The research of Wofendale (1991) demonstrated the effectiveness of parents who provided support for the learning process of their child and holds that involvement in schools by parents is likely the primary indicator of performance of the child in school. The Michigan Department of Education reports that the "most consistent predictors of children's academic achievement and social adjustment are parent expectations of the child's academic attainment and satisfaction with their child's education at school." (2001) it is also noted that parents of student who are high achiever's set standards that are "higher...for their children's educational activities than parents of low-achieving students." (Clark, 7:85-105 in: The Michigan Department of Education, 2001)
Cited as the three primary factors of parental involvement in their children's education are the following: (1) beliefs of parents about what is important, necessary and permissible for them to do with and on behalf of their children; (3) the extent to which parents believe that they can have a positive influence on their children's education; and (3) parents' perceptions that their children and school want them to be involved. (Michigan Department of Education, 2001) the Michigan Department of Education states that many decades of research have shown that when parents are involved in the education of students that the students have: (1) higher grades, tests scores, and graduation rates; (2) better school attendance; (3) increased motivation and better self-esteem; (4) lower rates of suspension; (5) decreased use of drugs and alcohol; and (6) fewer instances of violent behavior. (2001) Families whose children are achieving in school are stated to do the following: (1) Establish a daily family routine. Examples: Providing time and a quiet place to study, assigning responsibility for household chores, being firm about bedtime and having dinner together; (2) Monitor out-of-school activities. Examples: Setting limits on TV watching, checking up on children when parents are not home, arranging for after-school activities and supervised care; (3) Model the value of learning, self-discipline, and hard work. Examples: Communicating through questioning and conversation, demonstrating that achievement comes from working hard; (4) Express high but realistic expectations for achievement. Examples: Setting goals and standards that are appropriate for children's age and maturity, recognizing and encouraging special talents, informing friends and family about successes; (5) Encourage children's development / progress in school. Examples: Maintaining a warm and supportive home, showing interest in children's progress at school, helping with homework, discussing the value of a good education and possible career options, staying in touch with teachers and school staff; and (6) Encourage reading, writing, and discussions among family members. Examples: Reading, listening to children read and talking about what is being read. (Michigan Department of Education, 2001) the Michigan Department of Education report additionally relates the 'six types of parent involvement' as posited in the work of Joyce Epstein of John Hopkins University and states that these six different types of parent involvement include the following:
1) Parenting: Help all families establish home environments to support children as students. (a) Parent education and other courses or training for parents (e.g., GED, college credit, family literacy); (b) Family support programs to assist families with health, nutrition, and other services; - Home visits at transition points to pre-school, elementary, middle, and high school.
2) Communicating: Design effective forms of school-to-home and home-to-school student achievement (e.g. Brooks, Bruno, & Burns, 1997; Cotton & Wikelund, 2001; Henderson, 1987; Herman & Yeh, 1980; Sheldon & Epstein, 2001a; Simon, 2001; Van Voorhis, 2001; Zellman & Waterman, 1998), behavior (e.g. Cotton & Wikelund, 2001; Henderson, 1987; 4 Sheldon & Epstein, 2001b; Simon, 2000), and motivation (e.g. Brooks, Bruno, & Burns, 1997; Cotton & Wikelund, 2001; Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 1994)." (nd) in the present study students without parental involvement at home in regards to their education fail to bring requested items to the classroom and this includes failure to complete homework assignments. Additionally, students are not learning and achieving the educational goals for their age. When the teachers send material home for the parents to read the parents are not reading these materials. An additional problem is that students come to school without being prepared for their classes and neither are they prepared to learn.
The teachers in the present study have reported that students are not making satisfactory progress on their daily assignments and report cards. Interviews with teachers reveal that parents do not read the agenda books, notices or notes that are sent home with students. Additionally revealed in interviews with teachers is that parents fail to take responsibilities for home work assignments. The interviews with teachers in this study reveal that parents fail to either contact or to responds to teachers and that communication between parents and students is in many cases nonexistent. The interviews with classroom teachers in this study provides evidence that parents do not attend the events at school such as back-to-schools night, parent-teacher conferences and parents also fail to join any volunteer groups or committees of the school. Interviews with parents of the students in this present study reveals the lack of understanding on the part of parents of the need for their active and ongoing involvement in the education of their child and further interviews with parents of students in this study reveal that the parents do not understand the reason that the children are sent from school with homework to complete. Interviews with parents of students in this study reveals that parents do not feel that they should or that they have to spend time with their children at home on educational matters and they further feel that they do not have to come to the school or meet the teachers. A review of student portfolios and progress reports indicate 50 of the 100 students are receiving failing grades in one or more of the academic areas and not prepared for the next grade.
The teachers' grade rosters provide indication that these students fail to turn in their homework assignments on a regular basis. Finally, the teachers' assessment records give indication that students are not learning basic reading skills, basic math skills and other necessary skills. The failure of students to come to class prepared and with their homework completed results in lost time in the classroom as the teachers assist students in completing homework assignments during classroom time in order to attempt to keep the students up-to-speed with the process of learning and to keep them from falling far behind in their learning. The entire class is affected by these factors and even the students who have completed their homework assignments fail to receive the provision of education that they should as classroom time is consumed with homework that should have been completed at home allowing the classroom learning to move forward. This situation is extremely frustrating for not only the students who come to school prepared with their homework completed but as well for the parents of these students who complain that their child is not progressing as they should be or learning all that they should.
Finally, this is frustrating for teachers as they realize…
meeting DAP standards while developing your educational program. Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) standards reflect research in developmental psychology, showing how educators and program directors can adapt an evidence-based practice to meet the needs of all students. While developing my own educational program, knowledge of the DAP philosophy and standards will help me reduce achievement gaps in my classrooms, while remaining a flexible and responsive leader. Learning about DAP standards will
Early Childhood The educational setting I have selected in my community to deconstruct within this document is called Thriving Minds (formerly Muskal Assessment and Learning Clinic). I was able to contact two long-term staff members of this organizations for a fairly candid interview revolving around their educational philosophy as specifically applied to parental involvement. Since this particular learning clinic exists outside of the formal constructs of any public or private school
Early childhood educators need to make a thorough study of the background family and community relationship in which a child is growing up. The findings of such investigations can then be used to optimize the teaching process and dissolve any negative connotations that may work to the child's detriment. On the other hand, both the family and community can work concomitantly towards the child's success later in life. The
The primary caregiver during the very early years of the child's life is the mother. Men play a fairly minor part in the early developmental years of the child. "In Malawi most men are traditionally distanced from their children; they rarely hold and play with them. (ibid) However this situation changes as the child grows up, and there is later more interaction between father and child. Overall, however, men are generally
In a diverse or bilingual classroom environment, the presence of parents integrates school and family in a positive way, and encourages a better attitude towards learning. "Encourage parents from other countries to come in and tell stories about their native lands, share favorite books from their childhoods, talk about their hobbies, and so on." (Shalaway, 1994) Positive interventions in classroom management on the part of parents can also encourage
Orientation will be held in a similar way, with parents exposed to Hahn's philosophy and rationale of the school curriculum, introduced to each of the teachers and invited to participate in joining in the various activities. Monthly reports will summarize the monthly events. Yearly reports will summarize the institution's annual achievement. Description of assessment process used to document children's progress. The Work Sampling System will be used which is a comprehensive