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And what about jobs, housing, and health care for all these people?" (Global Warming Is eally Happening).
One of fundamental causes of this situation is the growth of technology. The Industrial evolution not only created new forms of labor and industry but also led to an increase in the urban population. "There is a link between technology, overpopulation and the decline in the environment leads to increases in CO2 levels follows growth in population" (the EFFECTS of GLOBAL WAMING).
The following graph outlines some that ways that increased population and consumption impacts on the environment.
Figure 4. The following diagram illustrates the increase in CO2 emission over time.
It should also be emphasized that overpopulation plays a very important role in global warming. And that global warming is "not just an environmental term... But it is a catastrophic shift in the ecological balance that took the…
Blanchard K. (2006) Population growth threatens East Asian coasts. Retrieved January 3, 2008, at http://www.int.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=14&click_id=143&art_id=qw1160982361722B251
De Angelis M. (1997) MODELS of POLITICAL ECONOMY. Retrieved January 3, 2008 at http://homepages.uel.ac.uk/M.DeAngelis/213ln4.htm
Ehrlich P. And Ehrlich a. The POPULATION EXPLOSION. Retrieved January 3, 2008 at http://dieoff.org/page27.htm
Gimenez Martha E. The POPULATION ISSUE: MARX vs. MALTHUS.
Overpopulation Philos Identity Freedom
Overpopulation is a consistent and pervasive problem in the world today. There is no doubt that if one looks at the available data and even a great deal of public opinion that overpopulation may be the greatest problem for humanity and the earth to date as the expansion of the human population has become exponential and is increasing in intensity in numbers never before seen.
Since 1950, the global population has swelled almost threefold. The current population of almost seven billion is forecast to rise to more than nine billion by 2050. This is increasing demands on the finite resources of our planet, reducing our ability to bring people out of poverty and causing climate-warming increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, a decline in biodiversity and conflict for resources (John, 2011, p. 18)
Yet, from a philosophical standpoint associated with identity and freedom there is…
Arsenault, C. (2011, October 30). Are we facing a crisis of overpopulation?. Al Jazeera (Qatar).
John, S. (2011). Overpopulation is too big a problem to ignore. Times, The (United Kingdom), 18.
Nicholas, E. (2011, May). 5 Myths about global population. Washington Post, The.
The outcome of the future of Israel is important for reasons that go beyond the region's religious politics. If the world stands aside and allows the annihilation of the State of Israel, then what nation, for what reason, would be next? Right now, Iran is perfecting its capability for nuclear armament; North Korea has recently demonstrated its ability for nuclear defense, or offense. China, the nation with the fastest growing population and perhaps the fastest decreasing resources has nuclear capability; and the future of the world is precarious at best. e can hope for the best, but:
e learn from Ecclesiastes (34:1) that "Vain hopes delude the senseless, and dreams give wings to a fool's fancy." Israel's strategic future is fraught with existential risk and danger; it is essential, therefore, that friends of Israel now approach this future with utter realism and candor. A nuclear war against the Jewish State…
In a study of 50 failed states and political structures, the authors found that in nearly every case (47 of the 50) there was a direct link between out of control population growth and the depletion of specific resources that allow both the country's government and economy the means to create a stable society (Levin, and enelt, 1992, pp. 954). Overpopulation was but one of a set of variables that often lead to political instability.
Countries like India had to evolve economically in order to survive politically. If the population of India were to grow without sufficient educational and political structure to help guide the development of a more complex economy, the masses of unskilled workers and unemployed people would overrun the nation's political system in an effort to secure the vast amounts of capital and resources necessary to sustain the overpopulated state (Shrivastave, 1992, pp. 2035). Without a doubt,…
Alesina, Alberto; Ozler, Sule; Roubini, Nouriel; and Swagel, Phillip. (1996) "Political Instability and Economic Growth." Journal of Economic Growth, 1: 189-211, June 1996.
Barro, Robert J. (1991) "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries." The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 4: 114-122, May 1991.
Hartmann, Betsy. (1999). Reproductive Rights and Wrongs: The Global Politics of Population Control. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.
Levin, Ross and Renelt, David. (1992). "A Sensitivity Analysis of Cross-Country Growth Regressions." The American Economic Review, Vol 82, 4: 942-966, September 1992.
If China can do it, other countries can build up their food supplies as well, but they may need help from the United States when they implement projects.
Another area of food supply that is suffering from the Earth's growth in population is fishing. Another writer notes, "Since the past several decades have seen tremendous growth in the urban populations of poor countries with traditional fish diets, along with income growth in these populations,' he says, 'it is no surprise that fish consumption has exploded'" (Tibbetts). Fish consumption is up, but the world is overfishing the oceans, and many types of fish are endangered or have disappeared entirely. Tibbetts continues, "Today, about 47% of commercial fish stocks worldwide are considered fully exploited, or fished at or near their maximum sustainable limits, according to the State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2002" (Tibbetts). The United States has put fishing limits on…
Carswell, Grace. "Farmers and Fallowing: Agricultural Change in Kigezi District, Uganda." The Geographical Journal 168.2 (2002): 130+.
Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Gonzalez-Pelaez, Ana. Human Rights and World Trade: Hunger in International Society. London: Routledge, 2005.
Gosine, Andil. "Dying Planet, Deadly People: "Race"-Sex Anxieties and Alternative Globalizations." Social Justice 32.4 (2005): 69+.
The worldview that supports long-term solutions to the food crisis is a sensible one because it focuses on the underlying causes rather than the symptoms. Overpopulation is at least in part due to poverty and political disenfranchisement, especially the subjugation of women worldwide. Jimeno (2005) notes that the ability of women to choose whether or not to have children may be the single most important factor in reducing population growth. Overpopulation causes more problems than just food shortages. The greater the population, the greater the consumption of resources in general will be. "Population growth creates problems beyond the impacts of excess consumption.," (Hanauer 1998). Therefore, reducing population is far more important than increasing food production.
