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Education Parental Involvement in Schools in Primary Schools in England
Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23549780
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Parental Involvement in Primary Schooling

The Standpoint

The first years of school is the most important in a child's life. It is during these years that the child establishes his or her academic personality. This is however not all. The years at primary school also helps a child to form and verify the values learned at home. It is therefore extremely important for parents to form a kind of partnership with primary schools. In this way the school and parents together can learn from each other how best to educate the child. Parents are also very important in helping their children with any problems that could be experienced in school. This will not only make the task of the school easier, but also help parents to establish a relationship of trust with the school.

For the years before the start of school, parents are the most important persons in a…


Handy, C. And Aitken, R. 1994. "The organisation of the primary school." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.

Macbeth, A. 1994. "Involving Parents." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.

Mortimore, P., Sammons, P., Stoll, L., Lewis, D., and Ecob, R. 1994. "Key factors for effective junior schooling." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.

Wilcock, M. 1994. "St. Andrew's Church of England Primary School." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.

Parental Involvement that Boost Young Childrens Academic Performance
Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87567560
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Types of Parental Involvement and Support that Boost Young Children’s Academic Performance
That there is a link between parental support and involvement and students performance is almost incontrovertible. Many studies agree to this and statistical data reveals that most researchers have the same thoughts on the matter (Jeynes, 2015; Wilder, 2013). However, it is not clear as to which kinds of parental involvement and support are effective for which ages and the types of academic performance they affect. This research seeks to find out the kind of parental support and involvement that is efficacious for good student achievement for children who are in grades 3 and 7.
Background and Significance
Studies have persistently revealed that there’s an almost incontestable link between the involvement and support of parents and student achievement. In fact, meta-analyses suggest that parental participation and help affect children’s academic performance across different ages and ethnic groups…

Parental Involvement and Student Academic Achievement
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 39934806
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Parent Involvement and Student Achievement

Parental Involvement and Student Academic Achievement

TA administration and staff believe schools are seeing a decrease in parental involvement as students enter high school. Research conducted by the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) Dropout Prevention Resource Guide (2008) has demonstrated the positive effects of parental involvement in schools.

Parental involvement in the eighth grade had a strong positive effect on the grade point average of 10th graders (Keith, T.Z., Keith, Quirk, Sperduto, Santillo, & Killings, 1998). In contrast, Balen and Moles (1994) and Hurst (2002) suggest when parents have a positive attitude regarding education and demonstrate trust that their children can do well, children perform better in school. However, parental involvement tends to decrease as students become older (p. 3).

Problem Statement

Historical and current studies have investigated the impact of parental involvement and student achievement. Diverse studies have considered how well students perform academically…

On a much larger sample of children (6,400 Americans, 14-18 years old) (Steinberg, 1992) conducted within the same two years that the previous researchers had started their study (1987-1988), Steinberg et al. (1992) found that parental involvement is more likely to promote adolescent school success as long as this academic involvement occurred in the context of an authoritative home environment.

This study was structured so as to examine long-term parenting style, including parental academic involvement with school performance in a sample of high school youth. Nine high schools from Wisconsin and North California were used in this study (Steinberg, 1992). Diversity was achieved as far as possible between different communities, ethnic population, family structures, and socioeconomic status levels. Self-report surveys were filled out by the students on two days of survey administration during the schools years of 1987-1988 and of 1988-1989 (Hill, 2004). In this case, I agree with the emphasis on self-reporting but the analytical framework, again, needs to be much stronger for truly measuring student perceptions as that is where the core of the mechanisms emerges.

The standard active consent form for ethical procedures was not used here since studies have shown that it would screen out individuals with possibly disengaged parents and it was precisely these individuals whom the researchers wished to include. Their procedure, therefore, was to request active consent from adolescents and passive consent from parents

The Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Student Success
Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52778704
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Parental Involvement and Student Success: Article Review

Although parental involvement is usually encouraged by schools, its precise effects upon student achievement remains controversial. In the article, “A New Framework for Understanding Parental Involvement: Setting the Stage for Academic Success,” published in the RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, Harris and Robinson (2016) offer a new framework for understanding parental involvement to permit greater systematization in comparisons of studies; their framework is called stage setting, based upon the premise that, “Stage-setters create a life space—the parameters within which the actor’s performance occurs—that corresponds with the intended action” (Harris and Robinson, 2016, p.189). This article reflects the focus of the journal, which is to solicit peer-reviewed articles from academics from fields across multiple disciplines in the social sciences. According to the journal’s published guidelines, all academics within all fields can submit research, and multidisciplinary studies which incorporate multiple…

The need for'student parental involvement
Words: 2066 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41073899
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Parent Involvement

When it comes to children and how well they do (or do not do) in schools, a lot of the invective and scrutiny is directed towards the teachers at the school and the administrators that govern the same. Whether it be parents showing disdain for how well the students are not doing or whether it be national laws such as No Child Left Behind, the teachers seem to shoulder a lot of the blame when students do not perform as expected or desired. However, to just blame the teachers would be unwise because they are only part of equation and some would argue that teachers are not even the biggest part of the equation. While having adept teachers imparting knowledge to students is important, having parents or guardians of those children that are involved and engaged is even more important.


One of the linchpins of student success…


Harji, M. B., Balakrishnan, K., & Letchumanan, K. (2016). SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement

in Young Children's ESL Reading Development. English Language Teaching, 9(12), 1-


Hemmerechts, K., Agirdag, O., & Kavadias, D. (2017). The relationship between parental

Socioeconomic Status Family Structure and Parental Involvement
Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88932990
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Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Parental Involvement: The Correlates of Achievement

Eagle, Eva

Do class/socioeconomic status, the attention of a parent, the working patterns of the mother, and familial structure have any impact on a student's academic performance? This particular study seeks to, specifically, describe "the relationship between educational attainment and the components of the SES index as used in the National Longitudinal Surveys conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics." The 1980 High School and Beyond senior cohort was utilized in the undertaking of this study, with more than fifty eight thousand high school seniors and sophomores (1980) being used as the nationally representative sample. The survey of the samples took place in years 1980, 1982, 1984, as well as 1986.

The research made use of correlational research design. As Privitera (2013, p. 215) points out, correlational research design seeks to "use data to determine if two or…

Importance of parental involvement
Words: 536 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48079942
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impacting family literacy fluency (race, class, etc.) How can the relationships between parents, teachers, and schools support literacy understanding and growth? How do family interactions

One thing that is omnipresent and pervasive in situations where one or minorities are present is the idea of feeling like one is excluded. The level of severity of this happenstance can vary quite a bit. However, it is very real when it happens. In many cases, race, class and even language can become something that is polarizing and problematic. Despite these challenges, the rules that hold true for children within the dominant culture hold just as true for those in a minority (or more than one). This is even truer, however, when it comes to children that are vulnerable to poverty, deviancy and so forth. Indeed, parental involvement in a child's learning is important irrespective of the race, language or class of the child.…


Adichie, C. (2016). The danger of a single story. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from 

McGee, K. (2016). For History Teachers, It's Not Always Easy to Get Students of Color to Connect with Curriculum. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from 

NEA. (2010). New Report Focuses on Minority Parent Engagement - NEA Today. NEA Today. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from

The Importance of Parental Involvement in the TESOL Classroom
Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95747256
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TESOL: Fieldwork Experience

The student observed for the Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM) was a native Spanish-speaking 16-year-old female who was a high school sophomore. The student's SOLOM score for the observation was a 20/25 with limited English proficiency. Based on what was learned about the student during the SOLOM initial assessment and previous fieldwork experiences, this paper identifies an appropriate instructional strategy for use with this student and reports the results of that strategy.

