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The research of Wofendale (1991) demonstrated the effectiveness of parents who provided support for the learning process of their child and holds that involvement in schools by parents is likely the primary indicator of performance of the child in school. The Michigan Department of Education reports that the "most consistent predictors of children's academic achievement and social adjustment are parent expectations of the child's academic attainment and satisfaction with their child's education at school." (2001) it is also noted that parents of student who are high achiever's set standards that are "higher...for their children's educational activities than parents of low-achieving students." (Clark, 7:85-105 in: The Michigan Department of Education, 2001)
Cited as the three primary factors of parental involvement in their children's education are the following: (1) beliefs of parents about what is important, necessary and permissible for them to do with and on behalf of their children; (3) the…
American Psychological Association. (1994). Publication manual of the American psychological association (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Aram, D. (2006). Early literacy interventions: The relative roles of storybook reading,
Baker, a.J.L., & Soden, L.M. (1997). Parent involvement in children's education: A critical Assessment of the knowledge base. (Report No. PS-025357). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED407127)
Barbour, C. Barbour, H. N, Wright, K. & Stegelin a.D. (2003). Family and Community Involvement. Custom Electronic Text for University of Phoenix. Prentice-Hall, Inc. A Pearson Education Company.
" Through their study of La Familia, the authors present a strategic plan for other Latino families to get organized and help their children succeed later in school and in life. La Familia -- parents of middle school children that had not been performing well in school -- began with small meetings in the homes of parents (conducted entirely in Spanish) and as trust was established among the parents, they created a "working partnership with the school" (Jasis, 2004, p. 38). "Convivencia" means "…the flowing moments of collective creation and solidarity" -- and in the case of La Familia, convivencia also brought a "bonding" that was built from an "…emerging moral quest" to help children become better students, Jasis relates (p. 39). The group began as a "self-affirming" activist assemblage, and moved from there into a "desvelamiento critico" (critical unveiling) of reality (p. 41).
The group avoided "political posturing" during…
Garcia, Carolyn, Skay, Carol, Sieving, Renee, Naughton, Sandy, and Bearinger, Linda H. (2008).
Family and racial factors associated with suicide and emotional distress among Latino students. Journal of School Health, 78(9), 487-496.
Gilliam, Brenda, Gerla, Jacqueline Parten, and Wright, Gary. (2004). Providing Minority Parents
With Relevant Literacy Activities for Their Children. Reading Improvement, 41(4), 226-234.
In a diverse or bilingual classroom environment, the presence of parents integrates school and family in a positive way, and encourages a better attitude towards learning. "Encourage parents from other countries to come in and tell stories about their native lands, share favorite books from their childhoods, talk about their hobbies, and so on." (Shalaway, 1994) Positive interventions in classroom management on the part of parents can also encourage parents of high-risk students, who might have had negative experiences themselves with teaching, to establish positive attachments to the school in a way that is helpful to the parent and to the student. "Some family stories...illustrated how providing help with rather than avoiding such issues led to both successful father involvement and improved family and child outcomes," even with estranged fathers. (MacAllister, 2004)
Teachers must take it upon themselves to set a pattern of parents becoming involved in the classroom from…
Gazin, Ann. (August 1999) "Keeping them on the edge of their seats." Instructor. Retrived 4 December 2004 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0STR/is_1_109/ai_55471445
Shalaway, Leslie. (1994) "14 ways to get parents to volunteer." Instructor. Retrieved 4 December 2004 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0STR/is_n1_v104/ai_15669481
McAllister, Carol L. (Winter 2004) "From sports fans to nurturers: an Early Head Start program's evolution toward father involvement." Fathering. Retrieved 4 December 2004 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PAV/is_1_2/ai_n6031095/print
Secondary School Parent Involvement
Parental engagement in a child's learning is typically imperative and required for a student to realize their true potential and this is a generally accepted fact for a number of reasons. However, the level of involvement that a parent or parents have with their child's learning at the pivotal and important secondary school level that connects elementary learning and college-level learning has to be balanced as going to either extreme can be harmful. Disengaged parents can obviously hurt secondary-level students but students that are too engaged or wrongly engaged need to be managed and massaged as well whenever possible because the damage can be just as bad if not worse than a disengaged parent.
It is customary and expected for parents to be highly involved in their child's learning at the elementary level and it is also common for parents to start to disengage…
Aleccia, J. (2013, May 26). Helping or hovering? When 'helicopter parenting' backfires
NBC News.com. Breaking News & Top Stories - World News, U.S. & Local | NBC
News. Retrieved August 20, 2013, from http://www.nbcnews.com/health/helping -
Parent Involvement and Student Academic Performance: A Multiple Mediational Analysis
David R. Topor, Susan P. Keane, Terri L. Shelton, and Susan D. Calkins
Numerous studies have shown a clear positive relationship between the involvement of a parent in a child's education, and the academic performance of the child. This particular study seeks to explore the mechanisms of the said association. On that front, only two potential mechanisms are taken into consideration. These, according to the authors, include; 1) the quality of the relationship between the teacher and the student, and 2) the child's perception of cognitive competence. A total of one hundred and fifty eight 7-year-olds participated in this study. The sample also included their teachers and mothers. It is important to note that data was in this case sourced from three key centers; the child, their mothers, and teachers -- with the gathering of data from the first two…
Finally, Boothroyd (2010) suggests that because the authors of PCI do not provide guidance on how parents are defined, the assessment may not be appropriate for families with a parenting structure other than two biological parents. It seems that while the PCI is considered a valid and reliable assessment for some populations, further study should be conducted with a more diverse norming sample.
Coffman, J.K., Guerin, D.W., & Gottfried, A.W. (2006). eliability and validity of the parent-child relationship inventory (PCI): Evidence from a longitudinal cross-informant investigation. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 209-214. doi:10.1037/1040-3518.104.22.168
Gerard, A.B.Parent-child relationship inventory Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251; ephone [HIDDEN]; FAX [HIDDEN]; Web: www.wpspublish.com. etrieved from http://ezproxy.library.capella.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mmt&AN=TIP07001840&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Heinze, M.C., & Grisso, T. (1996). eview of instruments assessing parenting competencies used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(3), 293-313. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199622)14:33.0.CO;2-0
Schroeder, V., & Kelley, M. (2009). Associations between family environment,…
Coffman, J.K., Guerin, D.W., & Gottfried, A.W. (2006). Reliability and validity of the parent-child relationship inventory (PCRI): Evidence from a longitudinal cross-informant investigation. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 209-214. doi:10.1037/1040-3522.214.171.124
Gerard, A.B.Parent-child relationship inventory Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251; ephone [HIDDEN]; FAX [HIDDEN]; Web: www.wpspublish.com. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.capella.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mmt&AN=TIP07001840&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Heinze, M.C., & Grisso, T. (1996). Review of instruments assessing parenting competencies used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(3), 293-313. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199622)14:33.0.CO;2-0
Schroeder, V., & Kelley, M. (2009). Associations between family environment, parenting practices, and executive functioning of children with and without ADHD. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 18(2), 227-235. doi:10.1007/s10826-008-9223-0
Parent Involvement and Student Achievement
Parental Involvement and Student Academic Achievement
TA administration and staff believe schools are seeing a decrease in parental involvement as students enter high school. Research conducted by the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) Dropout Prevention Resource Guide (2008) has demonstrated the positive effects of parental involvement in schools.
