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We have over 1000 essays for "Parenting Style"

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Parenting Program for Women and

Words: 41621 Length: 150 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 12171638

There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.

Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.

Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]


Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.

Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.

Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.

Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
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Parents Can Affect the Connection

Words: 1924 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 1145767

(p. 226)

Findings and Discussion

Paulessen-Hoogeboom et al. (2008) present us with a number of key findings that have such pervasive implications for parenting. All toddlers engage in behaviors such as biting, hitting, screaming, or otherwise acting out. Such behaviors arise as a result of negative emotions. Parents often find these behaviors hard to deal with -- along with other children and other caregivers. The response by others in the children's world may be highly negative itself and may thus provoke additional negative feelings, which in turn provoke additional negative behaviors. This is a cycle that is bad for all concerned.

Paulessen-Hoogeboom et al. (2008) further validated the finding of others that an authoritarian parenting style is aimed at getting children to stop these negative behaviors by commanding them to follow parental orders. However, they also found, such a parenting style ignores the underlying emotions and so is ineffective in…… [Read More]


Clark, K.E., & Ladd, G.W. (2000). Connectedness and autonomy support in parent-child relationships: Links to children's socioemotional orientation and peer relationships. Developmental Psychology, 485-498.

Kochanska, G., Murray, K., & Coy, K.C. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to school age. Child Development, 68, 263-277.

Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M. etal (2008). Parenting style as a mediator between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior in early childhood. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 2008, 169(3), 209 -- 226.
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Parenting Because Parenting Is'so Very Personal

Words: 840 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21157319


Because parenting is so very personal, I approached this essay with a lot of curiosity, and even some amount of concern over what the literature on the subject might reveal. I expected to find a number of high-minded platitudes and very little practical advice that would be useful in the day-to-day trenches of the parenting wars. I'm pleased to say how wrong I was.

The first thing I noticed was that in article after I article, they were filled with heartwarming supportive advice, almost all dos and almost no don'ts. The next thing I noticed was that all the articles acknowledged that these are very trying times in which to be a parent. The message was uniformly the same: expect to make some mistakes but be encouraged that it's well within one's reach to be a good parent.

Seth Mullins (2008) makes the point that in today's world, we…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Better Parenting. (2010). Dealing with modern parenting challenges. Retrieved July 21, 2011 from 

Gaikwad, M. (2011). Challenges in modern parenting styles. website. Retrieved July 21, 2011 from 

Mullins, S. (2008). The challenge of modern parenting. Website. Retrieved July 21, 2011 from
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Parenting in the 21st Century

Words: 3233 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97142598

For example, Walker and Hennig add that, "It has frequently been found that children (particularly boys) in divorced, mother-custody families exhibit lower levels of well-being than children in intact families, with more externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and lower levels of cognitive and social competence" (p. 64). My son is also currently at a formative period that has special significance for single-parents families. For instance, Walker and Hennig also point out that, "Single-mother families are often affectively charged, with high instrumental affection combined with high negativity and conflict, particularly in the transition to adolescence" (1997, p. 64).

The "transition to adolescence" can be a rocky period in anyone's life, of course, and it is reasonable to expect my son to experience some problems in general and with me in particular during this transitional period. Fortunately, this challenging developmental period is eased somewhat as children grow into mid-adolescence. As Walker and…… [Read More]


Burns, A. & Scott, C. (1999). Mother-headed families and why they have increased. Hillsdale,

NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crossman, S.M. & Adams, G.R. (1990). Divorce, single parenting and child development.

Journal of Psychology, 106(2), 205-207.
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Parent and Child Relationship

Words: 1045 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16061256

Dynamism Between Parents and Children

Of diverse interaction people have over the course of lifetime, the relationship between parent and child is the most important. Children's growth and development is greatly dependent relatively on the parental bond which exists between them. This bond provides the child with the framework on how they outlook themselves and the people around them. The tie will also determine how well they relate with their peers and the environment their whole lifespan. However the tie between the parents and children can be affected because of parents physical or mental state which may keep him or her to from avoiding relationship with their children. Illness, depression, disorders, alcoholism and drugs addiction are also some of the factors the can make to difficult for the child and parent to relate with each other effectively. According to Cathy Meyer (2011), divorce and conflict can disrupt the growth of…… [Read More]


Amy Black 2011 Authoritative, Authoritarian and Permissive Parenting Types Retrieved April

26. 2011 from 

Baby Care Help2011 Exploring Different Types of Parenting Styles Retrieved April 26. 2011

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Overprotective Parenting

Words: 2420 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59786502

Parenting comes in al forms and ranges, just as different as individuals are. Fortunately, parents have today the possibility to get much better informed than they ever had before. Not only has child psychology made huge progress over the last few decades, but widely available information related to child rearing as well as numerous testimonies from parents themselves has made the parenting task easier, but also more complex at the same time.