The instruction strategy selected for this exercise was "building trust with families" as advocated by Pompa (n.d.) of the AdLit organization. Just as it is vitally important for clinicians to forge a therapeutic relationship with their clients in order to formulate efficacious treatment interventions, it is likewise vitally important for ELL teachers to reach out to students' families in order to encourage their more active involvement in the education of their children. Indeed, the…


Pompa, M. (n.d.). Building trust with families. AdLit. Retrieved from  / media/mediatopics/ells/.

Silverman, F. (2009, July). Hitting the books-together: Through a family literacy program, Hispanic parents and their young children are learning to be partners in educational success. District Administration, 40(7), 24-26.

Vera, E. M. & Israel, M. S (2012, Fall). Exploring the educational involvement of parents of English learners. School Community Journal, 22(2), 183-189.

Parental Education & Guidance Parental Education the
Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81838105
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Parental Education

The author of this article has been asked to conduct a literature review of three articles related to the seventh NCF substance item, that being parental education and guidance. A total of three articles will be reviewed. There will be a review, summary and critique of each of the articles. While the interventions and assistance of the school systems and surrounding community are very helpful in the upbringing of a child, nothing can replace a sound foundation of parental guidance and education.

The first article was published in 2013 and relates to parental education and the ensuing/resulting gender gap at the college level in Europe. It would seem that the college population demographics in Europe is noticeably shifting towards the female gender and the study seeks to find out the influence of parental upbringing and educational level as an influence on how male and…


Ceballo, R., Maurizi, L.K., Suarez, G.A., & Aretakis, M.T. (2013). Gift and Sacrifice:

Parental Involvement in Latino Adolescents' Education. Cultural Diversity And

Ethnic Minority Psychology, doi:10.1037/a0033472

Hupp, J., Munala, L., Kaffenberger, J., & Hensley Wessell, M. (2011). The Interactive

Education Recent Literature Reveals a
Words: 1394 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36503763
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Whatever biases remain in public education can be removed, because the belief in equal opportunity has prevailed.

Standardized testing offers the only known way to ensure admissions to universities are based more on merit than on social class. In spite of their limitations, standardized tests do offer the only means to assess scholastic aptitude. A merit-based admissions procedure contributes to the betterment of society by offering educational opportunities to citizens who would be otherwise denied them. Upward social mobility and the ability to participate fully in the political process are possible outcomes of a merit-based educational system.

Effective educators understand the cultural contexts in which they work. In "Culture of Youth and How it Affects Learning," we saw how educators need to work hard to understand youth culture. To relate to their students, teachers must find common ground. Learning the language and values their students use out of the classroom…

Parental Supervision Its Effects on
Words: 3720 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66406700
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(Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira, 2007)

The following labeled Figure 1 shows the factors associated with truancy among adolescents in the study conducted and reported in the work of Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)

Factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Swaziland

Factor or (95% CI)*





Schooling (years) to 8 to 11


Most of the times or always

Drank alcohol

Number of times bullied or 2

Most students kind and helpful

Most of the times

Parents checked homework

Most of the times

Parents understood problems

Most of the times

Parental supervision

Most of the times

or (95%CI)* adjusted for all the factors in the model

Siziya et al. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2007 1:15 doi:10.1186/1753-2000-1-15

Source: Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)

The work of Stanton et al. (2004) entitled: "Randomized Trial of a Parent Intervention" states that while "numerous interventions have been demonstrated…


Cookston, Jeffrey T. (1999) Parental Supervision and Family Structure: Effects on Adolescent Problem Behaviors. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 32(1/2) 1999

Stanton, Bonita et al. (2004) Randomized Trial of a Parent Intervention: Parents Can Make a Difference in Long-Term Adolescent Risk Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 158:947-955. Online available at 

Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; and McGarvey, Ayelish (nd) Background for Community-level Work on Educational Adjustment, Achievement and Attainment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors. Child Trends.

Carter, Rebecca (2000) Parental Involvement With Adolescents' Education: Do Daughters or Sons Get More Help? Journal of Adolescence, Spring 2000. Online available at

Education Maximum Security The Culture
Words: 2026 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 48325948
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By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by increasing home-school interactions and providing greater access to teachers, the program may offset some of the negative conditions caused by single parent homes.

Because studies have suggested that juvenile alliances and socioeconomic status, as well as other social conditions, are some of the causes for juvenile delinquency, addressing those causes has become an important method to avoiding juvenile offenders, victims, and witnesses of violent crimes. ith schools being a major part of children's lives during childhood and adolescence, teachers and administrators, with programs like KIPP, must take on the burden of preventing or counterbalancing these social conditions that lead to juvenile delinquency. Although the process of doing so may seem difficult to teachers who have been educated primarily in instructing and only…

Works Cited

Abdul-Adil, Jaleel. K. And Farmer, David Alan. "Inner-City African-American Parental

Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy." (NEED to PROVIDE REST of CITATION. WAS NOT PROVIDED to RESEARCHER.)

Boehnke, Klaus and Bergs-Winkles, Dagmar. "Juvenile Delinquency Under the Conditions of Rapid Social Change." Sociological Forum. 17.1 (2002): 57-79.

Bowling for Columbine. Michael Moore. DVD. a-Film. 2002.

America's Education System With Support
Words: 1250 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26453798
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In this way there would be more teachers paying greater attention to students who would learn not more, but perhaps better. The level of education is one of the most important concepts in this discussion and it is directly connected to the required standards. If these are lowered then everyone will "pass," but this success is ephemeral and is not translated into capacities or resources which could be afterward used outside school in the real life. Excellence in education is a must for a strong democracy while at the same time, one of the most important challenges that democracy faces is that of finding a way to provide all the citizens with the opportunity to an education of excellent level.

Last but not least a measure which could help improve the present situation of the educational system is reducing the bureaucracy. The work of teachers and professors ought to be…


Barber, B.R. "America skips school: why we talk so much about education and do so little." Harper's Magazine, nov.1993, v287, n1722, p.39

"Where does the money go? How the average U.S. consumer spends their paycheck" in, Retrieved September 30, 2010 from

Education and Collaboration
Words: 2061 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69042539
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The objective of this study is to discuss theoretical foundations for collaboration within the framework of a K-12 educational system within the United States. Included will be two theories for effective parent and family involvement in K-12 learning environments and research of two organizations at the state, local, regional or federal level that supports or organizes parent and family involvement. In addition, this study will discuss how the theories are utilized and suggestions will be given on the methods an educational leader can use the theories in furthering the collaborative efforts in the K-'12 educational system.