Parental involvement in the eighth grade had a strong positive effect on the grade point average of 10th graders (Keith, T.Z., Keith, Quirk, Sperduto, Santillo, & Killings, 1998). In contrast, Balen and Moles (1994) and Hurst (2002) suggest when parents have a positive attitude regarding education and demonstrate trust that their children can do well, children perform better in school. However, parental involvement tends to decrease as students become older (p. 3).
Historical and current studies have investigated the impact of parental involvement and student achievement. Diverse studies have considered how well students perform academically…
On a much larger sample of children (6,400 Americans, 14-18 years old) (Steinberg, 1992) conducted within the same two years that the previous researchers had started their study (1987-1988), Steinberg et al. (1992) found that parental involvement is more likely to promote adolescent school success as long as this academic involvement occurred in the context of an authoritative home environment.
This study was structured so as to examine long-term parenting style, including parental academic involvement with school performance in a sample of high school youth. Nine high schools from Wisconsin and North California were used in this study (Steinberg, 1992). Diversity was achieved as far as possible between different communities, ethnic population, family structures, and socioeconomic status levels. Self-report surveys were filled out by the students on two days of survey administration during the schools years of 1987-1988 and of 1988-1989 (Hill, 2004). In this case, I agree with the emphasis on self-reporting but the analytical framework, again, needs to be much stronger for truly measuring student perceptions as that is where the core of the mechanisms emerges.
The standard active consent form for ethical procedures was not used here since studies have shown that it would screen out individuals with possibly disengaged parents and it was precisely these individuals whom the researchers wished to include. Their procedure, therefore, was to request active consent from adolescents and passive consent from parents
When it comes to children and how well they do (or do not do) in schools, a lot of the invective and scrutiny is directed towards the teachers at the school and the administrators that govern the same. Whether it be parents showing disdain for how well the students are not doing or whether it be national laws such as No Child Left Behind, the teachers seem to shoulder a lot of the blame when students do not perform as expected or desired. However, to just blame the teachers would be unwise because they are only part of equation and some would argue that teachers are not even the biggest part of the equation. While having adept teachers imparting knowledge to students is important, having parents or guardians of those children that are involved and engaged is even more important.
One of the linchpins of student success…
Harji, M. B., Balakrishnan, K., & Letchumanan, K. (2016). SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement
in Young Children's ESL Reading Development. English Language Teaching, 9(12), 1-
Hemmerechts, K., Agirdag, O., & Kavadias, D. (2017). The relationship between parental
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
For example, Leventhal (2001) analyzed different intervention methodology and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect as well as promoting the health and development of the infant and mother, by specifically looking at the Healthy Families Olds' models.
Kass and colleagues (2003) from Fight Crime: Invest in Kids argue that the cycle of violence can be prevented with intervention methods including parenting education. oberts, Wolman and Harris-Looby (2004, p. 101) state that "teaching students parenting skills may be the most cost-effective way to reduce violent and abusive behaviors and prevent the transfer of violent behaviors from generation to generation." They found that for less than $1,000, Project Baby Care, a parental training program developed for adolescents proved successful in improving parental knowledge and skills and attitudes toward caring for an infant.
Another study (Hughs & Gottlieb, 2004), regarding the effects of the Webster-Stratton parenting program on parenting…
Belsky, J. & Vondra, J. (1989), 'Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting', in D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds), Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect, New York: Cambridge University Press, 153-202.
Chalk, R. & King, P.A. (Eds) (1998), Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs, Washington DC: National Academy Press,
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (U.S.), Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACF). Child maltreatment 2003. Washington (DC): Government Printing Office; 2005. Website retrieved May 10, 2007 www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm03/index.htm.
Fine, M.J. (1980), Handbook on Parent Education, Academic Press, New York.
Family Involvement at School
I enjoy working with the students at my school tremendously. At the K-8 school in Borough Park Brooklyn NY, there are largely Chinese and Hispanic demographics. Working with students and parents is what will prove crucial in improving the academic success of the students.
There are a number of things that are happening at my school in regards to family-involvement that are really making me excited for the improvement of the students' academic success. A lot of my Chinese-American students do get a lot of parent involvement at home. I hear from the students that their parents help them with daily homework and even push them to go beyond that day's lesson in order to prepare for the next upcoming lessons. In fact, I do see a heightened level of at-home parent involvement with the Chinese-American students, probably more so than any other demographic of students…
Like Mr. Johnson, he acknowledged that student behavior was different "back then" when he was in school: "Some of the things I've seen here with kids never really occurred in my time" (personal communication, January 26, 2011).
In keeping with his enthusiastic responses about Springfield Gardens, Mr. Benton was pleased to discuss the school and its community relations. He cited a technology program for grandparents offered once or twice a week at the school, involvement by congressmen and elected officials -- although he did not provide details how that is manifest -- and after-school programs conducted through the auspices of the YMCA, an organization with which he himself is active. He believes there is a considerable effort underway, although there is still more to do.
Principal Gordon was much more cautious in his enthusiasm. He acknowledged that the YMCA program provided support five days a week and reported a good…
I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens. (2011). Our mission. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/School
I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens. (2011). Statistics. Retrieved from
Only after this a further section returns to the fact of the lack of research involving father involvement and how this is influenced by child characteristics.
Once the document turns to the investigation and methods to be used, the presentation of information becomes more logical and academically stronger. The research questions are for example pertinently mentioned in "The Present Study" section. The questions directly pertain to the issue previously indicated, i.e. The parenting involvement of fathers, and how this is influenced by children and various aspects in their character.
In the "Method" section, I noticed that participants were mainly homogeneous in terms of race and age. No specific reason was given for this, but I presume it is for the purpose of consistency, as cultural values and social status would probably influence the parenting paradigm. In this way, I believe the study provides a valuable springboard for futher studies in…
eluctance of Parents to Visit the School
ole of Parents in Children's Education
Education has always been a very important part of human existence and has been an inseparable part of human civilization. There has been a lot of development on the education portal and mankind has learned great deal from the education function (Jeynes, 2005). Every milestone which is achieved and every development which is made in any direction is due to the knowledge provided through education. This function has been researched and is very much detailed in terms of style and method. Several researchers and experts have proposed and devised methods which can make education and knowledge imparting more effective and efficient (Hill & Tyson, 2009). Talking about a student at elementary level, it is all the more important to understand the needs of such young individuals and analyze the education function accordingly (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2007). This…
Jeynes, W.H. (2005).A metaanalysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education. 40(3), 237-269.
Stewart, E.B. (2008). School structural characteristics, student effort, peer associations, and parental involvement: The influence of school and individual level factors on academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 40(2), 179-204.
Hill, N.E. & Tyson, D.F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a met analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 740-763.
Hill, N., and Taylor, L. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4) 161-164.
Administrative Strategies for Effective Communication
Education contains multiple responsibilities. One starts the learning process in the world from within the family nurture, before continuing to pursue formal education in schools and academy. However, human does not stop learning from their family. Getting exposed to higher education, they also learn things from hands-on experiences and from what are happening in their surroundings.
This reveals the fact that family and environment are two contributing factors, in addition to formal education process in official institution in a community. The three factors determine how education makes one person in the society a distinct, honorable man.
With the great potentials, now education has been a regional issue. Fully conventional learning processes have been attempted within the education system. However, with the growing needs to perform effective schooling and to gain the best academic result, educators realize the need to incorporate the three factors: school, parents,…
Chalkboard Tips and Resources. 1996. The Family Resource Coalition's Report "Parents Leading the Way" Vol. 15 No. 2. Web site: http://www.handinhand.org/parentinvolve.html.
