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Pay for performance is becoming commonplace in the business world. Pay raises and bonuses are often based on how well one performs on the job or on achieving specific results. However, this is not the case in education. Pay levels are typically based on years of experience and levels of education rather than on teacher effectiveness. As concerns about the quality of the nation's educational systems frequently appear in the news, one of the solutions suggested has been a pay for performance system for teachers. Interestingly, these programs are often met with resistance from teachers and teachers' unions. This paper will examine the effectiveness of such programs and the disadvantages for employers and employees.
Pay for performance programs are designed to compensate teachers based on how well their students perform or on observed behaviors in the classrooms (Chait & Miller, 2009). One of the keys to the success of these…
Chait, R., & Miller, R. (2009, May 18). Paying teachers for results: A summary of research to inform the design of pay-for performance programs for high poverty schools. Retrieved from Center for American Progress: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2009/05/performance_pay_poverty.html
Prince, C.D., Schuermann, P.J., Guthrie, J.W., Witham, P.J., Milanowski, A.T., & Thorn, C.A. (2009, August). The other 69%: Fairly rewarding the performance of teachers of nontested subjects and grades. Retrieved from Center for Educator Compensation: http://cecr.ed.gov/guides/other69Percent.pdf
Wisconsin Center for Education Research. (2008, January). Approaches to alternative teachers compensation: Promises and pitfalls. Retrieved from University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/news/coverstories/approaches_to_alternate_teacher_comp.php
Plus most teachers saw the pay for performance system as inevitable, and therefore wanted to be involved from the start of the plan (Gratz, 2005).
The pilot faced many challenges. Not the least, the district was faced with the logistical challenge of linking the students in various databases to the teachers. The internal systems for tracking student progress by teacher simply didn't exist. In addition, non-academic staff members had to have appropriate standards devised, such as nurses (Gratz, 2005).
The Denver pilot program experienced the difficulties that were quite unexpected with the implementation of a pay for performance system. The one result that was expected, improved student performance, was interestingly not due to the financial incentives offered. Instead, it came because of the district's commitment to enhancing the entire teaching process. By doing this, they were able to not only boost test scores, but create more effective schools in the…
Brotherton, P. Meyners pays for performance. Journal of Accountancy, 196(1). Retrieved June 13, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
Gratz, D.B. (Apr 2005). Lessons from Denver: The pay for performance pilot. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(8). Retrieved June 13, 2005, from ProQuest database.
Pay for performance say Kiwi workers. (Jun 2004). New Zealand Management, 51(5). Retrieved June 13, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
Rishell, M. & Becker, W. (Nov 2004). Pay for performance: The CFO's stake. Strategic Finance, 86(5). Retrieved June 13, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
The system must measure true performance in a way that minimizes random variation, as well as undesired and unintended consequences. It must align performance with ultimate outcomes and monitor performance to discourage cheating" (p. 88). In fact, Lavy suggests that any initial incentive pay program implementation will likely be flawed in some ways, but gradual progress in achieving a viable program is possible if the foregoing considerations are taken into account.
Assuming that organizations can successfully implement and administer such a pay-for-performance program, though, the returns on investment can be worth the effort required - but only if everyone involved "gets on board" with the approach. According to Fiorito, Bozeman, Young and Meurs (2007), "Employees should view incentive pay as a form of support and show increased commitment in return. Despite well-known problems with incentive systems, this basic idea suggests that workers will be more committed in firms where performance…
Bayley, C. (2006). Pay for performance: The next best thing. The Hastings Center Report, 36(1), 1.
Fiorito, J., Bozeman, D.P., Young, a. & Meurs, J.A. (2007). Organizational commitment, human resource practices and organizational characteristics. Journal of Managerial Issues 19(2), 186-187.
Gratz, D.G. (2005). Lessons from Denver: The pay for performance pilot. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(8), 568.
Hyde, a.C. (2005). Pay for performance: How pay for performance has emerged as the new model for federal human resources pay practice and how executives and managers will be challenged to solve its complexities. The Public Manager, 34(1), 3-4.
