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Parent Involvement and Student Academic Performance

Words: 788 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97056120

Parent Involvement and Student Academic Performance: A Multiple Mediational Analysis

David R. Topor, Susan P. Keane, Terri L. Shelton, and Susan D. Calkins

Numerous studies have shown a clear positive relationship between the involvement of a parent in a child's education, and the academic performance of the child. This particular study seeks to explore the mechanisms of the said association. On that front, only two potential mechanisms are taken into consideration. These, according to the authors, include; 1) the quality of the relationship between the teacher and the student, and 2) the child's perception of cognitive competence. A total of one hundred and fifty eight 7-year-olds participated in this study. The sample also included their teachers and mothers. It is important to note that data was in this case sourced from three key centers; the child, their mothers, and teachers -- with the gathering of data from the first two…… [Read More]

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Parent-Child Relationship Inventory the Need

Words: 1572 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68336645

Finally, Boothroyd (2010) suggests that because the authors of PCI do not provide guidance on how parents are defined, the assessment may not be appropriate for families with a parenting structure other than two biological parents. It seems that while the PCI is considered a valid and reliable assessment for some populations, further study should be conducted with a more diverse norming sample.


Coffman, J.K., Guerin, D.W., & Gottfried, A.W. (2006). eliability and validity of the parent-child relationship inventory (PCI): Evidence from a longitudinal cross-informant investigation. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 209-214. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.18.2.209

Gerard, A.B.Parent-child relationship inventory Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251; ephone [HIDDEN]; FAX [HIDDEN]; Web: etrieved from

Heinze, M.C., & Grisso, T. (1996). eview of instruments assessing parenting competencies used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(3), 293-313. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199622)14:33.0.CO;2-0

Schroeder, V., & Kelley, M. (2009). Associations between family environment,…… [Read More]


Coffman, J.K., Guerin, D.W., & Gottfried, A.W. (2006). Reliability and validity of the parent-child relationship inventory (PCRI): Evidence from a longitudinal cross-informant investigation. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 209-214. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.18.2.209

Gerard, A.B.Parent-child relationship inventory Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251; ephone [HIDDEN]; FAX [HIDDEN]; Web: Retrieved from 

Heinze, M.C., & Grisso, T. (1996). Review of instruments assessing parenting competencies used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(3), 293-313. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199622)14:33.0.CO;2-0

Schroeder, V., & Kelley, M. (2009). Associations between family environment, parenting practices, and executive functioning of children with and without ADHD. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 18(2), 227-235. doi:10.1007/s10826-008-9223-0
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Parental Involvement and Student Academic Achievement

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 39934806

Parent Involvement and Student Achievement

Parental Involvement and Student Academic Achievement

TA administration and staff believe schools are seeing a decrease in parental involvement as students enter high school. Research conducted by the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) Dropout Prevention Resource Guide (2008) has demonstrated the positive effects of parental involvement in schools.

Parental involvement in the eighth grade had a strong positive effect on the grade point average of 10th graders (Keith, T.Z., Keith, Quirk, Sperduto, Santillo, & Killings, 1998). In contrast, Balen and Moles (1994) and Hurst (2002) suggest when parents have a positive attitude regarding education and demonstrate trust that their children can do well, children perform better in school. However, parental involvement tends to decrease as students become older (p. 3).

Problem Statement

Historical and current studies have investigated the impact of parental involvement and student achievement. Diverse studies have considered how well students perform academically…… [Read More]

On a much larger sample of children (6,400 Americans, 14-18 years old) (Steinberg, 1992) conducted within the same two years that the previous researchers had started their study (1987-1988), Steinberg et al. (1992) found that parental involvement is more likely to promote adolescent school success as long as this academic involvement occurred in the context of an authoritative home environment.

This study was structured so as to examine long-term parenting style, including parental academic involvement with school performance in a sample of high school youth. Nine high schools from Wisconsin and North California were used in this study (Steinberg, 1992). Diversity was achieved as far as possible between different communities, ethnic population, family structures, and socioeconomic status levels. Self-report surveys were filled out by the students on two days of survey administration during the schools years of 1987-1988 and of 1988-1989 (Hill, 2004). In this case, I agree with the emphasis on self-reporting but the analytical framework, again, needs to be much stronger for truly measuring student perceptions as that is where the core of the mechanisms emerges.

The standard active consent form for ethical procedures was not used here since studies have shown that it would screen out individuals with possibly disengaged parents and it was precisely these individuals whom the researchers wished to include. Their procedure, therefore, was to request active consent from adolescents and passive consent from parents
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The need for'student parental involvement

Words: 2066 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41073899

Parent Involvement

When it comes to children and how well they do (or do not do) in schools, a lot of the invective and scrutiny is directed towards the teachers at the school and the administrators that govern the same. Whether it be parents showing disdain for how well the students are not doing or whether it be national laws such as No Child Left Behind, the teachers seem to shoulder a lot of the blame when students do not perform as expected or desired. However, to just blame the teachers would be unwise because they are only part of equation and some would argue that teachers are not even the biggest part of the equation. While having adept teachers imparting knowledge to students is important, having parents or guardians of those children that are involved and engaged is even more important.


One of the linchpins of student success…… [Read More]


Harji, M. B., Balakrishnan, K., & Letchumanan, K. (2016). SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement

in Young Children's ESL Reading Development. English Language Teaching, 9(12), 1-


Hemmerechts, K., Agirdag, O., & Kavadias, D. (2017). The relationship between parental
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Parenting Program for Women and

Words: 41621 Length: 150 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 12171638

There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.

Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.

Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]


Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.

Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.

Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.

Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
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Parenting Programs Child Abuse Child Abuse

Words: 1277 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31634464

For example, Leventhal (2001) analyzed different intervention methodology and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect as well as promoting the health and development of the infant and mother, by specifically looking at the Healthy Families Olds' models.

Kass and colleagues (2003) from Fight Crime: Invest in Kids argue that the cycle of violence can be prevented with intervention methods including parenting education. oberts, Wolman and Harris-Looby (2004, p. 101) state that "teaching students parenting skills may be the most cost-effective way to reduce violent and abusive behaviors and prevent the transfer of violent behaviors from generation to generation." They found that for less than $1,000, Project Baby Care, a parental training program developed for adolescents proved successful in improving parental knowledge and skills and attitudes toward caring for an infant.

Another study (Hughs & Gottlieb, 2004), regarding the effects of the Webster-Stratton parenting program on parenting…… [Read More]


Belsky, J. & Vondra, J. (1989), 'Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting', in D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds), Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect, New York: Cambridge University Press, 153-202.

Chalk, R. & King, P.A. (Eds) (1998), Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs, Washington DC: National Academy Press,

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (U.S.), Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACF). Child maltreatment 2003. Washington (DC): Government Printing Office; 2005. Website retrieved May 10, 2007

Fine, M.J. (1980), Handbook on Parent Education, Academic Press, New York.
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Parental Involvement Critique of Parent

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 88656164

In this way, researchers can control for the effects of socioeconomic status and better extricate the true relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement (Fan & Chen, 2001).