ERIC Document. Communities Connecting Family and Schools. Strong Families, Strong Schools. Web site: http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/families/strong/community.html
ERIC Document. School-Family Web site: http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/families/strong/sfp.html.
ERIC Documents. Family Involvement. Strong Families, Strong Schools. http://eric-web.tc.columbia.eu/families/strong/involve.html.
And when the parent comes to an event held in the classroom, it makes good sense to have interpreters available, and "invite the extended family," which of course is a very welcoming act of kindness and good judgment. The other parent in this list of "types" is the "Busy Parent," who is a person with a work schedule that is hard to get a hold of, or plan meetings for. Get the cell phone number of parents like this, and the email addresses, and "continue to send home their children's work on a regular basis, including writing samples, artwork, and test copies" - and even consider taking digital photos of class activities and attaching those pictures to emails that go to parents.
On a more serious note, the literature on school administration duties as far as training staff to be parent-active and family-friendly offers an article called "here's the Ministry…
Beaudoin, Nelson. (2006). Giving Stakeholders a Voice. Educational Leadership, 63(8), 74-75.
Flannery, Mary Ellen. (2005). A field guide to parents: famed for its vast appetite for information
And ability to protect its offspring, the parent genus has nonetheless eluded scientific study.
Until now. NEA Today, 24(2), 36-38.
Grant Proposal for Strengthening the Family Unit
Program Design and Implementation
The overall design and structure of the program will orbit around multiple activities and methodologies which are designed to fortify the overall family unit, most notably the parental unit. Parenting is an extremely challenging endeavor and one which can put a considerable strain on a marriage -- even the strongest marriage. Thus, one of the foremost aspects of the program in general will consist of a parenting skills training program to minimize behavior problems in young children (particularly when these children are at the most difficult age) by bolstering the level of parent self-efficacy through beneficial parenting behaviors and overall child discipline strategies (NEPP, 2012).
Many of the strategies used in this case will be modeled after the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which is an extremely well organized program that is founded in the notion that parents play the…
Flay, B., & Allred, C. (2010). The Positive Action Program. International Research Handbook on Values Education, 471-481.
GGC. (2012, July). Guiding Good Choices. Retrieved from NREPP: [HIDDEN]
Lia, K., Washburn, I., & DuBois, D. (2011). Effects of the Positive Action programme on problem behaviours in elementary school students. Psychology and Health, 187-204.
NREPP. (2012, August). Chicago Parent Program. Retrieved from NREPP
For example, Walker and Hennig add that, "It has frequently been found that children (particularly boys) in divorced, mother-custody families exhibit lower levels of well-being than children in intact families, with more externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and lower levels of cognitive and social competence" (p. 64). My son is also currently at a formative period that has special significance for single-parents families. For instance, Walker and Hennig also point out that, "Single-mother families are often affectively charged, with high instrumental affection combined with high negativity and conflict, particularly in the transition to adolescence" (1997, p. 64).
The "transition to adolescence" can be a rocky period in anyone's life, of course, and it is reasonable to expect my son to experience some problems in general and with me in particular during this transitional period. Fortunately, this challenging developmental period is eased somewhat as children grow into mid-adolescence. As Walker and…
Burns, A. & Scott, C. (1999). Mother-headed families and why they have increased. Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Crossman, S.M. & Adams, G.R. (1990). Divorce, single parenting and child development.
Journal of Psychology, 106(2), 205-207.
The writer concludes that the social scientists have been correct when they have mentioned the family dynamics and parental behavior as major influences in the growth and development of the child.
Also Henry iller (1993) asserts that the ability of the parents to develop an intimate connection with their baby and their essential responsibility throughout the newborn's growth and maturity has a profound impact on the behavior of the child because it helps their child to build and grow an upbeat body figure, self-worth, ethical principles and academic and social capability.
Therefore in light of the above mentioned facts it is essential for parents to spend a lot of time with their children and engage in constructive activities so that they can be emotionally connected with their parents and grow up to be trusting and loving individuals.
Annie Murphy Paul. Do Parents Really Matter? Psychology Today, Vol. 31, January-February…
Annie Murphy Paul. Do Parents Really Matter? Psychology Today, Vol. 31, January-February 1998
Betsy Bates. Parents' 'Prompting' Behavior Encourages Smoking. (Survey of Seventh and Eighth Graders). Family Practice News; 11/1/2001.
Fred Hutchinson. Parents Who Quit Smoking When Their Kids Are Young May Have a Big Influence on Whether Their Offspring Will Quit Smoking in Young Adulthood. PR Newswire; 3/1/2005
Henry B. Biller. Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development. Auburn House, 1993
Family therapy believes that problems that the individuals evidence stem from the fact that problems occur within the family unit itself and that the family is divided into several component parts. To address these problems the therapist, as it were, therefore steps into the family unit, becomes "a part of it" and intervenes. His doing so not only enables him to see the family patterns from the inside; thereby understanding faults of fission but also enable him to practice therapy. Intervention in the family is called enactment.
Enactment refers to the therapist encouraging acting of dysfunctional relationship patterns within the family therapy session and him acting out some of this behavior by actually entering the family unit. The therapist thereby learns about the family's structure and interactional patterns and is able to interfere in the process by modifying some of the negative elements, pointing these out, intensifying positive elements, and…
Family Systems institute Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration and Critique
Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy
Baird, J., ehm, ., Hinds, P., Baggot, C., Davies, B. (2016). Do you know my child?
Continuity of nursing care in the pediatric intensive care unit. Nursing esearch, 65(2): 142-150.
Barid et al. (2016) provide a grounded theory, qualitative assessment of seven parents and 12 nurses using in-depth interviews with participants, observational assessment, and documents from within the organization under scrutiny in order to "explore the delivery of continuity of nursing care in the PICU from the perspective of both parents and nurses" (p. 142). The researchers describe continuity of nursing as being very important to parents, as they feel that there is better consistency of quality care when there is consistency within the ranks of the staff in terms of how nurses treat patients, how prompt they are, how their persona is and how well they interact with patients and parents, etc. Through the conducting of interviews with parents,…
Baird, J., Rehm, R., Hinds, P., Baggot, C., Davies, B. (2016). Do you know my child?
Continuity of nursing care in the pediatric intensive care unit. Nursing Research, 65(2): 142-150.
Synthesis of the Literature
Involvement of parents in the education of their children both in the classroom and at home has the potential or greatly enhancing the education of a child. It is important for schools to tap into the potential of the parents to support their child's education can help in better and effective teaching. Conversely, when the parents work in close collaboration with the teachers at school and follow the suggestions and directions prescribed for the students while dealing with their education at home can also help children do better in studies (Hendricks, 2013).
esearcher Susan Graham-Clay, in her article titled "Communicating with Parents: Strategies for Teachers," claims that often teachers try to develop a partnership with the parents to create a support system for student learning (Dubis & Bernadowski, 2014). esearchers claim that one of the major factors in the development of this partnership is…
Cook, B., Shepherd, K., Cook, S., & Cook, L. (2012). Facilitating the Effective Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices through Teacher-Parent Collaboration. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(3), 22-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004005991204400303
Dubis, S. & Bernadowski, C. (2014). Communicating with parents of children with special needs in Saudi Arabia: parents' and teachers' perceptions of using email for regular and ongoing communication. British Journal Of Special Education, 42(2), 166-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8578.12061
Griffin, S. (2009). Communicating with parents. Practical Pre-School, 2009(106), 15-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/prps.2009.1.106.44936
Hendricks, C. (2013). Improving schools Through action research: A reflective practice approach (3rd ed.). Boston: Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior
Different Parenting Styles
This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.
Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…
Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? new york: Routledge.
Kim, M. (1999). Parental Involvement, Family Processes, and Parenting Styles of First Generation Korean parents on early childhood education. New York: Umi.
Nevid, J.S. (2009). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. New York: wadsworth.
Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child And Adolescent Development for Educators. New York: Guilford Publications.
Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. he researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. he author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. hose competencies will carry over into middle and high school. herefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.
African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal…
Thompson's research is highly relevant to school administrators and counselors throughout the country. Most schools in the United States will have a substantial number of African-American students. Their needs and those of their parents are not being addressed well enough. Establishing solid ties between schools and their communities will help improve pubic relations and may also help raise the academic performance standards for African-American children. School administrators, teachers, and counselors should be able to satisfy the needs of all parents and children.
The researcher used a questionnaire to gather data about perceptions of public schools. All participants were self-described as African-Americans. A high number of participants were dissatisfied with their children's high school teachers: a greater number than those dissatisfied only with their children's elementary school teachers. Thompson (2003) also found that the participants' perceptions of elementary school teachers was positively correlated with perceptions of high school teachers. Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. The researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. The author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. Those competencies will carry over into middle and high school. Therefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.
African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal effort. Ohters noted that racism and race awareness might affect school performance. Regardless of perceived reasons for African-American student performance in school, the system must respond to the persistent achievement gap between black and white students. Thompson's (2003) research emphasizes the need to establish relationships with African-American parents early: before high school. Although the author does not offer any specific suggestions for policy change, some can be inferred. For example, African-American parents expressed a preference for educational materials that they deemed relevant and meaningful for their children (p. 10). Consulting with African-American parents when their children are still in elementary school might help those parents trust that the system is responsive to their needs and the needs of their children.
36). Thus, such research could also generate results which point to the truths of human words and actions of parents that contribute to healthy and unhealthy relationships with alcohol. In this case, these findings would not be as the result of numbers, but would be as the result of uncovered viewpoints and perspectives verbalized by the participants.
Which parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, uninvolved) in the Jewish community (Ashkanas, Hasidic, Sfardy) connects most strongly with college freshman (18-26) alcohol abuse and alcohol maturity?
How do offspring's perspectives on their parents' parenting styles impact their relationship with alcohol as it manifests during college years in the Jewish community?
How do parenting styles characterized by warmth and attentiveness impact children's consumption of alcohol in the college years in the Jewish community?
How do parenting styles characterized by high expectations, structure and rigidity impact children's relationship to alcohol during college years…
Balter, L. (2000). Parenthood in America: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
Benson, J.B.; Haith, M.M. (2009). Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego: Academic Press.
Cohen, D., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting Styles, Adolescent Substance Use, and Academic Achievement. Journal of Drug Education, 199-211.
Houghton, E., & Roche, a. (2001). Learning About Drinking. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Overly Protective Parents
All parents care about their children; about their education, food, security etc. But sometimes this concern can be transformed into something almost obsessive that compels some parents to constantly monitor every movement of their children and be over controlling. Some children of overprotective parents can end up being aggressive, but can also develop a withdrawn or anti-social personality. Such children also tend to be insecure, have low self-esteem because they never feel safe without their parents. They have no experience dealing with stress and do not know how to do it when they really need to start living on their own. In this paper an introduction of overly protective parents is given discussing the reasons why some parents are over protective. Then the effects of over protection on children are discussed and then the counseling of such children is recommended.
The Overly Protective Parents
Clinton, T., & Sibcy, G. (2006). Loving your child too much: Staying close to your kids without overprotecting, overindulging, or overcontrolling. Nashville, TN: Integrity Publishers. ISBN: 1-591-45045-4.
Cloud, H. & Townsend, J. (2001). Boundaries with kids. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN: 0-310-24315-7.
Emler, N. (2001) Self-esteem: The Costs and Causes of Low Self-worth. York: York Publishing Services/Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Fletcher, A.C., Steinberg, L. And Williams-Wheeler, M. (2004) 'Parental influences on adolescent problem behaviour: revisiting Stattin and Kerr', Child Development, Vol. 75, pp. 781 -- 96.
Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents
As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…
Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.
Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.
Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family
Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).
Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:
lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…
Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).
Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.
Correlation of Alcoholism to Parenting Styles
Correlation of Parenting Styles to Alcohol Drinking Frequency in the Brooklyn Modern Orthodox Jewish Community.
Do the parenting styles in the Modern Orthodox Jewish community differentially correlate with self-reported alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males within the Orthodox Brooklyn Borough Park community (18-26)?
In general, the four parenting styles have a significant correlation on the behavior and attitudes of youngsters in college (Beck et al., 2004). Further investigation is required to demonstrate how these parenting styles correlate with the population in the Borough Park Jewish community. It has been demonstrated that college freshmen from different universities can be indulged in alcoholic habits given different parenting styles (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008).
The freshmen are increasingly using internet thus they preferred to be surveyed online too, rather than being handed questionnaires on paper (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008). The…
Yang et al. (2010) suggested that parents can play an effective role in controlling the behavior of freshmen to avoid alcohol use. Hence, there should be friendly and effective communication between parents and children in the growing ages of youth, since the children can seek advice from the parents in the process (Yang et al., 2010). Bowlby & Ainsworth (1982), discussed that the attachment and relationship between parents and children improved when they communicated more often and thus a good parenting style can make it easier for the children to overcome problem barriers later (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The child personality visibly gets affected by any of the parenting styles (i.e. Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved) (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The level of influence however may vary.
Unreasonably high interference during the years of college or very low involvements is not productive factors in avoiding frequency of alcohol use (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The freshmen that have stressed (strained) relationships with parents are found to easily fall prey to alcohol use as well as abuse (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). Since to them, relationships are not very important, they are less worried about their personal health too (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007).
In severe cases, where the children are the victims of psychological stress at home based on a
Children of Alcoholic Parents
It is generally accepted that alcoholism tends to run in families and that compared with children of non-alcoholics, children of alcoholic parents have approximately four time greater risk of becoming alcoholics themselves (Reich Pp). However, the causal factors that determine the development of alcohol abuse and dependence have not yet been conclusively determined (Reich Pp).
Studies from the 1950's and 1960's generally emphasized psychosocial explanation, such as "poor parenting, lack of good role models. And impoverished home life" (Reich Pp). Beginning in the 1970's, research has investigated heritable components in the familial transmission of alcoholism" (Reich Pp). Adoption studies analyses of half-siblings and studies comparing identical and fraternal twins have all provided evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role in the etiology of alcoholism (Reich Pp). Although there is strong evidence for a genetic contribution, few researchers would deny the influence of environmental factors in…
Nishioka, Elaine. "Helping children of alcoholics."
Journal of School Health; 11/1/1989; Pp.
Chassin, Laurie. "Academic Achievement in Adolescent Children of Alcoholics."
Journal of Studies on Alcohol; 1/1/1999; Pp.