Prior to 1930, thought, little attention was given to pay-for-performance in the public sector in the United States except for the blue-collar, manufacturing functions that were being primarily performed for the military. During this period in American history, government was viewed (and perhaps still is by many) as a competitive threat to private enterprise; as a result, there was not much public support for developing a highly motivated and effective workforce for civil service jobs (Shafritz, 2000). When strictly applied, in fact, the term "job" would seem to indicate that such merit systems are particularly inappropriate for the public sector that has a specific mandate; for instance, Black's Law Dictionary (1990) notes that a "job" is "A specific task or piece of work to be done for a set fee or compensation" (p. 835). According to Shafritz, pay-for-performance initiatives were first introduced into educational settings as part of…
Bagley, C., Evans, C., Mangin, M. & Stewart, P.M. (2001). Teacher Quality: Issues and Research. Education, 122(1), 200.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Downes, T.A. & Horowitz, J.L. (1995). An Analysis of the Effect of Chicago School Reform on Student Performance. Economic Perspectives, 19(3), 13.
Hardaway, R.M. (1995). America goes to school: Law, reform, and crisis in public education. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Pay fo Pefomance Systems
How could an oganization measue the effectiveness of thei pay-fo-pefomance plans?
In pinciple, oganizations could measue the effectiveness of thei pay-fo-pefomance plans by establishing objective citeia fo defining "effectiveness" and then measuing those citeia befoe and afte implementation of the plan and compaing those esults (Kline & Sulsky, 2009). Fo example, in a geneal business oganization, the citeia used to evaluate the effectiveness of pefomance plans might be individual and team poductivity, quality of poduction, eo ates, and both supeviso evaluations and self-epots of employee satisfaction (Kline & Sulsky, 2009).
Likewise, employee tunove and etention ates befoe and afte plan implementation could also pove useful. In addition to some of those same citeia, within an educational vocational envionment, some of the education-specific citeia that could be consideed might include student pefomance (both in couse gades and also on standadized tests) and anonymous student teache evaluations. Some…
references properly in text in accordance with the 6th edition of the APA manual, chapters 6 & 7.
eimbursement and Pay-For-Performance
This entails day-to-day programs designed to offer monetary incentives to health care providers and physicians to meet efficiency, quality and other defined targets. Pay-for-performance entails Agency for health care and quality, which defined as improved strategies in health care delivery, which majorly relies on the use of purchase power or the market power (Heywood, 2002). They referred as proper a financial incentive that heavily rewards service providers for their great achievements over a range of client objectives, such as, data submissions, payer's measure, safety of the patient, quality improvement, and the efficiency in service delivery (Brown, 2002).
Larger number of employees, proper health plans, and the purchase of health care services, which includes Medicaid and Medicare concurrently tries to seek conclusive evidence on what works best or poor in the Agency for health care and research quality resources on pay for performance (Heywood, 2002). However, the…
Aaron, H.J., & Gelband, H. (2000).Extending Medicare reimbursement in clinical trials.
Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Bragg, S.M. (2010). Cost reduction analysis tools and strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Brown, M., & Heywood, J.S. (2002).Paying for performance: an international comparison.Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
employment pay program identified as pay for performance have been part of the business landscape for many years (Bloom). The debate centers on a variety of issues but it also seems to be hobbled somewhat by a lack of clarity and agreement as to what pay for performance actually is. Some in the debate seem to speak of the program as a system of base salary increases that are linked to performance appraisals while others in the debate focus on incentives. For purposes of this discussion, pay for performance means a variable pay approach that is anchored to a measurement of performance, whether that's how many hours an attorney bills every month or a more subjective standard -- how well a manager fosters teamwork, for instance. Often, evaluations are based on best-to-worst forced ranking systems -- known to many employees as rank and yank -- which are thought to provide…
Bloom, Matt. (1999). The Performance Effects of Pay Dispersions on Individuals and Organizations. The Academy of Management Journal, 25-40.
Kose, M. Ayhan. (2008). Understanding the evolution of world business cycles. Journal of International Economics. 110-130.
Koss, Sharon K. (2008). Solving the Compensation Puzzle: Putting Together a Complete Pay and Performance System. Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resource Management.
Lawler, Edward. (2008). Pay and Organizational Effectiveness: A Psychological View. London: McGraw-Hill.
Bonuses could also be earned by taking advanced courses in improving classroom techniques and by improving the scores their students achieved on state tests.