Though the Smith (2006) study seeks in increase parental involvement in the school, it fails to connect the influence increased parental involvement had on had on the academic achievement of the students. The study would be of greater value had if there had been a pre-assessment and a post assessment to ascertain overall student academic gains.

esearch shows that low-income parents want to take part in their children's education. If, however, they perceive that teachers see them negatively, they often feel excluded. Parents identified three essential qualities of teachers they perceived to be good; 1) The teachers displayed respect and love for the children, 2) they communicated frequently with families, and 3) they visited the communities of their students (McCoach et. al.…… [Read More]


Fan, X., & Chen, M., (2001, March). Parental involement and students' academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational psychology review, Vol. 13, Issue 1, 1-22. Retrieved November 2, 2010 from 

McCoach, D.B., Goldstein, J., Behuniak, P., Reis, S.M., Black, A.C., Sullivan, E.E., & Rambo, K. (2010, Spring). Examing the unexpected: Outlier analyses of factors affecting student achievement. Journal of advanced academics, Vol. 21, Issue 3, 426-468. Retrieved November 2, 2010 from 

Payne, R.K. (1996) A framework for understanding poverty. Highland Texas: aha! Process, Inc.

Smith, J.G., (2006, Spring/Summer). Parental Involement in education among low-income families: A case study. The school community journal. Vol. 16, No.1. 43-56. Retrieved October 31, 2010 from
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Parental Involvement With Educating Children it Takes

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21195577

Parental Involvement With Educating Children

It takes a village to raise your children, is not only a saying it is a fact. Teachers need the support of the parents and others involved with the child to reinforce what is being taught in the schools. As parents or guardian of children we should take an active role in the education process of our children. We can do so by ensuring their assignments are completed, they are keeping up with their peers and we provide the support necessary to their educators. Children in kindergarten and in first grade especially need involved parents. These are children who are new to formal education. These children need the support and help of their parents or caretakers, to achieve academic success. "Parent involvement in the education of their children, is now recognized as one of the most critical factors influencing student achievement" (Lazar et. al., 1999).…… [Read More]


Entwisle et. al. (1987). The Emergent Academic Self-Image of First Graders: Its Response to Social Structure. Child Development. 58 (5) 1190-2007

GAO Report (2007). No Child Left Behind Act, Education actions may help improve implementation and evaluation of supplemental educational services. United States Education and State Social Policy

Gonzalez-DeHass et. al. (2005). Examining the relationship between parental involvement and student motivation. Educational Psychology Review. 17 (2) 99-123

Lazar et. al. (1999). Educating teachers for parent involvement. Contemporary Education. 70 (3)
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Parental Involvement

Words: 856 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 34824747

Parental Involvement

Cripps, K. & Zyromski, B. (2009). Adolescents' psychological well-being and perceived parental involvement: Implications for parental involvement in middle schools. MLE Online 33(4).

In "Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Parental Involvement: Implications for Parental Involvement in Middle Schools," Cripps & Zyromski (2009) perform an analysis of prior literature on appropriate styles and levels of parental involvement with their middle school-aged children. The review of literature has methodological limitations in that specific variables are not controlled for, and several of the studies cited did not yield verifiable or statistically significant results. However, the agglomerate research does reveal trends that have useful implications for parents, teachers, and school administrators.

The purpose of the Cripps & Zyromski (2009) article is stated as being to "discuss possible applications…to increase parental involvement in middle schools by developing home and school relationships," (p. 2). There are two core research questions guiding the Cripps &…… [Read More]


Cripps, K. & Zyromski, B. (2009). Adolescents' psychological well-being and perceived parental involvement: Implications for parental involvement in middle schools. RMLE Online 33(4).

"Parent Involvement at the Middle School Level," (n.d.). Access Eric. Retrieved online: 

Shellenbarger, S. (2009). How parents can best help middle-schoolers. The Juggle. Retrieved online:
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Parental Involvement and School Achievement

Words: 1393 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70499390

(Bennet 1996)

Negative Factors

The Journal of School Health reported in February 2001 that according to the National Education Goals, every child will start school ready to learn. However, this is unfortunately not always the case because families are not ready to deliver that child prepared for school. Specifically, those without proper socioeconomic support will have conditions outside of the classroom that will lead to an increased chance for academic failure. In communities where social services are provided that might make parental involvement more positive for elementary school students, parents are often unaware of the availability of these services. Additionally, parents may be less likely to participate in their child's schooling because of their own negative school experiences and lack of trust for the school staff. "During parenting programs, parents often described a perceived lack of communication and respect from the teachers, and the teachers often expressed similar frustrations. Staff…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beale, a.V., & Ericksen-Radtke, M.M. (2001, September)

Preparing students with learning disabilities for college: pointers for parents. (Elementary to Middle School: Part 1). The Exceptional Parent, v31 i9 p64(4).

Bennet, D. (1996, April) Should parents be involved in all school decisions? Yes. NEA Today, v14 n8 p31(1).

Browning, S., McMahon, B, & Rose-Colley, M. (2001, February)
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Family Involvement at School I Enjoy Working

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91582548

Family Involvement at School

I enjoy working with the students at my school tremendously. At the K-8 school in Borough Park Brooklyn NY, there are largely Chinese and Hispanic demographics. Working with students and parents is what will prove crucial in improving the academic success of the students.

There are a number of things that are happening at my school in regards to family-involvement that are really making me excited for the improvement of the students' academic success. A lot of my Chinese-American students do get a lot of parent involvement at home. I hear from the students that their parents help them with daily homework and even push them to go beyond that day's lesson in order to prepare for the next upcoming lessons. In fact, I do see a heightened level of at-home parent involvement with the Chinese-American students, probably more so than any other demographic of students…… [Read More]

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Adminisrators Teachers and Parents Are

Words: 1968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36541852

Like Mr. Johnson, he acknowledged that student behavior was different "back then" when he was in school: "Some of the things I've seen here with kids never really occurred in my time" (personal communication, January 26, 2011).

In keeping with his enthusiastic responses about Springfield Gardens, Mr. Benton was pleased to discuss the school and its community relations. He cited a technology program for grandparents offered once or twice a week at the school, involvement by congressmen and elected officials -- although he did not provide details how that is manifest -- and after-school programs conducted through the auspices of the YMCA, an organization with which he himself is active. He believes there is a considerable effort underway, although there is still more to do.

Principal Gordon was much more cautious in his enthusiasm. He acknowledged that the YMCA program provided support five days a week and reported a good…… [Read More]


I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens. (2011). Our mission. Retrieved from 


I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens. (2011). Statistics. Retrieved from
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Child Characteristics Parenting Stress and

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 85104789

Only after this a further section returns to the fact of the lack of research involving father involvement and how this is influenced by child characteristics.

Once the document turns to the investigation and methods to be used, the presentation of information becomes more logical and academically stronger. The research questions are for example pertinently mentioned in "The Present Study" section. The questions directly pertain to the issue previously indicated, i.e. The parenting involvement of fathers, and how this is influenced by children and various aspects in their character.

In the "Method" section, I noticed that participants were mainly homogeneous in terms of race and age. No specific reason was given for this, but I presume it is for the purpose of consistency, as cultural values and social status would probably influence the parenting paradigm. In this way, I believe the study provides a valuable springboard for futher studies in…… [Read More]

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School Visits and Parents

Words: 4209 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 35738551

eluctance of Parents to Visit the School

ole of Parents in Children's Education

Education has always been a very important part of human existence and has been an inseparable part of human civilization. There has been a lot of development on the education portal and mankind has learned great deal from the education function (Jeynes, 2005). Every milestone which is achieved and every development which is made in any direction is due to the knowledge provided through education. This function has been researched and is very much detailed in terms of style and method. Several researchers and experts have proposed and devised methods which can make education and knowledge imparting more effective and efficient (Hill & Tyson, 2009). Talking about a student at elementary level, it is all the more important to understand the needs of such young individuals and analyze the education function accordingly (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2007). This…… [Read More]


Jeynes, W.H. (2005).A metaanalysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education. 40(3), 237-269.