It is reported that a change in the conception of "the very nature of what it means to know and learn....drives the interest in collaborative learning." (Williams, 2009, p. 3) Traditionally, knowledge is conceptualized to be "something that is acquired." (Williams, 2009, p. 3) Within this theoretical framework it is held that the…


National Association for Parents Involvement in Education (2015) NCPIE. Retrieved from:

Book Review -- Collaborative Learning: Two perspectives on theory and practice (2008) The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. Retrieved from: 

The Impact of Collaborative, Scaffolded Learning in K-12 Schools: A Meta-Analysis (2011) The Metri Group. Retrieved from:

Pullman, M. Wiggins, E. And Bruns, E (2011) THEORY, PROGRAMS, AND

The Influence of Parental Awareness Individualized Education Plan
Words: 1525 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53385327
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Special Education

Influence of Parental Awareness on Individualized Education Plan (IEP)

In the period preceding 1975, the students with disabilities did not have sufficient access to education and often received education that was inappropriate for them, Huang (2013). However, hope began to rise in the 70s when advocacy organizations and parents with children with disabilities went round pressurizing governments and even taking them to court over what they referred to as neglect of children with disabilities and provision of inappropriate education and violation of the rights provided to such children by the U.S. constitution. There was a name change of the Education of All Handicapped Children Act to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act also referred to as IDEA.

IDEA is responsible for providing children with disabilities appropriate education and other services that are in line with their specific needs, including facilitating their education in public schools. IDEA recognized the role…


Huang, L.-J. (2013, June). Parents' Knowledge and Perceptions Regarding Their Rights During the IEP Process. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from Southern Illinois University: 

Myers, S. A. (2014, May). Parent's Perception of Engagement During the Individual Education Planning Meeting. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from UMI Dissertation Publishing. ProQuest LLC. (UMI Number: 3622989)

National Council for Special Education. (2006, May). Guidelines on the Individual Education Plan Process. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from National Council for Special Education:

Underwood, K. (2010). Involving and Engaging Parents of Children with IEPs. Exceptionality Education International, Vol 20, Issue 1, 18-36. Retrieved from

Administrator Management Accounting Principles

The purpose of this paper is to prepare a MEMO to the superintendent which will be published in the District Newsletter in regards to what was revealed as to the attitudes and confidence in school in this school compared to others throughout the nation.

The following page contains the Memorandum to the uperintendent with a committee meeting report setting down specific plans for implementing changes within the school by engaging the community in assisting with and the owning of the school plan.




After having attended the committee meeting and reflecting on the information gained the first conveyance of this memorandum is to express gratitude for the concern that we are so fortunate to have within this school system. Admittedly, there are issues that must be addressed. The awareness that our school is in crisis is within the minds of…

Strengthening of partnerships with agencies such as the city health and family services, early education and recreation services and the libraries.

Focus on specific reforms, prioritization of initiatives and addressing problems in a systemic fashion.

STRATEGIC PLAN Board Of Education Goals And CORRESPONDING ACTION PLANS [Online] available at:, Strat, tec, Fees,/strategic_ plan.htm#strat%20process

Education Teachers Take the Most
Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51945051
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" Having said man's very nature to associate himself with other people all the more gives but rational explanation to why it is very important for the children, even during their elementary years in school, to develop their interpersonal skills. In different settings, excellent interpersonal skills have always led to excellent dyadic relationships and team dynamics, and therefore generating excellent outputs. As Hogan (2004) also articulated, our personalities determine how we can be leaders in our own right within the teams we belong to.

The elementary students - because of their young minds and fresh ideas - may need to be instructed how to deal with their personal needs as well as the needs of the people around them. they must learn how to interact people in a positive way. They must learn to understand the value of giving and sharing in the same way that they should learn how…


Aristotle. 2006.  

Education Is Important Aspect and
Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55624359
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This task can be performed with the support of animated movies. The teacher can introduce a certain character within the documentary, and seek the participation of the students for understanding of the traits and behavior of the particular character, and at the end of the day; the teacher can relate those traits with the essence of moral and ethical values. (Aristotle: (

It is also important that the rights of the teachers are protected, and this can be achieved only if the teachers under their limited capacity are able to make and understand the students their importance and significance, not only within the premises of the school, but also in the society. This is an important aspect that has to be handled and treated with due diligence, because unless the teacher is successful in making their students respect them, it will be difficult to communicate and teach the students, otherwise.…


Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Renee Yablans. Exploring Early Childhood: readings in theory and practice. 1963. Collier Macmillan. pp.63

Robert James Havighurst, Hilda Taba, University of Chicago Committee on Human Development. Adolescent Character and Personality. 1986. University Publications. pp.54

California Committee for the Study of Education Subcommittee on the Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the Schools. Developing Moral-spiritual Values in the Schools. 1957. University Publications. pp.254

John R. Meyer, Brian Burnham, John Cholvat. Values education: theory, practice, problems, prospects. 1979. Longman. pp.54

Education Throughout the World There
Words: 5288 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18246393
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Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.

Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…


Education. 2004. Official Site of the Labor Party. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; 

Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; 

Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from;

Parental Support & Children Carbonaro
Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 72848381
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The results of this study show several things: one, the child's temperament regarding willingness to learn at home is "mediated" by his or her mother's level of self-efficacy; two, stress in the family impacts the child's home learning because of stress's effect on mother's self-efficacy; three, low income parents have economic and ethnic hurdles to overcome in order to reach a point of self-efficacy, but those parents that can overcome those challenges have been demonstrated to show "...some sense of competency or confidence" (e.g., self-efficacy) to be able to facilitate a quality home-learning environment that truly can prepare the child for learning in school. Interventions that help parenting skills are important, the authors assert, because self-efficacy may be "a critical characteristic of healthy families who provide stimulating and nurturing contexts for young children" (Machida 183)

Fantuzzo, John, McWayne, Christine, & Perry, Marlo A. (2004). Multiple Dimensions of Family Involvement and…

Handling Special Education Students
Words: 1845 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 86145713
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Establishing Consultation and Collaboration in a School

Calgary Public School Board has hired a resource teacher for an elementary/junior high school, which has 16 teachers and 325 students i.e. 150 and 175 students at elementary and junior high levels respectively. The school principal has indicated his desire to create some form of consultation and collaboration in the school. While the school has in the past referred students with special needs to special education placements in other schools, those with learning and behavioral difficulties have been removed from the resource room because they could not be placed in a district program. The former resource teacher did not work in collaboration with other teachers and stakeholders. As the new resource teacher, it's important to establish suitable measures for consultation and collaboration to help address the needs of special education students. Such a platform will help in dealing with the different cases in…


Bos, C.S. & Vaughn, S. (2000). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Dettmer, P., Thurston, L.P. & Dyck, N.J. (2005). Foundations and Frameworks for Collaborative School Consultation. In Consultation, collaboration, and teamwork for students with special needs (5th ed., chap. 2, pp.35-66). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Feldman, E.S. & Kratochwill, T.R. (2003). Problem Solving Consultation in Schools: Past, Present, and Future Directions. The Behavior Analyst Today, 4(3), 318-330.