These salary additions can add up to as much as $9,800 per year. In addition, teachers' pay can be docked if state testing demonstrates that their students have fallen too far below expectations (Philips & Tyre, 2007). The system has been so successful, that Denver has completely eliminated their pay scale based solely on years of experience and academic degrees (Olson, 2007b).
Denver's program collaborated with the Denver Classroom Teachers Association, an NEA affiliate, to develop their plan. In addition, they've permitted teaching veterans to opt into the program, rather than force them to participate. This has helped with the acceptance of the program as teachers have not felt pressured into joining the ProComp Plan.
To help facilitate this decision, Denver's ProComp Plan has its own…
Boles, K. & Troen, V. (Nov/Dec 2007). How to improve professional practice. Principal, 87(2). Retrieved November 11, 2007, from Education Research Complete database.
Cavanagh, S. (24 Oct 2007). Employees sharing in Alaska's bonuses. Education Week, 27(9). Retrieved November 11, 2007, from MasterFILE Premier database.
A good mark for teacher merit pay. (27 Aug 2007). Christian Science Monitor, 99(190). Retrieved November 11, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Honawar, V. (24 Oct 2007a). N.Y.C. Unveils merit-pay plan for teachers in high-need schools. Education Week, 27(9). Retrieved November 11, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
In addition, managers should be measured in part on their ability to implement this new system. The employees will need to be educated about the new system. Managers will need to implement the means of measuring performance so that employees can understand how they are being measured in addition to why.
The third step will be to address the issue with the union. ith a designed system in hand, the company needs to make the new system a priority in negotiations with the union. This may require the company to break the union, as union resistance to the current gravy train of blanket raises may be high. If the union agrees to the plan, it must be implemented into the collective bargaining agreement.
The fourth step will be a review of the system. It cannot reasonably be expected that a new system will be totally flawless. A team consisting of…
Haradkiewicz, J. & Elliot, a. (1998). The joint effects of target and purpose goals on intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Vol. 24 (7) 675-689.
Allan, P. (1994). Designing and implementing an effective performance appraisal system. Review of Business. Retrieved May 23, 2010 from http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workforce-management/479508-1.html
Foster Care and Adoption
Priority: Protect Children from Abuse and Neglect and Connect Them to Caring Permanent Families.
A lot of money is mismanaged when it comes to investigating child abuse cases and placing abused or neglected children into foster care. Many times the families that take in these children do so to earn extra money from monthly foster care subsidies. They don't even spend that money on the betterment or maintenance of the child and instead spend it on themselves. This may not be the case for some foster parents, but it is often to true for many.
Furthermore, children placed in foster homes often only stay there for as little as a few weeks and have move from one foster care family to another. The constant placement of these children in different homes can have negative psychological effects not just on the children in their youth,…
Kelly, G. (2000). Issues in foster care: policy practice and research. London: Jessica Kingsley.
Promoting Adoption and Legal Guardianship for Children in Foster Care Act (H.R. 3205). (n.d.). GovTrack.us. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/113/hr3205#summary
A detailed description and origins of pay for performance
Pay-for-performance initiatives are designed to improve the efficiency, quality and general value of health care. Other terms used to refer to pay-for-performance include pay-for-quality, alternative payment, valued-based payment, among others. No matter the nomenclature, the main objective of pay-for-performance is to improve efficiency for optimal outcomes. (Rosenthal et al., 2005)
During the early 1990s, many consumers opted for managed care by paying some cash to the providers for a particular set of services. Such arrangement led to compromised quality and put some strain on patients.
Come 2000, the US was experiencing serious deficiency in health care quality. The Institute of Medicine wrote a detailed report on this. Thus pay-for-performance became a valid option for quality health care. (Vogenberg & Smart, 2018)
Who is affected by pay-for-performance?
A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate adherence to medication versus medication subsidies,…
PAY SYSEM plays a crucial role when managers are looking for ways to retain and motivate employees. Higher employee turnover rate can have a demoralizing impact on company's performance and is usually connected with an unfair pay system whereby some employees' feel that their hard work is not being rewarded adequately and thus choose to leave the firm for better opportunities.