As people become better informed, society becomes more competitive. Parents tend to put more pressure on themselves in order to prove they are better parents, fit for this new global age of information and their children sometimes suffer the consequences. While some things have tremendously changed, especially since women have started going to work more often than they used to do before the second half of the twentieth century, some things are remained the same. This is visible…… [Read More]

Oftentimes, parenting styles overlap. The overprotective parent will also have tendencies of being over-controlling. For them to be able to keep their sons and daughters out of danger, they need to constantly interfere, know everything there is to know in order to make decisions for them. The chances for such children to rebel and take the wrong decision in order to escape parental despotism are high. Or, children could act up as if they are accepting their parents' terms only to lead double lives, completely opposed to what they pretend they are actually doing in front of their parents. These are only two of the dangers of overprotectiveness through over control methods. Children raised this way are likely to be miserable later in life.

Child psychologists are inclined to think now that the first years in a child life are crucial to a person's development. That is why parents are encouraged to get involved at pay attention to their children even from the very early stages in the latter's development. This does not equal, of course, excess of anxiety and over control that are likely to flood over the later stages of their children's lives. It means taking parenting as serious as it gets in order to be able to prepare one's children for living their lives the way they should, with equal opportunities of actually building healthy relationships themselves. Society will be thankful to those parents who will be able to recognize their mistakes and willing to correct them.

Cloud, Henry & Townsend John. 2001. Boundaries with Kids: How Healthy Choices Grow Healthy Children. Zondervan Clinton, Tim & Sibcy, Gary. 2006. Loving Your Child Too Much: Raise Your Kids Without Overindulging, Overprotecting or Overcontrolling. Thomas Nelson
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Parent-Child Relationship Inventory the Need

Words: 1572 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68336645

Finally, Boothroyd (2010) suggests that because the authors of PCI do not provide guidance on how parents are defined, the assessment may not be appropriate for families with a parenting structure other than two biological parents. It seems that while the PCI is considered a valid and reliable assessment for some populations, further study should be conducted with a more diverse norming sample.


Coffman, J.K., Guerin, D.W., & Gottfried, A.W. (2006). eliability and validity of the parent-child relationship inventory (PCI): Evidence from a longitudinal cross-informant investigation. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 209-214. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.18.2.209

Gerard, A.B.Parent-child relationship inventory Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251; ephone [HIDDEN]; FAX [HIDDEN]; Web: etrieved from

Heinze, M.C., & Grisso, T. (1996). eview of instruments assessing parenting competencies used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(3), 293-313. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199622)14:33.0.CO;2-0

Schroeder, V., & Kelley, M. (2009). Associations between family environment,…… [Read More]


Coffman, J.K., Guerin, D.W., & Gottfried, A.W. (2006). Reliability and validity of the parent-child relationship inventory (PCRI): Evidence from a longitudinal cross-informant investigation. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 209-214. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.18.2.209

Gerard, A.B.Parent-child relationship inventory Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251; ephone [HIDDEN]; FAX [HIDDEN]; Web: Retrieved from 

Heinze, M.C., & Grisso, T. (1996). Review of instruments assessing parenting competencies used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(3), 293-313. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199622)14:33.0.CO;2-0

Schroeder, V., & Kelley, M. (2009). Associations between family environment, parenting practices, and executive functioning of children with and without ADHD. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 18(2), 227-235. doi:10.1007/s10826-008-9223-0
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Parenting Co-Sleeping Has More Advantage

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52363471

More Care Giving to Babies:

One of the biggest advantages of co sleeping is increase in breast feeding (McKenna, 1994; Richard et al., 1996). This is admitted even by the most conventional American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that co-sleeping has the most advantage of breast feeding. According to the research, mothers who co-sleep breast feed an average of twice as long as non-co-sleeping mothers. Moreover, the act of sucking in breast feeding increases oxygen flow, which is useful for both baby's growth and immune functions (McKenna, 1994).

In addition, co-sleeping infants also get more notice and protective care. The studies have shown that mothers who co-sleep provides five times the number of care like as adjusting the baby's blanket, stroking or cuddling as compared to those mothers who were non-co sleepers (Mosko, 1997).

Long-Term Benefits of Co- Sleeping in Children as adults

Higher self-esteem:

Those boys who co-slept with their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

La Leche League International, Inc. (1997). The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding. (6th rev. ed.)

Schaumberg, IL: Author

Davies, L. (1995). Babies Co-sleeping with Parents. Midwives: Official Journal of the Royal

Heinig, M.J. (2000). Bed sharing and infant mortality: Guilt by association? Journal of Human
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Illuminate the Influence of Parents

Words: 2000 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65384303

36). Thus, such research could also generate results which point to the truths of human words and actions of parents that contribute to healthy and unhealthy relationships with alcohol. In this case, these findings would not be as the result of numbers, but would be as the result of uncovered viewpoints and perspectives verbalized by the participants.

Potential Questions:

Which parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, uninvolved) in the Jewish community (Ashkanas, Hasidic, Sfardy) connects most strongly with college freshman (18-26) alcohol abuse and alcohol maturity?

How do offspring's perspectives on their parents' parenting styles impact their relationship with alcohol as it manifests during college years in the Jewish community?

