues of $1 billion in the next five years (IPC. 2001). Meeting the challenge forced the corporation to approach management consultant firms to build up experience…
Eisenbach, R., Watson, K., & Pillai, R. (1999). "Transformational Leadership In The Context Of Organizational Change," Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 12 Iss: 2, pp.80 -- 89
Goh, S.C. (2003). "Improving Organizational Learning Capability: Lessons From Two Case Studies," The Learning Organization, Vol. 10 Iss: 4, pp.216 -- 227
IPC (2001). High Road To Work Organization Case Study: Apple Computing. Hi-Res Project.
Josserand, E., Teo, S. & Clegg, S. (2006). "From Bureaucratic To Post-Bureaucratic: The Difficulties Of Transition," Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 19 Iss: 1, pp.54 -- 64
Urban Middle School Focus
Identify Unique opportunities for growth and improvement. What new emerging initiatives are likely to increase growth and deepen improvement levels within an urban middle school?
Among the more prominent opportunities for growth and improvement have occurred in urban schools where educators are focusing on literacy achievement (Frey, 2002). Literacy has always been an essential element to learning and has opened the door to avenues for growth in other areas including in math and in science.
Another important area for growth and improvement includes moving from a static educational environment to one that is more dynamic, where informal and spontaneous educational learning styles are preferred to more traditional styles (Phillips, 2003). Now, more so than ever teachers see the benefit of adopting kinesthetic learning practices that engage students as experiential learners that are diverse, culturally different, and involved in their community (Phillips, 2003). These initiatives are challenging…
Frey, N. (2001). "We grow our own." Journal of California English, 6(4), 12-13.
Frey, Nancy (2002)." Literacy achievement in an urban middle-level professional development school: a learning community at work." Reading Improvement. Cengage Learning. FindArticles.com. 26, July 2011: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6516/is_1_39/ai_n28920111/
Haycock, K., Jerald, C., & Huang, S. (2001). "Closing the gap: Done in a decade." Thinking K-
16, 5(1), 3-20.
learning organization. *Consolidate research definitions organization learning. *Explain organization a learning organization (teaching federal government hospital). *Discuss advantages disadvantages organizational learning.
The learning organization
The modern day business climate is more challenging and dynamic and it forces the economic agents to seek alternative sources of strategic advantages. One example in this sense is represented by the enhancement of the emphasis placed on supporting learning and the continuous development of the organization of learning. While this concept is gaining more and more interest within the economic agents, it is also highly applicable within public entities, such as hospitals.
This project then starts at the premises that the concept of the learning organization is highly applicable in the context of the teaching federal government hospital. The purpose of this paper is that of supporting a higher understanding of the learning organization, in order to lead to a superior application within the real…
Appelbaum, S.H., 2000, The competitive advantage of organizational learning, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 12, No. 2
Dowshen, S., 2010, Questions and answers, Kids' Health, http://kidshealth.org/parent/question/parenting/hospitals.html last accessed on August 6, 2012
John, D., 2002, Organizational learning and effectiveness, Routledge
Karash, R., Why a learning organization? http://world.std.com/~lo/WhyLO.html last accessed on August 6, 2012
The primary reason for their achievements lays in the creativity and innovation brought in by CEO Howard Schultz, but also by the appropriate understanding and integration of theoretical managerial concepts. Two of the most relevant such concepts are the strategy development and the organization learning. The two concepts are interconnected and both rely massively on the firm's ability to analyze the internal and external environments and best adapt to the emergent changes in these environments: seize opportunities, minimize threats, maximize strengths and eliminate weaknesses.
Bryson, J.M., 2004, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement, John Wiley and Sons
Easterby-Smith, M., Araujo, L., Burgoyne, J., 1999, Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Developments in Theory and Practice, SAGE
Enderle, ., March 22, 2004, Starbucks and HP: The Future of Digital Music, Tech News World, http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33164.html?wlc=1221127641last accessed on January 14, 2009
Bryson, J.M., 2004, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement, John Wiley and Sons
Easterby-Smith, M., Araujo, L., Burgoyne, J., 1999, Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Developments in Theory and Practice, SAGE
Enderle, R., March 22, 2004, Starbucks and HP: The Future of Digital Music, Tech News World, http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33164.html?wlc=1221127641last accessed on January 14, 2009
Harrison, R.T., Leitch, C., 2008, Entrepreneurial Learning: Conceptual Frameworks and Applications, Routledge
The efforts of a collective group of people can often transcend that of an individual; teams have been a functional part of the business culture for over twenty years with the goal of accomplishing just this feat. While "system thinking," "mental models" and "team communication" continue to hold great importance in the synergy of multi-contributor accomplishment, it hasn't proven to be quite enough.
Working teams accumulate an almost infinite amount of experiential knowledge. At the operations level, this accomplishes the ultimate goal: people are dramatically more effective at accomplishing their collective and individual goals and achieve a greater sense of satisfaction in the accomplishment. These teams, however, operate under a much larger canopy - that of the larger collective - the organization.
The enterprise - as a whole - has been largely overlooked when regarding the distinguishing characteristics of the institution. If the ethos of the entity…
viable methods used to create sustained organizational learning. These case studies should be empirical studies no later than 2005.
Continuous innovation to ensure sustained organizational learning.
Ensuring adequate staffing levels to provide sustainable organizational learning.
Acquisition of managerial competencies that promote sustainable organizational learning.
Write a paper of 1,000-1,250 words that compares the three methods (strengths and weaknesses) and determines which is most likely to have the greatest success if implemented in a middle school environment. Why would this method be effective in a middle school setting and why other methods may not be effective?
Organizations of all types and sizes can benefit from best practices identified in other industries. In terms of developing sustained organizational learning in middle schools, the analysis is complicated by both a paucity of relevant studies with respect to middle schools in particular and the larger environment in which they operate as well. For instance,…
Frederickson, P. & London, R. (2000). Disconnect in the hollow state: The pivotal role of organizational capacity in community-based development organizations. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 230.
Chaston, I., Badger, B. & Sadler-Smith, E. (2001). Organizational learning: An empirical
assessment of process in small U.K. manufacturing firms. Journal of Small Business
Management, 39(2), 139.
Organizational Theory #2
What core competences give an organization competitive advantage? What are examples of an organization's functional-level strategies?