Stanberry, K. (2016, December 19). Transition Planning for Students with IEPs. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from

An indepth analysis of Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum
Words: 9575 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48996400
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Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects

This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…


Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.

Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: 

Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.

Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from:

Constant in Education It Is
Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 46687907
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Surprise. Fan and Chen (2001) discovered that a higher parental involvement had a positive correlation on student achievement. Perhaps such results would be unexpected by an academic toiling away in obscurity, but for this author and the man on the street, the results are unsurprising. Specifically, Fan and Chen noted that the focus on core subjects in isolation (e.g. math, reading, science, etc.) rather than a cumulative effect (e.g. GPA) was not the best practice. Fan and Chen suggest that researchers should focus on GPA/Parental Involvement because a GPA is a comprehensive analysis of a student's performance in school and that a GPA is more reliable (e.g. measurable) than an ala cart approach to student evaluation.


This article is bland, banal and bordering on redundancy. Fan and Chen (2001) broke no real new ground with their study. Fan and Chen successfully turned what would normally be a review…


DeCoster, J. (2004). Meta-analysis Notes. Retrieved 10/30/2010


Fan, X. And Chen, M.C. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, (13), No. 1.

Increasing Number of Students in Special Education
Words: 10876 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30150873
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Special Education

Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.

The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…


Digest of Education Statistics. (2001) U.S. Department of Education.


Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Questia database, .

Presidents Commision on Revitalizing Special Education. 2002. United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 28, 2003, from.

Parent Involvement and Student Academic Performance
Words: 788 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97056120
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Parent Involvement and Student Academic Performance: A Multiple Mediational Analysis

David R. Topor, Susan P. Keane, Terri L. Shelton, and Susan D. Calkins

Numerous studies have shown a clear positive relationship between the involvement of a parent in a child's education, and the academic performance of the child. This particular study seeks to explore the mechanisms of the said association. On that front, only two potential mechanisms are taken into consideration. These, according to the authors, include; 1) the quality of the relationship between the teacher and the student, and 2) the child's perception of cognitive competence. A total of one hundred and fifty eight 7-year-olds participated in this study. The sample also included their teachers and mothers. It is important to note that data was in this case sourced from three key centers; the child, their mothers, and teachers -- with the gathering of data from the first two…

Primary Education
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Managing the Transition of Starting Primary School in England - Policies and Practices


Education for the English child is compulsory from the age of five through the age of sixteen. This compulsory primary education consists of two cycles (i.e., 'stages') which are identified as key stages.

Key stage 1 includes children in Years 1 and 2 of compulsory education (ages five to seven), and key stage 2 includes children in Years 3, 4, 5, and 6 (ages seven to eleven).

Throughout England, these key stages are the same; regardless the local school's organization or transfer ages.

Curriculum Format

The statutory requirements of the compulsory National Curriculum are laid down by central government, via the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Generally, all publicly-funded primary schools must provide the National Curriculum to their students.

The National Curriculum does not, however, constitute the whole curriculum for schools, even though it…

Works Cited

Alexander, Karl L., Doris R. Entwisle, and Susan L. Dauber. 1994. On the Success of Failure: A Reassessment of the Effects of Retention in the Primary Grades. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Alexander, Karl L., Doris R. Entwisle, and Susan L. Dauber. 1996. "Children in Motion: School Transfers and Elementary School Performance." Journal of Educational Research 90:3-12.

Baker, David P. And David L. Stevenson. 1986. "Mothers' Strategies for Children's School Achievement: Managing the Transition to High School." Sociology of Education 59:156-166.

Catterall, James S. 1998. "Risk and Resilience in Student Transitions to High School." American Journal of Education 106:302-333.

Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Words: 60754 Length: 230 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 60817292
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Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…

Sociology of Education
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Sociology of Education


Social Class Differences in Family-School Relationships

Annette Lareau's article focuses on the differences in the level of family-school relationships between the upper-middle-class families and lower-class families. She also discussed in the article the effects of parental involvement in children's education, as well as several factors that affect the ability of parents to be involved in their children's learning process.

According to Lareau, family-school relationship is an essential factor that helps children in their cognitive development. Family-school relationship, defined as a partnership in which family life and school life are integrated (Lareau), is being encouraged by teachers and school administrators because it serves as an additional guidance and enrichment activity to help children improve their performance. An example of which is involvement of parents during study time of children at home. However, as studies show, the success level of family-school relationship depends on the social class and…

Culture and Community Impact on Education Language
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nation continues to grow in diversity, our education system will have to deal with problems associated with language and cultural differences. The purpose of this discussion is to analyze the impact of language, culture and community on education. The main focus of our analysis will be the importance of a common language in the classroom. e will begin our discussion by providing the definition of language.

Defining Language

According to the American Heritage Dictionary, language is defined as the "Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols." (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language) Language can be share amongst people in a particular culture, ethnic group or people that are members of the same generation. Language allows individuals to express their thoughts and feelings and is essential to success in academics.

Importance of Common Language in the Classroom…

Works Cited

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition

Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

Bata et al. 1999. "Creating Crisis": How California Teaching Policies Aggravate Racial Inequality in Public Schools." June 18, 2003. Applied Research Center.

Absence of Paternal Involvement and
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" (ean, 2006) ean notes that a "dramatic decline in the influence of father involvement has been shown to be correlated with fathers' maintaining a residence other than that of their children." (2006)

According to the work entitled: "Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency" developmental pathways of adolescent delinquency has been examined by researcher "through both longitudinal research and meta-analyses." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) Resulting from these empirical investigations are "numerous insights...key indicators and predictors of behavior of those youths who engage and those who persist in delinquent behavior." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) According to this work there have been a number of studies which had made identification of characteristic patterns of parent-child relationships that are strongly associated with juvenile delinquency." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) the work of Juby and Farrington (2001); Patterson and Stouthamer-Loeber (1984); and Steinberg (1987) state that "evidence clearly demonstrates the…


Allen, Sarah; and Daly, Kerry (2007) the Effects of Father Involvement: An Updated Research Summary of the Evidence Inventory. FIRA-CURA Centre for Families, Work & Well-Being University of Guelph, Ontario Canada. Online available at  ts/29/Effects_of_Father_Involvement.pdf+CORRELATION+BETW EEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=26&gl=us

Bean, Matthew (2006) Understanding Father's Roles: An Evidence-Based Practice Guide for Family Therapists. Kansas State University 2006. Online available at 

Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at

Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.) (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at

Adult Support for Multicultural Education
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As is stated by Bennett "When teachers accept the goal of developing competencies in multiple systems of standards of perceiving, evaluating, believing and doing, it becomes obvious that knowledge about multiple dialects and languages is part of becoming educated" (p. 297).