How do parenting styles characterized by warmth and attentiveness impact children's consumption of alcohol in the college years in the Jewish community?

How do parenting styles characterized by high expectations, structure and rigidity impact children's relationship to alcohol during college years…… [Read More]


Balter, L. (2000). Parenthood in America: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Benson, J.B.; Haith, M.M. (2009). Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego: Academic Press.

Cohen, D., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting Styles, Adolescent Substance Use, and Academic Achievement. Journal of Drug Education, 199-211.

Houghton, E., & Roche, a. (2001). Learning About Drinking. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
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Counseling-Children Overprotective Parenting it Is

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79278099

They do not believe in the capability of the growing child to make his or her own decisions. In short, instead of parenting and mothering, they are smothering the child. As children grow up, this fear-centered thinking is imbibed into their personality, making them equally afraid of certain things and experiences. They grow up to be socially incompetent and immature individuals who do not know what to do without their parents and who always fear new experiences.

Letting Go

In this changing world, parents have to adapt their parenting style in order to raise children who can be globally competitive. We do not want them to be labelled as wimps, right? Encouraging our children to experience new things and explore their world is a smart parenting style. Yes, we have the authority over them and we need to establish boundaries, but these limitations should not include all activities that have…… [Read More]

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Parenthood Styles in Parenthood The

Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26695352

Neurotically concerned about his child's intellectual future, Nathan has their daughter in every activity from karate to early math and reading. His daughter and her accomplishments have become the center of his universe, to the detriment of his relationship with his wife. it's difficult to tell if Nathan sees his daughter as a person, or an object to be shown off and compared to others' children.

Gil's sister Helen is the single parent of a 16-year-old daughter and a 13-year-old son. Her husband has left her for another woman and she has her hands full as her daughter has eloped and her son never speaks. Helen goes on with the family acting as though nothing has happened, while her anger over her husband's departure is a wall that has gone up between her and her children - it is literally the elephant in the room.

Ultimately, all the stories in…… [Read More]

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Mothering Styles During Labor All

Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79431642

On the other side of the scale is the mom that takes a more relaxed approach to parenting. They rely on the fact that when the baby is hungry, the baby will let them know. When the baby is sleepy, they will let them know that too. The parenting books may be dog-eared here and there, but none of them have been read from cover to cover. The nursery decor is a mix of the patterns, fabrics, and toys that they found cute, but don't necessarily match. Then again, it's entirely possible that the baby doesn't even sleep in the nursery, but in the rocker or bed with mom when they both finally fell asleep.

This method has its ups and downs as well. Even though there is no strict schedule, mom might still feel a little frazzled since they are always on the lookout for signs that the baby…… [Read More]

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Children Fatherless Homes Parenting The Effects

Words: 2533 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39424929

0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).

Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.

Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.

The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.

Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.

According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…… [Read More]


Effects of Fatherlessness (U.S. Data) [Online]  er/econ/nodad.htm

ANCPR Alliance for Non-Custodial Parents
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Parenting Skills and Early Placement of Children

Words: 1136 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71662232

Parenting Skills and Early Placement of Children in Daycare Settings

This paper presents a detailed discussion about daycare and the possible correlation between parenting skills and early placement of children in daycare settings. The writer explores the effects of daycare on children as well as the parenting skill possibilities that lead a parent to place their child into an early day care setting. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.

Since the women's movement took hold about four decades ago millions of children have been placed into daycare systems across the nation. This movement has sparked huge debates on the impact of daycare on children including children who have been placed in their daycare settings at a very early age. Some focus has been on the parenting skills of those who place their children into daycare at an early age and whether or not the parenting skills or…… [Read More]


Abril, David (2000). Stanford undergrad parents look for assistance., University Wire,.

Author not available (1995). After-school childcare difficult., The Evening Post (Wellington, New Zealand), pp 6.

Dhooma, Rashida (!999). THE NEW PARENT TRAP., The Toronto Sun, pp 91.

Author not available (2000). Gun found in three-year-old's bag at daycare., Agence France Presse English,.
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Parent the Past Meets the

Words: 487 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28223857

Roper, from noticing that Jack had brought home a dog, because pets were not allowed in the building. Although this episode didn't revolve around the sexual tension in the house specifically, I couldn't help noticing the scanty outfits of the blonde Chrissy, and how unrealistically skimpy they seemed, for just lounging around the house on an ordinary day to be spent with one's friends. Janet, the other woman, was clearly supposed to be 'the smart brunette,' and seemed like the less desirable of the two women because the camera (and Jack's wandering eyes) spent very little time focused on the other woman. Although the show was supposed to be revolutionary, the message was clear -- you could be dumb and blonde, or oridinary looking and smart if you were a woman. These two qualities couldn't mix.

The plot, of 'no dogs allowed' seemed very conventional and unimaginative to me, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

No Children, no dogs." Episode 4. Three's Company DVD Season 1. 