Core competencies are those capabilities that are critical to a business achieving a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Typically, core competencies can be identified by certain common characteristics -- offering a benefit to the customer, difficult to imitate, uniquely identify the organization and easily leveraged to create many products or operate in many markets (Kern, 2010). The organization that is best able to use its resources to create value is in an ideal position to outperform the competition, thus creating advantage (Jones, 2010). Core competencies tend to change in response to changes in the environment. They are flexible, evolve over time and enable the company to enter apparently different markets with a clear and distinctive brand proposition. Examples of core competencies include manufacturing, research and development, new technology or organizational design…
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Terry, L.D., & Hoefer, R.A. (1995). Making politics and power respectable. Public Administration Review, 55(3), 298.
Organizational eframing Program
Four Frames of Organizational eframing
Human esource: -
Structural Contingency Theory
Structural Contingency Theory in Human esource Management:-
Social Network Analysis
Impact of reframing plan and ethical issue's
Impact on the department being reframed:-
Impact of reframing on other departments:-
The study shows an organizational plan of a department. The aim of the study is to emphasize on how the theory of organizational life is applicable with the help of utilization of the action research process.
eframing means to redirect or change the way of thinking and look at things with a complete different mindset. In simple terms reframing is change of plans or basic details of an idea. Looking at events from a complete different mindset helps you to avoid individual biases. It also emphasizes the importance of adjustments and flexibility in the organization. The process of reframing suggests finding out…
Hatch, M.J. (2006), "Organization Theory: Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives." 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press
Kanigel, R. (1997). The One Best Way, Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. London: Brown and Co
Robbins, Stephen P. (2004) Organizational Behavior - Concepts, Controversies, Applications. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall
Fredric M. Jablin, Linda Putnam (2000). The new handbook of organizational communication: advances in theory. p.146
Organizational behavior refers to the psychological and sociological habits and patterns evident in specific groups of people. It is often defined formally as "the study of individuals and groups in organizations," ("Organizational Behavior Today," p.2). The study of organizational behavior includes elements such as leadership traits and behaviors; the use or abuse of power, and the politics that characterize people's behavior within the organization. Because each organization functions according to different goals and missions, organizational behavior varies widely from sector to sector. Organizations which have as their primary aim to make profit will for instance behave differently than non-profit organizations; the individuals that comprise those organizations will demonstrate certain character traits that make them valuable to the organization as a whole. On the other hand, all organizations will demonstrate certain similar characteristics that are essential for the smooth functioning of any group of people. For example, the leaders in most…
Clark, Donald. "Leadership: Organizational Behavior." Big Dog's Leadership Page. .
'Organizational Behavior Today."
Wertheim, Edward G. "Historical Background of Organizational Behavior." .
Culture must not simply be inclusive to an organization. Organizational internal culture must shift with the larger national cultural context in light of the needs posed by globalization.
Chapter 12: Strategic Competency and Organizational Design
IBM, showed a constructive ability to engage in organizational learning. Despite facing political obstacles such as 9-11 and prejudice against technology companies after the dot-com bust it has remained a huge, complex technological powerhouse. IBM's longer-term outlook is bright today, despite the obstacles it has faced, because the infrastructure within the organization allows growth. It has sound decision making chain of command that has stood it well over the years. Firms need to adjust to their environments and contexts as well as to influence them, and IBM has shown itself capable of doing so in terms of the firm's environment, size and…
Flexibility, adaptability, and a global mindset cause my organization to behave in a responsive rather than hierarchical fashion. These organizational values conspire to create an organizational culture that respects education, values protocol and is detail-oriented, yet is not such a slave to the rules that it loses sight of human beings. After all, if the rules were absolute, there would not be different government laws and bylaws, depending on the country one is sealing with. The services I perform require communication is with diverse doctors from an ever-increasingly wide range of nations, including South Africa, India, British Columbia, Iran, Iraq, China, Cuba, and Segal. Each one of these governments, organizations, and educational systems differs from the United States' own, yet all nations and national must be respected so that the place I work for realizes its goals of improving health care and education across borders.
Organizational learning for Credentials Specialists…
" (Simon, 188) the fundamental perspective here is that leadership and the ability to apply actions based on culturally driven decisions are central to helping members of the organization learn in a concrete manner how best to accord with the reigning culture.
In order for this to occur though, there must be a certain initial scrutiny and selectiveness where leadership and personnel are concerned, endorsing an organization-wide emphasis on the quality of personnel. This implicitly brings us to consideration of the application phase in terms of learning organizational culture, which is inevitably associated to all actionable aspects of an organization's structure and operations. The correlation between recruitment, personnel makeup and leadership personalities is perhaps threaded by the common string of day-to-day responsibility within an organizational culture. And quite certainly, we see the stamp of organizational culture on so many of the most important applicable indicators. Schein, to this end, points…
Arnold, J., Cooper, C. & Robertson, I.T. (1995). Work psychology: Understanding human behavior in the workplace, Pitman Publishing, London.
Beer, M. & Walton, E. (1990). Developing the competitive organization: interventions and strategies. American Psychologists, 45(22), 154-161.
Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. Harper and Row, New York.
Bowditch, J.L. & Buono, a.F. (1994). A primer on organizational behavior. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York.
This will allow for collaboration, additional suggestions for the action plans to come, corrections and so forth.
Action planning: At this point, a plan can be developed to remedy the situation being studied; the plans become something that delivers results.
Implementation: The adopted Action Plan is put in place.
Follow up: Lastly, the implementation, as well as the Action Plan itself, is reviewed in order to see if positive results have occurred. If not, the process may need to be repeated or modified.
It is important to note that the way that the Action esearch Process is enacted will vary by organization, the expected outcomes, the stakeholders involved, etc. (Cunningham, 1999).
Stress and Its Consequences
The drive for organizations to constantly improve can, and does, lead to stress for the workers (Buunk & Verhoeven, 1991). This stress can have many consequences, such as increases in employee turnover, absenteeism, lower productivity,…
Buunk, B.P., & Verhoeven, K. (1991). Companionship and Support at Work: a Microanalysis of the Stress-Reducing Features of Social Interaction. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 12(3), 243-258.