Stewart, E.B. (2008). School structural characteristics, student effort, peer associations, and parental involvement: The influence of school and individual level factors on academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 40(2), 179-204.

Hill, N.E. & Tyson, D.F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a met analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 740-763.

Hill, N., and Taylor, L. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4) 161-164.
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Parental Involvement in Urban School

Words: 11020 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 27657969

Overall parental involvement has an effect on the child from the early stage to the secondary stage. Students need the parents for guidance, integrity and confidence to become successful in life because it is not the teachers job to make sure the students have these qualities. "In reality, parent involvement is a more diverse and complex concept than is generally acknowledged" (Dom & Verhoeven, 2006, p.570).

The study will help to determine the reason for the different challenges students may face due to the lack of parental involvement.

esearch Design and Methodology

The proposed study will use a quantitative research design that uses both secondary resources as well as primary data collected specifically for the purposes of this research. The research procedure will proceed in a step-wise fashion, beginning with an exploratory review of the literature to identify common themes and trends in the research concerning current patterns of parental…… [Read More]


McDermott, P. & Rothenberg, J. (2000). Why urban parents resist involvement in their

children's elementary education. The Qualitative Report. 5(3/4).

Blasi, M.J. (2001). Rethinking family-school relations: A critique of parental involvement in schooling. Childhood Education, 78(1), 54.

Ainscow, M. & West, M. (Eds.). (2006). Improving Urban Schools: Leadership and Collaboration. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Retrieved July 30, 2011, from Questia database:
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Parental Involvement

Words: 1818 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67448869

Parental Participation and Involvement

Statement of Thesis: "Parental involvement" is considered "key" to successfully providing a quality educational future for one's child. Parents play an important role in a child's education. This paper intends to reveal through research, exactly why it is so imperative that a parent become and stay involved in the educational process.

The benefits to be found in the educational system that has active and participant parents and the corresponding research results over the last decade make it clear that "parental involvement" is a necessary and vital activity in the provision of optimum educational factors for students.

This imperative activity should be made a top-priority by parents from the first day of kindergarten and throughout the entirety of the years that will be spent in education of the student preparing them for the world beyond school.

This paper will explore the validity of this statement and will…… [Read More]


Parental Involvement in Education" (2004) NW Research & Learning, Retrieved from the Internet 25 Aug 2004: 

Parental Involvement and Student Achievement" (2004) Retrieved from the Internet: 26 Aug 2004: ( .)

Lewis, Cynthia et al., (1994) "Why some parents don't come to school "(Educating for Diversity) May 1994 v51 n8 p50(5) Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
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Administrators Role in Establishing Effective Communication Between Parents and School

Words: 2989 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94615965

Administrative Strategies for Effective Communication

Education contains multiple responsibilities. One starts the learning process in the world from within the family nurture, before continuing to pursue formal education in schools and academy. However, human does not stop learning from their family. Getting exposed to higher education, they also learn things from hands-on experiences and from what are happening in their surroundings.

This reveals the fact that family and environment are two contributing factors, in addition to formal education process in official institution in a community. The three factors determine how education makes one person in the society a distinct, honorable man.

With the great potentials, now education has been a regional issue. Fully conventional learning processes have been attempted within the education system. However, with the growing needs to perform effective schooling and to gain the best academic result, educators realize the need to incorporate the three factors: school, parents,…… [Read More]


Chalkboard Tips and Resources. 1996. The Family Resource Coalition's Report "Parents Leading the Way" Vol. 15 No. 2. Web site:

ERIC Document. Communities Connecting Family and Schools. Strong Families, Strong Schools. Web site:

ERIC Document. School-Family Web site:

ERIC Documents. Family Involvement. Strong Families, Strong Schools.
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Schools and Parents Effective Staff

Words: 3287 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81939847

And when the parent comes to an event held in the classroom, it makes good sense to have interpreters available, and "invite the extended family," which of course is a very welcoming act of kindness and good judgment. The other parent in this list of "types" is the "Busy Parent," who is a person with a work schedule that is hard to get a hold of, or plan meetings for. Get the cell phone number of parents like this, and the email addresses, and "continue to send home their children's work on a regular basis, including writing samples, artwork, and test copies" - and even consider taking digital photos of class activities and attaching those pictures to emails that go to parents.

On a more serious note, the literature on school administration duties as far as training staff to be parent-active and family-friendly offers an article called "here's the Ministry…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beaudoin, Nelson. (2006). Giving Stakeholders a Voice. Educational Leadership, 63(8), 74-75.

Flannery, Mary Ellen. (2005). A field guide to parents: famed for its vast appetite for information

And ability to protect its offspring, the parent genus has nonetheless eluded scientific study.

Until now. NEA Today, 24(2), 36-38.
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Parent Program Components

Words: 2168 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Grant Proposal Paper #: 72545260

Grant Proposal for Strengthening the Family Unit

Program Design and Implementation

The overall design and structure of the program will orbit around multiple activities and methodologies which are designed to fortify the overall family unit, most notably the parental unit. Parenting is an extremely challenging endeavor and one which can put a considerable strain on a marriage -- even the strongest marriage. Thus, one of the foremost aspects of the program in general will consist of a parenting skills training program to minimize behavior problems in young children (particularly when these children are at the most difficult age) by bolstering the level of parent self-efficacy through beneficial parenting behaviors and overall child discipline strategies (NEPP, 2012).

Many of the strategies used in this case will be modeled after the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which is an extremely well organized program that is founded in the notion that parents play the…… [Read More]


Flay, B., & Allred, C. (2010). The Positive Action Program. International Research Handbook on Values Education, 471-481.

GGC. (2012, July). Guiding Good Choices. Retrieved from NREPP: [HIDDEN]

Lia, K., Washburn, I., & DuBois, D. (2011). Effects of the Positive Action programme on problem behaviours in elementary school students. Psychology and Health, 187-204.

NREPP. (2012, August). Chicago Parent Program. Retrieved from NREPP
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Parenting in the 21st Century

Words: 3233 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97142598

For example, Walker and Hennig add that, "It has frequently been found that children (particularly boys) in divorced, mother-custody families exhibit lower levels of well-being than children in intact families, with more externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and lower levels of cognitive and social competence" (p. 64). My son is also currently at a formative period that has special significance for single-parents families. For instance, Walker and Hennig also point out that, "Single-mother families are often affectively charged, with high instrumental affection combined with high negativity and conflict, particularly in the transition to adolescence" (1997, p. 64).

The "transition to adolescence" can be a rocky period in anyone's life, of course, and it is reasonable to expect my son to experience some problems in general and with me in particular during this transitional period. Fortunately, this challenging developmental period is eased somewhat as children grow into mid-adolescence. As Walker and…… [Read More]


Burns, A. & Scott, C. (1999). Mother-headed families and why they have increased. Hillsdale,

NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crossman, S.M. & Adams, G.R. (1990). Divorce, single parenting and child development.

Journal of Psychology, 106(2), 205-207.
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Parents Be Held Responsible for

Words: 1662 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27942049

The writer concludes that the social scientists have been correct when they have mentioned the family dynamics and parental behavior as major influences in the growth and development of the child.

Also Henry iller (1993) asserts that the ability of the parents to develop an intimate connection with their baby and their essential responsibility throughout the newborn's growth and maturity has a profound impact on the behavior of the child because it helps their child to build and grow an upbeat body figure, self-worth, ethical principles and academic and social capability.

Therefore in light of the above mentioned facts it is essential for parents to spend a lot of time with their children and engage in constructive activities so that they can be emotionally connected with their parents and grow up to be trusting and loving individuals.