Mr. C." Personal Interview. December 10, 2006.
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Parent Trap 1 And 2

Words: 4825 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55523589

Family therapy believes that problems that the individuals evidence stem from the fact that problems occur within the family unit itself and that the family is divided into several component parts. To address these problems the therapist, as it were, therefore steps into the family unit, becomes "a part of it" and intervenes. His doing so not only enables him to see the family patterns from the inside; thereby understanding faults of fission but also enable him to practice therapy. Intervention in the family is called enactment.

Enactment refers to the therapist encouraging acting of dysfunctional relationship patterns within the family therapy session and him acting out some of this behavior by actually entering the family unit. The therapist thereby learns about the family's structure and interactional patterns and is able to interfere in the process by modifying some of the negative elements, pointing these out, intensifying positive elements, and…… [Read More]


Family Systems institute Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration and Critique

Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy
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Parents on Life the Influence

Words: 303 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82204735

The struggle with tradition and one's personal history comes to the forefront in two other family memoirs, Ayaan Hirsi Ali's Infidel and Maxine Hong Kingston's the Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. In the case of the former, Ali is thrust into exile because of her unwillingness to conform to her parents' expectations of what is proper for a woman in her native culture. Maxine Hong Kingston experiences similar issues, although the consequences for her are far less extreme.

In my analysis of the issues outlined above, I intend to show how all three writers transform the personal into the political, effectively establishing that the most minute, particular happenings in our lives can indeed have universal implications.


Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.

Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage ooks, 1975.

Walls, Jeannette. The…… [Read More]


Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.

Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage Books, 1975.

Walls, Jeannette. The Glass Castle. New York: Scribner, 2006.
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Parenting in Henry James's Novels

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 21035262

Henry James's work is not only a book about bad parenting, as it is not a book about relationships. It is about a fragmented and decadent society where normal values, such as caring for your child and offering her a loving home, become relative. This relativism of values leaves the character without a norm and without intrinsic knowledge about doing what is right.

Maisie's parents are not necessarily bad people in a complex meaning of the concept of "bad," just as Mrs. Wix, no matter how much the reader gets attached to her because of the way she adores Maisie, is not a sublimely good person. At least, despite developing interesting characters, James's objective is not to define good and bad and categorize his characters accordingly. I believe his goal is to see what the characters are doing and how they are behaving in a particular societal context, namely that…… [Read More]


1. Sethi, Mira, (2010). Henry James's Most Affecting Portrait. Wall Street Journal

2. James, Henry, (1897), What Maisie Knew. The Project Gutenberg

3. French, Philip, (2013). What Maisie Knew -- review. The Guardian. On the Internet at . Last retrieved on November 1, 2014
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Parents Name a Child Jill

Words: 829 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88990357

Art supplies the vision, and the vision is important, but people must be willing to bring that vision to life. Furthermore, people need to realize that they can bring about monumental change. To remind myself of that, I look to my own ancestors. I am African-American, and my ancestors were able to accomplish so much despite the overwhelming odds against them. If they could surmount the overwhelming odds against them, I feel it would be dishonorable for me to refuse to meet the challenges in my own life. That is why I have engaged in a series of projects that aim to have a direct and positive impact on the lives of the people around me. I had a talk show, "Closer to my Dreams" on WGIV 103.3 FM; the purpose of the talk show was to inspire teenagers to reach for their dreams. I work at Youth Empowerment Solutions…… [Read More]

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What Drives Parents to Consume Fast Food With Their Children

Words: 1734 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54107493

Parents and Fast Food

What Drives Adults to Consume Fast Food with Their Children: TV, Toys, and Time

Television advertisements play a role in deciding what we consume, and that marketing is geared toward children no less than it is toward adults. McDonald's fast-food chain, for instance, gears an entire production line called the Happy Meal to children, who -- lured by the toys and tiny meals that are packaged together -- drive their parents to eat with them there (Schlosser, 2001). This is one example of what drives parents to consume fast food with their children. The rationale for this study is to understand some of reasons why parents consume fast food with their children.

Karen Campbell (2006) states that "it is likely that a child's eating behaviours are learnt in early childhood and that the home environment exerts substantial influence on the development of these behaviours (Birch and…… [Read More]

Reference List

Campbell, K. (2006). Australian parents' views on their 5-6-year-old children's food choices. Health Promotion International. doi:10.1093/heapro/dal035

Halford, Jason et al. (2007). Beyond-brand effect of television food

advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children. Appetite 49: 263-267.

Sanigorski, A. (2007). Association of key foods and beverages with obesity in Australian schoolchildren. Public Health Nutrition 10(2): 152-157. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980007246634
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Child Rearing Strategies

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50194369

Parenting Styles:

In psychology, parenting styles can be described as mental constructs that represent typical strategies used by parents in child rearing. Generally, many parents tend to develop their own strategies through a mixture of factors, which emerge over time as children move across various stages of life and develop their own personalities. In essence, parenting styles are influenced by the personalities of parents and children but are largely influenced by the parent's culture. Parenting styles are associated with several theories and opinions on the most effective means of child rearing and the varying levels of time and initiatives parents are ready to invest in the process of child rearing. Notably, the investment of a parent in the growth and development of a child usually begins before birth. However, parenting styles are also determined by various principles that contribute to division of these strategies in different categories.