Cunningham, J.B. (1993). Action Research and Organizational Development. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Gilley, J.W., & Maycunich, a. (2000). Organizational Learning, Performance, and Change: An Introduction to Strategic Human Resource Development. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Greenberg, J. (Ed.). (2003). Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
In a competitive environment, where change is the only constant phenomenon, learning and knowledge management are vital for sustenance and growth of organizations. A precise universal definition of knowledge can be elusive, because it is complex and manifests itself in various forms in individuals as well as in organizations. Individual or tacit knowledge is confined to the people who possess it and cannot be structured or managed in the organizational sense. Implicit knowledge is difficult to communicate from person to person and limited to the perception of the individual. Organizational or explicit knowledge can be documented into policies and procedures and can be made available to employees. In whatever form, knowledge is regarded only within a system of legitimization that permits it to be accepted as knowledge (Mouritsen et al., 736). Put differently, knowledge is perceived and accepted based on social frameworks.
The rational theory of knowledge management…
Baum, J.A and Oliver C 'Towards an institutional ecology of organizational founding', Academy of Management Journal, (1996) 39:1378-1427
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Kloot, L 'Organizational learning and management control systems: responding to environmental change', Management Accounting Research (1997) (8) 47-73
Change anywhere is never easy, in fact most people in an organization usually have a difficult adjustment when it comes to that. However, it is a process that cannot be avoided, it must happen. An organization may have no other choice but to change. hen this occurs, it is important to make sure that the employees are all on the same page and that this change is good and scary at the same time. There are so many various reasons for an organization to change, for instance a sudden change of the financial climate or the arising threat of competition. Through getting a good understanding of the procedure and theory of organizational change, an organization such as the Fairfax Media Group can manage change in the best conceivable way.
In Jennifer M. George's and Gareth R. Jones book, Contemporary Management, organizational change is well-defined as "the crusade of…
Fisher, D.R. (2000). Global and domestic actors within the global climate change regime: Toward a theory of the global environmental system. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(3), 221-234.
Ford, R. (2004). Organizational learning, change and power: Toward a practice-theory framework. The Learning Organization,, 13(5).
Macri, D.M., Tagliaventi, M.R., & Bertolotti, F. (2002). A grounded theory for resistance to change in a small organization. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 15(3), 292-310.
Nelson, L. (2005). A case study in organisational change: Implications for theory. The Learning Organization, 12(3), 18-30.
There are interactions within the organization that have consequences which may be healthy or unhealthy to the process of the organization and should be addressed accordingly (Armstrong, 2001). In addition, the assessment of the well-being of the employees can be done through audits which look at the physical, mental, and social wellness of the employees. This is vital because the well-being of the employees directly affects the performance of the organization and this demonstrates how important organizational health is to the organization since without performance the organization is as good as dead.
For purposes of illustrations let us consider an organization which has the following features as a result of its organizational health: clearly stated and widely accepted objectives and goals; reliable flow of information within the organization; proper utilization of inputs; employees feel secure and satisfied; the organization surpasses its targets; and the organization is able to perceive and…
Armstrong, M. (2001). Performance management: Key strategies and practical guidelines.(2nd
ed). London: Kogan Page.
Britton, B. Organizational learning and organizational health. Retrieved February 2012, from http://www.framework.org.uk/files/framework/Organisational%20Learning%20and%20Organisational%20Health.pdf
Dive, B (2004). The healthy organization. (2nd ed) London: Kogan Page.
Organizations are seen as having several different stages in their life cycle, with specific implications for management at each stage. The stages are, roughly, birth, growth, decline and death, depending on which model of the organizational life cycle is used. While the details on the life stages of an organization differ, the strategies are different for each, and management must be able to differentiate each stage, and make the right moves accordingly. It could also reasonably be argued that the stages are dynamic, rather than distinct, and that the passage from one stage to the next can take place gradually, incrementally, and that management can actually affect this process (Hanks, 2015).
The initial stage of organizational development is the birth stage. At this stage, the organization is founded, its purpose identified, and it is given the resources needed to survive. The life cycle metaphor is apt at…
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2. True learning organizations allocate the time and resources that are required to develop a competitive advantage based on the lifelong learning and training opportunities that are provided to everyone in the organization.
3. A learning organization not only develops the opportunities for learning but it also provides a corporate culture that encourage all of its members to become self-actualized, thereby contributing to the advancement of the larger society in which the organization competes. .
4. The leadership of true learning organizations ensure that the corporate vision is communicated to all members and provides a framework in which their feedback is welcomed and acted upon, as well as ensuring that an environment exists in which there "are no bad questions" concerning the direction in which the enterprise is headed.
5. Learning organizations make it possible to consolidate work and learning as well as encouraging all members of the enterprise to…
Albert, M. 1998 "Shaping a Learning Organization through the Linkage of Action Research
Interventions." Organization Development Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 29-31.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. 2002 Developing potential across a full range of leadership:
Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
organization 25 employees worked, em-ployed, a -employer organization . Using congruence framework, analyze organization 12 components model: history, environment, resources, & strategy (inputs); task, informal & formal organization, & individuals (throughputs); individual, group, & organizational outputs; feedback loop.
The congruence model as put forth by Nadler and Tushman (1980)
suggests that organizations need to have a particular degree of consistency and fit for twelve components in order to achieve success in their strategies. They define congruence as how well the various components within the organization fit together. This means that for any organization, the components that lead to the effectiveness of the model need to be of high quality in order to fit with the others. It can be argued that the congruence model suggests that inputs for the organization must match outputs through making an efficient transformation process and feedback loop. These are the four major categories…
Bessant, J., & Tidd, J. (2011). Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Wiley.
Grundy, T., & Brown, L. (2002). Strategic Project Management: Creating Organizational Breakthroughs. Hampshire: Thomson Learning.
Hellriegel, D., Slocum, J., & John W. Slocum, J. (2010). Organizational Behavior. Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage South-Western.
Mohapatra, S. (2009). Business Process Automation. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall Of India Pvt. Ltd.
This way of thinking and taking action has been evolving over many decades, but it reached its widest audience with the 1990 publication of 'The Fifth Discipline' by Peter Senge." (2003)
The Charter school has a unique opportunity to implement the principles of Peter Senge, and most particularly the principles associated with the 'learning organization' and from a perspective noted in the statement of Senge that it is very unlikely that the "deep systemic problems that afflict our institutions and society..." will find correction until "the ability to honor and integrate theory, personal development and practical results..." has been rediscovered since it is seemingly a lost ability. (Senge, 1997)
Senge states that change may very well involve "returning to an older model of community: traditional societies that gave respect to elders for their wisdom: teachers for their ability to help people grow, and warriors, weavers, and growers for their life…
Five Disciplines: Peter Senge (2008) Value-Based Management 25 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_senge_five_disciplines.html
Larsen, Kai, et al. (1996) the Learning Organization. Leader Values. Online available at http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=186
Senge, P (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.