Hanauer, M.G. (1998). Overpopulation and consumption: where we should focus. Minnesotans for Sustainability. etrieved Nov 10, 2009 from http://www.mnforsustain.org/pop_overpopulation_consumption_technology_hanauer.htm
Jimeno, J.F. (2005). Population growth drops when women are free to choose. Philippine Center for…
Hanauer, M.G. (1998). Overpopulation and consumption: where we should focus. Minnesotans for Sustainability. Retrieved Nov 10, 2009 from http://www.mnforsustain.org/pop_overpopulation_consumption_technology_hanauer.htm
Jimeno, J.F. (2005). Population growth drops when women are free to choose. Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. Retrieved Nov 10, 2009 from http://www.pcij.org/stories/2005/pills2.html
Philosophical Perspective of Overpopulation
Philosophy - Overpopulation
A Philosophical Perspective on Overpopulation
Author's collegiate affiliation, contact information, more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
We are in a globalized world because of digital technology and especially the Internet. The markets are globalized. People travel more internationally. It is possible to communicate internationally/overseas very easily because of email, social networks like Facebook and Twitter, blogs, and video chatting features such as Skype or video chat through Google and Apple. As we are a more globalized world, we are able to be more aware of global issues, of issues that do not concern us domestically. Not only is access to resources and issue for many citizens of Earth, but also quality of resources. The world is very much aware of how many people are on our planet and that those people need things such as food, clean water, shelter, and other basic human…
Policy Dealing With Overpopulation and Air Pollution
London has similarities to New York in that it too is an overpopulated location with a high density of air pollution -- or rather it had a high density of air pollution, until Britain implemented policies that dealt with that situation. One of the policies that Britain implemented was the Environment Act 1995, which covers England, Scotland, and Wales and requires all local authorities to review and assess air quality in their area. Under that policy, the National Air Quality Strategy for those same counties stipulates conditions for reducing levels of health-threatening pollutants. These include benzene,1,3-butadiene, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, particles, sulphur dioxide, ground level ozone, and PAH.
Present day New York City is over populated, contributed by immigrants who search for job opportunities, tourists, and students entering prestigious schools. Cities of the United States show that from 1998 to 2000, there…
Causes of overpopulation in developing countires.
Overpopulation of the human race is an important issue for many developing countries, as well as the rest of the world. While some groups will argue that there is no such thing as overpopulation as such because there is no way for humans to become so numerous that they cannot compensate with intelligence and relocation. However, most well informed individuals agree that there is in fact a problem with the growing population of the human race. There are many factors that have led to people overpopulating in developing countries and elsewhere in the world, and statistical analysis reveals the patterns of growth that created today's population situation and where population is expected to go in years to come. The overpopulation of people in all areas of the world leads to negative consequences for the environment and people; there are specific consequences for people living…
Barlett, A. (1998) Is there a population problem? Wild Earth (A journal for creatures who care about their habitat), 7.3. Fall. 88-90.
Hanauer, M. (1998) Overpopulation and overconsumption: where should we focus. NPG. Retrieved September 30, 2004 from http://www.npg.org/forum_series/overpop& ; overconsume.htm.
National Geographic Society (NGS). (2001) Overpopulation. Human impact. Retrieved September 30, 2004 from http://www.nationalgeographic.com/eye/overpopulation/effect.html.
PAI. (2003) Factsheets, resources. Population Action International. Retrieved September 30, 2004 from http://www.populationaction.org/resources/factsheets .
First, adopting a pet from a shelter or rescue means that an animal that would have been euthanized has been saved from that fate. However, choosing to adopt rather than shop has additional benefits. Many, if not most, of the animals that are bred to be sold as purebreds or hybrids on the companion animal market are bred by disreputable breeders. In addition to the squalid living conditions for mothers in these puppy or kitten mills, these breeders engage in behavior that directly contribute to homelessness in pets. These practices include: dumping dogs or cats that have not been sold at shelters or on roadways, dumping animals that do not meet breed standards, and dumping female dogs who have outlived their fertility. Furthermore, the conditions under which many of these animals are bred and raised undermines the lifelong health and temperament of the animals, which can result in health and…
San Antonio Area Foundation. "Becoming a No-Kill Community: The Importance of Spay/Neuter." SAAFDN, 2013. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.
Avoiding Overpopulation in the U.S.
The United States has managed to achieve a stable reproductive rate. That is, as of 1999, our fertility rate is 2.0, meaning that for each two adults we are having two children. (Carter, 1999) This has no doubt been accomplished because we have learned about how to apply population control within our families. However, it does not mean the United States will never have any problems with population growth in the future. The fertility rate doesn't take immigration into consideration or the fact that many people are living many more years than they used to. It makes sense, then, to continue to concern ourselves about population growth.
The Planned Parenthood Federation has worked for many decades to make birth control available for all who want it. Their mission statement says:
Planned Parenthood believes in the fundamental right of each individual... To manage his or her…
Carter, Tom. March 22, 1999. "To Birth, or Not to Birth?" Insight on the News.
Koshar, Jeanette H. 09-01-2001. "Teen Pregnancy 2001-Still No Easy Answers." Pediatric Nursing, 27(5): 505-512,
Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) "Mission Statement. http://www.plannedparenthood.org/
Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) "Fact Sheet: Pregnancy & Childbearing Among U.S. Teens."
Omole-Ohonsi, (2007) in his study of sub-Saharan Africa confirmed these affects by suggesting that overpopulation of a locality not only damages the environment and sustainability but "feeds the cycle of poverty" (20). Thus, from non-renewable resources to social problems, the effects of overpopulation are large and far-reaching, encouraging a cycle of environmental destruction and poverty.
Ways to Achieve Sustainability
As previously mentioned, overpopulation is a difficult problem to solve because it deals directly with personal rights, beliefs, religions, and attitudes. egardless, many potential solutions have been discussed and implemented on a local level. Omole-Ohonsi (2007) suggested a government agency to enforce family planning policies, in addition to restructuring attitudes about these policies and overpopulation (22). Warner (2004), however presents the opposite side of the argument by insisting that problems occur in some state mandated family planning programs. While it is true that mandated family planning may work in certain situations,…
Khounsary, Ali. (nd). Overpopulation Reasons. Retrieved November 15, 2008, at http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/gen99/gen99814.htm
Negative Population Growth. (2008). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved November 15, 2008 at http://www.npg.org/faq.html
Omole-Ohonsi, a. (2007). Family Planning-Solution to Africa's Socioeconomic
Problems. Journal of Medicine and Rehabilitations. Maiden Edition, 20-22.