While the same-sex parent is important in a child's life, the opposite-sex parent is also tremendously important. For the 90% of the population that are heterosexual, the opposite sex parent is the person who teaches them how to have romantic relationships. There is a reason that little girls love their daddies and that little boys are mama's boys, which has nothing to do with incest or actual sexual behavior. Instead, healthy opposite sex parents allow children to practice flirting and inter-gender behavior in a safe environment, free from sexual pressure. In fact, it is when children are deprived of interactions with their opposite-sex parent that they tend to seek adult attention elsewhere, becoming vulnerable to molesters and other predators. The opposite-sex parent is also important in the life of homosexual children, because they help teach children how to relate to people of different genders. There are recognized behavioral differences between…
" (ean, 2006) ean notes that a "dramatic decline in the influence of father involvement has been shown to be correlated with fathers' maintaining a residence other than that of their children." (2006)
According to the work entitled: "Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency" developmental pathways of adolescent delinquency has been examined by researcher "through both longitudinal research and meta-analyses." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) Resulting from these empirical investigations are "numerous insights...key indicators and predictors of behavior of those youths who engage and those who persist in delinquent behavior." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) According to this work there have been a number of studies which had made identification of characteristic patterns of parent-child relationships that are strongly associated with juvenile delinquency." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) the work of Juby and Farrington (2001); Patterson and Stouthamer-Loeber (1984); and Steinberg (1987) state that "evidence clearly demonstrates the…
Allen, Sarah; and Daly, Kerry (2007) the Effects of Father Involvement: An Updated Research Summary of the Evidence Inventory. FIRA-CURA Centre for Families, Work & Well-Being University of Guelph, Ontario Canada. Online available at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:9pJUiihSv0YJ:fira.ca/cms/documen ts/29/Effects_of_Father_Involvement.pdf+CORRELATION+BETW EEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=26&gl=us
Bean, Matthew (2006) Understanding Father's Roles: An Evidence-Based Practice Guide for Family Therapists. Kansas State University 2006. Online available at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:R_K1C-afXJ8J:krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/2097/314/1/MatthewBean2007.pdf+CORRELATION+BETWEEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=37&gl=us
Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at http://edt.missouri.edu/Winter2007/Dissertation/BrooksC-051107-D6584/research.pdf
Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.) (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at http://edt.missouri.edu/Winter2007/Dissertation/BrooksC-051107-D6584/research.pdf
Parental Involvement in Primary Schooling
The first years of school is the most important in a child's life. It is during these years that the child establishes his or her academic personality. This is however not all. The years at primary school also helps a child to form and verify the values learned at home. It is therefore extremely important for parents to form a kind of partnership with primary schools. In this way the school and parents together can learn from each other how best to educate the child. Parents are also very important in helping their children with any problems that could be experienced in school. This will not only make the task of the school easier, but also help parents to establish a relationship of trust with the school.
For the years before the start of school, parents are the most important persons in a…
Handy, C. And Aitken, R. 1994. "The organisation of the primary school." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.
Macbeth, A. 1994. "Involving Parents." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.
Mortimore, P., Sammons, P., Stoll, L., Lewis, D., and Ecob, R. 1994. "Key factors for effective junior schooling." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.
Wilcock, M. 1994. "St. Andrew's Church of England Primary School." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.
Parental Involvement and Student Success: Article Review
Although parental involvement is usually encouraged by schools, its precise effects upon student achievement remains controversial. In the article, “A New Framework for Understanding Parental Involvement: Setting the Stage for Academic Success,” published in the RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, Harris and Robinson (2016) offer a new framework for understanding parental involvement to permit greater systematization in comparisons of studies; their framework is called stage setting, based upon the premise that, “Stage-setters create a life space—the parameters within which the actor’s performance occurs—that corresponds with the intended action” (Harris and Robinson, 2016, p.189). This article reflects the focus of the journal, which is to solicit peer-reviewed articles from academics from fields across multiple disciplines in the social sciences. According to the journal’s published guidelines, all academics within all fields can submit research, and multidisciplinary studies which incorporate multiple…
Types of Parental Involvement and Support that Boost Young Children’s Academic Performance
That there is a link between parental support and involvement and students performance is almost incontrovertible. Many studies agree to this and statistical data reveals that most researchers have the same thoughts on the matter (Jeynes, 2015; Wilder, 2013). However, it is not clear as to which kinds of parental involvement and support are effective for which ages and the types of academic performance they affect. This research seeks to find out the kind of parental support and involvement that is efficacious for good student achievement for children who are in grades 3 and 7.
Background and Significance
Studies have persistently revealed that there’s an almost incontestable link between the involvement and support of parents and student achievement. In fact, meta-analyses suggest that parental participation and help affect children’s academic performance across different ages and ethnic groups…
TESOL: Fieldwork Experience
The student observed for the Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM) was a native Spanish-speaking 16-year-old female who was a high school sophomore. The student's SOLOM score for the observation was a 20/25 with limited English proficiency. Based on what was learned about the student during the SOLOM initial assessment and previous fieldwork experiences, this paper identifies an appropriate instructional strategy for use with this student and reports the results of that strategy.
The instruction strategy selected for this exercise was "building trust with families" as advocated by Pompa (n.d.) of the AdLit organization. Just as it is vitally important for clinicians to forge a therapeutic relationship with their clients in order to formulate efficacious treatment interventions, it is likewise vitally important for ELL teachers to reach out to students' families in order to encourage their more active involvement in the education of their children. Indeed, the…
Pompa, M. (n.d.). Building trust with families. AdLit. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org / media/mediatopics/ells/.
Silverman, F. (2009, July). Hitting the books-together: Through a family literacy program, Hispanic parents and their young children are learning to be partners in educational success. District Administration, 40(7), 24-26.
Vera, E. M. & Israel, M. S (2012, Fall). Exploring the educational involvement of parents of English learners. School Community Journal, 22(2), 183-189.
Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting
Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…
Balling, R. (2012, Septemver 28). Why same-sex marriage affects my marriage. Retrieved from Star tribune: http://www.startribune.com/opinion/commentaries/171613511.html?refer=y
Carey, B. (2012, June 11). Debate on a Study Examining Gay Parents. Retrieved from NYTimes: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/12/health/study-examines-effect-of-having-a-gay-parent.html?_r=0
Chrisler, J. (2010, June 24). Why gay parents are good parents. Retrieved from Cnn.com: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-06-24/opinion/chrisler.gay.parents_1_adoptions-by-gay-people-anti-gay-gay-pride?_s=PM:OPINION
Narth.com. (n.d.). Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds. Retrieved from Narth.com: http://www.narth.com/docs/does.html
The following analysis focuses on the article titled "Preparation for Teacher-Parent Partnerships: A Practical Experience with a Family" by Hedges H. & Gibbs. According to the authors, there is the need for both stakeholders to collaborate, maximize the children's learning, and enhance early childhood education. The paper shows that despite these efforts, there are few ways that train the teachers of how to develop professional relationships with the parents. It continues to report on the use of field experience in family homes that occurred in the first year of a teacher educational program. While seeking to achieve the objective, it explores a case study of two student-teachers. The step is necessary because it shows the potential of the technique to this teacher's preparation. After the assessment, the students and teachers were seen to suffer from the realities that families create on a daily basis.