Senge, Peter M. (1997) Communities of Leaders and Learners. Harvard Business Review September-October 1997. 75th Anniversary Edition. Reprint Online.
The theory of Honey and Mumford, describes the styles and learning strategies. It incorporates much of the theory of Kolb's learning cycle, making it more intelligible.
It is important to discuss these strategies with students. (Marsick and atkins, p132-51) hile this allows the teacher to become aware of the need to vary their teaching because they do not exist in universal, it also allows learners to realize that everyone learns differently.
So its dominant learning strategies can influence its working methods and student personnel can then optimize them. It may also become more self-confidence. Honey and Mumford (1986) take away from Kolb (1984) the idea of an experiential learning model in four stages they call: experience, the return on experience, drawing conclusions and planning. (aring and Evans, p117-28)
According to them, each phase has specific behaviors and attitudes and is important to successfully complete the learning process itself.…
Lam, Y.L. Defining the effects of transformation leadership on organization learning: a cross-cultural comparison: School Leadership & Management, 2002, pp 439-52.
Marquardt, M. Action learning in action: Transforming problems and people for world- class organizational learning. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing, 1999, pp45-49.
Marsick, V.J., and Watkins, KE. Demonstrating the value of an organization's learning culture: The Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2003 5, pp132-151.
Evans, C. And Graff, M. "Exploring style: enhancing the capacity to learn?," Education & Training, Vol. 50, 2008, pp. 93-102.
he findings in the article are persistent in that they show that these themes are important. However, whether they are persistent in the sense that they appear in every organization and are changing with the culture is harder to say. here are so many organizations today, big and small, and they all operate in different ways. No two organizations are completely identical and this must be taken into account more carefully, because one cannot make a blanket statement regarding organizational behavior and culture.
Research that is done into organizing is not only building upon but also extending many of the traditional concepts that have been seen in the field (Rousseau, 1997). his must continue. here are also some assumptions of organizational behavior research which are now finally being superseded by those people and ideas and assumptions that are more responsive to a new era in organizational behavior (Rousseau, 1997). hat…
There are several key research themes in the article, and these include emerging employment relations, goal-setting and self-management, managing the performance paradox, organizational learning, organizational change, individual transitions, discontinuous information processing, and implications for change based on work-nonwork relationships (Rousseau, 1997). The findings in the article are persistent in that they show that these themes are important. However, whether they are persistent in the sense that they appear in every organization and are changing with the culture is harder to say. There are so many organizations today, big and small, and they all operate in different ways. No two organizations are completely identical and this must be taken into account more carefully, because one cannot make a blanket statement regarding organizational behavior and culture.
Research that is done into organizing is not only building upon but also extending many of the traditional concepts that have been seen in the field (Rousseau, 1997). This must continue. There are also some assumptions of organizational behavior research which are now finally being superseded by those people and ideas and assumptions that are more responsive to a new era in organizational behavior (Rousseau, 1997). That is important because it shows a lot of progress, but there are still questions to be answered. The most pressing of these questions is whether the changes that are taking place apply to all types of organizations or whether the size of the organization and the culture of it are larger factors than the 'fact' that the organizational behavior seems to be changing overall. Without being able to look at organizations from all different types of groups and cultures it is truly very difficult to say that organizational behavior overall is really that different. One must have a clear definition of what makes up an organization, what kind of behavior that organization had in the past, and then how it changed and why in order to really present a clear picture of the entire issue.
Rousseau, Denise M. 1997. Organizational behavior in the new organizational era. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 515-546.
organizational change by using Tesco plc as our organization of choice. The concept of change is explored from definition to effects that it has on an organization. Change resistance and the resulting conflict are also discussed. Finally, a recommendation of how to effect change is provided.,
Organization culture, a term that which refers to a collection of policies, values, beliefs as well as attitudes (Mullins,2010) is a very critical element of any organization. This term is roughly used to denote the rather universal as well as general context for all the things that we think and perform within a given organization. In this paper, I discuss the implications of culture change in Tesco plc in order to exemplify the concept of organization culture as the effects that it might have on the operations of the company. Ways of managing organization culture are also presented. The company is famous for its…
Armstrong, M. (2009) A handbook of human resource management practice.
London: Kogan Page.
Bass, B.M. (1985) Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectation. New York: The Free
organizations no matter what the industry benefit from management planning and strategy identification. The medical and healthcare industry in recent times has been attempting to streamline its operations and improve performance and productivity. or the purpose of this paper, the planning and management process of a medical center offering services for the most modern technology in medicine such as Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT) imaging, Positron emission Tomography (PET) is discussed. In this paper, this center will be referred to as "ABC Testing."
The operation is small and specialized. A marketing department is responsible for finding new customers and advertising the operation's services to doctors in the region. The quality of service provided is excellent. Patients with appointments are efficiently handled through the system. There is no undue wait-time forced on the patient. acilities and services are also streamlined and optimized to ensure that all patients are offered…
French, W.L. And Bell, C. (1999) Organization development: behavioral science interventions for organization improvement, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
HRGUIDE.com (2003) HR Guide to the Internet: Compensation: Outline and Definitions Accessed on October 3, 2004 from: http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G400.htm
Morgan, G. (1997) Images of organization, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, Calif.
Most significantly, too, the library runs a free service and a book mobile to reach those who are unable for various reasons (such as being handicapped, ill, or elderly) to use the library. The book mobile has its own selection of books, toys, and a teacher who is available to instruct those who desire instruction and those who need help with their homework.
The library's vision statement is that it seeks to help people pursue lifelong leaning and discovery, as well as enjoyment of popular culture and the arts. It also seeks to help residents become well informed, to engage each other in dialogue and respectful discourse, and to actively participate in the life of the community. All of this makes it an organization that disseminates learning in the fullest sense of the word.
In a practical way -- and as per its mission statement -- it does this by…
Brown, J.S. & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Towards a unified view of working, learning and innovation. Organization Science. 2(1): 40-57.
Cohen, W.M. & Levinthal, D.A. (2000). Absorptive Capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. In R. Cross and S. Israelit (eds) Strategic learning in the knowledge economy. (pp. 39-68) Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.
