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How to Deal with Panic Attacks: a Process Essay
Panic attacks can happen to almost anyone but especially to those who have difficulty dealing with stressful situations. When a panic attack first hits, it can be confused for a nervous breakdown or even a heart attack. It can stifle one's breath, cause trembling, fear, chest pain, the sensation of being trapped, nausea, and tunnel vision. There are many theories on how to deal with and/or prevent panic attacks, and researchers have pointed to causes ranging from heredity to character and the lack of self-assertiveness. This paper will detail the process by which one can prevent and/or overcome panic attacks altogether by concentrating on three primary points that have been shown to be related to the onset of panic attacks: first -- the use of nicotine and caffeine; second -- thoughts and feelings that fail to find expression; and…
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…
Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;
Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-
term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.
Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
A secondary psychological problem that should be addressed is the man's evident agoraphobia, or fear of spending time in public or in wide, open spaces. Although this is not uncommon with individuals suffering panic disorders, special treatment as part of the therapeutic process might be valuable. The patient also has a history of previous mental disorders, including depression that should be monitored. Social isolation brought forth by panic and agoraphobia combined with depression could pose a serious risk to his personal safety, should the symptoms worsen. This is another reason that medication seemed to be the most advisable choice.
Identifying panic attacks as severely incapacitating the man's life, rather than occurring as a 'one-time' incident attached to a physical incident was only determined through intense but empathetic probing. Individuals may often misidentify the symptoms of a heart attack and feel frightened of what is mere indigestion. The more severe psychological…
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…
Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.
Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.
Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.
Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
The results were found to be similar with regards to the scales of CMAS (a 37 item measure), STAIC (for the 20 item state scale measure only), CDI (a 27 item measure) and FSSC- (an 80 item measure). The trait scale of STAIC showed a few variations but was not strong enough when the Bonferroni correction was applied. The CASI scale presented a higher occurrence in the second group compared to the first, regardless of Bonferroni corrections. This amounted to at least 16 of the 18 items. The remaining two items, recorded higher in the second group can be considered to be of an external nature. The origins of these differences were obtained using t-test analysis methods (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997)
Conclusions of the research
The conclusions drawn from the study participants with panic disorder revealed nausea, shivering, difficulties in breathing and increased heart rate as the…
Kearney, C, A, Albano, A, M, Eisen, A, R, Allan, W, D & Barlow, D, H. (1997) The Phenomenology of Panic Disorders in youngsters: Empirical Study of a Clinical sample, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2(1), 49-62
(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect of the disorder to a large degree and are secondary problems shared by many who experience the disorder.
Other related disorders also give more clear insight into panic disorder, as post traumatic stress disorder has increased in severity as well as incidence, given the prolonged state of national crisis, war and other issues involving over stimulation in the fast paced society we share. One review work, demonstrates the conflicts and controversy that surrounds PTSD, often a precursor to panic disorder as the disorder leaves the individual with a cognitive reaction to normal events in an exaggerated panicked, fashion and in many ways correlates to panic disorder. The article states that victims in the past have been treated ineffectually due to preconceived…
Beamish, P.M., Granello, DH, & Belcastro, a.L. (2002). Treatment of Panic Disorder: Practical Guidelines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(3), 224.
Bogels, S.M., & Zigterman, D. (2000). Dysfunctional Cognitions in Children with Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 205.
Book, S.W., & Randall, C.L. (2002). Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 130.
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 127.
Emergency management is also a vital part to the planning for a disaster. Training will have to be conducted at periodic intervals to maintain the preparedness of the emergency response team and to evaluate the condition and the operational difficulties if any that may arise due to the equipment being used. The procedures will have to be critiqued and constantly evaluated to determine if a better, safer or more efficient method can be used in the procedure. A clean up task force will also have to be set up to help clean and restore the area to as near as possible, its pre-disaster state. Sufficient funds will have to be allocated to keep the emergency response team properly outfitted. An emergency fund may also be required to be set up to take care of the clean up activities that may be required. This fund would have to be very liquid…
Sykes, L., Richards, P., Kim W-Y., Armitage, J., Jacob, K., & Lerner-Lam, Art. (2001) Seismograms recorded by LCSN Station PAL (Palisades, NY) New York, Columbia University. Retrieved February 18, 2008 at http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/LCSN/Eq/20010911_wtc.html
TRADE. (2008). The Training Resources and Data Exchange Washington, D.C., FEMA. Retrieved February 18, 2008, at http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/nfa/trade/index.shtm
LLIS. (2008) Lessons Learned Information Shared Washington, D.C., Department of Homeland Security, Retrieved February 18, 2008, from https://www.llis.dhs.gov/index.do
RKB. (2008) Responder Knowledge Base. Washington, D.C., Department of Homeland Security, Retrieved February 18, 2008, from https://www.rkb.us
Herding in Bank Panics
The work of Devenow and Welch (1996) states that the most basic of human instincts is likely to be that of "…imitation and mimicry" which are the primary characteristics in what is known as 'herding' which often specifically occurs related to such as "fashion and fads…" (Devenow and Welch, 1996, p.603) Devenow and Welch go on to state that among financial economists there is a belief that "investors are influenced by the decisions of other investors and that this influence is a first-order effect." (p.603)
It is reported in the work of Donaldson (1992) entitled "Sources of Panics: Evidence from the Weekly Data" that panic is defined by Jevons (1884) as "a rapid rise in the rate of discount, a sudden flood of bankruptcy and a fall in consols, followed by a rise" (p.8). It is additionally reported that Calomiris and Gorton (1991) "define a panic…
Avgouleas, E. (20008) Reforming Investor Protection Regulation: The Impact of Cognitive Biases. Retrieved from: http://www.law.man.ac.uk/aboutus/staff/emilios_avgouleas/documents/AvgouleasCognitiveBiasesOgusfinal.pdf .
Bulow, Jeremy and Paul Klemperer, 1994, Rational frenzies and crashes, Journal of Political Economy 102, no. 1, 1-23. Chari, V.V. And Ravi Jagannathan, 1988, Banking panics, information, and rational expectations equilibrium, Journal of Finance 43, no. 3, 749-761.
Chen, Yehning, 1995a, Bank runs: Panic of efficient monitoring, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA).
Chen, Yehning, 1995b, Banking panics: The role of the first-come, first-served rule and informational externalities, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA). Donaldson, R. Glen, 1992, Sources of panics: Evidence from the weekly data, Journal of Monetary Economics 30, 277-305.