While neither educators nor parents can magically erase all cultural and ethnic barriers and inequities, any more than they can resolve all of the communication problems created associated with an increasingly diverse classroom, they can achieve significant results by making a conscious and concerted effort to ensure that every student is treated fairly and in a manner that respects rather than ignores their cultural heritage.


Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) evitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208

Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14

Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive…


Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) Revitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208

Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14

Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Allen & Bacon

Goodman, J.F., (1998, December) Moral descriptors and the assessment of children, Journal of Moral Education 27, 475-487

Carter G Woodson's the MIS Education of the Negro
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Mis-Education of the Negro

Carter G. oodson was a historian and educator with a prominent role in the Black community and a great interest in issues facing the Black community. Especially in terms of the role of education in the first half of the twentieth century, aspects of the Black experience that impacted the education of Black people, and what they themselves might want to achieve through an education. His book The Mis-Education of the Negro addresses such issues in terms of a number of specific dimensions, such as the impact of slavery on the African-American psyche, the degree to which African-Americans had been mis-educated, the need for greater self-reliance among members of the Black population, that Blacks needed to develop their own social order and not imitate the white order, and the meaning of political education in the African-American community.

The Mis-Education of the Negro

oodson wrote his book…

Works Cited

Blauner, Bob. Black Lives, White Lives. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Davidson, Basil. The African Slave Trade. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1961.

Haley, Alex, The Autobiography of Malcolm X New York: Ballantine Books, 1965.

Kunjufu, Jawanza. "Introduction." In The Mis-Education of the Negro, Carter G. woodson. Chicago, Illinois: African-American Images, 2000.

Questions About Education and Leadership
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shared vision allows for the fulfillment of common goals. Therefore, the first step in creating and maintaining a successful charter school will be to plan the vision with a common goals meeting and invite all stakeholders to the meeting in accordance with best practices ("Shared Vision and Common Goals," n.d.). The ELCC standard 1.1 clearly calls all educational leaders to "develop, articulate, implement, and steward a shared district vision of learning," (ELCC, 2011). This vision of learning is not limited to the confines of any one school or restricted to its building, its educators, and its students. ather, a comprehensive vision is one that takes into account the entire community. Other schools in the community may play a role in the evolution of our school's vision. Community stakeholders including parents and curriculum leaders need to attend the meeting to provide their input and feedback.

It should not be assumed that…


Beckner, W. (2004). Ethics for educational leaders. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Begley, P. T. & Johansson, O. (2003). The ethical dimensions of school leadership. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers

ELCC (2011). Education Leadership Program Standards. Retrieved online: 

Firestone, W. A., & Martinez, C. (2009). Districts, teacher leaders, and distributed leadership: Changing instructional practice. In K. Leithwood, B. Mascall, & T. Strauss (Eds.). Distributed leadership according to the evidence (pp. 61-86). New York: Routledge.

Gottfredson, D.C. (n.d.). School-based crime prevention. Retrieved online:

Personal philosophy of education statement

Although the settings that are used to deliver educational services today differ markedly from those used a century ago, the fundament purpose of education has remained essentially the same: to provide young learners with the academic background and experiences they need to become contributing citizens to American society (Stone, 2014). The introduction of numerous technological innovations in recent years, though, has also resulted in growing numbers of educators questioning the efficacy of conventional pedagogy that ignores the ability of students to locate information instantaneously online about the 50 state capitals, the names of all the presidents, how far it is to Jupiter, or any of the other countless facts that were once widely regarded as indicators of learning. As Trybus (2013) emphasizes, “The future of education may seem daunting and challenging if educators lack a vision of what matters most for students to be prepared…

Gang Involvement Among Teenagers Is
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To summarize, research on gangs has shown the gang problem to be increasing dramatically. Gang members list many reasons for joining a gang, including protection, peer pressure, economic needs, social needs, power, because relatives are members, a lack of parental or community support, and social status. According to the research, gangs tend to exist in greater numbers in low-income populations, and in single-parent households. Additionally, research has shown that while there certainly are Caucasian gang members, the majority are Hispanic or African-American.


The purpose of this study was to determine why teenage males join and participate in gang activities. The independent variables were socio-economic status, peer influence, lack of family support, self-esteem, and protection. The subjects studied were from a high population area near Houston, TX, where the majority of residents were of Hispanic decent. This study examined the relationship between gang activities and the independent variables. This section…


Arthur, R., and Erickson J. (1992). Gangs and schools. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.

Aumair, M.(1995). Characteristics of juvenile gangs. Youth Studies, 13, 40-48.

Bowker, L., and Klein, M. (1993). The etiology of female delinquency and gang membership: A test of psychological and social structure explanations. Adolescence, 8, 731-751.

Fleischer, M.(1998). Dead end kids. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Helping Special Education Kids
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esponsiveness to Intervention

Delivering adequate resources to children with learning differences is not some haphazard undertaking. On the contrary, it requires a predetermined plan and the sufficient combination of a number of different entities in order to achieve success. A esponsiveness To Intervention (TI) plan is necessary to adequately combine a variety of different resources and approaches to aiding a student with his or her particular learning difference. TI plans involve service delivery on a variety of levels to account for the critical phases of development in the lives of students which include not just their cognitive developments, but their emotional and even social development as well. These plans require sufficient coordination of those resources in a streamlined approach so that ultimately, the student is able to benefit from them. This document will create a service-delivery model for a fictional special education student named Justin. Justin appears congenial on the…


Bergin, E. Logan, A. (2013). An Individual Education Plan for pupils with special education needs: how inclusive is the process for the pupil? Reach. 26(2), 79-91.

Harrisson, G.L., Ogle, K.C., Keilty, M. (2011). The reliability of the OWLS Written Expression Sale with ESL kindergarten students. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. 26(4), 319-328.

de Apodaca, R.; Gentling, D.; Steinhaus, J.; Rosenberg, E. (2015). Parental involvement as a mediator of academic performance among special education middle school students. The School Community Journal, 25(2), 35-54.

Navarro, F. H. (2010). The Woodcock-Johnson tests of cognitive ability. Retrieved from

Parental Roles
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ole of a Father

Families in today's world can take many traditional and non-traditional forms. In some cases, the nuclear family consists of two heterosexual parents and no more than two or three children. This type of family became the norm during the years after World War II. In this type of family, gender roles tend to be clearly delineated, with the father earning money and the mother staying home and caring for the home and children. Increasingly, as the economy became worse, double-income families became the norm, with both parents working to earn an income. As women became more self-sufficient, some have chosen to remain single in favor of building a career rather than starting a family. The divorce rate has also increased as a result of the ability of women to live their own lives and earn their own income. In addition, the legalization of gay marriage in…


Allen, S. And Daly, K. (2007, May). The Effects of Father Involvement: An Updated Research Summary of Evidence. FIRA. Retrieved from: 

Northern Territory Government. (n.d.) Single Parenting. Retrieved from:

Scutti, S. (2013, Jun 12.) Why the Father-Daughter Relationship Is So Important. Medical Daily. Retrieved from: 

Stephens, K. (2007). Parents are Powerful Role Models for Children. Parenting Exchange. Retrieved from:

Agree With Yet Ultimately I Have a
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agree with, yet ultimately I have a fundamentally different perspective on the issue of homework, teacher responsibility, and parental involvement in education. It is true that many homework assignments are found to be tedious, boring, and repetitive by students and their parents alike, and it is definitely part of a teacher's responsibility to find ways to overcome these perceptions and attitudes so as to enhance the learning process and make it more effective. Creating more "interesting" assignments is certainly one method for overcoming this issue, yet I agree that this solution does indeed miss the fundamental problems identified with the homework issue specifically and the educational system in general. I do not agree, however, with the poster's assessment of what the fundamental homework issue actually is.