Comley, L., Arandez, L., Holden, S & Kuriata, E. (2000). Are TAFE organisations learning organisations? Do they 'walk the talk'? The Centre for Curriculum Innovation and Development. Melbourne: Victoria University
Cross, R. And Israelit, S. (2000) Strategic learning in the knowledge economy. Boston: Heinemann.
Despite the fact that the form and the presentation of these models varies, fact remains that their foundation is basically the same, revolving primarily around elements such as employee motivation and empowerment, alignment to emergent demands or continuous assessment of behavior and results. All these concepts and ideas are best put into practice -- meaning also that the company stands an increased chance of successfully implementing change, becoming more flexible and a responsive learning organization -- through the creation and implementation of a management for change.
Also referred to as management of change, the concept is generically understood as the "set of processes that is employed to ensure that significant changes are implemented in an orderly, controlled and systematic fashion to effect organizational change" (Tech-FAQ, 2009). The greatest challenge of the change management is that of overcoming the resistance to change. This is a natural reaction of the organizational staff…
Gelfand, B., 1988, The Creative Practitioner: Creative Theory and Method for the Helping Services, Routledge, ISBN 0866566597
Kotter, J.P., Cohen, D.S., 2002, The Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations, Harvard Business Press, ISBN 1578512549
Ward, M., 1995, Why Your Corporate Culture Change Isn't Working -- And What to Do About It, Gower Publishing Ltd., ISBN 0566077337
2009, What Is Change Management? Tech-FAQ, http://www.tech-faq.com/change-management.shtml last accessed on November 16, 2009
, 1999). Generally speaking, the results of this study showed that increased levels of diversity within the top leadership team had a negative impact on their ability to reach strategic consensus because of both direct and indirect effects (Knight et al., 1999).
These findings are not that surprising, of course, given that it is intuitive that as diversity within a top leadership team increases, so too will the range of views that will be brought to the management table for consideration. Despite these constraints to consensus building, there are some highly desirable outcomes that can be achieved using the strategic diversity management approach that make it worthy of consideration by organizations that are "stuck in a diversity rut."
Strategic diversity management can improve organizational effectiveness by facilitating communication between superiors, peers and subordinates. Although many organizations have recognized the importance and value of a diversified workforce, some have failed to…
Arnold, V.D. & Krapels, A.H. (1996, May/June). 'Motivation: a Reincarnation of Ideas.'
Industrial Management, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 8-10.
Davidson, M.J. & Fielden, S.L. (2003). Individual Diversity and Psychology in Organizations.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Evolution of RTI and Its Purpose
The response to intervention (RTI) initiative is a multi-tiered program that is designed to facilitate the early identification of students with special educational and behavioral needs (What is RTI?, 2016). The purpose of the RTI initiative is two-fold, with the first being the provision of high-quality educational services and the second being the screening of all young learners in general education classrooms (What is RTI?, 2016). The evolution of the RTI initiative was based on early experiences with differentiated instruction as an alternative to conventional practices. In this regard, Fisher and Frey (2010) report that, "In many schools, instruction and time are constant -- they do not vary on a student-by-student basis. RTI was designed as a way to encourage teachers to vary instruction and time to create a constant level of learning" (2010, p. 15). The RTI program also includes the key assumption…
Machine Metaphor in Organizations
The machine metaphor for an organization is one of two orthodox metaphors, the other being the organization as an organism (Morgan, 1980). The machine metaphor dates to the work of Fayol and Taylor, wherein the organization was understood as a series of parts, each with a specific, mechanistic role to play in the organization's success (Morgan, 1980). This metaphor not only included machines and fixed assets, but also viewed employees as tools in much the same way. They are to perform specific tasks as outlined by management, and would be measured in terms of their ability to perform these tasks accurately and quickly. The machine metaphor thus reduced labor to the role of a tool. Managers in this model seek to design their machine, by way of allocating resources to specific tasks at specific times, in order that the machine could optimize output. The machine metaphor…
Adamson, B., Dixon, M. & Toman, N. (2013). Dismantling the sales machine. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved July 25, 2015 from https://hbr.org/2013/11/dismantling-the-sales-machine
Baskin, K. (2000). Corporate DNA: Organizational learning, corporate co-evolution. Emergence. Vol. 2 (1) 34-49.
Koch, S. & Deetz S. (2009). Metaphor analysis of social reality in organizations. Journal of Applied Communications Research. Vol. 9 (1) 1-15.
Morgan, G. (1980). Paradigm metaphors and puzzle solving. Administrative Science Quarterly. Vol. 25 (4) 605.
A learning culture is an organizational practice, system and values that encourage and support individuals and organizations to increase performance levels, competence and knowledge. It promotes continuous support and improvement for an achievement of goals. Adjustment of current strategies can be done by adjusting to a trend, business model, capital model, launch strategy and making a great plan.
There are several ethical principles and professional standards of learning and cognition in the workplace. Some of them are; encouraging contact between faculty and student, developing cooperation between students, encouraging active learning and respecting adverse talents and learning techniques. Some implications that should be considered when working with others are; demonstrating respect at work, providing feedback with an impact, showing appreciation and overcoming fear of conflict.
WEEK 3 DISCUSSION
Memory Suppression in Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s diseases is chronic degenerative disease of the neurons. It causes about 60-70% of dementia cases. The…
XYZ Company is looking for several measures to promote its growth and profitability in a manner that aligns with its respective organizational goals. This process requires development of strategies for the company that helps in determining the direction it undertakes in its respective industry and market. The ability of this company to achieve its desired goals is dependent and affected by its capability to develop effective operational strategies. Without suitable and effective strategies, it will be relatively difficult for the company to achieve its goals. In essence, XYZ Company cannot achieve desired success and profitability without creating and implementing suitable strategies. The development of effective strategies for this company requires examining its various operational components including marketing, operations, laws, ethics, leadership, globalization, economics, and information systems.