Overpopulation is one of the biggest threats to the planet and to humanity. In poor nations where food rations are sparse, too many people can cause famines. Overpopulation contributes to environmental problems, health problems, and economical problems. However, overpopulation is a difficult crisis to deal with because the right to reproduce is ingrained in the human psyche. It would be unethical to invasively force sterilization on women or men. On the other hand, it is equally unethical to give up and do nothing. The recent discovery of the five-year birth control pill solves a slew of problems. First, it provides a contraceptive that is more reliable than condoms or the standard pill, for there is no room for human error. The pill is only taken once and the woman is protected for five years. Second, it offers a non-invasive method of contraception that can squelch the population growth on the…
More importantly, Sen argues that the collaborative approach would be a more successful route to reducing population growth. Among the ideas mentioned by Sen would be incorporating better public education to promote genuine understanding of problems and the reasons why changing certain behavior would be appropriate. In general, Sen expresses the confidence that Hardin lacks that many people could be taught long-range morality the same way many people already learn or absorb short-range morality. In that regard, it is simply not the case that most people behave appropriately toward others only because they fear the legal consequences of doing otherwise. Sen also implies that government could still play a role in encouraging the choice to have smaller families but in positive rather than negative ways. For example, federal and state agencies could provide monetary rewards for single-child families such as in the form of subsidized education, or childcare, or college…
Malthus and Overpopulation
Malthus was correct in a limited context regarding population. In some parts of the world, cities -- such as Dhaka, Hong Kong, and Mumbai -- are very densely populated and may be considered overpopulated given the square footage per person ratios (Smith). They are overcrowded and individuals are packed into these cities in much the same way sardines are packed into tins. In these regions, Malthus's assertion, that population increases geometrically while food supply increases arithmetically, can be discerned as evidently true based on the configurations of the people in the region. However, when one looks at whole countries, such as Germany, Japan, or even the U.S., one can see a decline in population that Kotkin calls a "death spiral" -- i.e., in that long-term low birth-rates are causing populations to dwindle.
The issue here is that Malthus never saw the expansion of birth control to the…
Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).
The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…
Banghan, H.; Johnson, K.; Liyao, W. 1998. "Infant Abandonment in China." Population and Development Review, 24(3):469
Greenhalgh, S. (2003). "Science, modernity and the making of China's one-child policy." Population and Development Review, 29(2):163
Hall, E. (1987). "China's only child: This strict policy is controlling China's population problem, but will only children make unwilling socialists." Psychology Today,
Johnson, D. Gale. 1994. "Effects of institutions and policies on rural population growth with application to China. Population and Development Review 20 (3): 503-531.
The Breath of Life
Throughout scripture the concept of breath represents life. Genesis 2:7
It is evident that we need to breathe to live and that without our respiratory system, we would die. But why is this? Can we know why other than to say that this is how our Creator designed us to be? Perhaps an understanding of our own respiratory system can help us to better understand our Creator? I think so.
What do we find in our nose? A kind of filter that keeps out of our lungs harmful particles and spores that would otherwise pollute them. This can be a symbol of how we should filter our minds of impure thoughts so as to keep our souls clean. It can also be a symbol of how important God's grace is in our souls -- it is to our souls as oxygen is to our bodies.…
South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Sheen, F. (1951). Three to Get Married. Princeton, NJ: Scepter Publishers.
Holy Bible, New Living Translation. (2004). IL: Tyndale House Publishers.
Tragedy of the Commons
Few people would deny that overpopulation is a major problem. Even sparsely populated nations feel the brunt of the overpopulation problem because overpopulation affects the environment, politics, and the global market economy. The world currently holds six billion plus individual human beings, an unprecedented number. Rainforests are being cut down and soil depleted of their natural nutritive qualities in an attempt to please human appetites and keep the population happy. In his essay "The Tragedy of the Commons," author Garrett Hardin suggests that the only way to stop the overpopulation problem from getting worse is to stop unlimited human breeding. Unfortunately, the United Nations has taken a laissez faire stance that leaves the option to breed with each family. Hardin points out that this position is self-serving and outright stupid. So far, China has been one of the only nations in the world to institute some…
("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1970s-1980s").
President Regan's successor, President George H.. Bush, continued to adhere to the Mexico City Policy. In 1993, it was rescinded by President Clinton. President George . Bush reinstated the policy in 2001 by establishing conditions in the grants awarded to USAID. In addition, President George . Bush extended the policy to apply to any "voluntary population planning" assistance provided by the Department of State. (Obama).
Progress in family planning policy was made in other areas. The federal government recognized that special attention in providing family planning counseling should be paid to countries where overpopulation threatened biodiversity or endangered species. ("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1990s-2009").
In addition, the federal government, especially USAID, worked to use family planning policy to promote the awareness of HIV disease and to promote health practices that would restrict the spread of such diseases. In 2003, USAID established new guidelines…
Clinton Hillary. Foreign Policy Address at the Council on Foreign Relations, May 5, 2009. U.S. Department of State. Web. May 24, 2010.
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
Jones K.A. "New Complexities and Approaches to Global Health Diplomacy: View from the U.S. Department of State." PLoS Med 7(5). Web. May 24, 2010
Obama, Barack. "Memorandum to the Secretary of State: Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning," January 23, 2009. Web. May 24, 2010.
Tragedy of the Commons
In Garrett Hardin's essay "Tragedy of the Commons," the author presents a radical solution to the overpopulation problem. The title of the essay refers to a scenario presented by a mathematician in 1833. In the scenario, a communal pasture is enjoyed by several herdsmen in a given area. Everything is fine until "social stability" is achieved (2). When that happens, each herdsman feels entitled, even obliged, to "maximize his gain," (3). All the other herdsmen do the same thing and before long the pasture becomes overgrazed. Therefore, human self-serving instincts do not necessarily benefit the collective, and in many cases such as this, self-serving leads to collective destruction. Hardin calls this collective destruction the "tragedy of the commons." Hardin then applies the metaphor of the pasture to other tragedies of the commons, ultimately focusing on the overpopulation problem. According to Hardin, overpopulation can be stopped through…
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
A found this article particularly shocking for the immense figures suggested by the number of babies born daily. Such statistics opened my eyes to the core of the problem. Not only are we destroying the planet through our overindulgent, selfish and unsustainable habits, but also by the sheer number of us doing the same thing. No wonder studies such as the one in the first article found very little positive change in the environment around us. It is, as Connor says, time to raise our heads from the sand and face the core of our environmental problems. From the basis of sustainable population numbers, we can then create sustainable energy sources.