Management literature and some actual examples reveal that the best pay system is the one that is based on employee performance. When pay system is tied to performance, we call it 'paying for performance'. his system ensures that effort, dedication and commitment of each and every employee is properly rewarded and that hard work doesn't go unnoticed. For this reason, it is important to develop a proper system of performance measurement, which helps in designing a better and performance-based pay system.
Measurement of performance and paying for the same…
That is why "analysts are predicting that performance-based deals will become increasingly prevalent, with some estimates showing pay-for-performance rising to 30% of all online ad revenues by 2006" (Riolo, 2002)
However, another research-based analytical article by some of the best experts in the related field, read the following thereby highlighting both the negative and the positive recent development in the thought process regarding the pay for performance process:
REAL PAY FOR PERFORMANCE IS THE BIGGEST trend coming down the tracks, and it's going to hit the workforce like a freight train. In today's tight labor market, employers are paying what potential employees demand. But at the same time, they're finding that they've already realized the easy productivity gains from
Pay structure reflects four general architectural principles. The first is the minimum and maximum levels of pay within the organization, and to whom those levels go. The second is the general relationship between the levels of pay. In this, the organization must understand the different types of employees that it has, and what the relationship is between those types. The third factor is whether the pay structure should lead the market, meet the market or lag the market. This can be broken down by pay class as well, so that some positions lag the market while others lead the market, depending on the importance of the position to the company. The fourth architectural component of pay structure, which is the division of the total compensation dollar between base pay, merit pay and pay-for-performance programs (Henderson, 2006).
A pay policy line is best described as a trend line that reflects the…
Henderson, R. (2006). Compensation management in a knowledge-based world (10th ed). Chapter 11. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
57, why are metrics, i.e. The choice of what to measure, fair simply because one meets or exceeds a goal?
) The sales people seem to repeatedly confuse "metrics" with "goals" (i.e. "targets"). What do you infer from this? Is there anything you need to foolow up on here?
Tutor is mistaken; the Goals are the Metrics under
"The Impact of Performance-elated Pay
on Motivation and Job Satisfaction of Sales Personnel
in the Computer Industry
with ecommendations to Improve Management Practices"
Case-study of SEMICO INC
The search for better ways to motivate people in the workplace continues unabated, but the search is becoming increasingly complex as an increasing number of theorists weigh in on what factors tend to affect job performance and employee satisfaction. Although no consensus has been forthcoming, the theoretical work that has emerged concerning employee motivation can be divided into three basic…
Chapter 3: Literature Review
Now, the last one involves the balancing competitiveness with internal alignment through the use of ranges, flat rates, and/or bands. This is very important because a company would want to know who they are competing against and what they have to offer that will be able to go against them in the marketplace. Other things mentioned in this chapter, involve chapter talks about market pay survey (Salvador & Garcia-Menendez, 2001). There are three matters to look at before using pay surveys. One of those things is figuring out which employers will need to be included in the survey because clearly, everyone does not need to be involved. The second thing is to find out which jobs are will need to be included in the survey because obviously the proper ones need to be selected. It is not really necessary to use all of them. If multiple surveys are used, how…
Altman, M. (1995). Labor market discrimination, pay inequality, and effort variability: An alternative to the neoclassical model. Eastern Economic Journal, 21(2), 157-157.
Bosompra, K., Ashikaga, T., Flynn, B.S., Worden, J.K., & Solomon, L.J. (2001). Psychosocial factors associated with the public's willingness to pay for genetic testing for cancer risk: A structural equations model. Health Education Research, 16(2), 157-157.
Buescher, B.C. (2000). ABA model rule 7.6: The ABA pleases the SEC, but does not solve pay to play. The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics, 14(1), 139-157.
Huang, C.L., Kan, K., & Tsu-Tan, F. (1999). Consumer willingness-to-pay for food safety in taiwan: A binary-ordinal probit model of analysis. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 33(1), 76-91.