Organizational strategy is defined as the sum of the activities or initiatives a company or business seeks to undertake in order to…
"Business-Level Strategy." (n.d.). Lecture 4. Retrieved from University at Albany -- State University of New York website: http://www.albany.edu/faculty/es8949/bmgt481/lecture4.html
"Corporate Strategy." (n.d.). Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness. Retrieved from Harvard Business School website: http://www.isc.hbs.edu/strategy/pages/corporate-strategy.aspx
Gutterman, A.S. (2011, November 7). Functional-Level Strategy. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://alangutterman.typepad.com/files/mdc_11.07.2011.pdf
Johnson, S. (n.d.). What is the Meaning of Organizational Strategy? Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/meaning-organizational-strategy-59427.html
Learning Organization is defined as an organization with an ingrained philosophy for anticipating, reacting and responding to change, complexity and uncertainty. It is an organization where you cannot not learned because learning is interwoven into the fabric of the day-to-day business. The concept of the Learning Organization is increasingly relevant given the increasing difficulty and uncertainty of the global business environment. Unfortunately, the Learning Organization has been a long time in coming, and by most accounts it has not yet arrived. The concept of a learning organization is a paradigm shift from the way business has traditionally been done.
One of the characteristics of a learning organization is that it moves beyond simple employee training to more of an environment that stresses problem solving, innovation, and learning. Organizations that embody the traits of such an environment consist of five areas, or disciplines, that make a learning organization what it is.…
Beller, J. (n.d). The Importance of Shifting to Learning Organizations. Retrieved January 20,2005, from the World Wide Web site: http://126.96.36.199/search/cache?p=%22five+disciplines+of+a+learning+organization%22& ei=UTF-8& fl=0& u=www.justinbeller.com/samples/the_importance_of_shifting_to_learning_organizations.pdf& w=%22five+disciplines+of+a+learning+organization%22& d=BCBF846FF1& icp=1& .international=us
Larsen, K. (1996). Learning Organizations. Retrieved January 21,2005, from the World Wide Web site: http://home.nycap.rr.com/klarsen/learnorg/index.html#tea
Nathans, H. (2000). Double Loop Learning (C. Argyris). Retrieved January 20,2005, from Hannah Nathans and Enneagram Web site:http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:vD2jeJuRGosJ:www.iac.wur.nl/iaclo/htmlarea/docs/msp/DoubleLoopLearning.doc+%22concept+of+double-loop+learning+%22& hl=en
Santos, A. (n.d). Peter M. Senge, "The Leader's New Work: Building Learning Organizations," in Sloan Management Review (Fall 1990), pp. 7-23. Retrieved January 21,2005, from Aldo Santos Web site: http://home.nycap.rr.com/klarsen/learnorg/senge2.html
Learning Organization: A New Paradigm in Business Management
Any company that is going to make it... (in the 21st century) has got to find a way to engage the mind of every single employee. If you're not thinking all the time about making every person more valuable, you don't have a chance. What's the alternative? Wasted minds? Uninvolved people? A labor force that's angry or bored? That doesn't make sense!"
John Welch, Jr.
In every companies annual report there is always a statement about how important human capital is when determining the overall success of any business. These organizations assert that their employees are a highly valued part of their companies and that their efforts and resources are focused on both employee satisfaction and continuous employee development. In some situations, these statements are true. But in some companies, they are only words strung together in a way that impresses potential…
Barker, Randolph T., et al. (1998). The role of communication in creating and maintaining a learning organization: preconditions, indicators, and disciplines. The Journal of Business Communication, 35.
Bradford, David L., et al. (1984). Managing For Excellence: The Guide to Developing High Performance in Contemporary Organizations. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Clardy, Alan (2002). Philosophy and Practice of Organizational Learning, Performance and Change. Personnel Psychology, 55.
Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Joel, et al. (1998). Knowledge-Driven Work: Unexpected Lessons from Japanese and United States Work Practices. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…
Ascher, W. (2000). Applying classic organization theory to sustainable resource & environmental management. Retrieved from http://law.duke.edu/news/papers/ascher.pdf
Boundless. (2014). Why Study Organizational Theory?. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-theory-3/why-study-organizational-theory-28/why-study-organizational-theory-163-7564/
Cohen, D, & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company. How social capital makes organizations work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Conner, D. (1990). The changing nation: Strategies for citizen action (Handout materials). Atlanta: ODR, Inc.ent document.
Organizational Learning Techniques
New Skills and Software for HR Managers
Because the market for -- and development of -- HR technology is expanding rapidly, it is clear that companies have access to new and very effective software that can help HR directors manage their varied duties. Indeed it is a changing world for HR managers and directors. In Forbes, contributor Josh Bersin explains that "... we are seeing one of the most innovative times ever in the HR technology market" (Bersin, 2014). It used to be that HR software kept track of payroll, stored employee data, managed performance reviews, helped train administration and attendance issues, Bersin recalls. But today HR software systems are used by employees and the recruitment systems operate on mobile phones; a person can apply for a job without a resume, and do an interview over the smartphone video camera (Bersin, 3).
And for the HR director,…
Dubois, D., Rothwell, W. (2004). Competency-Based or a Traditional Approach to Training? A New Look at ISD Models and an Answer to the Question, What's the Best Approach? Questia. Retrieved April 9, 2016, from https://www.questia.com .
Kolodner, J.L. (1991). Improving Human Decision Making through Case-Based Decision
Aiding. AI Magazine, 12(2), 52-67.
Malathi.N (2006). Competency Models. Slideshare. Retrieved April 9, 2016, from http://www.slideshare.net .
Employee Training and Development
Peter Senge and learning organizations:
How feasible is the creation of a 'learning organization' for businesses?
First published in 1990, Peter Senge's concept of a 'learning organization' has become increasingly important in the modern business world, although achieving this ideal can be challenging. Senge defines such organizations as entities in which "people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together" (Senge 1990: 3, cited by Smith 2001). The whole is greater than the sum of its parts and 'learns' to be adaptive to market forces, even while all individuals strive to achieve their potential. Although this sounds quite idealistic, a number of organizations are putting such ideals into practice.
A good example of a learning…
11 amazing things that Google employees can learn for free. (2014). Business Insider.
Retrieved from: http://www.businessinsider.com/google-11-amazing-classes-that-google-employees-can-take-2012-3?op=1#ixzz3Ri0107eA
Cropper, B. (2014). Five learning disciplines. The Change Forum. Retrieved from:
ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation
Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.
Similarly, empirical evidence…
Eisenbeiβ, S.A., & Boerner, S. (2010). Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 364-372.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, And Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Hu, H., Gu, Q., & Chen, J. (2013). How and when does transformational leadership affect organizational creativity and innovation?: Critical review and future directions. Nankai Business Review International, 4(2), 147-166.
Liao, S., & Wu, C. (2010). System perspective of knowledge management, organizational learning, and organizational innovation. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(2), 1096-1103.