Business Wire. "Stratospheric Ozone Study Indicates: More is Needed for Full ecovery eport eleased on the UN International Day to Protect the Ozone Layer." Sept. 15, 2003. Database: FindArticles.com. UL:
Connor, Steve. "Overpopulation is 'main threat to…
Business Wire. "Stratospheric Ozone Study Indicates: More is Needed for Full Recovery Report Released on the UN International Day to Protect the Ozone Layer." Sept. 15, 2003. Database: FindArticles.com. URL:
Connor, Steve. "Overpopulation is 'main threat to planet'." The Independent (London). Jan 7, 2006. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060107/ai_n15994712
Forliti, Amy. "Conservation efforts fuel school rivalries." The Associated Press. June 9, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/09/AR2006060900417.html
But when the village is being rebuilt, consensus is not easy (Kurup)." This is a pointed criticism of using a U.S. model where the financial sector is doing well (the speculative economy) as opposed to the "real" economy on the street. Dr. Kurup feels that the infrastructural problems that have dogged India for years need to be solved as well so the recovery is even and across the board. He further remarked in the article that "You have to see the context. Just because we were not affected by the crisis, it does not imply we are safe. One has to look at what is the purpose behind the changes. There is a perception if you develop the bond market, infrastructure will develop. Infrastructure will not develop if the bond market alone is developed. In fact, no country in the world, except for partly the U.S., developed infrastructure through the…
Globalization in India." Economy Watch. Economy Watch.com, n.d. Web. 21 Nov 2010.
Comparison Studies." I Watch. Wake Up Call for India, 2010. Web. 22 Nov 2010.
Varied Perspectives on Non-Surgical Sterilization Methods:
There have been varied perspectives on the use of non-surgical sterilization of the dog since these products do not entirely solve the problem of the overpopulation of dogs and cats. Additionally, the varied perspectives and arguments on the use of these methods have also been due to the fact that some people don't care since they want to breed their animals. Given that there is no secure and effective non-surgical sterilization method of the dog that has been identified and announced, the varied perspectives have continued to increase. However, there have been various approaches to identify non-surgical products though none of the products have shown tremendous results to be widely adopted and implemented (Bowen, 2006).
One of the major perspectives has been against the non-surgical sterilization of the dog since the methods that have been explored have not only been ineffective but have also…
Bowen, R. (2006, April 25). Nonsurgical Sterilization of Dogs and Cats. Retrieved Colorado
State University website: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/petpop/nonsurg.html
Singer, J. (2010, January 13). Non-Surgical Pet Population Control: A Godsend or Nightmare.
Retrieved November 16, 2010, from http://www.petside.com/petsideblog/2010/01/non-surgical-pet-population-co.php
John Kellys "the great mortality"
The bacillus Yesinia Pestis made two continents pay intolerably high life prices both in human and animal lives. Along a few decades in the first half of the thirteenth century, it engulfed Eurasia and kept the world under its terror, making many think its end was near (The Great Mortality).
The Great Plague has carved in the history of humanity signs that will never fade with the passing of time because of its enormous toll on human lives. John Kelly's book "The great mortality" places the plague in a historic context and tackles the topic of Black Death from the perspective of the twentieth century. The word is not free from the deadly attack of infectious diseases, viruses are still threatening animals and human beings alike. John Kelly points out in the introduction to his book that in spite of the numerous victories reported by…
Further Consideration of the Issues:
Actually, Singer's use of the term absolute affluence is not perfectly analogous (because the corresponding analog to the conditions of absolute poverty are those of extravagant wealth not working class wealth), but the idea itself is still valid just the same. The point is simply that once human society in part of the world reached the point where even most of those considered "poor" receive adequate nutrition, shelter, and the most basic emergency medical care (etc.), a moral duty arises whereby helping the less fortunate should be more important than self-centered concerns about increasing one's wealth relative to others in the manner that different levels of affluence are defined in wealthier nations.
It is important that Singer acknowledges the difference between ideals that people should uphold and ideals that people must uphold, because it is likely impossible to establish a logical justification for compelled charity,…
However, there simply does not seem to be sufficient evidence for the disease hypothesis. First, there has been no evidence of disease found. Next, even extremely virulent diseases, like the plague or West Nile Virus, do not have the kill rates necessary to cause the extinction of an entire species. In addition, one has to realize that the extinction of large mammals coincided with the extinction of other animals, like birds, marsupials, placentals, testudines, and crocodilians. It is unlikely that a disease would be lethal in such a wide-variety of animal populations, especially when it did not destroy all species of certain animal genus.
The final theory is that a meteor killed the large mammals. There is evidence that meteor impacts caused earlier extinctions like the Permian-Triassic extinction and the extinction of the dinosaurs. Meteor impacts can interfere with food sources, because the resulting dust in the air interferes with…
Humanity has worth only when they struggle for survival. Otherwise they can be seen as no more than over bred lice. In terms of my own views, I have a somewhat more positive outlook. While it is true that overpopulation and disease are problems created by the carelessness of humanity, there are also many cases of charity and caring that places many human beings above the harsh perception as mere conceited lice who have survived a storm or two. The technological, economic, and humanitarian developments over only the last century shows the great potential of the human heart. While it is therefore certainly not to be denied that humanity has inherent evils, there are also many contrasting cases of excellence that should not be overlooked. As a member of the human race, I prefer to concentrate on the excellence in others and myself. I find that this makes life far…
Crane, Stephen. "The Blue Hotel." The Electronic Text Center, Virginia University. http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/CraBlue.html
Nietzsche and Nihilism
"Nihilism" was the term used by Friederich Nietzsche to describe what he considered the devaluation of the highest values posited by the ascetic ideal. The age in which he lived was viewed by the German philosopher as one of passive nihilism, which he defined as the unawareness of the fact that the religious and philosophical absolutes had dissolved in the emergence of the 19th century Positivism. Since traditional morality collapsed, along with its metaphysical and theological foundations, the only thing that remained was a sense of meaningless and purposelessness.
The triumph of meaninglessness coincides with the triumph of nihilism, under the slogan "God is dead." Nietzsche believed that people would start seeking absoluteness in nationalism, just as they previously did it in philosophy and religion, a conception which later lead to catastrophically consequences.