Social control can be maintained through proper guidelines and laws. If there will come a time that the multicultural society of Australia may be in need of change, there is always a room for social construction and re-construction as this is always part of the country's initiatives to develop and grow as a country for the people and by the people.
It appears that the Australian government is currently having an exaggerated moral panic over its asylum seekers. Based on a number of reports, this moral panic is just used as part of the propaganda of the new government to get the attention of the people. In fact, neither deviance nor lowering social control is not a problem and should not be considered as one.
Australia has been known for its humanitarian programs for asylum seekers from the very beginning. It was once the refuge of migrants wanting to…
Australian National Audit Office. (2001). Management Framework for Preventing Unlawful Entry into Australian Territory. Report No. 57.
Canberra: Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. (2001). Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia's response.
Jewkes, Y and Letherby G. (2002). Criminology: A Reader. SAGE Publications Ltd.McMaster, Don (2002). "Asylum Seekers: Australia's Response to Refugees." Melbourne; Melbourne University Press, pp 60
Picketing, Sharon. (2001). "Common Sense and Original Deviancy: News Discourses and Asylum Seekers in Australia," Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(2): 169-86.
Newspapers and magazines, if they picked up the story, could spread a large amount of information very rapidly, and whether this information was accurate or not it would still cause problems for the drug company that marketed the particular drug (Hilgartner & osk, 1988).
The media, however, is not the only problem where panic resulting from a drug is concerned. Attorneys could also add to the concern by advertising for lawsuits regarding a specific drug. Some of this is already seen with Paxil and other antidepressants, but even a new drug could easily be the object of paranoia if enough attorneys felt that class actions lawsuits were necessary to get the attention of individuals within the medical community. This much of an uproar would also get the attention of the media which would then become involved through the aforementioned news programs and other venues.
If one wanted to generate public…
Goode, Erich. (19900. "The American drug panic of the 1980s: social construction or objective threat?" The International 3 rournal of the Addictions, 25(9): 1083-98
Haines, Herbert H. (1979). "Cognitive claims-making, enclosure, and the depoliticization of social problems." The Sociological Quarterly, 20 (Winter): 119-30
Hilgartner, Stephen, & Bosk, Charles L. (1988). "The rise and fall of social problems: a public arenas model." American Journal of Sociology, 94 (July): 53-78
Levine, Harry G. & Reinarman, Craig. (1988). "The politics of America's latest drug scare." In R. Curry (ed.), Freedom at Risk: Secrecy, Censorship, and Repression in the 1980s. Philadelphia. Temple University Press, pp. 251-8
Anthrax as a Weapon of Mass Destruction
In 2001, a handful of anthrax letters wreaked havoc. What impact might a sackful have? -- Donald Donahue, 2011
Just one week following the deadly terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, three dozen envelopes were mailed through the U.S. Postal Service, including one to Senate majority leader Tom Daschle's office and others to news media containing anthrax that killed five people and injured more than a dozen others. These events, falling hard on the heels of the most destructive domestic terrorist attack in U.S. history, had many already-nervous Americans wondering if their own mailboxes would also come under attack. Since that time, though, concerns over new anthrax attacks have diminished but some observers caution that the threat remains as serious as in the past. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to determine the impacts of anthrax when used as…
Ake, D. C. (2011, September). Technology only a small part of detecting bioterrorist threats. National Defense, 96(694), 38-41.
Allison, G. (2012, September 8). Living in the era of megaterror. International Herald Tribune, 8.
Amerithrax. (2015). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/anthrax-amerithrax .
Anthrax-CDC review. (2003, October). Journal of Environmental Health, 66(3), 42.
Strategies for Reducing Asthma Attacks
Causes of Asthma
Asthma is a condition that causes the patient's airways to swell and narrow making breathing difficult triggering coughing (Shaheen, 2019). The patient might have a whistling sound when they breathe due to shortness of breath. Some people will only get a minor nuisance from asthma. However, for others, it will be a major issue, which interferes with their daily activities. It could also lead to a life-threatening asthma attack. The causes of asthma are not well known. Asthma is a condition that has puzzled many health professionals, but most of them have noted genetic and environmental factors do play a huge role (Shaheen, 2019). When a person has asthma, they will react to things in the world around them, and this reaction is referred to as asthma triggers. Exposure to certain substances and irritants that trigger allergies will result in signs and…
Gautier, C., & Charpin, D. (2017). Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma. Journal of asthma and allergy, 10, 47.
McCracken, J. L., Veeranki, S. P., Ameredes, B. T., & Calhoun, W. J. (2017). Diagnosis and management of asthma in adults: a review. JAMA, 318(3), 279-290.
Shaheen, S. (2019). Elucidating the causes of asthma: how can we do better? The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 7(8), e25.
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…
Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341
Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.
Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.
Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
During her reorganization phase, her personality and the emotional support from other social units played a vital role. As a person, she was a survivor. She appeared to posses a character which made her endure the pain yet live through the moment. It was her resilience that made her go to public authorities even after she lost her case the first time. Alice always wanted to be somebody whose presence could be felt. This is the reason why she wanted to be Ethel Merman (2009, p.87). She was an actress and a singer whom according to her mother, had no talent but she managed draw the attention of audience solely on herself. Her personality made an exceptional role in letting her cope up with the trauma and also with getting her culprit punished in the later phase.
Another important factor which played a key role in her retaliation was her…
Boeschen, L.E., Sales, B.D.,&Koss, M.P. (1998). Rape trauma experts in the courtroom. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, pp. 414-432.
Burgess, a.W. & Holmstrom, L.L. (1974), Rape trauma syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, pp.981-986.
Sebold, a. (2009), Lucky, Pan Macmillion Inc.
Raitt, F.E. & Zeedyk, S.Z. (1997), Rape trauma syndrome: Its corroborative and educational roles. Journal of Law and Society, 24(4), pp.552-568.
Client: Thank you Christina, I look forward to seeing you next week.
