In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (Benazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). Both physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).
Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will be repeated throughout the entire study, which is eight weeks in length.
The independent variable in this study will be the diet measurement. While the volunteers get all three meals at the clinic, there is some concern that this does not constitute their entire diet. There is no way, for example, to control what they eat while they are not at the clinic. They may eat a lot of high-fat snacks, or they may eat fruits and vegetables. They may eat nothing other than the meals that the clinic provides for them. This is one area, however, that the researcher is unable to control. Asking these individuals to record any snacks or liquids that they might consume and their fat and calorie content for eight weeks is not feasible, and would likely be inaccurate in many cases. Compensation should be offered for something that would be this intrusive to a person's life, and there is no compensation available for this study. The researcher must simply take into account that the snacking habits of the volunteers have the potential to affect the outcome of the study.
Depression is a dependent variable, and it will be checked in three different ways: a neurotransmitter-level monitoring test, a symptom-based test, and a self-assessment test.
The amount of serotonin in the blood is a good indicator of normal and above normal thresholds of the key neurotransmitter linked to depression, serotonin. This chemical, typically found in the brain, can be boosted in many ways, including anti-depressant...
It is important to be aware, however, that it is not the only neurotransmitter linked to depression, and some people with normal serotonin levels are still depressed.
In order to analyze the information collected, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods will be addressed. This combination will allow the researcher to analyze the statistical information - such as the blood levels of serotonin, the volunteers' heart rate during the cycle test, and other hard data. However, the researcher will also be able to address the feelings and thoughts of the volunteers in order to determine whether these individuals think that they are depressed. It is possible that statistical tools such as the Beck Depression Inventory will show a person to be depressed when in fact that person does not feel as though he or she is anything other than 'normal' (Kowner, 2002).
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Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.
Dietz, W., MD, Ph.D. (2002). The obesity epidemic: Causes, consequences and solutions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, School of Public Health Web site: http://www.sph.umich.edu/symposium/2002/keynote.html.
Hewitt, P.L., et al. (2001). Death from anorexia nervosa: Age span and sex differences. Aging and Mental Health, 5(1), 41-46.
Hudson, C.G. (2000). At the edge of chaos: a new paradigm for social work? Journal of Social Work Education, 36(2): 215-230.
Kingsbury, K.B., & Williams, M.E. (2003). Weight wisdom: Affirmations to free you from food and body concerns. London and New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Kowner, R. (2002). Japanese body image: Structure and esteem scores in a cross-cultural perspective. International Journal of Psychology, 37(3), 149-159.
However, bowel movements were more frequent during the high-fiber than during the control diet." (Nutrition Research Newsletter, 2002) The work of Ruixing, et al. (2007) entitled: "Comparison of Demography, Diet, Lifestyle, and Serum Lipid Levels between the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han Populations" states that dyslipidemia is a condition "...in which there is an abnormal lipid or lipoprotein concentration. It is well-known that dyslipidemia is determined by genetic, demographic,
High-Protein Diets and Colon Cancer Risk High-Protein Diets Increase the Prevalence of Colon Cancer Risk Factors The increased prevalence of high protein, low carbohydrate diets is evidence of the need for effective weight loss strategies. These diets help individual's lose weight by producing a feeling of satiety that limits calorie intake. The health benefits associated with this type of diet are associated primarily with weight loss and can include improved insulin sensitivity.
("Very Low Calorie Diets"). Some risks may be associated with both the LCD and the VLCD. Side effects of a very low calorie diet may include fatigue, nausea, or constipation ("Very Low Calorie Diets"). The formation of gallstones may also accompany the rapid weight loss associated with the VLCD ("Very Low Calorie Diets"). A low calorie diet like those recommended by the NHLBI may result in fewer side effects. A low
Diet Analysis I am female, 40 years old, and I exercise frequently. My height is 5'5," and my weight is 120 lbs. I undertook the dietary analysis for two days in order to gain more insight into my diet. The diet recorded is indicative of my normal eating habits, and reflects my active lifestyle in its composition. The total number of calories for the two days was 2088. The total number of
J. Did your choices provide enough folate to meet your requirement? My folate levels were insufficient. Had I added some foods with grain, I may have been closer to the recommendations. K. What are the sources of niacin in your day's meals? My cereal had the most niacin in it at approximately 10.9 mg per 200 calories. The pastrami in my lunch sandwich was also a contributor to the niacin levels at approximately 10.7 mg
This put me far short of the mark. The matter is complicated by the fact that foods only list whole proteins in the nutrition facts. In third world countries where food is scarce and meat is at a premium, the primary fare is rice and beans, which combine to form a complete protein. The primary failing of the food pyramid is that the USDA was under pressure to communicate simply to