Nihilism is most often associated with Nietzsche. The philosopher felt that there is no…
1. Elbe, S, European Nihilism and Annihilation in the Twentieth Century. Totalitarian Movements & Political Religions, Winter2000, Vol. 1 Issue 3, p43
2.Ramos, A., Triumph of the will. Review of Politics, Winter96, Vol. 58 Issue 1, p181
3. Berges, S. Plato's Defence of Justice:Socrates contra Nietzsche University of Leeds www.bilkent.edu.tr/~berges/phd.htm
4. Encyclopedia Briatannica 1997 edition -- Articles on Nietzsche
controversy regarding cats and dogs and their place in society at the moment, as there are animal lovers who go through great efforts to control their populations and make sure that they are not ignored and as there are individuals who feel that it is wrong to keep an animal as a pet because of the problems that it brings on. Society's attitudes toward dogs and cats vary on account of factors like cultural values and personal opinions. They range from individuals who would do everything in their power to protect these animals to persons who see nothing wrong with eating them.
The estern society largely perceives dogs and cats as animals that are an active part of this community and that need to be provided with a series of rights in order for the masses to gain a more complex understanding concerning the role these beings play. The bond…
Anchel, Marjorie, "Overpopulation of Cats and Dogs: Causes, Effects, and Prevention: Proceedings of a Conference, New York City, September 11 & 12, 1987," (Fordham Univ Press, 1990)
Knight, Sara, and Herzog, Harold, "New Perspectives on Human-Animal Interactions: Theory, Policy and Research," (John Wiley & Sons, 01.09.2009)
"Hurricane Katrina Animal Rescue: IFAW Saves Dogs and Cats," Retrieved November 17, 2012, from the IFAW Website: http://www.ifaw.org/united-states/our-work/animal-rescue/hurricane-katrina-animal-rescue-ifaw-saves-dogs-and-cats
prisoners do have some rights, it is worth noting that their rights are extremely circumscribed, particularly when contrasted with that of the average citizen who is not incarcerated. The most salient right that prisoners have is afforded by the Eighth Amendment of the United States Constitution, which strictly forbids cruel and unusual punishment (Dolovich, 2009, p. 881). As such, prisoners are entitled to a minimum standard of living. However, in several prisons it is extremely difficult to enforce this particular amendment, largely due to the fact that much of what takes place in a prison setting is well beyond the reach of the public's discernment.
Another highly important right that prisoners have is their right to due process, which is directly related to their ability to appeal decisions and to access less restrictive forms of punishment, such as parole. Due process means that prisoners are entitled to the same rights…
Dolovich, S. (2009). "Cruelty, prison conditions, and the eighth amendment." New York University Law Review. 84 (4): 881-979.
Liptak, A. (2011). "Justices, 5-4, tell California to cut prison population." The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/24/us/24scotus.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Enforce the Death Penalty for Murders Over a Life Sentence
This paper addresses the question: Is it more cost effective to enforce the death penalty for murders over a life sentence? Several topics will be covered such as why it could be cost effective and why it has not been cost effective. Several articles point to the need for prisons to carry out death penalties in order for death penalty sentencing to be cost effective. The introduction will highlight why the death penalty has been regulated more so than enforced.
Other articles will also show how death penalty sentencing can be used a means of creating persuasive plea bargains as criminals do not want to experience death row. Another article states how expensive maintenance of death row inmates are vs. inmates who received life sentences. It also shows how many inmates were killed on death row vs. The…
Alarcon, A.L., & Mitchell, P.M. (2012). Costs of Capital Punishment in California: Will Voters Choose Reform This November. Loy L.A.L. Rev., 46, 221. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/lla46&div=9&id=&page=
Ehrhard-Dietzel, S. (2012). The Use of Life and Death as Tools in Plea Bargaining. Criminal Justice Review, 37(1), 89. Retrieved from http://cjr.sagepub.com/content/37/1/89.short
Liebman, J.S., & Clarke, P. (2011). Minority Practice, Majority's Burden: The Death Penalty Today. Ohio St. J. Crim. L, 9, 255. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/osjcl9&div=14&id=&page=
Nagin, D.S. (2013). Deterrence: A Review of the Evidence by a Criminologist for Economists.Annual Review of Economics, 5, 83. Retrieved from http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-economics-072412-131310
The phenomenon of globalization is a very controversial one, as some people are against it despite the fact that they are aware that the process is unavoidable. From the early ages people have felt the need to socialize and civilizations have been absorbed into one another. The process of globalization has both advantages and disadvantages, but, people are dedicated to making it happen regardless to the consequences that their actions have.
The human race started building civilization several millennia ago, and, from there on, humans have become addicted to it. It is in the human nature to constantly seek for advancement and to interact with others. One of the main disadvantages that civilization poses, however, is that is provides better grounds for evil to develop. Crimes are taken to a whole new level in the modern world. Another disadvantage that globalization brings is the fact that vices are also advancing…
Hopkins, A.G. "Globalization in World History" .
 Hopkins, A.G. "Globalization in World History" .
This became an age in which visionary thinkers said, "see, we told you so," and were able to garner additional support from not only the activist type, but the regular citizen.
Malthusian dynamics (overpopulation and resource allocation) became a focus of futurists. Marshall McLuhan, for one, combined futuristic predictions with analysis of global media and advertising trends.
Noam Chomsky was revolutionizing the idea of linguistics as a way to view our innate cultural mechanisms.
Science fiction writers like Clarke, Asimov, and Lem pushed the boundaries of science as far as possible -- insisting that the reader ask very difficult questions about what it truly means to be human, what it truly means to have conservatorship of a planet, and whether or not we have the wisdom to maintain life on earth as we know it.
Chapter 6 -- Fast Forward
Arthur C. Clarke made an interesting remark about…
What are the differences between jails and prisons?
Generally, jails are maintained by local municipalities and by state authorities and they are mainly intended to house criminals charged with crimes pending trial (Schmalleger, 2009). Jails are also used to incarcerate inmates convicted of misdemeanors and any other crimes whose sentences are less than a year. Meanwhile, prisons are maintained by states and by the federal government and are generally used to incarcerate inmates convicted of more serious crimes (i.e. felonies) who are serving sentences longer than a year. Federal prisons house inmates convicted on federal charges (Schmalleger, 2009).
Is the current jail/prison system effective? Why or why not?
In many respects the current jail/prison system is not particularly effective. For one thing, many have argued that members of racial minorities and those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds are much more likely to serve criminal sentences than members of non-minority groups and…
Healey, J.F. (2009). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group
Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Here we have another example of how Swift uses his setting as a perfect weapon for his argument. Not all people are respected and soome are treated badly. These statements are morbid but they are true and that is why this essay succeeds.