Zal (1990, p. 136) states that it can indeed be a very fragile and emotionally battered individual that comes to your office for evaluation. An adequate treatment plan for panic disorder must therefore comprise many specific aspects. The first of course is to make the diagnosis and share it confidently and directly with the patient. As the first person to encounter the patient with some understanding of his or her symptoms, you are in a unique position to do an enormous therapeutic service by giving them a clear, precise definition of their illness and once and for all showing them that their symptoms have meaning. Let them know that it is only since 1980 that panic disorder has a name and that it is only during this decade that even psychiatry is beginning to understand this malady.…
Austrian, S.G. (2000). Mental Disorders, Medications, and Clinical Social Work. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100339938 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85908719
Barber, J.P. & Crits-Christoph, P. (Eds.). (1995). Dynamic Therapies for Psychiatric Disorders: Axis I. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85908721 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6960620
Beck, A.T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R.L. (1985). Anxiety Disorders and Phobias A Cognitive Perspective. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6960620 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8992037
Craske, M.G. (1999). Anxiety Disorders: Psychological Approaches to Theory and Treatment. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8992037 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=85933111
There's a substantial gap between the notions presented by the 9/11 Commission on inadequate imagination and its suggested solutions. It's unlikely that the primary modifications can help create analytical solutions in a limited amount of time. The advancement of national intelligence centres is really a pricey solution and idea that rests on impractical belief in the impartiality and just approach of the policymakers. The requirement of a bigger and much more diverse community of experts may, perversely, lower the standard of their work. And there's really no point in anticipating that the DCI could be more in a position to encourage imagination when he's no longer the principal intelligence consultant (ovner and Long, 2005).
More realistic and logical plans within the Commission report are directly and indirectly proportional to the imagination problem; included in this are growing the FBI's intelligence abilities and mandating standardized DOD and DHS risk…
Blin, A. (1968). The United States Confronting Terrorism. Monash University under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968.
Gatehouse, Jonathan. Are We Having Fun Yet? Macleans, December 10, 2004.
Jasparro, Christopher. Low-level criminality linked to transnational terrorism. Jane's Intelligence Review, 1 May 2005.
Osborne, D. Out of Bounds -- Innovation and Change in Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis. Joint Military Intelligence College, 2006.
Non-Cardiac Chest Pain
Background- Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for or visit the Emergency Room for help. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues. However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Often no clear reason for such pain presents itself during examination, but understanding the perception and pain experience can help medical professionals understand different experiences that lead to patient panic about chest pain (Jerlock, Gaston-Johansson, & Danielson, 2005). Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: 1) pressure, fullness or extreme tightness in the chest; 2) crushing or searing pain that radiates to the back, upward through the jaw, and especially through…
Unexplained Chest Pain Can be Due To Stress. (2009, February 9). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090209094551.htm
Cunha, J. (2011, March). Chest Pain - Overview, Causes, Symptoms. Retrieved from eMedicineHealth: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/chest_pain/article_em.htm
Hershcovici, T., Navarro-Rodriguez, T., & Fass, R. (2011). Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: An Update. CML Gastroenterology, 30(2), 37-54.
Jerlock, M., Gaston-Johansson, F., & Danielson, E. (2005). Living with unexplained chest pain. Issues in Clinical Nursing, 14(2), 956-64.
In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (enazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). oth physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).
Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the org Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.
Dietz, W., MD, Ph.D. (2002). The obesity epidemic: Causes, consequences and solutions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, School of Public Health Web site: http://www.sph.umich.edu/symposium/2002/keynote.html .
Hewitt, P.L., et al. (2001). Death from anorexia nervosa: Age span and sex differences. Aging and Mental Health, 5(1), 41-46.
The results revealed that this route did not lead to any needle stick injuries. The ESA worked as efficaciously as it would have if needles were used and this was proved by the maintenance of the hemoglobin levels. It was observed that 91% of the nursing staff was in favor of the needle free administration of ESA. This study therefore concluded that drugs with detached needles present further routes to prevent needle stick injuries in the future. (Chow et. al, 2009)
Seeing how needle stick injuries can lead to emotional, health related and financial dilemma, experts are working on ways to reduce their occurrence. The study by Chow et al. (2009) shows one way in which these incidences can be reduced. Molen et al. (2011) stated that education reduces the occurrence of needle stick injury. He conducted a study in which one group was educated in a workshop and given…
Adams, D. 2012 Needle stick and sharps injuries: implications for practice. Nursing Standard. 26 (37), pp. 49-57.
Aziz, A.M., Ashton, H., Pagett, A., Mathieson, K., Jones, S., and Mullin, B 2009 Sharps
management in hospital: an audit of equipment, practice and awareness. Br J. Nurs 18(2), pp. 92 -- 8
Blenkharn, J. 2009. Sharps management and the disposal of clincal waste. British Journal of Nursing, 18 (14).
This essay discusses cognitive psychology and a specific scenario within that scientific term. It starts out with an introduction or definition of cognitive psychology, then discusses a specific scenario, and perspectives of the scenario. The body of this essay covers treatments, therapies, and interventions for the scenario, as well as effectiveness of therapies, before summing up the paper with a conclusion.
Cognitive Psychology: Modern Approach to Human Behavior
Cognitive Psychology Advancements
Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Psychology of Planning
B. Psychological Perspectives
C. Treatment, Therapies, Interventions
D. Effectiveness of Therapies
Title: Cognitive Psychology Scenario Essay
Cognitive psychology is a relatively new or modern approach to human behavior whose main focus is how people think. This approach in psychology focuses on how people think because of the belief that thought processes affect peoples behaviors. In essence, an individuals…
biological perspective: suggests that the tendency to develop anxiety disorders may be partly genetic. While environment might have caused the results of the family studies, recent research on brains have shown difficulty with specific neurotransmitters that suggests a problem with the feedback system in the brain that would otherwise quell feelings of fear and panic. Anxiety isn't that simple because several neurotransmitters bind at GABA's receptor as well. Medications can help with anxiety as can relaxation training and biofeedback.
Phobias: enduring but irrational, strong fears of certain objects (ex: snakes) or situations (ex: claustrophobia). Phobias are distinguished from other fears in that they are very intense and cause the person to go to some lengths to avoid the feared thing, which can cause social or even employment problems for the person.
Specific phobia: means the fear is clearly identifiable -- a snake, or high places.
Social phobia: the person is…
Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…
Amir, N. & Bomyea, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In Hoffman, S.G. & DiBartolo, P.M. (2010). Social Anxiety. 2nd Edition.
