Parenting Styles Can Be Generally Term Paper

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At the same time, authoritative parents use discipline judiciously.

Unlike authoritative parents, permissive parents shy away from discipline. They are overly indulgent to their child's whims. Permissive parents tolerate a wide range of behaviors that would not be tolerated by either authoritarian or authoritative parents. Although permissive parents can be emotionally nurturing, they often erect barriers to parent-child communication because of not paying closer attention to the developmental and maturation needs of the child.

Authoritative parents do not show much warmth toward their children. They can be unresponsive and emotionally detached, demanding a "be seen, not heard" environment. Discipline is heavy-handed but unlike authoritative parents, authoritarian parents do not explain their punishments or communicate
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with their children. However, they do not coddle their children like permissive parents do and do not tolerate emotional outbursts.

The effect of parenting style on self-esteem has been widely studied. Children who grow up in an authoritarian household can have problems relating to peers, low self-esteem, and academic problems. Children who grow up in permissive households often demonstrate aggressive behaviors and immature peer relations. Warash & Markstrom (2001) examined the effects of self-reported parenting style on preschool-aged children's academic self-esteem. The researchers found that mothers and fathers use different parenting styles on children of the opposite gender but that in general, consistency and an authoritative parenting style can foster academic self-esteem.


Warash, B. & Markstrom, C. (2001). Parental perceptions of parenting styles in relation to academic…

Sources Used in Documents:


Warash, B. & Markstrom, C. (2001). Parental perceptions of parenting styles in relation to academic self-esteem of preschoolers. Education. 121(3).

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