Hedges and Gibbs have…
Hedges H. & Gibbs C. A (2005). Practical Experience with a Family Preparation for Teacher-Parent Partnerships. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 26:115-126
Hiatt-Michael, D. B. (2010). Promising Practices to Support Family Involvement in Schools. New York: IAP
Hornby G. (2011). Parental Involvement in Childhood Education: Building Effective School-Family Partnerships. Springer Science & Business Media
Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Parental Involvement: The Correlates of Achievement
Do class/socioeconomic status, the attention of a parent, the working patterns of the mother, and familial structure have any impact on a student's academic performance? This particular study seeks to, specifically, describe "the relationship between educational attainment and the components of the SES index as used in the National Longitudinal Surveys conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics." The 1980 High School and Beyond senior cohort was utilized in the undertaking of this study, with more than fifty eight thousand high school seniors and sophomores (1980) being used as the nationally representative sample. The survey of the samples took place in years 1980, 1982, 1984, as well as 1986.
The research made use of correlational research design. As Privitera (2013, p. 215) points out, correlational research design seeks to "use data to determine if two or…
History Of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care
Eugenics is the belief and practice that involves the improvement of genetic quality of the human population.it is a science that deals with influences that are able to bring an improvement in inborn qualities of race also with those that develop them to their utmost advantage. There is a considerable difference between goodness in various qualities and in the entire character as a whole. The character largely depends on the proportion that exists between these quantities whose balance can be greatly influenced by education. This is a social philosophy that advocates for the improvement of the human genetic traits by promoting higher reproduction of people that posses' desired traits also termed as positive eugenics and reducing the reproduction of people that posse's undesired ort less desired traits which is negative eugenics. Therefore Eugenics is a social movement that is…
Norrgard, K.(2008). Human Testing, the Eugenics Movement, and IRBs. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/human-testing-the-eugenics-movement-and-irbs-724
Galton, F.(2009).Eugenics: its definition, scope, and aims. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://galton.org/essays/1900-1911/galton-1904-am-journ-soc-eugenics-scope-aims.htm
Bergman, J.(2000). A Brief History of the Eugenics Movement . Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http://users.adam.com.au/bstett/BEugenics72Bergman73Potter77.htm
free range parenting." Child Protective Services in Maryland, acting on a report from law enforcement, investigated a couple for neglect, based on the fact that they allowed their children to walk home from a park without parental supervision. For the Maryland couple, the charge was "unsubstantiated child neglect." This is not a criminal charge, but it is typically a precursor to a criminal charge (Nye, 2015). The couple was charged by Maryland Child Protective Services, rather than the police. The charge means that, operating within the confines of their mandate, Maryland CPS has the right to monitor the parents for the next five years. The CPS may, if it chooses, recommend criminal neglect charges that would go through the standard criminal justice processes. The CPS responded to an alert that the children were walking alone, and brought about their own investigation of the parents in this case. Thus, the effort…
Parents need to be given back the right to raise their children as they see fit. There are two main premises in this argument. The first is that parents have in recent years seen such rights eroded, replaced by increasing government involvement in what used to be parental decisions. It is known and agreed that in the 1980s and earlier, children were able to walk freely in their own neighborhoods, play in parks unsupervised, and to walk to and from school. Today, parents can be charged with neglect and face other legal actions if they allow their children unsupervised in public, even at a playground or walking to/from school. As Pimentel (2012) notes, there has been a shift in the way that both government agencies and courts have interpreted the standard of care that parents need to provide their children. External intervention in parenting is typically only exercised when neglect is suspected; it is the interpretation of the concept of neglect that has shifted over time that results in cases like that in Maryland.
There have been considerable study of this issue, by ethicists, legal scholars, sociologists, public administrators and, of course, by parents. The first support to the thesis is that the erosion of parental rights is a recent phenomenon. Pimentel (2012) examines the issue from a legal perspective, and notes that laws regarding child neglect have increasing been interpreted, especially since the turn of the millennium, to include strict provisions for constant supervision. The Supreme Court affirmed that the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment protects the right of parents to make decisions regarding the care of their children in 2000, and it is only in the interim that the statutes and legal interpretation of those statues has begun to change (Pimentel, 2012). He notes that the degree to which these changes have occurred varies between states. Thus, the issue is not the advent of "free range parenting," but that the statutes and interpretations in law of the concepts of neglect and the standard of care expected of parents have changed. The vagueness of existing laws -- which also
Administrator Management Accounting Principles
The purpose of this paper is to prepare a MEMO to the superintendent which will be published in the District Newsletter in regards to what was revealed as to the attitudes and confidence in school in this school compared to others throughout the nation.
The following page contains the Memorandum to the uperintendent with a committee meeting report setting down specific plans for implementing changes within the school by engaging the community in assisting with and the owning of the school plan.
COMMITTEE MEETING REPORT
After having attended the committee meeting and reflecting on the information gained the first conveyance of this memorandum is to express gratitude for the concern that we are so fortunate to have within this school system. Admittedly, there are issues that must be addressed. The awareness that our school is in crisis is within the minds of…
Strengthening of partnerships with agencies such as the city health and family services, early education and recreation services and the libraries.
Focus on specific reforms, prioritization of initiatives and addressing problems in a systemic fashion.
STRATEGIC PLAN Board Of Education Goals And CORRESPONDING ACTION PLANS [Online] available at: http://www.meridian.k12.il.us/Unit%20District%20Page/Demo, Strat, tec, Fees,/strategic_ plan.htm#strat%20process
To summarize, research on gangs has shown the gang problem to be increasing dramatically. Gang members list many reasons for joining a gang, including protection, peer pressure, economic needs, social needs, power, because relatives are members, a lack of parental or community support, and social status. According to the research, gangs tend to exist in greater numbers in low-income populations, and in single-parent households. Additionally, research has shown that while there certainly are Caucasian gang members, the majority are Hispanic or African-American.
The purpose of this study was to determine why teenage males join and participate in gang activities. The independent variables were socio-economic status, peer influence, lack of family support, self-esteem, and protection. The subjects studied were from a high population area near Houston, TX, where the majority of residents were of Hispanic decent. This study examined the relationship between gang activities and the independent variables. This section…
Arthur, R., and Erickson J. (1992). Gangs and schools. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.
Aumair, M.(1995). Characteristics of juvenile gangs. Youth Studies, 13, 40-48.
Bowker, L., and Klein, M. (1993). The etiology of female delinquency and gang membership: A test of psychological and social structure explanations. Adolescence, 8, 731-751.
Fleischer, M.(1998). Dead end kids. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Private vs. Public Schools
Many parents find themselves caught in a dilemma when trying to decide on which choice of education to take for their children. They ask themselves whether to take their children to private schools or public schools. For a parent to choose the ideal school for their children they always have to take into consideration all the available options. They consider things like the cost of the school, how much time they will invest as a parent, the social impact that the school have on their children based on the specific need of their children as well as the family.
Private schools offer the best option for the parent who is in need of better and quality education for their children. Private schools have a nearly perfect graduation rates which market them a great deal. Their performance is better as compared to the public schools. This is…
Mary Elizabeth, (2012). "Public Schools vs. Private Schools."Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-schools-vs . -- private-schools.html
Parents For Better Education America (2011). "What Every Parent Should Know About Private Schools vs. Public Schools," ASIN: B004R9QKL8. Binding: Kindle Edition. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://education.mitrasites.com/public-education-vs.-private-education.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2010). Private School Facts. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/facts.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2003). Academic Performance 2003. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/Outlook/Out9-03.html#Story5
0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).
Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.
Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.
The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.
Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.