Andersson, G., et al. (2012). Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 50(9), 554-550.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014). Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved online: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
Bogels, S.M., Alden, L. et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety 27, 169-189.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Film
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the American Psychiatric Association (AMA), involves excessive worry and anxiety for a six-month period or longer (AMA 429). GAD is not typically associated with the more intense expressions of anxiety, such as panic attacks or panic disorder (Shelton S2), yet the degree of worry and anxiety experienced is easily recognized as disproportionate for the reality of the situation (AMA 473-475). A diagnosis depends in part on eliminating contributions from an underlying medical condition or the effects of a substance such as drugs or excessive caffeine, and the focus of the anxiety is not limited to a single concern, such as experiencing a panic attack or becoming deathly ill. The anxiety experienced therefore involves wide swaths of the patient's life.
Patients often report experiencing muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky, muscle aches, soreness, sudden fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. New York: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.
Analyze this. Dir. Harold Ramis. Perf. Robert De Niro, Billy Crystal, and Lisa Kudrow. Warner Brothers, 1999. Film.
Shelton, Charles I. Diagnosis and Management of Anxiety Disorders. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 104.3 (2004): S2-S5. Web.
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2009). Retrieved September 28, 2009,
from Colorado State Web site:
Anxiety Attacks and Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from Helpguide.org Web site:
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…
Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23
(April).Available from http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm
-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available
The conflict was among two other staff members and myself. One large and strong staff member wanted to enter the room, take the tongue depressor away from the patient, and physically remove him from the examination room. Another staff member wanted to call the police. My opinion was that we should call the patient's therapist, who was listed in the patient's file, and inquire regarding the best actions to take for the safety of the staff members and patient alike. The patient had not harmed anyone, nor had he done anything particularly wrong, so I felt that bringing the police to the scene would be an unnecessary strain on him. The patient was confined in the examination room and could not cause harm to any other patients or staff members, and he was now quiet so he was hardly even causing a disturbance. Everyone wanted to resolve the incident quickly…
Identify each phase of the GIM Model that you are engaged in.
Empathy: “Weddings can be hard because they’re an occasion to pause and reflect how your own romantic relationships are.”
“It’s never easy suddenly learning there’s a family member you didn’t know about.”
Positive Regard: “You were brave just to attend the family reunion, let alone to see your sister the next day.”
“That’s wonderful you decided to write to your uncle.”
Congruence: “I agree. Most people would not have been able to go back to work so soon after that happened.”
“You’re right. It does take a lot to approach someone you don’t even really know.”
Paraphrasing: “So it was because you were away from your family so long that you became sad?”
“I see. The time away contributed to your feelings of depression.”
Summarizing Phase: “Overall, it sounds like you’ve been experiencing symptoms of depression including alienation…
psychological diagnosis related children. TOPIC: GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER. Topics selected Diagnostic Statistical Manual Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The research paper discuss: a.
Anxiety disorders are presently responsible for interfering in people's lives and preventing them from being able to successfully integrate society. hen considering the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), matters are particularly intriguing as a result of the fact that many people have trouble identifying it and actually go through their lives thinking that their thinking is perfectly normal. In spite of the fact that there are no motives to provoke the exaggerated worry seen in people with GAD, they are unable to realize that they are overstressed. Millions of people from around the world are currently suffering from GAD, with the malady affecting virtually everything about their lives.
hile some individuals actually acknowledge the fact that their worries are unfounded, it is very difficult for them to put across rational…
Gliatto, M.F. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder." American Family Physician. October 1, 2000.
Kendall, Philip C. Pimentel, Sandra Moira Rynn, A. Angelosante, Aleta and Webb, Alicia "12 Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions, ed. Thomas H. Ollendick andJohn S. March (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Murray, Megan "Treading Water: Self-reflections on Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Human Architecture 2.1 (2003)
Nutt, David; Bell, Caroline; Masterson, Christine and Short, Clare Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Psychopharmacological Approach (London: Martin Dunitz, 2001)
life of Temple Grandin. Grandin may be the best known person with autism in the United States. She achieved success in her field, animal science. She has also been a strong advocate for people with autism. Much of her success is attributable to early childhood intervention led by her mother Eustacia Cutler.
Being born autistic in the 1940's was at that time, a virtual prescription for a life of institutionalization and isolation. Temple Grandin, however did not suffer the same fate as most because her mother refused to allow it. With the help of her mother and many others, she dealt with the mental and physical limitations imposed upon her by autism and became a major societal contributor and "hero" to many (Cutler, 2004).
At an early age (around two) it became apparent to Temple's mother that she was not developing "normally." She could not make eye contact, wasn't trying…
Cutler, E. (2004). A thorn in my pocket. Arlington: Future Horizons, Inc.
Edelson, S. (1996, February 1). Interview with Dr. Temple Grandin. Retrieved December 19,
2011, from Autism Research Institute website: http://www.autism.com/fam_page.asp?PID=361
Grandin, T. (2002, December). Teaching tips for children and adults with autism. Retrieved December 19, 2011, from Autism Research Institute website: http://www.autism.com/ind_teaching_tips.asp
Stimuli are the bases for cues, but a stimulus is not a cue by itself" (Weiner & Nagel, 1988, p. 239). Just as pilots need simulation devices to provide them with realistic cue which signal that they need to adjust the aircraft, the crew within the cabin of the commercial plane also need cues that they can respond to in training with actions that they are supposed to execute.
Cues need to be part of the crew member training programs. "Crewmember initial training must include instruction on general subjects as well as subjects pertaining to the airplane type to be operated. The subjects for whom crewmembers are to receive instruction must be applicable to their assigned duties. Initial training is based on equipment and crewmembers not qualified in an aircraft group should complete initial training on the aircraft in that group. Crewmember initial training programs should include drills and actual…
Baron, R. (n.d.). The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology. Retrieved from gofir.com: http://www.gofir.com/general/crm/index.htm
Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, a., & Bellman, M. (2011, August). Flight Simulator Motion Literature Pertinent to Airline-Pilot Recurrent Training and Evaluation. Retrieved from Volpe.dot.gov: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/coi/hfrsa/docs/aiaafinal811.pdf
Estegassy, R. (n.d.). Improving Cabin Crew Training for Emergency Evacuations. Retrieved from fire.tc.faa.gov: http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/1998Conference/presentations/RobertEstegassy.pdf
Liu, a. (2010, October 14). The Role of Cabin Crew in Aircraft Safety Procedures. Retrieved from Aviation Knowledge: http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/aviation:the-responsibility-of-cabin-crew-in-aircraft-safety
The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.
IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…
Bates, Steve. (2002). Personality counts: psychological tests can help peg the job applicants best suited for certain jobs. HR Magazine. Feb. 2002
Flynn, Gillian. (2002). A legal examination of testing. Workforce. June 2002
Newitz, Annalee. (2000). The personality paradox. Industry Stand. October, 2000.