Principles of Parenting…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Kopko, Kimberly. "Parenting Styles and Adolescents." Department of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell University. Cornell Cooperative Extension - Cornell University, 2007. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. .


Schnell, Christina. "Examples of Each of the Four Parenting Styles." Global Post - America's World News Site. GlobalPost - International News, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. .
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Vaccine and Austism Parents Have Every Right

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74070865

Vaccine and Austism

Parents have every right to be concerned about their child's health and well- being and for this reason; it's not very hard to fathom why they got seriously worried over an important research study that established a link between MMR vaccine and autism. The research was not ordinary. It was published in one of the most prestigious medical journals of Britain, The Lancet, and was written by a well-respected name in the field, Dr. Wakefield. The research established a link between vaccine and autism after eight children had allegedly developed autism symptoms after MMR vaccine.

The research came out more than a decade ago and was soon followed by series of studies on the subject that mostly rejected the original finding and found no link between the vaccine and autism symptoms. Interestingly after so many rejections, British medical community got involved in discovering the veracity of claims…… [Read More]

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Children Raised by Same-Sex Parents Have More

Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17832377

Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents

As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…… [Read More]


Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.

Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.

Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family

Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
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Overly Protective Parent

Words: 3246 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 34298267

Overly Protective Parents

All parents care about their children; about their education, food, security etc. But sometimes this concern can be transformed into something almost obsessive that compels some parents to constantly monitor every movement of their children and be over controlling. Some children of overprotective parents can end up being aggressive, but can also develop a withdrawn or anti-social personality. Such children also tend to be insecure, have low self-esteem because they never feel safe without their parents. They have no experience dealing with stress and do not know how to do it when they really need to start living on their own. In this paper an introduction of overly protective parents is given discussing the reasons why some parents are over protective. Then the effects of over protection on children are discussed and then the counseling of such children is recommended.

The Overly Protective Parents


Overprotective parents…… [Read More]


Clinton, T., & Sibcy, G. (2006). Loving your child too much: Staying close to your kids without overprotecting, overindulging, or overcontrolling. Nashville, TN: Integrity Publishers. ISBN: 1-591-45045-4.

Cloud, H. & Townsend, J. (2001). Boundaries with kids. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN: 0-310-24315-7.

Emler, N. (2001) Self-esteem: The Costs and Causes of Low Self-worth. York: York Publishing Services/Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Fletcher, A.C., Steinberg, L. And Williams-Wheeler, M. (2004) 'Parental influences on adolescent problem behaviour: revisiting Stattin and Kerr', Child Development, Vol. 75, pp. 781 -- 96.
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Pdf 1 Would a Sponge -Style Thinker a

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7661847

pdf) 1. Would a "sponge"-style thinker, a "pan -- gold"-style thinker? Think times method thinking. Do prefer method ? Why? I sponge style tinker bust pan gold 2.

Personally, in terms of critical thinking I most often tend to fall along the pattern of sponge-style thinking, but sometimes employ the pan-for-gold approach. An illustrative recurring example of my absorbing a large amount of given information without questioning it, is when I read a particularly thrilling book, such as crime fiction. In this case, I choose to "drink in" the author's words, as they make me feel part of the story.

However, at times I feel compelled to analyze the intake of information by asking questions designed to help me gain a better understanding. For instance, when a friend of mine launches in the account of a true story that happened to him, I listen carefully, make mental side-notes, and when…… [Read More]

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Zangle or Parent Connect Is

Words: 4814 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32315808

Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).

Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:

lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…… [Read More]

Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).


Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.
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Parental Involvement and Student Academic Achievement

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 39934806

Parent Involvement and Student Achievement

Parental Involvement and Student Academic Achievement

TA administration and staff believe schools are seeing a decrease in parental involvement as students enter high school. Research conducted by the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) Dropout Prevention Resource Guide (2008) has demonstrated the positive effects of parental involvement in schools.

Parental involvement in the eighth grade had a strong positive effect on the grade point average of 10th graders (Keith, T.Z., Keith, Quirk, Sperduto, Santillo, & Killings, 1998). In contrast, Balen and Moles (1994) and Hurst (2002) suggest when parents have a positive attitude regarding education and demonstrate trust that their children can do well, children perform better in school. However, parental involvement tends to decrease as students become older (p. 3).

Problem Statement

Historical and current studies have investigated the impact of parental involvement and student achievement. Diverse studies have considered how well students perform academically…… [Read More]

On a much larger sample of children (6,400 Americans, 14-18 years old) (Steinberg, 1992) conducted within the same two years that the previous researchers had started their study (1987-1988), Steinberg et al. (1992) found that parental involvement is more likely to promote adolescent school success as long as this academic involvement occurred in the context of an authoritative home environment.

This study was structured so as to examine long-term parenting style, including parental academic involvement with school performance in a sample of high school youth. Nine high schools from Wisconsin and North California were used in this study (Steinberg, 1992). Diversity was achieved as far as possible between different communities, ethnic population, family structures, and socioeconomic status levels. Self-report surveys were filled out by the students on two days of survey administration during the schools years of 1987-1988 and of 1988-1989 (Hill, 2004). In this case, I agree with the emphasis on self-reporting but the analytical framework, again, needs to be much stronger for truly measuring student perceptions as that is where the core of the mechanisms emerges.