It is somewhat true that children these days have less and less time to spend on homework with the increasing amounts of structured and…

Administrators Role in Establishing Effective Communication Between Parents and School
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Administrative Strategies for Effective Communication

Education contains multiple responsibilities. One starts the learning process in the world from within the family nurture, before continuing to pursue formal education in schools and academy. However, human does not stop learning from their family. Getting exposed to higher education, they also learn things from hands-on experiences and from what are happening in their surroundings.

This reveals the fact that family and environment are two contributing factors, in addition to formal education process in official institution in a community. The three factors determine how education makes one person in the society a distinct, honorable man.

With the great potentials, now education has been a regional issue. Fully conventional learning processes have been attempted within the education system. However, with the growing needs to perform effective schooling and to gain the best academic result, educators realize the need to incorporate the three factors: school, parents,…


Chalkboard Tips and Resources. 1996. The Family Resource Coalition's Report "Parents Leading the Way" Vol. 15 No. 2. Web site:

ERIC Document. Communities Connecting Family and Schools. Strong Families, Strong Schools. Web site:

ERIC Document. School-Family Web site:

ERIC Documents. Family Involvement. Strong Families, Strong Schools.

Middle Schools Accommodate Student Diversity
Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 34077160
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In the future, this can hurt the conclusions and findings. (Hill, 2009)

Key Elements: Select one or two key ideas from the article and consider how you can effectively connect them to your research question.

The two most important ideas from the article are: increased parental involvement and improved academic socialization strategies. These ideas will help to promote diversity by having the student learn in a format and background they are comfortable with. Then, these concepts are reinforced using socialization to help the individual understand them from contrasting perspectives. This is the point that diversification is improving inside the classroom. The way that these ideas relate to the research question, is they are highlighting specific tools that are used to achieve these objectives. (Hill, 2009)

eflection: Explain various ways that you could incorporate the learning theory expressed in the article into your teaching methods. Also, explain how the theory demonstrates…


Holly Bible New International Version. (1983). Lebanon, TN: The Gideon's.

Hill, N. (2009). Parental Involvement in the Middle School. Developmental Psychology, 45 (3), 740 -- 763.

Model Parental Training
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Parental Training

Statistics show that incidences of juvenile criminal behavior are on the rise in the United States. In the year 2000, for example, over 2.3 million juveniles were arrested for various criminal offenses ranging from petty theft and drug abuse to crimes of violence. This figure alone represents a 64% increase from juvenile delinquency statistics from 1980. More disturbing is the fact that the greatest increases are in the areas of violent crime such as rapes, assaults and even homicide (Everett, Chadwell and Chesney 2002).

This trend did not happen overnight. Experts agree that the seeds of youth delinquency are planted at an early age, and that juvenile crime has complex socio-economic and psychological roots. Furthermore, many crime experts argue that delinquency is also the result of a combined failure of families, schools and the greater community.

This paper argues that many social difficulties, from delinquency in school to…

Works Cited

Cassel, Russell, Peter Chow, Donald F. DeMoulin and Robert C. Reiger. 2002. "Comparing the cognitive dissonance of 116 juvenile delinquent boys with that of 215 typical high school students." Education 121(3). ProQuest Database.

Everett, Charlie; Chadwell, Jason and McChesney, Jon. 2002. "Successful programs for at-risk youth." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 73(9). Proquest Database.

Fontes, Lisa Aronson. 2002. "Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: Reducing violence and misunderstandings." Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1): Winter. ProQuest Database.

Neeley, Steven. "The Psychological and Emotional Abuse of Children." Northern Kentucky Law Review. 2000. 27(4). EBSCO host database.

Community Partnership the Notion That
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, 1996):

To train those college students who aim to join the teaching profession;

To provide the teachers with a wide spectrum and grounds for exploration so that they can apply their knowledge and ability in a way that boosts the overall educational standards of the institution and the students;

To design a schedule and academic profile that aims to purely heighten the academic and social growth of the students; and to support and carry out studies that will in eventuality help escalate and improve the educational standards at not only the school level but also the college and university levels.

Harkavy (1998) believes that the partnership between the school, community and the university is far more complex and inter-dependent that believed by the masses. In his study he brings forth new theories and explanation of his statement with the help of annals and current studies and examples. He feels…


Anderson, B.D., & Stetler, E.G., & Midle, T. (2006). A case for expanded school-community partnerships in support of positive youth development. National Association of Social Workers, 28(3), 155-163.

Beaumont, J.J. & Hallmark, D.L. (1998). Introduction: School-university partnerships in urban settings. Urban Education, 32(5), 557-560.

Beaumont, J.J. (1998). Administrator and researcher: Conflicting dual roles in directing a school-university partnership. Urban Education, 32(5), 645-660.

Becker, J. (1999). Partnerships with families promote TRIO student achievement. (ERIC Document 432197)

Suet-Ling Pong Investigates the Variances
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It follows that if the most effective types of parental involvement in education can be identified, then the lack of these measures would be strong indicators of low achievement in many students. Essentially, this is a positivistic approach to addressing the issue of low achievement in the context of parental involvement; it is easier to diagnose in cases where the favorable factors are absent. In other words, one of the most informative uses of finding the styles of parenting that aid in student achievement would be to determine instances in which low levels of parental involvement can be recognized as the leading component in low academic achievement. In order to isolate these factors, however, studies need to be conducted that control for social status -- of both the student and their parents -- sex, race, and the structure of the household -- whether there is one or two parents. Additionally,…

Works Cited

Bogenschneider, Karen. "Parental Involvement in Adolescent Schooling: A Proximal Process with Transcontextual Validity." Journal of Marriage and Family, volume 59, number 3, August 1997. Pages 718-733.

Fan, Xitao and Michael Chen. "Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis." Educational Psychology Review, volume 13, number 1, March 2001. Pages 1-22.

Pong, Suet-ling. "Family Structure, School Context, and Eighth-Grade Math and Reading Achievement." Journal of Marriage and Family, volume 59, number 3, August 1997. Pages 734-746.

Taylor, Loraine C. et al. "Parental influences on academic performance in African-American students." Journal of Child and Family Studies, volume 4, number 3, September 1995. Pages 293-302.