Annie Murphy Paul. Do Parents Really Matter? Psychology Today, Vol. 31, January-February…… [Read More]


Annie Murphy Paul. Do Parents Really Matter? Psychology Today, Vol. 31, January-February 1998

Betsy Bates. Parents' 'Prompting' Behavior Encourages Smoking. (Survey of Seventh and Eighth Graders). Family Practice News; 11/1/2001.

Fred Hutchinson. Parents Who Quit Smoking When Their Kids Are Young May Have a Big Influence on Whether Their Offspring Will Quit Smoking in Young Adulthood. PR Newswire; 3/1/2005

Henry B. Biller. Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development. Auburn House, 1993
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Parent Trap 1 And 2

Words: 4825 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55523589

Family therapy believes that problems that the individuals evidence stem from the fact that problems occur within the family unit itself and that the family is divided into several component parts. To address these problems the therapist, as it were, therefore steps into the family unit, becomes "a part of it" and intervenes. His doing so not only enables him to see the family patterns from the inside; thereby understanding faults of fission but also enable him to practice therapy. Intervention in the family is called enactment.

Enactment refers to the therapist encouraging acting of dysfunctional relationship patterns within the family therapy session and him acting out some of this behavior by actually entering the family unit. The therapist thereby learns about the family's structure and interactional patterns and is able to interfere in the process by modifying some of the negative elements, pointing these out, intensifying positive elements, and…… [Read More]


Family Systems institute Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration and Critique

Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy
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Parents and Nurses View of Continuity of Care

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 96337800

Baird, J., ehm, ., Hinds, P., Baggot, C., Davies, B. (2016). Do you know my child?

Continuity of nursing care in the pediatric intensive care unit. Nursing esearch, 65(2): 142-150.

Barid et al. (2016) provide a grounded theory, qualitative assessment of seven parents and 12 nurses using in-depth interviews with participants, observational assessment, and documents from within the organization under scrutiny in order to "explore the delivery of continuity of nursing care in the PICU from the perspective of both parents and nurses" (p. 142). The researchers describe continuity of nursing as being very important to parents, as they feel that there is better consistency of quality care when there is consistency within the ranks of the staff in terms of how nurses treat patients, how prompt they are, how their persona is and how well they interact with patients and parents, etc. Through the conducting of interviews with parents,…… [Read More]


Baird, J., Rehm, R., Hinds, P., Baggot, C., Davies, B. (2016). Do you know my child?

Continuity of nursing care in the pediatric intensive care unit. Nursing Research, 65(2): 142-150.
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Creating Parent and Teacher Relationships

Words: 1951 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 77287040

Parent-Teacher Collaboration

Synthesis of the Literature

Involvement of parents in the education of their children both in the classroom and at home has the potential or greatly enhancing the education of a child. It is important for schools to tap into the potential of the parents to support their child's education can help in better and effective teaching. Conversely, when the parents work in close collaboration with the teachers at school and follow the suggestions and directions prescribed for the students while dealing with their education at home can also help children do better in studies (Hendricks, 2013).

esearcher Susan Graham-Clay, in her article titled "Communicating with Parents: Strategies for Teachers," claims that often teachers try to develop a partnership with the parents to create a support system for student learning (Dubis & Bernadowski, 2014). esearchers claim that one of the major factors in the development of this partnership is…… [Read More]


Cook, B., Shepherd, K., Cook, S., & Cook, L. (2012). Facilitating the Effective Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices through Teacher-Parent Collaboration. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(3), 22-30. 

Dubis, S. & Bernadowski, C. (2014). Communicating with parents of children with special needs in Saudi Arabia: parents' and teachers' perceptions of using email for regular and ongoing communication. British Journal Of Special Education, 42(2), 166-182. 

Griffin, S. (2009). Communicating with parents. Practical Pre-School, 2009(106), 15-16. 

Hendricks, C. (2013). Improving schools Through action research: A reflective practice approach (3rd ed.). Boston: Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
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Different Parenting Styles and Their Effect on Children's Behavior

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71442817

Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior

Different Parenting Styles

This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.

Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…… [Read More]


Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? new york: Routledge.

Kim, M. (1999). Parental Involvement, Family Processes, and Parenting Styles of First Generation Korean parents on early childhood education. New York: Umi.

Nevid, J.S. (2009). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. New York: wadsworth.

Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child And Adolescent Development for Educators. New York: Guilford Publications.
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Prediction African-American Parents' and Guardians'

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 80096106

Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. he researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. he author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. hose competencies will carry over into middle and high school. herefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.

African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal…… [Read More]

Thompson's research is highly relevant to school administrators and counselors throughout the country. Most schools in the United States will have a substantial number of African-American students. Their needs and those of their parents are not being addressed well enough. Establishing solid ties between schools and their communities will help improve pubic relations and may also help raise the academic performance standards for African-American children. School administrators, teachers, and counselors should be able to satisfy the needs of all parents and children.

The researcher used a questionnaire to gather data about perceptions of public schools. All participants were self-described as African-Americans. A high number of participants were dissatisfied with their children's high school teachers: a greater number than those dissatisfied only with their children's elementary school teachers. Thompson (2003) also found that the participants' perceptions of elementary school teachers was positively correlated with perceptions of high school teachers. Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. The researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. The author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. Those competencies will carry over into middle and high school. Therefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.

African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal effort. Ohters noted that racism and race awareness might affect school performance. Regardless of perceived reasons for African-American student performance in school, the system must respond to the persistent achievement gap between black and white students. Thompson's (2003) research emphasizes the need to establish relationships with African-American parents early: before high school. Although the author does not offer any specific suggestions for policy change, some can be inferred. For example, African-American parents expressed a preference for educational materials that they deemed relevant and meaningful for their children (p. 10). Consulting with African-American parents when their children are still in elementary school might help those parents trust that the system is responsive to their needs and the needs of their children.
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Illuminate the Influence of Parents

Words: 2000 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65384303

36). Thus, such research could also generate results which point to the truths of human words and actions of parents that contribute to healthy and unhealthy relationships with alcohol. In this case, these findings would not be as the result of numbers, but would be as the result of uncovered viewpoints and perspectives verbalized by the participants.

Potential Questions:

Which parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, uninvolved) in the Jewish community (Ashkanas, Hasidic, Sfardy) connects most strongly with college freshman (18-26) alcohol abuse and alcohol maturity?

How do offspring's perspectives on their parents' parenting styles impact their relationship with alcohol as it manifests during college years in the Jewish community?

How do parenting styles characterized by warmth and attentiveness impact children's consumption of alcohol in the college years in the Jewish community?

How do parenting styles characterized by high expectations, structure and rigidity impact children's relationship to alcohol during college years…… [Read More]


Balter, L. (2000). Parenthood in America: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Benson, J.B.; Haith, M.M. (2009). Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego: Academic Press.

Cohen, D., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting Styles, Adolescent Substance Use, and Academic Achievement. Journal of Drug Education, 199-211.

Houghton, E., & Roche, a. (2001). Learning About Drinking. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
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Overly Protective Parent

Words: 3246 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 34298267

Overly Protective Parents

All parents care about their children; about their education, food, security etc. But sometimes this concern can be transformed into something almost obsessive that compels some parents to constantly monitor every movement of their children and be over controlling. Some children of overprotective parents can end up being aggressive, but can also develop a withdrawn or anti-social personality. Such children also tend to be insecure, have low self-esteem because they never feel safe without their parents. They have no experience dealing with stress and do not know how to do it when they really need to start living on their own. In this paper an introduction of overly protective parents is given discussing the reasons why some parents are over protective. Then the effects of over protection on children are discussed and then the counseling of such children is recommended.