The standard active consent form for ethical procedures was not used here since studies have shown that it would screen out individuals with possibly disengaged parents and it was precisely these individuals whom the researchers wished to include. Their procedure, therefore, was to request active consent from adolescents and passive consent from parents
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Two Parent Families the Importance

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86978892

While the same-sex parent is important in a child's life, the opposite-sex parent is also tremendously important. For the 90% of the population that are heterosexual, the opposite sex parent is the person who teaches them how to have romantic relationships. There is a reason that little girls love their daddies and that little boys are mama's boys, which has nothing to do with incest or actual sexual behavior. Instead, healthy opposite sex parents allow children to practice flirting and inter-gender behavior in a safe environment, free from sexual pressure. In fact, it is when children are deprived of interactions with their opposite-sex parent that they tend to seek adult attention elsewhere, becoming vulnerable to molesters and other predators. The opposite-sex parent is also important in the life of homosexual children, because they help teach children how to relate to people of different genders. There are recognized behavioral differences between…… [Read More]

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Should Parents Be Allowed to Select the Sex of Their Baby

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66052007

Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?


Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?

A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the gender of an offspring (Mail Online, 2013). The sperm carries the sex chromosome of a future child and sorting involves choosing the desired sex chromosome and then inseminating a woman with it. Gender can also be selected by abortion and before the embryonic stage through IVF or in vitro fertilization. Gender selection has been the subject of much debate because of its many consequences (Mail Online).

Artificial insemination consists of inserting concentrated sperm into the uterus to achieve a greater chance of fertilization (Stephens, 2011). Other methods are used to choose the gender of the baby. One is by using a dye on the desired gender from the sperm and then returning the dyed cell into womb. The Ericsson…… [Read More]


Dahl, E. (2003). Ethical issues in new uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis:

should parents be allowed to use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to choose the sexual orientation of their children? Vol. 18 # 7, Human Reproduction. Retrieved on November 11, 2013 from 

Knoppers, B.M. et al. (2006). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: an overview of socio-

ethical and legal considerations. Vol. 7, Annual Review of Genomic and Human
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Parental Involvement Critique of Parent

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 88656164

In this way, researchers can control for the effects of socioeconomic status and better extricate the true relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement (Fan & Chen, 2001).

Though the Smith (2006) study seeks in increase parental involvement in the school, it fails to connect the influence increased parental involvement had on had on the academic achievement of the students. The study would be of greater value had if there had been a pre-assessment and a post assessment to ascertain overall student academic gains.

esearch shows that low-income parents want to take part in their children's education. If, however, they perceive that teachers see them negatively, they often feel excluded. Parents identified three essential qualities of teachers they perceived to be good; 1) The teachers displayed respect and love for the children, 2) they communicated frequently with families, and 3) they visited the communities of their students (McCoach et. al.…… [Read More]


Fan, X., & Chen, M., (2001, March). Parental involement and students' academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational psychology review, Vol. 13, Issue 1, 1-22. Retrieved November 2, 2010 from 

McCoach, D.B., Goldstein, J., Behuniak, P., Reis, S.M., Black, A.C., Sullivan, E.E., & Rambo, K. (2010, Spring). Examing the unexpected: Outlier analyses of factors affecting student achievement. Journal of advanced academics, Vol. 21, Issue 3, 426-468. Retrieved November 2, 2010 from 

Payne, R.K. (1996) A framework for understanding poverty. Highland Texas: aha! Process, Inc.

Smith, J.G., (2006, Spring/Summer). Parental Involement in education among low-income families: A case study. The school community journal. Vol. 16, No.1. 43-56. Retrieved October 31, 2010 from
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Homosexual Marriage and the Effects of Parenting

Words: 1931 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10904344

Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting

Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…… [Read More]


Balling, R. (2012, Septemver 28). Why same-sex marriage affects my marriage. Retrieved from Star tribune: 

Carey, B. (2012, June 11). Debate on a Study Examining Gay Parents. Retrieved from NYTimes: 

Chrisler, J. (2010, June 24). Why gay parents are good parents. Retrieved from (n.d.). Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds. Retrieved from
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Leadership Foster Parents 'Realism-Quality' Approaches to Leadership

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54114614


Foster parents:

'ealism-quality' approaches to leadership in the real world of social services

I have described myself as a 'realism-quality' leader who believes on the need to be task specific. I try to set realistic goals that are achievable and conceivable for my subordinates. This type of leadership is very useful when dealing with some of the challenges that arise in the context of a nonprofit organization that focuses on children in foster care. Very often, parents are initially not prepared for the difficulties that may arise when coping with a child with severe behavioral, emotional, or psychological issues.