Lacking Since it Has Irrelevant
Words: 759 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10243553
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The Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines 'race' as not "scientific or anthropological" rather consisting of "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry" using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference" (American Anthropological Association, 1997 )

Possible quality management issues that may arise are that since people are in essence individuals and characterized by a plethora of both experiential as well as biological, sociological, historical, environmental, and so forth features, race may have little determination in the way that they act and respond to situations. An individual from one race, for instance, may have happened to have been born in that race but may look and act according to the stereotypical characteristics of another. When the concept of race is used strictly to record the quantity of people who were born to a certain category, this may not be problematic. However, when…


American Anthropological Association. (1997 ) "A Brief History of the OMB Directive 15." 

Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.

Catholic High School Choosing the Education Which
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Catholic High School

Choosing the education which will best serve our children is one of the most difficult decisions a parent can make. There is a very real possibility that choosing the wrong institution will destroy or at the very least seriously hinder the future success of your child. Choosing a good school will allow your child to receive a better education, to develop better socially and avoid some of the serious pitfalls which are more often encountered in lesser schools, and will open the doors for future academic successes and subsequent career success as your children progress into adulthood. Private schools have proven statistically to provide a higher quality of education in addition to a pantheon of other benefits. A private Catholic school education provides students with academic, social, and religious benefits which no other school can promise.

Academically, a private education is vastly superior to the education proffered…

New York State Education Department's
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Based on these findings, a number of assessment tools are used to evaluate students' abilities and the most appropriate level of participation in general educational settings (A Parent's Guide, 2002).

Early childhood education programs in District 75 have been affected by other federal mandates, including the Governmental Performance eporting Act (GPA) and the Program Assessment ating Tool (PAT); both of these initiatives require that all federal programs (e.g., Head Start, childcare, and programs for children with disabilities) must provide performance data concerning the progress that has been made toward meeting the goals of the program, which in turn are used to formulate federal budget allocations (ous et al., 2007). Current performance data for District 75 is presented at Appendix A.

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). In those cases where the District 75 assessment committee finds that children require services and a special education setting, they are provided with an Individualized…


About us. (2011). New York City Department of Education. Retrieved from


Annual yearly progress. (2011). New York State Department of Education. Retrieved from  

Government of Western Australia Department of Education's
Words: 1445 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 38490170
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Government of Western Australia Department of Education's Excursions: Off School Site Activities. The document describes the policies and procedures necessary for off school site activities.

Background of the Policy

It is recognized that off school site excursions have higher degrees of risk than being at the school. However, the Department of Education recognizes that off school site excursions can provide significant learning opportunities, so it does not want to eliminate them because of the risk. Therefore, it has promulgated regulations to minimize the risk during these excursions.

Purpose/Objective of My eport

The objective of this report is to provide a brief overview of the Department of Education's approach to excursions.


The document describes excursions as beginning with a teacher-in-charge, who is responsible for the investigation into the risks inherent with the excursion. Some of the excursions may be overnight, and those excursions require a special analysis of the risk.…


The Government of Western Australia Department of Education. (2003). Excursions: Off

School Site Activities. Neals.

Special Education - Inclusion the
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In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,…


Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.

Balfanz, R., Jordan, W., Legters, N., & McPartland, J. (1998). Improving climate and achievement in a troubled urban high school through the talent development model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(4), 348.

Banks, J. (1994). All of us together: The story of inclusion at the Kinzie School. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Bullard, H.R. (2004). Ensure the successful inclusion of a child with Asperger syndrome in the general education classroom. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 176.

Rural Education in the United
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Because the teacher salaries in rural areas are generally lower than in urban areas, more highly educated teachers tend to opt for positions in urban areas. A possible lack of proper education can then influence a teacher's ability to identify the specific needs of all learners. ome for example may have specialized learning barriers that require a particular method of education. Once identified, a less highly trained teacher may also not have the necessary training to handle the specific needs of such a learner. This impacts upon the preparation of learners for the labor market.

2. Financial limitations within rural education also impacts upon the physical equipment and learning aids that teachers and learners have access to. ome special needs children and those with disabilities for example require specialized equipment to help them optimize their learning experience. A lack of funds impacts negatively upon the learning needs of such learners.…


Bryant, Shatora (1997-2004). National Rural Education Assocation. 

McClure, Carla Thomas, Redfield, Doris, and Hammer, Patricia Cahape. (2003, Dec.) AEL Policy Brief: Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas. Edvantia Publications.

Minnesota Rural Education Association (2006). Fergus Falls Public Schools - The Prairie Science Program. 

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. (2001). About Rural Education.

Social Education of Psychology
Words: 842 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66496061
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Social Education of Psychology

Melinda Solmon's article "Impact of Motivational Climate on Students' Behaviors and Perceptions in a Physical Education Setting" uses videotape to determine what impact different motivational climates have on student practice behaviors in physical education classes. The article, published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, details a study conducted by the author that was designed to build on past research in the same area, especially regarding goal theory. The difference between the current study and past attempts to discover the causal connections between motivational setting and student practice behavior is that Solmon employed direct observation rather than relying solely on self-report measures. Solmon's results are generally consistent with other literature in the area, confirming much of what was demonstrated by studies that use self-report measures.

The problem is clearly stated in Solmon's article as being related to students' development of adaptive vs. maladaptive learning strategies. Moreover, the…

Jefferson Education the Influence of
Words: 4481 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19038120
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5-8). This demonstrates that while Jefferson highly prized his collection of books and his ownership of them, he also did not see education and access to it as a luxury afforded to the rich, or as a means of demonstrating wealth.

Early Adulthood

Following the death of his father, Thomas Jefferson was left the large estate on which he was born, and would eventually build his famous house Monticello on the same grounds (Hayes 2008; Schouler 2005; Malone 1986, pp. 11). There was a lot of life he had ahead of him before his grand estate was completed, however, and a great deal of education ahead of him as well. His upbringing to this point had provided him with a solid grounding as well as the beginnings of the philosophy towards education that would continue to develop and come to light for the rest of his life; the next stage…

References (Primary Documents)

Jefferson, T. (1781-2). Notes on the State of Virginia. Accessed 5 November 2010. 

Jefferson, T. (1806). "6th Annual Message." Accessed 5 November 2010. 

Jefferson, T. (1810). "Letter to John Tyler." Accessed 5 November 2010.

Catholic Edu the Mission of
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More often than not the Catholic instruction would be enhanced by a mutual strengthening of both knowledge and catechesis. Each should inform and empower the other.

The role of the Catholic school is to synthesize and fuse catechesis with religious education, and to imbue all subject areas with Catholic values. Faith becomes an integral part of student life. For example, the students will be given active time for prayer and spiritual -- not just religious -- studies (Crotty, Fletcher & McGrath 1995). Students at Catholic schools are learning how to integrate faith and culture, faith and personal life, faith and all other areas of life. A Catholic education offers a special primer with which to do so.

Graham (1994) points out that Catholic schools need to break free of the "isolationist paradigm that has been their practice and build a genuine catechetical partnership with families," (p. 4). One way of…


Congregation for Catholic Education. (1988). The Religious

Dimension of Education in a Catholic School

Crotty, L., Fletcher, E. & McGrath, J. (1995). Reflections on an emerging religious education curriculum.