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…
Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.
Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.
Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
Michael Lauren who is struggling with drug problem. Michele Lauren is twenty-one-year-old girl, single and a resident of New York City. Michele lives with her parents and is addicted to marijuana. She was arrested on various circumstances, each time for the violation of Health & Safety Code 11357 (Samaha, 2007) that is the possession of large quantity of drugs and was locked up behind the bars on trials during the years 2002 to 2008.
Lately, she had been arrested three times in a month for the violation of such law. Michele had also encountered the problem of alcohol along with her problem of smoking pot and marijuana, but she has not been arrested for excess drinking and violation of Health and Safety laws related to alcohol. She had not been arrested for any other related crimes, as she normally filched her mother's purse for money whenever needed.
a) Casual drinks…
Samaha, J. (2007). Criminal Procedure, Seventh Edition, Cengage Learning, USA.
By wiping out all other thoughts from the conscious mind, the person is able to address only one thought -- and that thought is to remain the focus throughout the entire meditation (Kaur, Agarwal, & Babbar, 2014). The continual repetition of Om or another word, sound, or phrase, would be an example of exclusive meditation. Additionally, a person can visualize a specific image and hold that image in his or her head as a point of focus for exclusive meditation. Transcendental meditation is a popular method, along with another similar method called relaxation response (Smith, 2007). Studies done on transcendental meditation from Harvard researchers have shown that the technique is effective for people who want to reduce stress levels (Smith, 2007).
Mental imagery is the creation of an image in the mind (Smith, 2007). This can be an image that is put there as a suggestion from someone else, or…
Kaur, S., Agarwal, N., & Babbar, R. (2014). Effectiveness of relaxation techniques in reducing stress levels by measuring heart rate variability. International Journal of Physiology, 2(1), 26-30.
Payne, R.A., & Donaghy, M. (2010). Relaxation techniques: A practical handbook for the health care professional. NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Smith, J.C. (2007). Chapter 3: The Psychology of Relaxation. In Lehrer, P.M., Woolfolk, R.L., & Sime, W.E. Principles and practice of stress management (3rd ed.). NY: The Guilford Press.
Depression and other serious mental disorders are the most frequent causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. Certain groups of people are at a higher risk of this tendency than others. These can be prevented by watching out for symptoms like changes in mood and behavior. These symptoms include thoughts about suicide or dying; attempts to commit suicide; new or greater depression; new or greater anxiety; strong agitation or restlessness; panic attacks; insomnia; extreme irritability; aggressiveness or violent behavior; impulsiveness; manias; and other unusual behavioral or mood changes. It reminds patients never to stop a Paxil regimen without first notifying a healthcare provider. Antidepressants are medicines intended to treat depression and other serious mental illnesses. They have side effects. They can interact with other medicines. And not all medicines prescribed for children are not approved for children by the FDA (GlaxoSmithKline).
Carey, . And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise…
Carey, B. And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise young adult suicide risk. 2 pages. The New York Times: The New York Times Company
GlaxoSmithKline (2007). How Paxil Works. Your Life is Waiting. 1 web page. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.paxilcr.com/how_paxilcr_works/how_paxilcr_works.html
Paxil Prescribing Information. 42 pages.
Healthfacts (2002). Paxil risky for kids - warning issued. 2 pages. Center for Medical Consumer, Inc.: Gale Group
Automatic Thoughts and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
A primary objective of cognitive therapy is to identify some underlying patterns, thought processes, behaviors and assumptions within the patient that might light the way to the root of a cognitive dissonance. As we work with patients to uncover these dissonances, certain patterns occur commonly across a wide variant of disorders or dysfunctions. Among them, automatic thoughts are a common occurrence and can often reveal behavioral tendencies that contribute directly to one's condition. As the discussion here will show, automatic thoughts often play a large but unseen role in the negative emotions experienced by those suffering with various cognitive dissonances, disorders or dysfunctions.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
One of the primary advantages to identifying Automatic Thoughts and explaining them to the patient is the degree to which this will arm the patient with the awareness to begin combating his or her own dysfunctional tendencies. As…
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and Beyond. Guilford Press.
Franklin, D.J. (2003). Cognitive Therapy for Depression. Psychology Information Online.
Little, N. (2011). Automatic thoughts. Insight Journal.
In order for the study to be conducted properly, it would be expected to use the literature review method of examination. This is the logical way to conduct this type of study. However, there is not that much literature available. ecause of this, the method that will be used will instead be similar to a case study method, but will be expanded to study more than one case. In other words, the study will not just examine Forrest Gump, for example, but will look at books, stories, television shows, and movies over the last 20 years in order to determine the way that handicapped characters evolve, the way that they are treated, and whether there are more handicapped characters now than there were. While the handicapped characters' evolution and the way that they are portrayed is important, also important is whether more handicapped characters are being seen in fiction today…
Bibliography hero sits next door. (2005). Episode Guide. Family Guy Main. http://familyguymain.bravehost.com/EpGuide.html
AnxietyPanic.com (2006). http://www.anxietypanic.com/
Forrest Gump. (n.d.). UMBC. English 347. http://userpages.umbc.edu/~landon/Film%20Summaries/Summary_ForrestGump.htm
Perry, Gregg. (2004). Confessions of a handicapped man. World Net Daily. http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=37143
Snakes on a Plane (2006). Plot Summary. IMDB. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0417148/plotsummary
Axis IV codes some of the major psychosocial stressors the individual may have been facing recently for instance, death of spouse, recent divorce, or possible job loss. It was clear that Aaron Hernandez was dealing with the death of his father and interviews have shown that even though it had been eight years later, he was still devastated by the whole event. What stresses Hernandez the most was the fact that his dead during a hernia operation.
Axis V codes the "level of function" and this is where the person has achieved at the time of assessment, and, in some cases, is utilized to specify the highest level of purpose in the past year. This is normally coded on a scale that goes from 0-100, with 100 being close to "perfect" operative (however none of us would actually even score that high!).
It is clear from the assessment that…
Crockett, S.A. (2012). The journal of mental health counseling publication pattern review: A meta-study of author and article characteristics, 1994-2009. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(13), 34-45.
Duffey, T. & . (2012). The role of relational-cultural theory in mental health counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 33(3), 223-242.