The Overly Protective Parents


Overprotective parents…… [Read More]


Clinton, T., & Sibcy, G. (2006). Loving your child too much: Staying close to your kids without overprotecting, overindulging, or overcontrolling. Nashville, TN: Integrity Publishers. ISBN: 1-591-45045-4.

Cloud, H. & Townsend, J. (2001). Boundaries with kids. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN: 0-310-24315-7.

Emler, N. (2001) Self-esteem: The Costs and Causes of Low Self-worth. York: York Publishing Services/Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Fletcher, A.C., Steinberg, L. And Williams-Wheeler, M. (2004) 'Parental influences on adolescent problem behaviour: revisiting Stattin and Kerr', Child Development, Vol. 75, pp. 781 -- 96.
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Children Raised by Same-Sex Parents Have More

Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17832377

Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents

As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…… [Read More]


Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.

Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.

Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family

Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
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Zangle or Parent Connect Is

Words: 4814 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32315808

Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).

Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:

lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…… [Read More]

Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).


Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.
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Parental Involvement Does Lack of

Words: 2486 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 50423682

This research examines the success or failure of an initiative to help improve positive parental participation in their child's academic and behavioral outcomes.


A number of initiatives were discovered during the literature review. However, the ones found used a passive approach to parental participation. They did not utilize education of the parents, but relied on conditions and resources within the school setting. This study differs in that it requires an active participatory role by parents. It also adds the educational element lacking in other programs for the same purpose. The addition of the educational as well as action-based elements is expected to have better outcomes on student improvement than more passive approaches to the problem.

Selected Solutions/Calendar Plan

The initiative chosen for the study will be developed through a cooperative effort between teachers, administrators, and the research staff. The proposed calendar would have the initiative ready to institute by…… [Read More]


Bolak, K., Blalach, D., & Dunphy, M. (2005). Standards-Based, Thematic Units Integrate the Arts and Energiz4e Students and Teachers. Middle School Journal. 36 (5): 9-19.

Byers, S., Sears, H. & Voyer, S. et al. (2003). An Adolescent Perspective on Sexual Health

Education at School and at Home: II. Middle School Students. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 12 (1): 19.

Demaray, K. & Malecki, C. (2003). Perceptions of the Frequency and Importance of Social
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Parental Involvement

Words: 2607 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62261594

Parental Involvement on School Performance and ehavior

The concerns raised by a lack of parental involvement in the life of a young child, especially as it relates to schoolwork and behavior, are not new. They have been around ever since schools began to look at what types of influences seemed to matter most to children. However, it has only been in recent years that schools have made more of an attempt to discover what children really need to help them through their school careers. There are several factors, but one of the most important factors, agreed upon by a significant number of educators, is parental involvement.

This does not mean that a parent must come to every school event and chaperone every field trip. Rather, it means that parents who are actively involved in the lives of their children and make sure that they are keeping up in school, doing…… [Read More]


Bartle, S.E., Anderson, S.A., & Sabatelli, R.M. (1989). A model of parenting style, adolescent individuation and adolescent self-esteem: Preliminary findings. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 283-298.

Callan, V.J., & Noller, P. (1986). Perceptions of communicative relationships in families with adolescents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48(4), 813-820.

Catsambis, Sophia. (1995). Parents, Their Children, and Schools. (book reviews). Social Forces (74): 751-753.

Dornbusch, S.M., Ritter, P.L., Leiderman, P.H., Roberts, D.F., & Fraleigh, M.J. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58, 1244-1257.
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Parental Involvement in Schools

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22079446

Parental Involvement in Schools

Research Plan for Quantitative Study:

The basis of this study is to gain a better understanding of why children do better academically if their parents take an interest in their school and participate in school activities (such as meetings, events, committees, etc.). Throughout the course of the study, we hope to determine why parents who come from a higher educational background and income might participate more readily in their children's academic life and why this has such a positive effect on the students. In determining why some parents more readily participate in their children's school activities, we hope to determine if the parents who don't participate do not because of their educational background or because of race and upbringing.


Parental involvement in school is extremely important, because students with parents who are involved in their school show fewer signs of behavioral problems, better academic performance…… [Read More]

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Correlation of Alcoholism to Parenting Styles

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 75621047

Correlation of Alcoholism to Parenting Styles

Correlation of Parenting Styles to Alcohol Drinking Frequency in the Brooklyn Modern Orthodox Jewish Community.

Do the parenting styles in the Modern Orthodox Jewish community differentially correlate with self-reported alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males within the Orthodox Brooklyn Borough Park community (18-26)?

In general, the four parenting styles have a significant correlation on the behavior and attitudes of youngsters in college (Beck et al., 2004). Further investigation is required to demonstrate how these parenting styles correlate with the population in the Borough Park Jewish community. It has been demonstrated that college freshmen from different universities can be indulged in alcoholic habits given different parenting styles (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008).


The freshmen are increasingly using internet thus they preferred to be surveyed online too, rather than being handed questionnaires on paper (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008). The…… [Read More]

Yang et al. (2010) suggested that parents can play an effective role in controlling the behavior of freshmen to avoid alcohol use. Hence, there should be friendly and effective communication between parents and children in the growing ages of youth, since the children can seek advice from the parents in the process (Yang et al., 2010). Bowlby & Ainsworth (1982), discussed that the attachment and relationship between parents and children improved when they communicated more often and thus a good parenting style can make it easier for the children to overcome problem barriers later (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The child personality visibly gets affected by any of the parenting styles (i.e. Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved) (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The level of influence however may vary.

Unreasonably high interference during the years of college or very low involvements is not productive factors in avoiding frequency of alcohol use (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The freshmen that have stressed (strained) relationships with parents are found to easily fall prey to alcohol use as well as abuse (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). Since to them, relationships are not very important, they are less worried about their personal health too (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007).

In severe cases, where the children are the victims of psychological stress at home based on a
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Children of Alcoholic Parents it Is Generally

Words: 1017 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24374496

Children of Alcoholic Parents

It is generally accepted that alcoholism tends to run in families and that compared with children of non-alcoholics, children of alcoholic parents have approximately four time greater risk of becoming alcoholics themselves (Reich Pp). However, the causal factors that determine the development of alcohol abuse and dependence have not yet been conclusively determined (Reich Pp).

Studies from the 1950's and 1960's generally emphasized psychosocial explanation, such as "poor parenting, lack of good role models. And impoverished home life" (Reich Pp). Beginning in the 1970's, research has investigated heritable components in the familial transmission of alcoholism" (Reich Pp). Adoption studies analyses of half-siblings and studies comparing identical and fraternal twins have all provided evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role in the etiology of alcoholism (Reich Pp). Although there is strong evidence for a genetic contribution, few researchers would deny the influence of environmental factors in…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Nishioka, Elaine. "Helping children of alcoholics."

Journal of School Health; 11/1/1989; Pp.

Chassin, Laurie. "Academic Achievement in Adolescent Children of Alcoholics."