English, G. (1992). Religious education: what did you expect?

Student Reflection on Learning
Words: 1727 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48519501
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Education eview

The author of this report has been asked to offer a review of the graduate program that is in the process of being completed by the author. The author is to reflect on the "nature and extent of their professional growth and development." This is to include development when it comes to philosophies about education. There was also some observations to be made about the practicum that was undertaken. There was skill-building and strengthening of teaching skills as well as work with children. As part of this analysis the author will consult at least five scholarly journals and use them as a reference point that new teachers might face in the current culture, society and overall teaching paradigm. In particular, there will be a focus on data-supported instruction with children. While some people may think it is easy, learning to become a teacher and then actually starting to…


Admiraal, W., Janssen, T., Huizenga, J., Kranenburg, F., Taconis, R., & Corda, A.

(2014). E-Assessment of Student-Teachers' Competence as New

Teachers. Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology - TOJET, 13(4), 21-


Teen Pregnancy The Role of Parental Support
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Teen Pregnancy: The ole of Parental Support

A significant proportion of babies in the U.S. are born to women aged 15 to 19 years. In 2014 alone, 249,078 babies were delivered by teenage women, representing a birth rate of 24 in every 1,000 females in this age category (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016). This represents a historic low in the prevalence of teen pregnancy in the U.S. compared to two decades ago, with delayed and/or reduced sexual activity as well as increased use of birth control among teens believed to be the major contributors of the decline (CDC, 2016). Even so, teen pregnancy in the U.S. remains the highest in the developed world (Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2016).

Whereas majority of teen births are unintended and occur outside marriage, it is important to note that many of these are intended (Sekharan et al., 2015).…


Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2016). Teen pregnancy in the United

States. Retrieved from: 

Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) (2016). Trends in teen pregnancy and childbearing. Retrieved from: topics/reproductive-health/teen-pregnancy/trends.html

Macutkiewicz, J., & MacBeth, A. (2016). Intended adolescent pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Adolescent Research Review, 1-17.

Factors Affeting Access to Education
Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76920765
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Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Educational

Effects of Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Education

High school dropout cases have occurred as a silent epidemic that has affected the nation. In the U.S., dropout cases have disproportionately affected young people, especially those from low-income families, ethnic minority groups, urban children, and single-parent children that join public schools. Statistics indicates that about 30% of public high school students in the U.S. fail to graduate (Heckman & LaFontaine 15). In this paper, we endeavor to demystify this high school dropout issue, an aspect that affects educational institutions. Identification of the prevalence and risk factors associated with high school dropouts facilitates the understanding of the reasons behind this issue and how best to solve them.


Research puts high school graduation rate at 68-71%. The rate at which minority students, including the Native Americans, Blacks, and…

Works Cited

Brait, Ellen. (2015, Dec 10). "Flotus on the Track: Michelle Obama's Rap Video Hypes Going to College." The Guardian. 10 Dec. 2015. Web. 16 Dec 2015.

Heckman, James. & LaFontaine, Paul. (May 2010). "The American High School Graduation Rate: Trends and Levels." NCBI (2010). doi: 10.1162/rest.2010.12366. Web. 16 Dec 2015

U.S. Department of Education. "Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972-2009." IES 2012-006 (2011). Web. 16 Dec 2015

Stress Levels of Young Children and Parental Conflict
Words: 863 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93600777
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Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) program is used to assess young children, their caregivers, and the program environment. One of the areas highlighted in the checklist focuses on responsive caregiving as an avenue for parents and other caregivers to reflect on and change -- where needed -- the way they interact with their young charges (osas, et al., 2012). Moreover, considerable research has been conducted on the implementation of parenting and mental health models within the early childhood education setting (osas, et al., 2012). The proposed research would employ the DECA and a questionnaire constructed specifically for this study to identify children who may be at risk for stress related to parental arguments and household conflict.

Initial Topical Literature eview

Current research on the impact of arguments between parents that occur near sleeping babies indicates that the brain activity of infants is responsive to the tone and loudness of the…


Copeland, W.E., Wolke, D., Lereya, S.T., Shanahan, L, Worthman, C., & Costello, J. (2014, May 27). Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(21), 7570-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1323641111 Retrieved 

DaBerko, T. (2013). Hush! Sleeping infants still know when mom and dad are fighting. Phenomenon. Smithsonian Magazine, October, 20.

Graham, A. (2013, March 25). Arguments in the home linked with babies' brain functioning. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, Retrieved 

Graham, A., Fischer, P., & Pfeifer, J. (2013). What sleeping babies hear: An fMRI study of interparental conflict and infants' emotion processing. Psychological Science, in print.

The Importance of Special Education
Words: 2377 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82220908
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Special education allows children with special needs to gain knowledge and develop skills that can help them lead normal lives and gain independence. Although some consider special education as separate from the total educational enterprise, it is not. It is an integral part of it and serves the community in more ways than one. The specific function of special education in schools is to recognize the needs of children that suffer from mental and learning disabilities and help them get the services they need to thrive in an academic setting. Early childhood special education services provide parents and children with the tools to promote success in education early on, giving these students early access to support and services that will help them throughout their childhood and into adulthood.

Because every child has needs, the special education aspect of schools provides extra assistance so every child can be aided versus only…


Hedeen, T., Peter, M., Moses, P., & Engiles, A. (2013). Individualized Education Program (IEP)/Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Facilitation: Practical Insights and Programmatic Considerations. Center For Appropriate Dispute Resolution In Special Education (CADRE). Retrieved from 

Hong, S. & Shaffer, L. (2015). Inter-Professional Collaboration: Early Childhood Educators and Medical Therapist Working within a Collaboration. Journal Of Education And Training Studies,3(1), 135-145. Retrieved from 

Hooper, S. & Umansky, W. (2009). Young children with special needs. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Khan, A., Ahmad, R., Hamdan, A., & Mustaffa, M. (2014). Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students. International Education Studies, 7(2), 18-24. Retrieved from

Desired State of School
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School Improvements

Performance Outcomes at Dunn Middle School in Trenton

Inner-city schools today are struggling with a litany of challenges that threaten the quality of education and the opportunities available to students. Issues such as high poverty rates, crime-afflicted neighborhoods, racial disparity and limited parental involvement all threaten to stand in the way of bright futures for such students. This is true for the attendees of the Grace A. Dunn Middle School in Trenton, which is working to overcome the obstacles typical of such resource-strapped urban schools. The discussion here outlines some of the areas of Dunn Middle School that require improvement and offers some suggestions on how to achieve this improvement.


Reviewing the Dunn Middle School performance outcomes, all evidence suggests that the school is in need of sweeping improvements. Under the thumb of mandatory state-proficiency tests, Dunn Middle School has struggled to yield any positive outcomes. The…

Works Cited:

Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2008). ISLLC Standards.

Jennings, D.A. (2012). Schools in Need of Improvement in New Jersey. Statewide Parents Action Network.

NJ School Performance Report. (2013). Grace A. Dunn Middle School. State of New Jersey.