Selvarajah, C. (2006). Dimensions that relate to cross-cultural counselling: Perceptions of mental health professionals in auckland, new zealand. Cross Cultural Management, 23(11), 54-68.
Weinrach, S.G. (2011). A critical analysis of the multicultural counseling competencies: Implications for the practice of mental health counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling,, 24(1), 20-35.
The Rationale for and the Efficacy of Torture during Interrogation
Although information from interrogational torture is unreliable, it is likely to be used frequently and harshly. ==John W. Schiemann, 2012
The epigraph above is indicative of the growing consensus concerning the lack of efficacy of torture in providing interrogators with reliable concealed information Concealed information is the foundation of the majority of security issues. In most cases, concealed information is a situation wherein one individual knows something that someone else does not know. Consequently, the majority of security issues could be resolved if there was a dependable method of determining those cases in which an individual was concealing information and extracting that information effectively. To date, though, there has not been a dependable method developed.1 For instance, polygraph research has been unable to achieve an accuracy level that would make the results acceptable in courtrooms in the United States…
There is also a specific technique involving this method that is specifically intended to relieve the withdrawal symptoms of addiction (Addicted to caffeine).
In the final analysis, it was a combination of a healthy diet and a planned exercise program, complemented by yoga and a changing mindset that helped Nick to finally overcome his problem. One of the cardinal factors in his rehabilitation process was the understanding of what caffeine was doing to his body and his life. The most important factor in his recovery was the realization that he was in fact addicted and that his problem was not helped by a regular intake of coffee but was in fact worsened by the excessive amount of caffeine that he was ingesting. Once he realized that caffeine was not an aid but rather the central cause of his stress and anxiety he soon began to change his habits. At first…
Addicted to caffeine. Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://www.queendom.com/advices/advice.htm?advice=241 >
Am I Addicted to Caffeine? Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://www.wisegeek.com/am-i-addicted-to-caffeine.htm
Common Sources of Caffeine. Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://lds.about.com/library/weekly/aa121202b.htm
GERD. Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/gerd.html
' A cognitive behavioral therapist might ask, what will harming yourself do to improve your grades on the test? Cognitive therapies in general have been shown to be more effective than traditional supportive talk therapies when treating anxiety conditions because they offer concrete steps for self-improvement on a continuing basis (Reeves 2003, p1.). Patients are also asked to identify things they would like to do in which current behavior patterns prevent them from engaging, such as wearing short-sleeved shirts.
Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapy shows a higher success rate in anxiety disorders and OCD than traditional psychotherapy, likely because of its behavioral component. The fact that many DSH patients are diagnosed with BPD may complicate treatment, but BPT responds well in some instances to these therapies, too. BPT patients manifest disordered patterns of relationships, thinking, behavior, and coping mechanisms that contribute to unstable life patterns as well as contribute to the…
Bland, Ann R., Georgina Tudor & Deborah McNeil Whitehouse (2007, October). Nursing care of inpatients with Borderline Personality Disorder.
Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.
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Mangnall, Jacqueline & Eleanor Yurkovich. (2008). A literature review of deliberate self-harm.
hile sadness and grief are possibly the most commonly accepted and expected emotions, normal responses to bereavement can be varied, thus individual differences in response can make a diagnosis of pathological response to bereavement difficult (Pachana pp).
Cearlock, Dianne M.; Laude-Flaws, Maribeth. (1997 October). Stress, immune function, and the older adult - Successful Aging in America, Part 7
Medical Laboratory Observer. Retrieved July 22, 2005 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n10_v29/ai_20076531
Gray, Francine du Plessix. (2000, June 22). The ork of Mourning.
American Scholar. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb sit.
Gupta, Rashimi. (2002, June 22). Chinese cultural dimensions of death, dying, and bereavement:
focus group findings. Journal of Cultural Diversity. Retrieved July 22, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Khin, Ni A.; Sunderland, Trey III. (2000 January). Bereavement in Older Adults:
Biological, Functional and Psychological Consequences
Psychiatric Times. Retrieved July 22, 2005 at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/p000147.html
Older Adults and…
Cearlock, Dianne M.; Laude-Flaws, Maribeth. (1997 October). Stress, immune function, and the older adult - Successful Aging in America, Part 7
Medical Laboratory Observer. Retrieved July 22, 2005 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n10_v29/ai_20076531
Gray, Francine du Plessix. (2000, June 22). The Work of Mourning.
American Scholar. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
History of Paxil
In the 1960s a Danish company named Ferrosan began performing research on aspects of the central nervous system. Ferrosan was most interested in the relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and depressed mood in people. The original idea was that if a drug could be developed to increase serotonin levels in the brain it might lead to improvements in treating people with depression (DeGrandpre, 2006). The research resulted in the development of a formula for a compound then known as the "Buus-Lassen Compound" which allegedly had the capability to relieve the depression in people. The compound was patented in the United States in 1977 and the company later sold all rights and research surrounding this patent to SmithKline (now GlaxoSmithKline) in 1980 (DeGrandpre, 2006).
SmithKline put significant effort into developing the compound and much of this development occurred in the SmithKline plant in Harlow, England (DeGrandpre, 2006).…
Anderson, I.M. (2000). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors vs. tricyclic antidepressants: A
meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability. Journal of Affective Disorders, 58(1), 19-36.
DeGrandpre, R. (2006). The cult of pharmacology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Kim, S.W., Grant, J.E., Adson, D.E., Shin, Y.C., & Zaninelli, R. (2002). A double-blind placebo-
This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).
Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Appendix C - Screening for Depression
If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.
Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
Parents can team up with teachers and schools by asking for school conferences where they can address the issue of bullying, (Barreto). The parents can also keep a record of incidents of harassment and the ways in which the school handled these situations. They should also insist on the putting up of a bullying prevention committee if one is not already in place. In order for the committee to be effective, it needs to have representatives from administration, teachers, school mental health teams and parents.
2. Teachers should be encouraged to involve the students in creating rules for the classroom regarding bullying. They should have a serious talk with the bully and explain the unacceptability of the behavior as well as its negative consequences. Reports of bullying should not be left to deal with bullying on their own in the hope that the experience will make them stronger individuals, bullying…
Barreto, Steven. Bullying and Harassment Stop When Parents Help Break the Silence. 2005.
23 May, 2010
Batsche, G.M., & Knoff, H.M. "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools." School Psychology Review, 22.6 (1994): 165-174.