According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…
impacting family literacy fluency (race, class, etc.) How can the relationships between parents, teachers, and schools support literacy understanding and growth? How do family interactions
One thing that is omnipresent and pervasive in situations where one or minorities are present is the idea of feeling like one is excluded. The level of severity of this happenstance can vary quite a bit. However, it is very real when it happens. In many cases, race, class and even language can become something that is polarizing and problematic. Despite these challenges, the rules that hold true for children within the dominant culture hold just as true for those in a minority (or more than one). This is even truer, however, when it comes to children that are vulnerable to poverty, deviancy and so forth. Indeed, parental involvement in a child's learning is important irrespective of the race, language or class of the child.…
Adichie, C. (2016). The danger of a single story. Ted.com. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story?language=en#t-355
McGee, K. (2016). For History Teachers, It's Not Always Easy to Get Students of Color to Connect with Curriculum. kut.org. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from http://kut.org/post/history-teachers-its-not-always-easy-get-students-color-connect-curriculum
NEA. (2010). New Report Focuses on Minority Parent Engagement - NEA Today. NEA Today. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from http://neatoday.org/2010/12/17/new-report-focuses-on-minority-parent-engagement/
Emotional Skillfulness: A Critical eview
This report discusses the 2005 paper by Cordova, Zee, and Warren addresses "Emotional Skillfulness in Marriage: Intimacy as a Mediator of the elationship between Emotional Skillfulness and Marital Satisfaction," from The Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. The authors tested and verified their hypothesis that the ability to identify and communicate emotions correlated with 'marital adjustment' for both partners in a bonded relationship, and was mediated by 'intimate safety'.
Emotional attitudes of individuals are known to vary, based on a variety of factors, particularly including childhood upbringing and learned emotional patterns (Eckman & Friesen, 1971). Eckman and Friesen go so far as to say that we are born with some emotions. The topic of this work concerns emotional attitudes and understanding between adults in a marital relationship, and the ways in which emotional communication are important, particularly with respect to 'intimate safety', which is defined…
Ekman, P., & Friesen, W.V. (1971). Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 124-129.
Cordova, J.V., Gee, C.B., Warren, L.Z. (2005) Emotional Skillfulness In Marriage: Intimacy As A Mediator Of The Relationship Between Emotional Skillfulness And Marital Satisfaction. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2005, pp. 218-235.
Law makers believed that transfer laws will assist in deterring juveniles from committing the most serious crimes.
The article reports that it is unclear whether or not trying juveniles in Criminal Court as opposed to juvenile court deters crime. In fact the author points out the results of six large studies which found that the recidivism rates of those tried in Criminal Court was greater than the rate of those tried in juvenile court. Other studies have shown mixed outcomes. Some research has shown that harsher sentences do not deter juveniles from committing crime, while others have shown that transfer laws have contributed to a decrease in crime amongst juveniles. However the largest and the most prominent research about this type of deterrence effort suggest that harsher penalties actually cause a greater amount of recidivism amongst juveniles. So then, the aim of transfer laws has not been realized because they…
Parens Patriae. Retrieved September 30 from; http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Parens+Patriae
Redding, R.E. (2008) Juvenile Transfer Laws: An Effective Deterrent to Delinquency? Retrieved September 30 from; http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/220595.pdf
Soler M., Garry L.M. (2009) Reducing Disproportionate Minority Contact: Preparation at the Local Level. Retrieved September 30 from; http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/218861.pdf
Whilst private schools in Wisconsin and Ohio make parent involvement in the school a condition for child acceptance, it is questionable whether traditional public schools should follow the same policy on the grounds that parental non-involvement may consequent in punishing the child rather than in serving an intended positive purpose.
Reilly (2008) presents a middle school parental -- school involvement program, at a Pennsylvania middle school, as an example of a program aimed to strengthen communication between parents and school. The article describes the program from the moment that the principal initiated it and invited all teachers to attend through to its culmination. Care is demonstrated through approximately 400 monthly messages that teachers sent parents regarding the child either via e-mail, phone, or written notes, and as the principal affirmed: "parents are more likely to support the teacher and will push their children to comply because 'this teacher cares about…
Van Dunk et al.'s (1998) policy report examines the issue of parental involvement from the perspective of parents whose children attend public and private schools in Milwaukee and Cleveland. The authors discovered that most parents do not seek personal involvement with the school when selecting a school for their child; that the majority of private schools require, per admission, that parents be actively involved in their child's school, and that research indicates that the child will profit by the parent's involvement in his or her school education: "Controlling for all other factors, a school that can require that parents volunteer time should have better student achievement than a school that cannot" (9). Whilst private schools in Wisconsin and Ohio make parent involvement in the school a condition for child acceptance, it is questionable whether traditional public schools should follow the same policy on the grounds that parental non-involvement may consequent in punishing the child rather than in serving an intended positive purpose.
Reilly (2008) presents a middle school parental -- school involvement program, at a Pennsylvania middle school, as an example of a program aimed to strengthen communication between parents and school. The article describes the program from the moment that the principal initiated it and invited all teachers to attend through to its culmination. Care is demonstrated through approximately 400 monthly messages that teachers sent parents regarding the child either via e-mail, phone, or written notes, and as the principal affirmed: "parents are more likely to support the teacher and will push their children to comply because 'this teacher cares about you'" (49).. According to the principal, this has consequented in greater parent involvement with the result that: "face-to-face confrontations have now been avoided since not doing homework or the misbehaving in class was exposed in its initial stages and was not allowed to grow to the detriment of the student's grade" (49). Hearing the teacher's 'side of the story' also resulted in fewer complaints about the school.
Wiseman (2010) deals with parental involvement with adolescent schooling. There is a misperception that adolescents need less parental 'interference', yet research demonstrates that the opposite is true. Wiseman (2010) conducted research on an eighth-grade poetry program in an urban public middle school designed to create parent-school involvement
No public school in the United States is so perfectly administered that is cannot be improved. Dunn School in Trenton, New Jersey, is certainly not close to being perfect but there are signs that the school is improving. A school improvement plan has been approved and enabled and it includes: a) effective instruction; b) promotion of a positive school climate and culture; and c) effective community and family empowerment. The last two goals could become pivotal to the future of the school, if they are approached with solid background thought and good communication between the school leadership, the community, and families.
Promoting a positive school environment & involving the community
According to the ISLLC Standards #1 and #2 emphasize the need to create a "widely shared vision for learning" and to develop a "school culture and instructional program" that promotes learning while helping the staff become more professional.…
ISLLC Standards. (2012). School Leadership Briefing / Ideas, Insights, and Inspiration for Professional Growth. Retrieved November 5, 2013, from http://www.schoolbriefing.com.
U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Social-Emotional Environment. Retrieved November
5, 2013, from http://www.edu.gov.
forget the tremendous impact that governmental cutbacks and recessionary times have on certain populations. For instance, in the wake of the recent recession, more and more families face poverty and lack of job and housing stability, which impacts family life in a relative negative manner. Too, investment in insurance, food, and other social programs for children is often cut during recessionary times as a line item budget -- not necessarily realizing the impact this has on the lives of millions of children. Finally, educational cuts that may see quick fixes to state and federal budgetary concerns have a marked negative effect upon children and youth -- many who are never able to recover and thus increases unskilled workers and the eventual possibility of unemployment (Children in the ecession, 2011).
Part 2 -- The data show an interesting set of circumstances regarding the school district in question:
Funding -- From local…
Children in the Recession. (June 2011). Action for Children North Carolina. Retrieved from:
Family Involvement Brochure 2143139
How can you ensure the involvement of family members into your plan for servicing your special education population?