Journal of Studies on Alcohol; 1/1/1999; Pp.
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Two Parent Families the Importance

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86978892

While the same-sex parent is important in a child's life, the opposite-sex parent is also tremendously important. For the 90% of the population that are heterosexual, the opposite sex parent is the person who teaches them how to have romantic relationships. There is a reason that little girls love their daddies and that little boys are mama's boys, which has nothing to do with incest or actual sexual behavior. Instead, healthy opposite sex parents allow children to practice flirting and inter-gender behavior in a safe environment, free from sexual pressure. In fact, it is when children are deprived of interactions with their opposite-sex parent that they tend to seek adult attention elsewhere, becoming vulnerable to molesters and other predators. The opposite-sex parent is also important in the life of homosexual children, because they help teach children how to relate to people of different genders. There are recognized behavioral differences between…… [Read More]

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Absence of Paternal Involvement and

Words: 5319 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7397251

" (ean, 2006) ean notes that a "dramatic decline in the influence of father involvement has been shown to be correlated with fathers' maintaining a residence other than that of their children." (2006)

According to the work entitled: "Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency" developmental pathways of adolescent delinquency has been examined by researcher "through both longitudinal research and meta-analyses." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) Resulting from these empirical investigations are "numerous insights...key indicators and predictors of behavior of those youths who engage and those who persist in delinquent behavior." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) According to this work there have been a number of studies which had made identification of characteristic patterns of parent-child relationships that are strongly associated with juvenile delinquency." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) the work of Juby and Farrington (2001); Patterson and Stouthamer-Loeber (1984); and Steinberg (1987) state that "evidence clearly demonstrates the…… [Read More]


Allen, Sarah; and Daly, Kerry (2007) the Effects of Father Involvement: An Updated Research Summary of the Evidence Inventory. FIRA-CURA Centre for Families, Work & Well-Being University of Guelph, Ontario Canada. Online available at  ts/29/Effects_of_Father_Involvement.pdf+CORRELATION+BETW EEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=26&gl=us

Bean, Matthew (2006) Understanding Father's Roles: An Evidence-Based Practice Guide for Family Therapists. Kansas State University 2006. Online available at 

Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at

Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.) (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at
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Education Parental Involvement in Schools in Primary Schools in England

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23549780

Parental Involvement in Primary Schooling

The Standpoint

The first years of school is the most important in a child's life. It is during these years that the child establishes his or her academic personality. This is however not all. The years at primary school also helps a child to form and verify the values learned at home. It is therefore extremely important for parents to form a kind of partnership with primary schools. In this way the school and parents together can learn from each other how best to educate the child. Parents are also very important in helping their children with any problems that could be experienced in school. This will not only make the task of the school easier, but also help parents to establish a relationship of trust with the school.

For the years before the start of school, parents are the most important persons in a…… [Read More]


Handy, C. And Aitken, R. 1994. "The organisation of the primary school." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.

Macbeth, A. 1994. "Involving Parents." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.

Mortimore, P., Sammons, P., Stoll, L., Lewis, D., and Ecob, R. 1994. "Key factors for effective junior schooling." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.

Wilcock, M. 1994. "St. Andrew's Church of England Primary School." In Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. Edited by Andrew Pollard & Jill Bourne. London: Routledge.
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Parental Involvement and Its Influence on the

Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 9090134

Parental Involvement and Its Influence on the eading Achievement of the 6th Grade Students

The article's source was derived from several resources. Some of which were texts and the other is a group of 48 sixth grade students from whom the study was based on. The article was peer reviewed and featured in a textbook as well as a magazine publication. The research question was structured as a question and given its own mini sub-section, it was indeed clear and stated at the very beginning: "Does parental involvement affect the reading achievement (specifically comprehension) of sixth grade students" (Hawes & Plourde, 2005, p. 219)? The authors' hypothesis had a separate section for the hypothesis and explained, they believed there was no connection between reading attainment and parental participation for sixth grade middle school pupils.

The purpose of the author's study was to "to determine the relationship between reading achievement and…… [Read More]


Creswell, J., & Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Day, R., & Underwood, A. (1967). Quantitative analysis. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Feeney, A., & Heit, E. (2007). Inductive reasoning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hawes, C., & Plourde, L. (2005). Parental involvement and its influence on the reading achievement of 6th grade students. Project Innovation (Alabama), 42(1), 219-224. Retrieved from
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The Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Student Success

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52778704

Parental Involvement and Student Success: Article Review

Although parental involvement is usually encouraged by schools, its precise effects upon student achievement remains controversial. In the article, “A New Framework for Understanding Parental Involvement: Setting the Stage for Academic Success,” published in the RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, Harris and Robinson (2016) offer a new framework for understanding parental involvement to permit greater systematization in comparisons of studies; their framework is called stage setting, based upon the premise that, “Stage-setters create a life space—the parameters within which the actor’s performance occurs—that corresponds with the intended action” (Harris and Robinson, 2016, p.189). This article reflects the focus of the journal, which is to solicit peer-reviewed articles from academics from fields across multiple disciplines in the social sciences. According to the journal’s published guidelines, all academics within all fields can submit research, and multidisciplinary studies which incorporate multiple…… [Read More]

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Parental Involvement that Boost Young Childrens Academic Performance

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87567560

Types of Parental Involvement and Support that Boost Young Children’s Academic Performance
That there is a link between parental support and involvement and students performance is almost incontrovertible. Many studies agree to this and statistical data reveals that most researchers have the same thoughts on the matter (Jeynes, 2015; Wilder, 2013). However, it is not clear as to which kinds of parental involvement and support are effective for which ages and the types of academic performance they affect. This research seeks to find out the kind of parental support and involvement that is efficacious for good student achievement for children who are in grades 3 and 7.
Background and Significance
Studies have persistently revealed that there’s an almost incontestable link between the involvement and support of parents and student achievement. In fact, meta-analyses suggest that parental participation and help affect children’s academic performance across different ages and ethnic groups…… [Read More]

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The Importance of Parental Involvement in the TESOL Classroom

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95747256

TESOL: Fieldwork Experience

The student observed for the Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM) was a native Spanish-speaking 16-year-old female who was a high school sophomore. The student's SOLOM score for the observation was a 20/25 with limited English proficiency. Based on what was learned about the student during the SOLOM initial assessment and previous fieldwork experiences, this paper identifies an appropriate instructional strategy for use with this student and reports the results of that strategy.

The instruction strategy selected for this exercise was "building trust with families" as advocated by Pompa (n.d.) of the AdLit organization. Just as it is vitally important for clinicians to forge a therapeutic relationship with their clients in order to formulate efficacious treatment interventions, it is likewise vitally important for ELL teachers to reach out to students' families in order to encourage their more active involvement in the education of their children. Indeed, the…… [Read More]


Pompa, M. (n.d.). Building trust with families. AdLit. Retrieved from  / media/mediatopics/ells/.

Silverman, F. (2009, July). Hitting the books-together: Through a family literacy program, Hispanic parents and their young children are learning to be partners in educational success. District Administration, 40(7), 24-26.

Vera, E. M. & Israel, M. S (2012, Fall). Exploring the educational involvement of parents of English learners. School Community Journal, 22(2), 183-189.
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Homosexual Marriage and the Effects of Parenting

Words: 1931 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10904344

Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting

Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…… [Read More]


Balling, R. (2012, Septemver 28). Why same-sex marriage affects my marriage. Retrieved from Star tribune: 

Carey, B. (2012, June 11). Debate on a Study Examining Gay Parents. Retrieved from NYTimes: 

Chrisler, J. (2010, June 24). Why gay parents are good parents. Retrieved from (n.d.). Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds. Retrieved from
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Effect of Teacher Parent Partnerships on Learning

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 29202197

Teacher-Parent Collaboration

The following analysis focuses on the article titled "Preparation for Teacher-Parent Partnerships: A Practical Experience with a Family" by Hedges H. & Gibbs. According to the authors, there is the need for both stakeholders to collaborate, maximize the children's learning, and enhance early childhood education. The paper shows that despite these efforts, there are few ways that train the teachers of how to develop professional relationships with the parents. It continues to report on the use of field experience in family homes that occurred in the first year of a teacher educational program. While seeking to achieve the objective, it explores a case study of two student-teachers. The step is necessary because it shows the potential of the technique to this teacher's preparation. After the assessment, the students and teachers were seen to suffer from the realities that families create on a daily basis.