Contrary to popular belief, improved performance by employees in a particular organization is not always linked to incentives; in today's dynamic business environment, it is crucial for human resource managers to balance the needs of individuals with those of the organization. One critical component that leads to good individual as well as organizational performance is the application of an effective performance management process. In fact, companies that invest in good performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not measure and manage their performance (Leeuw and Berg, 2010). According to Cardy and Leonard (2011), performance management can be defined as the integrated and strategic approach used by human resource managers to deliver successful results by improving the performance of all the individuals in the organization. It ensures that the goals of an organization are achieved in an efficient and effective manner, while at the same time maintaining good…
Cardy, R & Leonard, B. (2011). Performance Management: Concepts, Skills and Exercises. (2nd Ed.) New York, NY: Routledge
Leeuw, S & Berg, J.P. (2010) Improving operational performance by influencing shopfloor behavior via performance management practices. Journal of Operations Management Vol. (29)1 224-335. Retrieved 9 April 2015 from http://www.isihome.ir/freearticle/ISIHome.ir-21006.pdf
Riccio, S. (2014) Hudson College Scenario C: Performance Management. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved 10 April 2015 FOM https://www.shrm.org/Education/hreducation/Documents/Riccio_Hudson%20College_Scenario%20C_Student%20Workbook_FINAL.pdf
Stone, R.N. (2009) Achieving Results with a Performance-Centered Design Framework. Performance Improvement Vol. (48)5 37-44. Retrieved 10 April 2015 from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/237234715/4155FCBF55844623PQ/1?accountid=39364
Link Between Performance Measures and Reimbursement
Quality performance measures are critical and used for various purposes in the healthcare field including regulation, surveillance, and clinical care improvement (Adirim et al., 2017). The existing quality performance measures in the healthcare sector are classified into three categories i.e. outcome, structure, and process. However, quality performance measures seek to address the areas of quality across the continuum of care. Over the past few years, quality performance measures are increasingly linked to reimbursement given the emergence of the concept of pay for performance. In this regard, performance is linked to reimbursement in terms of enhancing patient satisfaction, best practices, and metric-driven outcomes. Payment for healthcare services is rapidly evolving to reward value through evaluating and paying for quality and spending performance (Ryan & Rodgers, 2018).
There are some challenges and benefits of the relationship between quality performance measures and reimbursement. Some of the benefits…
Adirim et al. (2017, January). A New Era in Quality Measurement: The Development and Application of Quality Measures. Pediatrics, 139(1). Retrieved from https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/139/1/e20163442
Ryan, A.M. & Rodgers, P.E. (2018, March 1). Linking Quality and Spending to Measure Value for People with Serious Illness. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 21(2), S-74-S-80. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756459/
Performance Management Process and the CEO
Critique and evaluate considerations that are traditionally used to determine CEO compensation
Many reward compensations adopted by the CEOs of this era contain five primary components: limited stock grants, limited option grants, payouts for incentive plans, annual bonuses, and salary. While the amounts of bonuses, compensation and perquisites found in not-for-profit sectors may pale in comparison to those in the for-profit world, they generate combined reactions. Their existence can ignite debate, especially in periods of shrinking budgets and increasing costs. However, the ability to hire, maintain, and compensate CEOs is essential in all sectors, and is mostly achieved using a variety of executive compensation plans. The issues around the design of these systems in both the business and not-for-profit areas are similar (Bhattacharyya, 2011).
The last two decades have witnessed a drastic transformation of the executive compensation in many organizations. Compensation of top executives…
Bhattacharyya, D.K. (2011). Performance management systems and strategies. Dehli: Pearson.
Bebchuk, L.A., & Fried, J.M. (2004). Pay without performance: The unfulfilled promise of executive compensation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Blazey, M.L. (2013). Insights to performance excellence, 2013-2014: Understanding the integrated management system and the Baldridge criteria. Milwaukee: Asq Quality Press.
Chingos, P.T. (2004). Responsible Executive Compensation for a New Era of Accountability. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Hence, conflicts are generated only by misunderstanding or mischief (Edwards, 2003). Although unitarism have been proven to represent old-fashioned and unrealistic ideas, many managers nowadays follow this approach. They believe in a harmony of interests between them and their employers. However, practice has proven little resemblance between the employees' desires and interests, and those of their employers. Therefore, with such an approach to the employment relationship, conflict is inevitable. The 1998 Workplace Employee elations Survey revealed that 72% of workplace managers consult directly with the employees, and not with trade unions.
In the pluralist approach conflict is considered to be inevitable because various organizations take part in determining the rules of employment. Given the fact that each of these participating organizations has its distinct bases of authority, the risk of a conflict emerging is inevitable. The radical view is meant to be a critique of pluralism.