What appears to explain their shared high rates of violent behavior is their increased interpersonal dependency. They are socially withdrawn and entertain a negative view of themselves. These difficulties with trust are common in the two disorders. They are thus more personally dependent on their partners. Furthermore, veterans with a major physical health problem are likelier to commit domestic violence than the other veterans surveyed. The physical problem tends to increase their irritability and dependence on their partners. Other studies found this characteristic high partner-specific dependency among physically abusive men who exhibit personal inadequacy, low social self-confidence and increased reliance on those nearest them. Many of these physically abusive men greatly fear abandonment and are anxiously attached. They are thus hypersensitive to rejection and often show anger in their intimate relationships. Veterans often display excessive coercion to which the partners respond by distancing themselves. The veterans' fear and dependencies can…
Blasko, K. et al. (2007). Therapists' prototypical assessment of domestic violence Situations. 13 pages. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy: Blackwell Publishing
Brammer, a. (2006). Domestic violence crime and victims act 2004. 4 pages. Journal of Adult Protection: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.
De la Hey, M. (2006). Gender differences seen in consequences of domestic violence. 2 pages. Cross Currents - the Journal of Addiction and Mental Health: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Kelly, K.a. (2004). Working together to stop domestic violence. 14 pages. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare: Western Michigan University School of Social Work
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…
DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: APA. - (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Aaronson, C.J., Bender, D.S., Skodol, a.E. And Gunderson, J.G. (2006) Comparison of Attachment Styles in Borderline Personality Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Journal Psychiatric Quarterly Vol. 77 No. 1 March 2006. Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=attachment+theory+and+borderline+personality+disorder&page=3&nt=null&userid=9218600308675950091&encquery=431f3e36d133ebdff7537ee6febc11c6eca098f7674f16b90920f3bd5b092d5ab49460504194f6e58ee065b5a3272811bc442682a5c9c059&ie=UTF-8&invocationType=keyword_rollover&clickstreamid=5154621097040471491 .
Adalist-Estrin, Ann (1993) Moral Development and Attachment: Disruptions that Create Cycles of Criminal Behavior October 10-12. The Fourth North American Conference on the Family & Corrections Family and Corrections Network. Family Pathway Project. Online available at http://www.fcnetwork.org/4thnorth/moral.html
Agrawal, H.R., Gunderson, J., Holmes, B.M. And Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004) Attachment Studies with Borderline Patients: A Review. HARV REV PSYCHIATRY 2004;12:94-104
Holocaust affected Israeli society and culture and how Jews memorialize/emember it today
There exists no doubt regarding the massacre of the Jews during the phase of World War II and its impact on the lives of the Jewish people and the people who were near and dear to them. A dissention is required against those who assert that the tragedy never occurred, irrespective of whether they hold an opposite perspective to the Holocaust theory or just outright vehemence against Jews. The Holocaust stands for the lowest extreme of Jewish impotence. The affected Jews of the Holocaust were distraught due to it, both by direct means and indirectly, and as a continuance their kith and kin, near and dear ones, were separated by space. The holocaust has been termed rightly as a "Tragic legacy." It has also been looked upon as an unauthentic episode.
Just due to the fact they…
Anderson, Frank. "Holocaust Atrocity and Suffering." Vol.47. Middle East Studies, Vol.30, 1991, 164-177
Ben-Amos, Avner; Bet-El; Ilana. "Holocaust Day and Memorial Day in Israeli Schools: Ceremonies, Education and History" Israel Studies, Vol. 4, 1999, 258-284
Davison, Todd. "The Holocaust experience." International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol, 24, 1994, 153-165
Najarian, James. "Experiences of Holocaust Survivors." Mid East Quarterly, Vol.56, 1993, 114-128
Bonds than his fellow African-Americans."
Recently, it has come to the attention of the media and others that the drug called, "human growth hormone" (HGH) is being used by some major league baseball players. An article in USA Today (Nightengale, 2007) points out through secondary reporting of data that Rick Ankiel (St. Louis Cardinals), Jay Gibbons (Baltimore Orioles) and Troy Glaus (Blue Jays) have been implicated in the use of HGH. This information was made available because an investigation of a Florida pharmacy by the federal government (reported by Sports Illustrated and the New York Daily News) turned up receipts detailing transactions between those players and the pharmacy.
According to the article, a quantitative piece, by taking HGH (another performance-enhancing substance) players may be able to "avert positive steroid tests." How can they do that? "Taking HGH enables you to take lower doses of anabolic steroids," journalist Bob Nightengale quotes…
Dowshen, Steven. (2007). Steroids. KidsHealth. Retrieved September 14, 2007, at http://kidshealth.org .
Economist. (2007). Curb your enthusiasm. 384(8541), p. 28.
Kopkowski, Cynthia. (2007). Home Field Disadvantages. NEA Today, 25(6), p. 23.
National Institute of Drug Addiction. (2007). NIDA InfoFacts: Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic)
The book adds substance, extent, lucidity, and substantiation to the clinical and training processes, and will add energy to mainstreaming motivational advances to behavior change in health care. Primary care physicians and practitioners can augment their expert work and improve patient outcomes by learning about motivational interviewing.
Motivational Interviewing can be defined as a client-centered, directive method for making better inherent motivation to change by investigating and resolving ambivalence. It comprises a mixture of philosophical and clinical aspects that together make up the whole of MI. Motivational interviewing distinguishes and recognizes the fact that clients who need to make changes in their lives move toward counseling at dissimilar levels of eagerness to change their behavior. If the counseling is mandated, they may never have thought of altering the behavior in question. A few may have thought about it but not taken action to do it. Others, particularly those freely seeking…
Miller, William R. & Rollnick, Stephen. (2002). Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change. New York: The Guilford Press.
Smith, David E. & Seymour, Richard. (2001). Clinician's Guide to Substance Abuse. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Snell, L. (December 1, 2002). "Special Education Confidential" How Schools Use the "Learning Disability" Label to Cover Up Their Failures." Reason. Cited in:
Westwood, P. (2003). Commonsense Methods for Children With Special Needs.