Hedges and Gibbs have…… [Read More]


Hedges H. & Gibbs C. A (2005). Practical Experience with a Family Preparation for Teacher-Parent Partnerships. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 26:115-126

Hiatt-Michael, D. B. (2010). Promising Practices to Support Family Involvement in Schools. New York: IAP

Hornby G. (2011). Parental Involvement in Childhood Education: Building Effective School-Family Partnerships. Springer Science & Business Media
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Socioeconomic Status Family Structure and Parental Involvement

Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88932990

Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Parental Involvement: The Correlates of Achievement

Eagle, Eva

Do class/socioeconomic status, the attention of a parent, the working patterns of the mother, and familial structure have any impact on a student's academic performance? This particular study seeks to, specifically, describe "the relationship between educational attainment and the components of the SES index as used in the National Longitudinal Surveys conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics." The 1980 High School and Beyond senior cohort was utilized in the undertaking of this study, with more than fifty eight thousand high school seniors and sophomores (1980) being used as the nationally representative sample. The survey of the samples took place in years 1980, 1982, 1984, as well as 1986.

The research made use of correlational research design. As Privitera (2013, p. 215) points out, correlational research design seeks to "use data to determine if two or…… [Read More]

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State Involvement in Healthcare

Words: 1640 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22131679

History Of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care


Eugenics is the belief and practice that involves the improvement of genetic quality of the human is a science that deals with influences that are able to bring an improvement in inborn qualities of race also with those that develop them to their utmost advantage. There is a considerable difference between goodness in various qualities and in the entire character as a whole. The character largely depends on the proportion that exists between these quantities whose balance can be greatly influenced by education. This is a social philosophy that advocates for the improvement of the human genetic traits by promoting higher reproduction of people that posses' desired traits also termed as positive eugenics and reducing the reproduction of people that posse's undesired ort less desired traits which is negative eugenics. Therefore Eugenics is a social movement that is…… [Read More]

Norrgard, K.(2008). Human Testing, the Eugenics Movement, and IRBs. Retrieved May 6,2014 from 

Galton, F.(2009).Eugenics: its definition, scope, and aims. Retrieved May 6,2014 from 

Bergman, J.(2000). A Brief History of the Eugenics Movement . Retrieved May 6, 2014 from
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Free Range Parenting Neglect

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34026476

free range parenting." Child Protective Services in Maryland, acting on a report from law enforcement, investigated a couple for neglect, based on the fact that they allowed their children to walk home from a park without parental supervision. For the Maryland couple, the charge was "unsubstantiated child neglect." This is not a criminal charge, but it is typically a precursor to a criminal charge (Nye, 2015). The couple was charged by Maryland Child Protective Services, rather than the police. The charge means that, operating within the confines of their mandate, Maryland CPS has the right to monitor the parents for the next five years. The CPS may, if it chooses, recommend criminal neglect charges that would go through the standard criminal justice processes. The CPS responded to an alert that the children were walking alone, and brought about their own investigation of the parents in this case. Thus, the effort…… [Read More]


Parents need to be given back the right to raise their children as they see fit. There are two main premises in this argument. The first is that parents have in recent years seen such rights eroded, replaced by increasing government involvement in what used to be parental decisions. It is known and agreed that in the 1980s and earlier, children were able to walk freely in their own neighborhoods, play in parks unsupervised, and to walk to and from school. Today, parents can be charged with neglect and face other legal actions if they allow their children unsupervised in public, even at a playground or walking to/from school. As Pimentel (2012) notes, there has been a shift in the way that both government agencies and courts have interpreted the standard of care that parents need to provide their children. External intervention in parenting is typically only exercised when neglect is suspected; it is the interpretation of the concept of neglect that has shifted over time that results in cases like that in Maryland.

There have been considerable study of this issue, by ethicists, legal scholars, sociologists, public administrators and, of course, by parents. The first support to the thesis is that the erosion of parental rights is a recent phenomenon. Pimentel (2012) examines the issue from a legal perspective, and notes that laws regarding child neglect have increasing been interpreted, especially since the turn of the millennium, to include strict provisions for constant supervision. The Supreme Court affirmed that the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment protects the right of parents to make decisions regarding the care of their children in 2000, and it is only in the interim that the statutes and legal interpretation of those statues has begun to change (Pimentel, 2012). He notes that the degree to which these changes have occurred varies between states. Thus, the issue is not the advent of "free range parenting," but that the statutes and interpretations in law of the concepts of neglect and the standard of care expected of parents have changed. The vagueness of existing laws -- which also
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Confidence in the Schools and Major Problems Facing the Schools Parental Involvement Drug Use

Words: 833 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28968191

Administrator Management Accounting Principles

The purpose of this paper is to prepare a MEMO to the superintendent which will be published in the District Newsletter in regards to what was revealed as to the attitudes and confidence in school in this school compared to others throughout the nation.

The following page contains the Memorandum to the uperintendent with a committee meeting report setting down specific plans for implementing changes within the school by engaging the community in assisting with and the owning of the school plan.




After having attended the committee meeting and reflecting on the information gained the first conveyance of this memorandum is to express gratitude for the concern that we are so fortunate to have within this school system. Admittedly, there are issues that must be addressed. The awareness that our school is in crisis is within the minds of…… [Read More]

Strengthening of partnerships with agencies such as the city health and family services, early education and recreation services and the libraries.

Focus on specific reforms, prioritization of initiatives and addressing problems in a systemic fashion.

STRATEGIC PLAN Board Of Education Goals And CORRESPONDING ACTION PLANS [Online] available at:, Strat, tec, Fees,/strategic_ plan.htm#strat%20process
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Gang Involvement Among Teenagers Is

Words: 4747 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31700329

To summarize, research on gangs has shown the gang problem to be increasing dramatically. Gang members list many reasons for joining a gang, including protection, peer pressure, economic needs, social needs, power, because relatives are members, a lack of parental or community support, and social status. According to the research, gangs tend to exist in greater numbers in low-income populations, and in single-parent households. Additionally, research has shown that while there certainly are Caucasian gang members, the majority are Hispanic or African-American.


The purpose of this study was to determine why teenage males join and participate in gang activities. The independent variables were socio-economic status, peer influence, lack of family support, self-esteem, and protection. The subjects studied were from a high population area near Houston, TX, where the majority of residents were of Hispanic decent. This study examined the relationship between gang activities and the independent variables. This section…… [Read More]


Arthur, R., and Erickson J. (1992). Gangs and schools. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.

Aumair, M.(1995). Characteristics of juvenile gangs. Youth Studies, 13, 40-48.

Bowker, L., and Klein, M. (1993). The etiology of female delinquency and gang membership: A test of psychological and social structure explanations. Adolescence, 8, 731-751.

Fleischer, M.(1998). Dead end kids. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
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Private vs Public Schools Many Parents Find

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9977176

Private vs. Public Schools

Many parents find themselves caught in a dilemma when trying to decide on which choice of education to take for their children. They ask themselves whether to take their children to private schools or public schools. For a parent to choose the ideal school for their children they always have to take into consideration all the available options. They consider things like the cost of the school, how much time they will invest as a parent, the social impact that the school have on their children based on the specific need of their children as well as the family.