Conflicts are inevitable…
Gordon, Judith R. 1996. Organizational Behavior. A Diagnostic Approach. Fifth Edition. Prentice Hall International, Inc., Boston.
Dawson, Patrick. 1995. Troubles with TQM - Pirelli Cables Australia Limited. Managing Service Quality Journal, Volume no. 5, Issue no. 6, (online). Available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=842457 .
Callahan, E.R., Fleenor, C.P. & Knudson, R.H. (1986). Undersanding Organizational Behavior - a managerial view point.
EIRO Thematic Feature of Collective Dispute Resolutions in an enlarged European Union - case of Malta. 2004. (online). Available at http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2005/08/word/nl0508103t.doc
Furthermore, the customer is most likely not to be biased hence the credibility of the feedback. The sources of information will be integrated by analyzing the data and comparing the feedbacks to determine if they show consistency; before drafting the final report.
The performance appraisal method of evaluating the behavior for rating has a critical technique of analyzing information incorporated. Therefore, in developing the tool, the first approach is to establish the information that is required (Flynn, 2010). Once determined, the questioned are phrased and documented into questionnaires and interviews, which will then be administered to the supervisors, the co-workers and customers for feedback purposes. Additionally, the previous reports on the company's trends will be incorporated to show how the behavioral changes in the department affect the returns of the company. The information gathered is then consolidated into a report for the final scaling which is the report of…
Josiane Fahed-Sreih, (2009) "The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy and Performance,"
Management Research News, Vol. 32 Iss: 3, pp.297-299
Maurer, S.D. (2002). A practitioner-based analysis of interviewer job expertise and scale format as contextual factors in situational interviews. Personnel Psychology, 55(2), 307-327.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220142693?accountid=35812
I would want to be evaluated through a form that would reveal whether or not I was conducting my assigned duties. Because of its specific nature, figure 11-3 would not only allow the evaluating manager to make an informed representation of my work, but also remind me of specific duties. Thus, as an employer and an employee, figure 11-3 is the superior form. It allows for the accurate and succinct evaluation of workers and the best chance of convincing those workers to continue to strive or make up for what they have lost.
When looking at the performance appraisals in figures 11-1 and 11-3, employers can find many factors on which to evaluate them. The first, job-relatedness, has already been discussed above, noting that the second form was superior in this area. While it may not have been nearly as job-related, the first form was probably less expensive.…
Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association
The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions.
Goals and functions of functional areas
Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards.
Security; this functional are…
American Correctional Association, (2014). Public Correctional Policy on Standards and Accreditation. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.aca.org/government/policyresolution/view.asp?ID=44
David Ronald R., (2006). Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.uta.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10106%2F478%2Fumi-uta-1244.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=r3YcU97SBubb7Aa2hIHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNGeh6YJwRQeOzwduuSGkhI3J9IXMg&sig2=jVsH_ysiTj7ZUyDagJDjSA&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bGE
Flynn E.E., (1977). The Correctional Facility: The Environment Today and in the Future. Library Trends. Summer edition.
Manitoba Laws, (1999). The Correctional Services Act. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c230e.php
Bloodstream Infections in NICU
Bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) are a serious concern for parents and health care professionals. Exposure to bloodstream infections for most patients will caused delayed hospital stays and higher costs associated with hospital visit (Marschall et. al., 2008). There are many procedural changes that can be made at the hospital to decrease risk of bloodstream infections. ecommendations for decreasing bloodstream infections will be based on the practices of the Connecticut Children's Medical Center (CCMC), which is successful in decreasing bloodstream infections. In this paper I will discuss how to get the employees engaged in their work, how to receive buy-in for quality work, how this will reduce errors and increase the quality of work.
Engaging employees in their Work
It is important to train the employees on the recommended techniques for inserting a catheter since this is main cause of blood…
Buttes et. al. (2006). Drive down infection rates. Nursing Management. October.
Deaver, K. (2010). Preventing Infections in Hemodialysis Fistula and Graft Vascular Accesses. Nephrology Nursing Journal. 37 (5) 503-506
Marschall et. al. (2008). Strategies to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in acute care hospitals. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 29 (1) S22-30.