Swift's satire has a greter impact because he opens his argument up for debate. Any argument is allowable as long as it is "equally innocent, cheap, easy, and effectual" (2180). Furthermore, he writes to anyone that believes they have a better solution to the problems to:
ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for food at a year old, in the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual scene of misfortunes, as they have since gone through, by the oppression of landlords, the impossibility of paying rent without…
Swift, Jonathan. "Modest Proposal." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. II. Abrams, H. H, etal, eds. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.
This adds to the understanding of development of the Third World- which is shown in reality as a result of a combination of factors and not just climate changes or other 'natural' causes.
Central to the argument in the article by Davis is the view the ritish colonial empire in the 1800s, as the dominant economic power, influenced and affected other less-developed countries negatively and resulted ion the creation of the Third World. As the author states, the logic of Capitalism and the susceptibility of colonized nations led to the origins of the present division between the developed and less-developed countries. There is a certain moral criticism of these events in the Davis' article. "The route to this "new world order" is thus paved with the bodies of the poor" (Davis 29).
While there are of course many other aspects and answers to the question of the origins of the…
Davis M. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World. Verso: London and New York. 2001.
Yet, I suggest that while Anne Clifford succeeded in life -- she was at last able to join the fellowship at Penshurst and through long life and tenacity to reclaim her lands -- Aemilia Lanyer succeeds in an imaginative vision: out of marginality, out 'of absence, darkness..., things which are not,' indeed out of weakness, Lanyer creates in Salve Deus a remarkable community of strength, present more powerfully and enduringly in her fiction than in life itself. (Pebworth and Summers 46)
This fictionalization of such a "remarkable community" is one aspect of the rigors of life during this period in history that might escape a casual reader today, but the fact that Lanyer was able to craft such a work during such an otherwise bleak era suggests that she did in fact have some compelling reasons beyond money and fame that drove her work.
John Milton's masque "Comus." Because Europe…
Briggs, Julia. This Stage-Play World: Texts and Contexts, 1580-1625. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Hall, Kim F. Things of Darkness: Economies of Race and Gender in Early Modern England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Haselkorn, Anne M. And Betty S. Travitsky. The Renaissance Englishwoman in Print: Counterbalancing the Canon. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990.
Hunter, William B., Jr. Milton's Comus: Family Piece. Troy, NY: Whitston Publishing Company, 1983.
Advanced technology played a big role in infanticide as it allowed couples to check the gender of the child before it was born. Ultrasounds helped couples check the sex of their child and allow them to make a decision on abortion easier. Infanticide managed to unbalance the sex ratio in china as there were far too many males and not so many females. Women do not have a big role to play in determining the gender of their children as the husbands are the ones who make the decisions. There have been cases where a husband has beaten his wife to abort her child. Then are cases where the wife has to go into hiding so that people won't be able to know if she is pregnant. This helps a lot if they are expecting a girl and they need to abort it. There have been a lot of families…
Greenhalgh, Susan. June 2003. "Science, Modernity, and the Making of China's One-Child Policy," Population and Development Review 29-Page.165
Hardee, Karen. (2004) Family Planning and Women's Lives in Rural China, International Family Planning Perspectives. Volume: 30 Issue
Johnson, Kay Ann. (2004)Wanting a Daughter, Needing a Son. Yeong and Yeong Book Company
Faison, Seth. (2004) South of the Clouds: exploring the hidden realms of China, St. Martin's Press
Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the…
Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.
Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,
Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),
The solution that Hardin proposes is that of a coercive method; as always he gives a lucid example to support the point that he proposes. Hardin reminds the reader that society mutually agreed to make it illegal to rob banks, rather than appeal to the sense of responsibility to those who wish to rob banks as a means of deterring them. Bank robbers (real and potential) know that very immediate consequences await them, such as police chases which could end in injuries or fatalities, jail time and other comparable results. These consequences are real and immediate because they're reinforced by the state, the judicial system and by the police force. This form of coercion prevents more people from attempting to rob banks. Our natural resources of water need to be treated as though they're as valuable as banks filled with money. Dumping chemicals such as fertilizers, pharmaceuticals and personal care…
Environmentalgraffitti, n.d. 7 Extinct Animals: Rare Photographs. [Online]
Available at: http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/featured/rare-photographs-
Magnuson, M.L. et al., 2005. Responding to Water Contamination Threats. [Online]
The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations
I would like to see the city where health systems are integrated and sharing one regional headquarter.
The leaders must facilitate development programs that generate high-income jobs.
I must address my quest for an economically vital and people-friendly future city. The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city. There are various ways in which trash could be transformed into treasure. Based on my understanding of the Clearwater's challenges and opportunities, coupled with the current economic conditions, I believe the below strategies will translate Clearwater into a new city of my desire.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations: the future city will be a…
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
Marijuana, also known as cannabis, is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide (Caulkins et al.). However, the legal status of marijuana is slowly changing. Uruguay recently became the first nation in the world to fully decriminalize and federally regulate marijuana. Several other countries in estern Europe have liberal laws related to marijuana that amount to practical decriminalization. The United States, which until fairly recently remained stuck to its "war on drugs" policy, has finally begun to understand that not only is marijuana safe, but it is also a valuable medical resource. Thus, several states in the union have started to allow for the prescription of cannabis for medical use. Given the fact that decriminalization also presents several net benefits to society including reducing prison overpopulation and reducing the stranglehold organized crime holds over some communities, a few states have begun to decriminalize the drug entirely. Colorado and ashington…
Becker, Sam. "7 States Ready to Legalize Marijuana." Politics Cheat Sheet. 28 Mar, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.cheatsheet.com/politics/5-states-and-one-city-ready-to-legalize-marijuana.html/?a=viewall
Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. Marijuana Legalization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Drug Policy Alliance. "Marijuana legalization and regulation." Retrieved online: http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana-legalization-and-regulation
Khatapoush, Shereen and Halifors, Denise. "Sending the Wrong Message.'" Journal of Drug Issues. Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 751-770.
Dr. Federoff has in the past been an advocate of widespread use of genetically modified foods, vehemently disagreeing with opponents on the issue: "We wouldn't think of going to our doctor and saying, 'Treat me the way doctors treated people in the 19th Century, and yet that's what we're demanding in food production."