Private schools offer the best option for the parent who is in need of better and quality education for their children. Private schools have a nearly perfect graduation rates which market them a great deal. Their performance is better as compared to the public schools. This is…… [Read More]


Mary Elizabeth, (2012). "Public Schools vs. Private Schools."Accessed May 10, 2012 from . -- private-schools.html

Parents For Better Education America (2011). "What Every Parent Should Know About Private Schools vs. Public Schools," ASIN: B004R9QKL8. Binding: Kindle Edition. Accessed May 10, 2012 from 

The Council for American Private Education. (2010). Private School Facts. Accessed May 10, 2012 from 

The Council for American Private Education. (2003). Academic Performance 2003. Accessed May 10, 2012 from
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Children Fatherless Homes Parenting The Effects

Words: 2533 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39424929

0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).

Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.

Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.

The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.

Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.

According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…… [Read More]


Effects of Fatherlessness (U.S. Data) [Online]  er/econ/nodad.htm

ANCPR Alliance for Non-Custodial Parents
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Importance of parental involvement

Words: 536 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48079942

impacting family literacy fluency (race, class, etc.) How can the relationships between parents, teachers, and schools support literacy understanding and growth? How do family interactions

One thing that is omnipresent and pervasive in situations where one or minorities are present is the idea of feeling like one is excluded. The level of severity of this happenstance can vary quite a bit. However, it is very real when it happens. In many cases, race, class and even language can become something that is polarizing and problematic. Despite these challenges, the rules that hold true for children within the dominant culture hold just as true for those in a minority (or more than one). This is even truer, however, when it comes to children that are vulnerable to poverty, deviancy and so forth. Indeed, parental involvement in a child's learning is important irrespective of the race, language or class of the child.…… [Read More]


Adichie, C. (2016). The danger of a single story. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from 

McGee, K. (2016). For History Teachers, It's Not Always Easy to Get Students of Color to Connect with Curriculum. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from 

NEA. (2010). New Report Focuses on Minority Parent Engagement - NEA Today. NEA Today. Retrieved 15 September 2016, from
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Child Safety and Parent or Caregiver Monitoring

Words: 1864 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 64241696

Emotional Skillfulness: A Critical eview

This report discusses the 2005 paper by Cordova, Zee, and Warren addresses "Emotional Skillfulness in Marriage: Intimacy as a Mediator of the elationship between Emotional Skillfulness and Marital Satisfaction," from The Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. The authors tested and verified their hypothesis that the ability to identify and communicate emotions correlated with 'marital adjustment' for both partners in a bonded relationship, and was mediated by 'intimate safety'.

Emotional attitudes of individuals are known to vary, based on a variety of factors, particularly including childhood upbringing and learned emotional patterns (Eckman & Friesen, 1971). Eckman and Friesen go so far as to say that we are born with some emotions. The topic of this work concerns emotional attitudes and understanding between adults in a marital relationship, and the ways in which emotional communication are important, particularly with respect to 'intimate safety', which is defined…… [Read More]


Ekman, P., & Friesen, W.V. (1971). Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 124-129.

Cordova, J.V., Gee, C.B., Warren, L.Z. (2005) Emotional Skillfulness In Marriage: Intimacy As A Mediator Of The Relationship Between Emotional Skillfulness And Marital Satisfaction. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2005, pp. 218-235.
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Parens Patriae or Parent of

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94138305

Law makers believed that transfer laws will assist in deterring juveniles from committing the most serious crimes.

The article reports that it is unclear whether or not trying juveniles in Criminal Court as opposed to juvenile court deters crime. In fact the author points out the results of six large studies which found that the recidivism rates of those tried in Criminal Court was greater than the rate of those tried in juvenile court. Other studies have shown mixed outcomes. Some research has shown that harsher sentences do not deter juveniles from committing crime, while others have shown that transfer laws have contributed to a decrease in crime amongst juveniles. However the largest and the most prominent research about this type of deterrence effort suggest that harsher penalties actually cause a greater amount of recidivism amongst juveniles. So then, the aim of transfer laws has not been realized because they…… [Read More]


Parens Patriae. Retrieved September 30 from; 

Redding, R.E. (2008) Juvenile Transfer Laws: An Effective Deterrent to Delinquency? Retrieved September 30 from; 

Soler M., Garry L.M. (2009) Reducing Disproportionate Minority Contact: Preparation at the Local Level. Retrieved September 30 from;
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Kersey and Masterson 2009 Advise

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 35039288

Whilst private schools in Wisconsin and Ohio make parent involvement in the school a condition for child acceptance, it is questionable whether traditional public schools should follow the same policy on the grounds that parental non-involvement may consequent in punishing the child rather than in serving an intended positive purpose.

Reilly (2008) presents a middle school parental -- school involvement program, at a Pennsylvania middle school, as an example of a program aimed to strengthen communication between parents and school. The article describes the program from the moment that the principal initiated it and invited all teachers to attend through to its culmination. Care is demonstrated through approximately 400 monthly messages that teachers sent parents regarding the child either via e-mail, phone, or written notes, and as the principal affirmed: "parents are more likely to support the teacher and will push their children to comply because 'this teacher cares about…… [Read More]

Van Dunk et al.'s (1998) policy report examines the issue of parental involvement from the perspective of parents whose children attend public and private schools in Milwaukee and Cleveland. The authors discovered that most parents do not seek personal involvement with the school when selecting a school for their child; that the majority of private schools require, per admission, that parents be actively involved in their child's school, and that research indicates that the child will profit by the parent's involvement in his or her school education: "Controlling for all other factors, a school that can require that parents volunteer time should have better student achievement than a school that cannot" (9). Whilst private schools in Wisconsin and Ohio make parent involvement in the school a condition for child acceptance, it is questionable whether traditional public schools should follow the same policy on the grounds that parental non-involvement may consequent in punishing the child rather than in serving an intended positive purpose.

Reilly (2008) presents a middle school parental -- school involvement program, at a Pennsylvania middle school, as an example of a program aimed to strengthen communication between parents and school. The article describes the program from the moment that the principal initiated it and invited all teachers to attend through to its culmination. Care is demonstrated through approximately 400 monthly messages that teachers sent parents regarding the child either via e-mail, phone, or written notes, and as the principal affirmed: "parents are more likely to support the teacher and will push their children to comply because 'this teacher cares about you'" (49).. According to the principal, this has consequented in greater parent involvement with the result that: "face-to-face confrontations have now been avoided since not doing homework or the misbehaving in class was exposed in its initial stages and was not allowed to grow to the detriment of the student's grade" (49). Hearing the teacher's 'side of the story' also resulted in fewer complaints about the school.

Wiseman (2010) deals with parental involvement with adolescent schooling. There is a misperception that adolescents need less parental 'interference', yet research demonstrates that the opposite is true. Wiseman (2010) conducted research on an eighth-grade poetry program in an urban public middle school designed to create parent-school involvement
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Desired State of School

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52496827

Dunn School

No public school in the United States is so perfectly administered that is cannot be improved. Dunn School in Trenton, New Jersey, is certainly not close to being perfect but there are signs that the school is improving. A school improvement plan has been approved and enabled and it includes: a) effective instruction; b) promotion of a positive school climate and culture; and c) effective community and family empowerment. The last two goals could become pivotal to the future of the school, if they are approached with solid background thought and good communication between the school leadership, the community, and families.

Promoting a positive school environment & involving the community

According to the ISLLC Standards #1 and #2 emphasize the need to create a "widely shared vision for learning" and to develop a "school culture and instructional program" that promotes learning while helping the staff become more professional.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ISLLC Standards. (2012). School Leadership Briefing / Ideas, Insights, and Inspiration for Professional Growth. Retrieved November 5, 2013, from

U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Social-Emotional Environment. Retrieved November

5, 2013, from