One example of a 'realistic' approach that I had to take was when a foster mother assumed the care of a child but was not able to take full control over the situation and left the child's care for part of the day to her adult daughter, who frequently arrived…… [Read More]


Gelfand, Michelle J., Lisa M. Leslie, Kirsten Keller, & Carsten K.W. Dedreu. (2008). Cultures of conflict.

Tsasis, Peter. (2009). The social processes of interorganizational collaboration and conflict in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership. 20 (1).
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Overprotective Parenting as Teenagers Children Are Very

Words: 3421 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61524795

Overprotective Parenting

As teenagers, children are very dependent on their parents. They rely on parents for food and shelter, for transportation, for financial support, and so on. However, parents often take their responsibilities too far, and their concern for the child's welfare and desire to be good parents may cause them to stifle the child's growth. This kind of parenting is known as overprotective parenting.

In ideal situations, parents allow for a gradual progression of independence. Discipline, rules, standards and expectations are applied in direct ratio to age. In younger years, children need a great deal of guidance and control in order to prevent serious and harmful mistakes from being made. ut as they grow in maturity and experience, they are capable of making more choices for themselves. They can begin to deal with the consequences of their mistakes.

This research paper aims to take an in-depth look at the…… [Read More]


Crick, N.R. Relational Aggression: The Role of Intent Attributions, Feelings of Distress, and Provocation Type. Development and Psychopathology. 1995.

Fay, Jim. Parenting Teens With Love & Logic: Preparing Adolescents for Responsible Adulthood. Navpress. 1993.

Espurva, David. The Complete Guide to Overprotective Parenting. Hansson, 2000.

Foster, W Cline. Parenting With Love and Logic: Teaching Children Responsibility. Navpress, 1993.
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Psychosocial Difficulties That Parents of

Words: 1500 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39599935


Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, iehl JC, MacQueen, and lackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year ook, Inc. 1997.

Evans O, Tew , Laurence KM. The fathers of children with spina bifida. Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie [Surgery in Infancy and Childhood]. 1986;41 Suppl 1:42-44.

Fagan J, Schor D. Mothers of children with spina bifida: factors related to maternal psychosocial functioning. (1993) American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1993;63:146-152. [


Holmbeck GN, Gorey Ferguson L, Hudson T, Seefeldt T, Shapera W, Turner T, Uhler J. (1997)Maternal, paternal, and marital functioning in families of preadolescents with spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1997;22:167-181. [


Kazak AE. Families with disabled children: stress and social networks in three samples. (1987)Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1987;15:137-146. doi: 10.1007/F00916471. [


Minnesota Title V MCH Needs Assessment Fact Sheets…… [Read More]


Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1992) Children with physical handicaps and their mothers: The interrelation of social support, maternal adjustment, and child adjustment. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1992;17:725-739. [


Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1994) Optimism, appraisals, and coping in the adjustment of mothers and their children with spina bifida. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 1995;4:303-320.

Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, Biehl JC, MacQueen, and Blackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 1997.
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Children of Parents Who Smoke

Words: 2263 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26403857

At any rate, the identity of the subjects may not be significant. hat will be needed are basic demographic information (such as age, level of family income etc.), and the direct answers to the survey questions.

A second ethical consideration is the use of other research paper or reports as references. But this can be easily solved by citing all the references that I will be using though a credible citation style. This then shows that the research abides with the copyright law of those published journals, articles and/or reports.


Summary of the reviewed literature will serve as one major factor for the conclusion. This will provide amble information regarding the subject matter. From the said literature review, statistics and other vital information regarding parent smokers and children smokers will be revealed. This information is not limited from one country or area alone, because for sure, the epidemiology and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Smoking Statistics. March 1999. . June 4, 2004.

What Smoking Does to Your Body? 4, 2004.
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Chinese Parenting Amy Chua's Model

Words: 1495 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46705349

By suggesting that the Chinese methods of parenting are better -- or that at least Chinese mothers produce more skillful and successful children -- Chua is touching upon the popular American concern. Just consider that there are a billion like Chua back in China! Chua again appeals to similar rhetoric when she tries to defend her argument. Trying to convince her readers that rote repetition is a good method of learning, she says that it is actually a "fun" learning technique. Here again Chua knows her readers. It is known that the idea of a practice involving "fun" is very important and popular in America. But here, Chua explains that the Chinese method of forcing children to learn more and rigorously through rote repetition may seem harsh and dull for Western parents, but when it is done properly, it is not only a road to success but also a fun…… [Read More]


aChua, a. (2011) Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 5, 2011, from 

bChua, a. (2011) the Tiger Mother Responds to Readers. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 5, 2011, from 

"Chinese Man Drops After 3-Day Gaming Binge," (2007) Associated Press. Retrieved February 5, 2011, from,2933,297059,00.html#ixzz1D9EhR7sO 

Dejesus, I. (2011) 'Battle Humn of the Tiger Mother' Book Says Chinese Mothers, Offspring are Superior. The Patriot News. Retrieved on February 5, 2011, from
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Omer Haim 2001 Helping Parents

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23590781

The objective is always to quell escalating hostilities, while still forcing the child to show respect to others.