Jonathon Porrit, one of Gordon Brown's leading green advisers, warned last year, "Population growth, plus economic growth, is putting the world under terrible pressure." He said that Britain has no choice but to drastically reduce its population so as to build a "sustainable" society. The trust of which Porritt is a part, Optimum Population Trust (OPT), released data last year suggesting UK population be cut to 30 million persons in favor of sustainability. The represents a fifty percent cut in the UK population. Whether or not an economic downturn has caused Porrit to rehash his…
(Jabal Omar Development Corporation 2010)
Since 2008, the real estate market in Kuwait has been continually declining. The reason why is because the economy was largely depending upon oil revenues. However, in 2010 the sector began witnessing an increase in prices. This is because of the Kuwaiti government was aggressively promoting the tourism industry. As developers are expecting a strong increase in foreign direct investment, due to the governments push to expand the sector. As a result, holiday and residential areas in Kuwait are continuing to boom. (Finkelstein)
In the housing industry, there are large numbers of shortages that are affecting prices. What has been happening is the residential sector has been facing restrictions over the last several years, surrounding building permits. As the government was slow to endorse them, which created a rush on new areas that were approved for development. At the same time, the government has…
Alexandria Real Estate, 2010.
Egypt Property, 2010, Select Property. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011].
Egypt Real Estate Attracts Interest From Foreign Investors, 2010, New Investors. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011]
Jabal Omar Development Corporation, 2010
The Lord will lead one to safety always. One can simply believe in something higher to get the meaning of this; it doesn't have to be Jesus. Psalm 127, contrarily is confusing because it states that unless the Lord builds the house, it is built in vain. This seems to be more literal, but I do get the idea. Unless the people building the house are doing it with the love of the Lord in their hearts, or building it for him, then what is the point?
Didactic poetry can be quite comforting as seen in Psalm 23 or it can be much too literal and seen as both confusing and condescending. Psalm 127 isn't very instructive spiritually speaking, unlike Psalm 23.
Updated Proverb: A broken toe can hurt, but a broken heart can kill.
Metaphors: Obscure or Illuminate? Didactic literature with its use of metaphors can sometimes obscure the…
The World Health Organization estimates that at least 15% of the world human population in non-developed countries lacks access to potable water. Because of this, at least 1/2 of the world's poor populations are infected with one or more of the main viral or parasitic diseases associated with rank or polluted water (Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers) . Changes in global population growth, unwise agricultural policies, and rapid and unchecked overdevelopment have skewed this balance to the point where almost 1 billion people lack access to safe water, resulting in almost 4 million deaths due to water related diseases annually. Ironically, less than 1% of the total fresh water globally is available for daily and direct human consumption. This is quite dramatic when one considers that a single American who takes a 5-minute shower uses more what than an individual in much of the developing world uses in an entire…
"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. Cited in: .
Houghton, J. (2009). Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lovelock, J. (2010). The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. New York:
This would include more effective use of space and transfer strategies. There needs to be available strategies to help release some of the overcrowding within ED areas, especially within the context of peak periods.
Therefore, the research will look to find the most effective are to actually place these overflowing patients, where they are still in reach of ED services, while not overcrowding the actual ward itself. This research will explore the use of electric bed tracking systems as a way to effectively manage over populated areas and make the most advantage of other wards with less population. esearch suggests that "Electric systems for tracking bed status can be helpful in increasing the transparency of bed availability," (McLarty & Jeffers 2008 p 3). Are such practices feasible in an already tight hospital budget?
If this question can be answered effectively, it will have a huge positive impact on the healthcare…
McLarty, Jim & Jeffers, Lori. (2008). Is your patient throughput sending out an SOS? Healthcare Financial Management. Web. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3257/is_7_62/ai_n28072667/
Zimmerman, Richard S. (2004). Hospital capacity, productivity, and patient safety -- it all flows together. Frontiers of Health Services Management. 20(4)33-35.
This is true in fresh and well as salt wate, zinc seems to spread more rapidly in sea water, even affecting higher animals (Taban, Cathiene and Burkard, 1982).
esearch Project - The term scientific method refers to a way of investigation or the acquisition of knowledge through the testing of a theory or hypothesis, then working through measurements (observation and empirical notes) to come up with a result, which should prove or disprove the original theory. Thus, the basic method consists of a) formulating a question or hypothesis, b) designing an experiment or means of collecting data, c) observation or experimentation, d) analyzing the results and considering the proof or disproof of the hypotheses, and e) suggestions for future research (Cary, 2003).
In this case, and because invertebrates are relatively easy to access regarding zinc the following is a simple introductory examination on the topic:
Freshwater crayfish, particularly the species…
Canicatti and Grasso. (1988). Biodepressive Effect of Zine on Humoral Effector of the Holothuria Polii Immune Response. Marine Biology, 99(3), 393-96.
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Emsley, J. (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fosmire, G. (1990). Zinc Toxicity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51(2), 225-37.
The idea of poverty and hunger in Australia is quite a contentious issue. There is no doubt that there is hunger -- most in Aboriginal communities. However, Australian politicians argue that relative measures of wealth and poverty are meaningless and hide the abject conditions of many Australians. Statistics also show that 13% of Australians live in poverty, 3% of Australia's children. It is not so much that the poor as a class is growing, but rather than becoming poorer in absolute terms and really becoming more numerous (Cenus of Population and Housing Characteristics, 2002). In fact, the 2007 UNICEFF report on child poverty found that Australia had the 14th highest rate of child poverty and hunger (An Overview of Child Well-Being in ich Countries, 2007).
ecommendations -- Clearly, the situation in Australia, much like Europe and the United States, is not one of availability of food, but of distribution and…
An Overview of Child Well-Being in Rich Countries. (2007, January). Retrieved August 2010, from Unicef-irc.org: www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/rc7_eng.pdf
Australia's Public Health Infrastructure. (2010, January). Retrieved August 2010, from Vic.Gov.au: http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/nphp/publications/broch/sectn003.htm
Campbell, C. (2007). Children At Risk. Childhood Education, 83(3), 189+.
Census of Population and Housing Characteristics. (2002, June 17). Retrieved August 2010, from Australian Bureau of Statistics: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/ProductsbyTopic/1EA78AFE3DE2EDCACA256BDA0073EB53?OpenDocument
S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.
To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…
American School Counselor Association. (2010). Why Middle School Counselors. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=231 .