Systems Model of Organizations Perspective
Analyzing an organization as a system can help understand how the organization is interconnected along a variety of different factors. These factors can include everything from the technology infrastructure to the organizational culture and the behaviors of individual employees. For example, an organization that has a learning culture can overcome any obstacles or organizational changes more quickly than more rigid structures. This analysis will briefly outline some of the implications for using a systems approach by discussing three factors that are present in an organization and how they may affect other parts of the organizational "system."
Organizational culture can be a difficult concept to define because it can be highly subjective in nature. Each organization develops a culture in which employees and stakeholders create a set of shared values and norms. The organizational culture can be guided by the organization's leadership…
Organizational Issues from the Responsibility Project (Liberty Mutual)
The video chosen from the Responsibility Project was "omen in the orld: Erin Ganju." Her story is meaningful for a number of reasons that will be reviewed in this paper. Ganju is the CEO of "Room to Read," an organization that seeks to help educate children (through reading and other skills) in order that today's children can grow up with the power to change the world for the better.
omen in the orld: Erin Ganju -- hat are the Important Issues? Ganju begins her video by explaining how "passionate" her parents were -- when she was just a child -- about sharing information with her regarding different cultures. A sense of "wanderlust" was "instilled" in her, Ganju explains. Importantly, Ganju's parents not only took their daughter to many interesting places, but the family read about each place they visited, encouraging both reading…
Deen, Thalif. (2011). UNESCO reveals huge secondary education gap worldwide. One World
South Asia. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://southasia.oneworld.net.
Foster, Wayne A., and Miller, Merideth. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A
Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Through Third Grade. Language, Speech, and Hearing
OGANIZATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AT WOK: TECHNOLOGY & ETHICS
Digital and information technology allows for new opportunities for education, including at the professional level. More and more, human resources use technology to assist in the modification and development of company culture. 21st century organizational leadership can be characterized by the realization that a clearly defined and strongly present organizational culture is key to success. Some of the most successful organizations are ones wherein their culture is adaptable and flexible. These same companies understand the importance and value of smooth transition and effective implementation of organizational change as well as promotion of organizational culture. Human esources is a department that is integral in the development and sustainment of the organizational culture. Human esources is additionally a depart that can facilitate organizational change(s). Human esources professionals should take the time to educate themselves and learn the ways in which technology can supplement…
Dewett, T., & Jones, G.R. (2001) The role of information technology in the organization: a review, model, and assessment. Journal of Management, 27, 313 -- 346.
Heracleous, L., & Barrett, M. (2001) Organizational Change as Discourse: Communicative Actions and Deep Structures in the Context of Information Technology Implementation. The Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 755 -- 778.
Jin, K.G. (2007) Information Technology Professionals' Perceived Organizational Values and Managerial Ethics: An Empirical Study. Journal of Business Ethics, 71(2), 149 -- 159.
Joe Salatino (evision)
Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern American case study
Joe Salatino is known as the Northern American President due to his determination and effort in maintaining high standards, in regards to his profession as a sales person. Joe was capable of hiring many employees in his organization, and used motivation as the major tool in helping his employees. The employees specialized in supplying general stationery and other appliances, to realize their objectives of maximizing production.
Attribution and Perception
Customers, according to Joe, are normal human beings. Human being has always been anxious and observant with the manner in which others behave, and relate it to how they behave themselves. There has always been a persistent urge to know differentiated reasons behind certain behavioral characteristics. If the attribution theory is used, it guides to explain how to get to know the causes of behavior,…
Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2007) Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning.
Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, April). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved April 29th, 2012 from http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html .
Lunenburg, F.C. (2011). Self-Efficacy in the Workplace. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 2 ISSN 1047-7039.
Nelson, D.L. & Campbell, Q.J. (2007) Understanding Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
50(10), 1843-1860, Review 62: 555-67.
Armenakis, Achilles A ., and Arthur G .Bedeian .1999 .Organizational Change: A Review of Associates.
Terminology and Concepts
American companies have suffered in recent years. In their efforts to reduce cost, restructuring and downsizing have affected almost every organization either directly or indirectly. These attempts to 'right the ship' so to speak will cause problems for these organizations in the terms of their ability to perform in the long-term. Organizational behavior has been cast aside in too many areas which entails that these companies have shown poor leadership by trying to capitalize on technological breakthroughs as opposed to building the human resource aspects of their businesses. This paper is a summary of some organizational behavior concepts and terminologies that are affected by the quest for profits. Through readings, articles, and my personal experiences, I have summarized what I feel can be construed as organizational behavior, culture, diversity, communication, effectiveness, efficiency and learning. I have been blessed by the fact that I hold a…
There are also lessons on geography, history, and botany. Physical activities such as dancing, cheerleading, skydiving, and parasailing are offered as well. This holistic personal development program is consistent with O'Connell Consolidated's objective of providing education to the youth, regardless of their socio-economic level and financial capability to provide for their education.
The Community Education program is just one example of how the high school fuses education with its Catholic principles and tradition. Education is considered not only as attaining knowledge, but to apply this knowledge into good works and actions. A student who excels in a particular subject is encouraged not just to remain consistent with his/her performance, but also to help out his/her classmates who may be experiencing difficulty in the said course. This way, the student learns to develop a personality that not only derived from his/her academic performance, but on character development as well. Learning, in…
Kreitner, R. And A. Kinicki. (1995). Organizational Behavior. (3rd ed.). Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
O'Connell Consolidated High School web site: http://www.ochsgalv.com.
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
Organizational Strategic Plan eview
The plan currently under review is that of the uth K. Broad Bay Harbor K-8 Center and its implemented Florida Differentiated Accountability Program developed and put into use during the 2009-2010 school-year in hopes of improving the school's functioning and overall mission. The school at hand has consistently sought to discover and identify the individual strengths of each child in its facility in order to promote enthusiasm and the desire to learn, and to assist students in achieving academic success. The mission of the school, and its implemented plans, aim to provide a secure, innovative, and challenging environment that affords academic achievement and a technologically-rich program for students in order for them to develop a strong, firm foundation from which to succeed and meet the challenges of the 21st century. The plan at hand sets in motion distinct goals for teacher involvement, parental involvement, and for…
Fege, A. (2000). From fund raising to hell raising: new roles for parents. Educational Leadership, 57.7: pp. 39-43. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Databse. Accessed on 23 November 2011.
Florida Department of Education. (2011). Florida elementary school rankings: 2010-
2011. National Center for Education Statistics, 2011.1: pp. 1-9. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis. Accessed on 23 November 2011.