The need for a collective effort is obvious when dealing with young children in special education enrollment in their respective schools or place of learning. Teachers need to ensure that parents stay involved in their' child's education, or that child becomes at serious risk at becoming "lost in the system" and permanently damaged due to this abuse and neglect. It is important that we treat those in our society who appear to have less with dignity and respect and contribute to their quality of life.
The family is where the child learns to act and behave in society and many of the initial traits and behaviors within the child's life is learned from the family source. This may be helpful or not helpful depending on the relationship and…
Duchnowski, A.J., Kutash, K., Green, A.L., Ferron, J.M., Wagner, M., & Vengrofski, B. (2012). Parent support services for families of children with emotional disturbances served in elementary school special education settings: Examination of data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 1044207312460889.
Henrich, C.C. (2013). Commentary on the Special Issue on Parent Involvement/Engagement in Early Childhood Education.
Peters, M.J. (2012). Parental Involvement: How Much Is Enough and What Can Schools Do to Encourage It? (Doctoral dissertation, William Paterson University of New Jersey).
Sheridan, S.M., Kim, E.M., Coutts, M.J., Sjuts, T.M., Holmes, S.R., Ransom, K.A., & Garbacz, S.A. (2012, November). Clarifying parent involvement and family-school partnership intervention research: A preliminary synthesis. In Poster presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.
The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…
Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)
Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from http://dropoutnation.net/2011/03/07/condemnation-black-children/
Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)
all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.
The results of this study show several things: one, the child's temperament regarding willingness to learn at home is "mediated" by his or her mother's level of self-efficacy; two, stress in the family impacts the child's home learning because of stress's effect on mother's self-efficacy; three, low income parents have economic and ethnic hurdles to overcome in order to reach a point of self-efficacy, but those parents that can overcome those challenges have been demonstrated to show "...some sense of competency or confidence" (e.g., self-efficacy) to be able to facilitate a quality home-learning environment that truly can prepare the child for learning in school. Interventions that help parenting skills are important, the authors assert, because self-efficacy may be "a critical characteristic of healthy families who provide stimulating and nurturing contexts for young children" (Machida 183)
Fantuzzo, John, McWayne, Christine, & Perry, Marlo A. (2004). Multiple Dimensions of Family Involvement and…
The transition coordinator is to take the responsibility in carrying out the stated tasks. Update the transition plan is very important. The transition coordinator will need to schedule the follow-up meeting for updating.
The above transition program provides the following benefits:
Enhanced children self-esteem and confidence
Improved children peer-group relations
Enhance greater efficiency among children
Greater efficiency and enjoyment in learning
Understanding the phases of early childhood education
Increase parent ability to communicate with educational personnel
Enhanced parent self-esteem regarding their communication skills
Positive outlook with schools
Enhanced teacher ability to meet individual children needs
Increase their efficiency in program planning and implementation
Wider pool of resources
Increase Professional support network
This paper develops transition service required to support an assessment plan. For the effectiveness of transition program, collaboration and effective communication has been identified as essential tool for the…
Blessing, C. (2001).Infusing a Person Centered Approach Into Transition Planning for Students with Developmental Disabilities. CSW Program on Employment and Disability.Cornell University.
Margetts, K. (1999). Transistion to School: Looking Forward. Selected papers from the AECA National Conference Darwin July 14-17 1999.
McPartland, P. (2007). Implementing Ongoing Transition Plan for the IEP .Attainment Company Inc.
Ministry of Children and Family Development (2001).Transition planning for Youths with Special needs. Canada.
School Change Projects
A New Kind of PTA
Sometimes the most effective changes in a system come about through the simplest changes. Perhaps a better way to phrase this same idea is that sometimes the most effective changes in a system comes at the most basic level. This is the kind of change that I propose for my district, although it is not the same kind of back-to-basics plan that is still sweeping across the American educational landscape.
This suggestion does not touch on the issue of how basic the curriculum should be, although curricular reform is (of course) one of the central questions for every educational professional since the passage of the federal No Child Left Behind act. ather, the changes that I would like to see instituted in my district are a greater participation of parents and other family members in the students' educational lives. This is a…
Appleseed Network. (2010). http://appleseednetwork.org/bOurProjectsb/Education/ParentInvolvement/tabid/618/Default.aspx
It takes a parent. (2010).
CRISS- Annotated Bibliography
Philip Levin, Ph.D, Director, The Help Group/UCLA Neuropsychology Program
Overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) that went into effect July 1, 2005. Included changes to the assessment of learning disability which improves early remediation for those children at risk in reading as early as Kindergarten. Language Development, Behavioral Development and Pre-Academic Skills Development are the key components discussed.
Based on these findings, a number of assessment tools are used to evaluate students' abilities and the most appropriate level of participation in general educational settings (A Parent's Guide, 2002).
Early childhood education programs in District 75 have been affected by other federal mandates, including the Governmental Performance eporting Act (GPA) and the Program Assessment ating Tool (PAT); both of these initiatives require that all federal programs (e.g., Head Start, childcare, and programs for children with disabilities) must provide performance data concerning the progress that has been made toward meeting the goals of the program, which in turn are used to formulate federal budget allocations (ous et al., 2007). Current performance data for District 75 is presented at Appendix A.
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). In those cases where the District 75 assessment committee finds that children require services and a special education setting, they are provided with an Individualized…
About us. (2011). New York City Department of Education. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.
Annual yearly progress. (2011). New York State Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/ spp/2011/ind3.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Neglect can be very difficult to identify and minimize. Parents who experience poverty, live in low-income neighborhoods, raise children as single parents, and receive little to no educational training are at higher risk of neglecting their children. Programs like the Child-Parent Center program encourages interactions between children and their parents as well as parents and the schools their children attend. In a study by Mersky and eynolds (2009), they compare the children within the Child-Parent program to other public kindergarten programs to see how the children fares in regards to lower rates of neglect.
The Child-Parent Center program was first established in 1967. Through Title 1 funding, it became the second oldest federally funded preschool program in the country with Head Start being the first of its kind. Chicago became a place for the Child-Parent Center program to set up programs within the city's most impoverished neighborhoods. It was meant…
Girvin, H., DePanfilis, D., & Daining, C. (2007). Predicting Program Completion Among Families Enrolled in a Child Neglect Preventive Intervention. Research on Social Work Practice, 17(6), 674-685. Doi: 10.1177/1049731507300285
Kaplan, C., Schene, P., DePanfilis, D., & Gilmore, D. (2009). Shining Light on Chronic Neglect: Core Issues Facing our Most Vulnerable Families. Protecting Children, 24(1), 1-5.
Mersky, J.P., Topitzes, J., & Reynolds, A.J. (2009). Chronic Neglect: Prediction and Prevention. Protecting Children, 24(1), 67-71.
.....graduate student at the prestigious Centre for the Study of Higher Education at the University of Michigan. While there, I was tutored by several professors, all of whom had their distinct teaching styles and methods and this diversity actually helped me. The major feature I loved about them and that I have adopted as a personal teaching style is just how open they were to working with their proteges. I have decided to also create similar chances for my students working with me. I would analyze my work to see if there are certain research subjects I intend to write that my students could work on and benefit from. Apart from the professional interaction, these professors also interacted with me on a personal level. They took me in and introduced me to their families, building a strong rapport between us. Even though it remained a professor-student relationship, we were friends…