Barlow, Sally H., Fuhriman, Addie J., and Burlingame, Gary M. (2004). The History of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy. In J.L. DeLucia-Waack (Ed), Handbook of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy (pp. 4-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
The term "hockey stick" was given to this controversy by Jerry Mahlman, a climatologist who described a patter that is relatively flat to 1900 (the shaft) and then a sharp increase after 1900 that corresponds to the blade (see above) (Climate Legacy, 2004). This graph has been the key piece of evidence in views supported by the United Nations and IPCC regarding greenhouse gas emissions and environmental change.
Arguments against using the Hockey Stick as the only answer to climate claim that it is taken out of context when it comes to global climatic time. In addition, graphing the last 150 years causes, what some scientists say, is noisy data in which relatively minor changes appear to be over exaggerated because of the template of the graph. This, called small-amplitude variations, may be true from an empirical sense, but have little meaning statistically when dealing with macro-science like climate (Von…
REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. (2007). IPCC. Cited in:
Climate Legacy of 'Hockey Stick..' (2004). BBC News. Cited in:
(Brownmiller 470) Hemorrhaging blood, Brownmiller was afraid -- but her fear did not make her question her choice.
Of course, pro-life activists like Dew would argue that no matter how desperately women might want abortions, they have no right to end another human being's life, regardless of their circumstances. But Dew's line of argumentation raises serious questions about the ethics of forcing another human being to subject their bodies to the rigors of pregnancy (which has far greater risks than a legal abortion) and to harbor another human being within their body against their will. Of course, a woman might choose to have sex -- but the ability of a young girl to fully understand the implications of her decision to have intercourse, and the fact that the male in question does not have to endure a pregnancy, suggests that the 'fairness' of outlawing abortion, regardless of the status of…
Brownmiller, Susan. "Abortion is a woman's right." In Voices of a People's History of the United States, 2nd Ed. Edited by Howard Zinn & Anthony Arnove, 1999.
Dew, Diana. "It's a child, not a choice." Diana Dew's essays on life issues. 1998. [August 7,
These years would come to define the modern American woman as a counterpoint to her sheltered Victorian counterpart.
4. Looking at the number of immigrants by region of the world from 1925 to 1981 and 1982 to 2005, as noted in the 2005 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, and at the number of asylees and refugees arrived and granted asylum, and deported aliens. From which regions and countries in the world do most recent new Americans come from, and in what proportion? Quantify the changes? hat political and social reasons could be the reason for such changes? hat impact might these changes in immigrant origins have on American society and culture?
The first waves of immigration to sweep through the United States during the 20th century would be European in origin. At a time when much of Europe would be fractured by conflict, poverty and political strife, the United States would…
Diner, H.R. (1983). Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Gjerde, J. (1988). Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, Houghton Miflin Company.
Hooker, C. (2004). Ford's Sociology Department and the Americanization Campaign and the Manufacture of Popular Culture Among Assembly Line Workers c.1910 -- 1917. The Journal of American Culture, 20(1), 47-53.
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Back Bay Books.
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…
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2. Someone kicks a dog.
esponse: The person should go back and check if the dog is okay! This person may either drunk or extremely cruel and hates dogs. In any case, it is wrong to kick a harmless dog.
3. A woman carries a heavy jug of water on her head while her husband walks in front of her carrying nothing.
esponse: He should stop and help her with the jug of water. Her husband is not being a gentleman. He is not being a very good husband if he makes his wife carry heavy items and walks ahead of her though he not carrying anything, himself.
4. A male guest helps a female host carry dirty dishes into the kitchen.
esponse: The male guest should be thanked by the hostess because he is being courteous and polite by helping her carry out the dirty dishes.
5. A young…
Holloway, Kris (20 July, 2006). "A Morning of Weighing Babies," Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a Midwife in Mali. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press.
Holloway, Kris (20 July, 2006). "The Death of Old Woman Kelema," Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a Midwife in Mali. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press.
Holtz, Carol and Grisdale, Suzanne (2007). "Chapter 16: Global Health in Reproduction and Infants." Global Health Care: Issues and Policies. Boston, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Koehler, Fred. "One Step at a Time," Crossing Cultures with the Peace Corps. Retrieved from: http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/stories/stories.cfm?psid=15 (12 November 2009).
To improve the role of women, the government must take an active role in promoting educational opportunities for girls and instating vocational education programs for all women, regardless of age, to better enable them to establish some degree of economic autonomy. This will improve the economic status of Afghani families as a whole, and also ensure that women who face violence at home will not feel compelled to stay in untenable circumstances. One of the reasons women stay in bad marriages, agree to arranged marriages, or do not leave home even after coming of age is a fear of being unable to support themselves. This can serve as part of a larger agenda of educating the Afghani people in viable skills that will enable the nation to compete in the modern world.
To demonstrate the changed role of women, the government must aggressively prosecute instances of domestic violence, forced marriages…
In tropical regions, freshwater species were especially hard-hit; the index shows they suffered a 35-percent drop between 1970 and 2000." Terrestrial species are affected by over-farming and deforestation: the change has been swift and alarming: The world's wildlife declined by 27% since 1970 overall (Humans blamed, 2008, CNN).
Even domestic animals have suffered from humanity's engineering of the environment. Many cannot life in the wild without the help of humans, given how selective breeding has reduced the capacity of the dog, the cat, and the horse to forage for itself. In the case some animals raised for consumption, such as cattle, humans force them to eat an unnatural diet of corn. Corn-fed cows are fatter than grass-fed cows, but they must be fed antibiotics to be able to digest what for them is an unnatural substance (Pollan 2004). In general, domestic animals have smaller brains and are fatter and less…
Humans blamed for sharp drop in wildlife. (2008, May 16). CNN.com.
Retrieved October 31, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/05/16/wildlife.shortage/index.html
Pollan, Michael. (2002, May 24). Power steer. Michael Pollan.
Retrieved October 31, 2009 at http://www.michaelpollan.com/article.php?id=14
To the extent a broad security agenda appropriately includes a concern over energy resources, that concern must address issues of consumption patterns, lifestyle habits, and insufficient development of alternative energy sources and processes. By contrast, direct population control such as through mandatory restrictions against having children represents a simplistic and unproductive approach to the problem that, in addition, is violative of fundamental human rights and autonomy of individuals and families to decide for themselves how large a family to have.
Furthermore, in terms of security, the real issue in the realm of energy and natural resources relates not to their overuse but to their deliberate disruption or destruction for terrorist or criminal purposes. Typical examples would include recently publicized cases of individuals who attempted to profit from oil and natural gas futures by puncturing pipelines located in remote areas to drive up prices in conjunction with coordinated efforts to pre-purchase…