Luis and Maria brought their family to the United States because of the chronic unemployment in Puerto Rico. They both graduated from Secondary School, although monetary and family responsibilities prohibited them from college or advanced trade school. Luis was a mechanic and bus driver in Puerto Rico, and was able to take his Class CU.S. Certification. He is a full-time driver for the city's Metro Bus Service, which is a medium income job, and because it is a City Government position, has decent benefits. Maria worked in a poor-quality "sewing" shop in Puerto Rico, but managed to find a position with a Dress Shop/Tailor catering to the Latino immigrant community. She specializes in…
UK Pensions Policy" - Social Policy Area
The pension policy of the UK is one that is followed as a model by various other parts of the world for its efficient dealing with the problem of pensions for the aged of the UK. The government takes a ken interest in reforms in the area of pensions, and it was for this reason that it announced the latest set of reforms in the year 2000, in its 'pre-budget report' that was released in the month of November of the same year. The report contained a series of reforms and improvements for pensioners. Some of the measures were: increases in the pensions according to the above- inflation rates, above inflation increases in the rates of the 'minimum income guarantee', also known as the MIG, and the introduction of the newly formulated 'pension credit' that was basically a means tested benefit for the…
An Introduction to Social Policy. Social policy in the UK. Retrieved from http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm Accessed on 3 November 2004
Clark, Tom. Pensions Policy and pension Credit. The Institute for Fiscal Studies. Briefing Note: No: 17. Retrieved From http://www.ifs.org.uk/pensions/bn17.pdf
Accessed on 3 November 2004
Contractors Face Bleak Retirement. Contractor, UK. Retrieved From
S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:
faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.
Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.
A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.
The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.
These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…
Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.
Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available: http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .
Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
From that day forward I knew that I needed to shift gears and delve into a field in which I had little academic or professional experience but one that has always fascinated me: pharmacy.
I believe that my business background will be of enormous assistance after I receive my graduate degree in pharmacy. Plus, having worked in an oncologist's office has introduced me to some of the fundamentals of pharmaceutical care: from jargon to specific modes of treatment. As I apply for my graduate degree, I feel confident that combining my business know-how with my passion for pharmacy will result in a rewarding career in the future. Moreover, my business degree will enable me to understand the actual business of pharmacy and pharmaceuticals, which is nearly as important as the industry's service-orientation.
Therefore, I will be a positive addition to the academic community at the University. Because of my international…
While it is logical that Holocaust survivors underwent severe alterations due to this traumatic experience, 'what is less well-known about Holocaust survivors is that the impact of the Holocaust and trauma was passed on to subsequent generations' (Bender, 205). In other words, although the children of Holocaust survivors did not directly suffer the tragedy, they nevertheless experienced it vicariously through their parents. This transmission of the influences of the Holocaust on the children of survivors has been termed transgenerational effects. 'Transgenerational effects can refer to transmission of trauma (e.g., a second generation child has nightmares of concentration camps although she never experienced the camps) as well as specific thought processes and behaviors that are thought to be passed down because of parental experiences during and after the war (e.g., a third-generation survivor believes that social status is the most important indicator of success in a particular society)' (Bender, 206).
Bender, Sarah, M. (2004). Transgenerational Effects of the Holocaust: Past, Present,
And Future. Journal of Loss and Trauma (9). Brunner-Routledge.
Eitinger, Leo Shua (1990). Survivors of Ghettos and Camps. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (4). MacMillan Publishing Company: New York.
Kellermann, Natan, P.F. (2001). The Long-Term Psychological Effects and Treatment
scientific observation that distinguish it from our everyday observation are that scientific observation is conducted using precisely defined observational conditions; by performing the observations systematically and objectively; and through keeping careful and accurate records.
Scientific observation, as opposed to everyday observations, must take place within certain well-defined parameters, whether in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Furthermore, the scientist does not choose the parameters arbitrarily but rather relies on such methods as sampling to conduct the observations and experiments in a way that renders them valid. For example, if a researcher wanted to examine the effects of watching violent video games on a child's behavior, he or she would first have to determine which video games would be deemed violent, and what specific behavioral affects to look for. An everyday observation of the same phenomenon would be far less precise.
Also, everyday observation can be passive and filtered through the individual's biases…
Overall, the research suggests that CBT is an effective treatment for PTSD, though there definitely certain caveats that need to be raised. CBT is not entirely effective and is not necessarily more effective than certain other treatments, specifically EMD, while there is also a need for greater knowledge and understanding when it comes to PTSD and its treatment in general. As this more detailed and refined understanding is achieved, the research analyzed above and other related research will become more meaningful and more effectively situated.
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, . (2004). A Multi-Site, andomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-elated PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic…
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, R. (2004). A Multi-Site, Randomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(5): 429-33.
Seidler, G. & Wagner, F. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine 36(11): 1515-22.
Zayfert, C. & DeViva, J. (2004). Residual insomnia following cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(1): 69-73.
The fact that the patient uses a full pack each day suggests signs of tolerance. The patient encounters withdrawal signs such as mood changes and anxiety. The patient does not show efforts of regulating or reducing the use of cigarette. Despite knowledge on the effects of the drug, the patient continues to use the drugs (Dziegielewski, 2010).
1. The councilor should involve the patient's parents in treatment sections in order to motivate or influence the patient's perception of the treatment
2 the best method for treatment in this case is behavior modification approach; in this case, the patient should be educated on the consequences of drug use. The patient should receive rewards if she managed to modify her drug use behavior for a specific period.
3. To help the patient avoid drugs, she should avoid areas in which there is easy access of drugs and alcohol. Mostly, the…
Dziegielewski, S.F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in action. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.
Sadock, B.J., Sadock, V.A., & Sadock, B.J. (2008). Kaplan & Sadock's concise textbook of clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Stress, Communication, And Motivation
Stress, Communication and Motivation
Job Description- Unilever
Research and Development Executive
Reports to: Research and Development Department Head
ased at: Unilever, Canada
Job Purpose: To carry out the research and developments of the latest innovations in the field of marketing and production as well as ways in which to produce new and customer friendly products.
Key Responsibilities and Accountabilities:
The maintenance of a separate record and data base for the various business clients and their respective products,
Carry out research into the latest technologies and innovations around the globe and how those can be applied to the products of the firm,
Devise strategies and evaluate the scientific aspects of the new ideas and implementations,
Co-ordinate with the other departments in the company as well as the client heads to gather more ideas and what other ways there are to improve on the products,
Carrying out market…
Knippen, J.T. (1999). Breaking the barriers to upward communication: strategies and skills for employees, managers and HR specialists. Quorum Books.
Maxwell, S. (2005). Global knowledge networks and international development: bridges against boundaries. Routledge Publications.
Schuler, R.S. (2004). International Human Resource Management: Policy and Practice for Global Enterprise. Routledge Publications.