To further persuade the reader, Omer provides a case example of a child who has benefitted from the 'sit in' technique: an isolated, verbally and physically abusive twelve-year-old who lashed out at his parents, young sister, and schoolmates, and who also showed tendencies of OCD. Omer notes that the sit-in was not immediately used: as always, there was a period of counseling to help the parents work through the issues that had arisen in their relationship, due to the stress of raising the boy, and other outside factors. This was done because it is critical for the success of the sit-in that the parents present a united front and an emotionally healthy front to the difficult child.

The first intervention focused on ensuring the boy behaved respectfully to his sister, and ended…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Omer, Haim. (2001). Helping parents deal with children's acute disciplinary problems without escalation: The principle of nonviolent resistance. Family Process, 40(1), 53-66.

Retrieved October 8, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library. (Document ID: 70437234).
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Liberated Parents Liberated Children

Words: 1566 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90709578


Liberated Parents, Liberated Children

Authors Adele Faber and Elaine Mazlish wrote their counter cultural book regarding tips and tactics for parents to use as they raised children before the term "counter cultural" had become politically correct. In 1974, when the majority of children were being raised under the questionable permissive advice of Dr. Spock, these authors focused on another aspect of child rearing. They were significantly influenced by child psychologist Hiam Ginott who believed that it was the emotional well-being of the child that would guide his actions. Ginott, quoted in Faber and Mazlich's book, said that he believed that "when parents are given the skills to be more helpful (to their children's emotional development) not only are they able to use these skills, but they infuse them with a warmth and a style that is uniquely their own. [parenthesis added]" (Faber and Mazlish, 1974

In their book, Liberated…… [Read More]


Brooks-Gunn, J., and Cox, M. (1999) Conflict and Cohesion in Families: Causes and Consequences. Research Consortium on Family Risk and Resilience; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ehrensaft, Diane. (1997). Spoiling childhood: How well-meaning parents are giving children too much-But not what they need. New York: Guilford.

Faber, A and Mazlich, E. (1974) Liberated Parents; Liberated Children

Avon Books, New York, N.Y.
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Study on Parents with Autistic Children

Words: 1500 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39071859

Autism is a problem with significant negative impacts on affected children and their parents/families who require wide-ranging support services for their children. For family members, the condition generates distress when raising the affected child due to the psychological and social problems it creates. Therefore, the consideration of parental mental health is an important aspect for social workers and mental healthcare providers when attending to these special needs' kids and creating interventions for children diagnosed with autism. In this regard, the research problem to be examined in this study is the link between hopefulness, quality of life (QOF) and internalized stigma for parents with autistic children.

Plan for Identifying Research Question and Sub-questions

The plan for identifying the research question and relevant sub-questions in this study involves utilizing the PICO format. First, the researcher identified the population or problem of interest i.e. parents with children suffering from autism. This was followed…… [Read More]

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Finances Challenge of Ineffective Parenting Challenge of

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49504744


Challenge of ineffective parenting

Challenge of temptation to succumb to societal vices

The Biggest Challenge Facing Young Adults Today:

- General Purpose: This article is to examine the major challenges that young adults confront in today's society.

- Specific Purpose: The paper is to determine the causes of these challenges in relation to parenting, societal changes, and vices in the society.

Central Idea: The main idea is underlying this paper is to assess issues young adults face in modern society.

There are several challenges facing young adults in the modern society because of the evolving time frame and many changes taking place in the society. These challenges have affected nearly every facet of the society including the economic structure and parenting responsibilities. The societal changes are attributed to the shift in priorities since individuals are usually seeking for ways of improving their lifestyles. The first challenge facing young adults…… [Read More]


Demee-Benoit, D. (2007, July 24). What are the Biggest Challenges Young Adults Face Today?

Retrieved July 7, 2013, from 

"Young Adults Face a Rough Road Ahead." (2011, December 13). Center for American

Progress. Retrieved July 7, 2013, from
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Leadership Style Being Employed in the Case

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75988335

Leadership style being employed in the case study covering the City Academy Bristol is what some experts might call participative and/or collaborative leadership. A collaborative leadership style allows for all participants to have a voice, and in this case study, the students are asked to assume the role of leader and participant while engaging in activities that call for collaboration, and participation. As one recent study determined "collaborative leadership practices that involve employees in workplace decision-making have been shown to increase commitment" (Steinheider, Wuestewald, 2008, p. 145), and in this study increasing the commitment level of all the stakeholders (including; students, teachers, administrators and parents) is one of the primary goals of the study.

One of the benefits derived from a collaborative leadership style is that it fosters creativity. Students (and other participants) are often called upon to work together and become highly engaged in projects and the decision-making process.…… [Read More]


Hallingera, P. & Heck, R.H.; (2010) Collaborative leadership and school improvement: Understanding the impact on school capacity and student learning, School Leadership & Management, Vol. 30, Issue 2, pp. 95 -- 110

Steinheider, B. & Wuestewald, T.; (2008) From the bottom-up: Sharing leadership in a police agency, Police Practice & Research, Vol. 9, Issue 2, pp. 145 -- 163