Greenlee, B. (2009). When school advisory councils decide: spending choices for school improvement. Planning and Changing, 38.3-4: pp. 222-251. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database. Accessed on 23 November 2011.
Strategic Management of Human esources
Human resource is considered as the most precious asset for business organizations. The financial performance and growth in the industry heavily depends upon the way an organization's employees perform at the workplace (Edwards 2003). A dedicated and committed workforce contributes towards a high level of operational excellence and market competitiveness. Therefore, it should be among the top priorities for an organization to manage its human resource in an effective and efficient way (ose 2004).
Strategic Human esource Management deals with formulating policies and procedures for getting the best work from employees, implementing different techniques to motivate them, and assessing the future human resource requirements at the workplace (Saxena 2009). This paper explains the strategic human resource management policies of one of the World's Top software companies -- Adobe Systems Incorporated. These policies are required to meet the current human resource requirements of the…
Ashamalla, M., H., 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 54-63
Adobe, 2012, Adobe Fast Facts 2011, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Commitment to Employees, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Professional Development, Available from [Accessed January 24th, 2012]
The Walt Disney
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
An organization is any social entity that has a well-designed structure to coordinate its functions, and the organization has to have a specific goal. Most organizations hardly work internally alone, but rather involve the external environments. Some organizations are profit oriented, like the business organizations, while others are non-profit making (Daft et al. 2010). In this context, a contemporary focus is overlooked towards the Walt Disney Company, a profound firm dealing with mass media and affiliated industrial operations.
Brief Company Profile
Walt Disney Company was founded in 1923, and has always kept the reputation in providing quality and extremely creative products, which consumers have loved ever since. The organization specializes in providing quality entertainment, services of media communication, broadcasting, television programs and live performances. The company, which is located in California (United States), exemplifies exponential characteristics that…
Barry, L. (2009) Think Like an Iconoclast: The Principles Of Walt Disney's Success: Rotman Magazine, Pg 108-110.
Daft, R.L., Murphy, J. & Willmott, H. (2010) organization Theory and Design: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Forester, M. (2002) Table-Talk Perspective: Chain Store Age, 10870601, Vol.78, Issue 11.
Gershon, R.A. (1996) The Transnational Media Corporation: Global Messages and Free market Competition: New York, Routledge.
The relevance of understanding group behavior as well as group properties cannot be overstated. This is more so the case for those keen on becoming effective managers and/or members of various groups. Managers who happen to be familiar with group behavior within organizations are more likely to fast track the accomplishment of the various goals and objectives of their respective organizations by amongst other things using groups more effectively.
Nature of Groups and Group Behavior within Organizations
A group according to Griffin and Moorhead (2011, p.240) "is two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person." It is however important to note that apart from this definition, several other definitions of a group have been proposed by various authors.
Types of Groups
In basic terms, groups can be divided into two. On one hand…
Griffin, R.W. And Moorhead, G. 2011. Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hellriegel, D. And Slocum, J.W. 2007. Organizational Behavior. 11th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Martin, J. 2005. Organizational Behavior and Management. 3rd ed. Bedford Row, London: Thomson Learning.
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
Human esource Management Practices
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
HUMAN ESOUCE Management
Human esource Management involves all those activities which are related to the management of workforce or employees of an organization. It is also one of the core functions which managers perform at the workplace. Human esource Management entails activities like recruitment and selection, training and development, performance assessment, compensation, leadership, and motivation at large (Chadwick & Dabu 2009). Basically, Human esource Management focuses on recruitment, management, guidance, and motivation of employees in an organization. In the past, HM was just restricted to two core functions: employee management and motivation. Now, it has emerged as one of the biggest strategic issues in the business world (Kandula 2007).
With the passage of time, the scope and functions of Human esource Management have also increased. Now, it also involves employee…
Armstrong, M. 2007, A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition. London: Kogan Page
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813-816.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. 2008, The Impact of Human Resource and Operational Management Practices on Company Productivity: A Longitudinal Study, Personnel Psychology, 61 (1): 467-501.
Browning, V., Edgar, F., Gray, B., & Garrett, T. 2009, Realizing Competitive Advantage through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries, The Service Industries Journal, 29 (6): 741-760.
Organizational Cultures: Annotated Bibliography and Summary
Aronson, Z. And Patanakul, P. 2012. "Managing a group of multiple projects: do culture and leader's competencies matter?" Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 3(2): pp.
Web. etrieved from: LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 21 May
This article focuses significantly on how team culture within an organization is a pivotal factor that contributes to a team being able to successfully complete a project. A focus is made on the role of the project manager to not only introduce a team to a project, but hone the group's culture in terms of knowledge, communication, and teamwork in order to maximize the team's effectiveness, which is a method that can be utilized in any working environment.
Heeroma, D., Melissen, F., Stierand, M. 2012. "The problem of addressing culture in workplace strategies. Facilities, 30(7-8): pp. 269-277. Web. etrieved from:
LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 21 May
Tatum, M. 2012. "What is corporate culture." Wise Geek. Web. Retrieved from:
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-corporate-culture.htm . [Accessed on 21 May
This means training that is focused on increasing the knowledge economy of the transforming firm rather than in simply standardizing processes. According to the text by Chapman (2009), this may even call for a change in the linguistic approach to this process. Chapman advises that "training implies putting skills into people, when actually we should be developing people from the inside out, beyond skills, ie., facilitating learning. So focus on facilitating learning, not imposing training." (Chapman, p. 1) It is conceivable that an appeal to this approach might have spared much of the uncertainty that permeated Cutting Edge Paper during and after the changeover in ownership.
Another recommendation is for the opening of dialogue during the process of transformation so that leadership can become more attuned to the needs of personnel. It is conceivable that during this transformation and Cutting Edge Paper, some ambiguity might have been reduced if leadership…
Chapman, A. (2009). Organizational Change, Training and Learning. BusinessBalls.com.
Corley, K.G. & Gioia, D.A. (2004). Identity Ambiguity and Change in the Wake of a Corporate Spin-off. Administrative Science Quarterly, 49(2).
Eisenberg, E.M. (1984). Ambiguity as Strategy in Organizational Communication. Communication Monographs, 51, 227-242.
Eustis, J. & McMillan, G. (1997). Technology Initiatives and Organizational Changge: Higher Education in a Networked World. CAUSE '97.