In the final calculation therefore, the hospital will suffer the most, the MO next, and PHOs the least. The entire triad -- hospitals, physicians, and insurers -- is usually comprised of a power struggle revolving around which one ends up dominating a local market. In the Marcus-Welby case, insurers seems to have been the first to 'get its act together', but if a critical band of physicians band together, they could dictate the terms under which they will join the network, and thus preempt or overturn the high level of prices raised by the insurers.
Requirements for success
Clinical care seems to be the most significant variable (Burns et al., 1994; Zuckerman & Kaluzny, 1991). To the extent the more value the service can offer the greater its amount of success. Findings also demonstrate that the greater the degree of perceived physician-system integration, the greater the system's inpatient…
Burns, L.R. (1995) Models of Physician-hospital organization: Possibilities and pitfalls Health Care Systems, 2, 1-4.
Burns, L.R., Chilingerain, J.A., & Wholey, D.A (1994) the effect of physician practice organization on efficient use of hospital resources, Health services research, 29, 583-603.
Burns, L.R., & Thorpe, D.P. (1993). Models in Physician-Hospital Organization, Health Care Management Review, 7-20.
Shortell, S.M., Gillies, R.R., & Anderson, D.A. (1994). The new world of managed care: creating organized delivery systems Health Affairs, Vol 13, Issue 5, 46-64
ole-Play a (with Manager a and Employee A)
In this example obert is meeting with Denise to go over her performance appraisal. When Denise is asked to tell obert how she feels she has done over the last year, Denise states that she feels satisfied with her performance and believes she is doing good because she has not received any feedback from obert otherwise. There are two issues to be concerned about with this statement. First, employees should be given regular and systematic feedback on their performance throughout the appraisal period, not just once a year (Ash & Quarry, 2010). Second, a yearly appraisal period is too long. Performance appraisals should be given at least twice per year, if not more often, in order to give equal credit to the good performance and not so good performance (Pardue, 1999). We tend to only remember what has happened recently…
Eve Ash & Peter Quarry (2010) 10 Steps to Flawless Appraisal Interviews. Gower, Training Point: Ash Quarry Productions. [DVD]
Pardue, Howard, 1999. Performance Appraisal as an Employee Development Tool. [Online]. Available at: < http://www.shrm.org/Research/Articles/Articles/Pages/CMS_000104.aspx > [Accessed December 13, 2010].
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
C.C. -- Article 2 -- Sales, 2005). In this case since the first lot was defective the buyer is going to claim that they have the right to refuse both lots. The seller will claim that they buyer should not be capable to refuse the second lot since it conformed to the specifications that had been set forth.
The obligation of a seller is to transport and convey and the obligation of the buyer is to recognize and pay in agreement with the contract. Express warranties by the seller are fashioned when any confirmation of detail or assurance by the seller to the buyer which relates to the goods and becomes part of the foundation of the agreement (U.C.C. -- Article 2 -- Sales, 2005). The seller had the responsibility to supply merchandise that conformed to the specifications set down in the contract in two lots.
In this case a…
U.C.C. -- Article 2 -- Sales. (2005). Retrieved November 23, 2010, from Cornell University Law
School Web site: http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/2/article2.htm#s2-714
In other fields, going the extra mile, investing extra weekend or evening time, or providing exemplary presentations and materials usually results in some form of bonus. In teaching, however, much of this is expected -- before and after school tutoring, evening performances, weekend events, out-of-pocket expenses for supplies and materials not covered in the budget (See: Johnson, 2004).
Thus, while still presenting the overall debate from the public administration, governmental, and even sociological (parental, community) views, the proposed study will focus on specific views and attitudes that teachers' hold towards a pay for performance concept. The study will examine current and proposed legislation adopting such a compensation package, as well as a qualitative evaluation of the efficacy of such programs within the 21st century educational climate. The study will quantitatively analyze the data based on demographic and psychographic indicators such as age, gender, ethnicity, teaching level, education level, length of…
Special Ed Groups Try to Shape Pay-for-Performance Movement. (June 2010). Special
Education Report. 36 (2): 2.
Adams, S., Heywood, J., and Rothstein, R. (2009). Teachers, Performance Pay, and Accountability. EPI Books. Cited in:
At this point we can conclusively deduce that the workforce at Telstra lacks intrinsic rewards as well as extrinsic rewards. The link between reward and performance is not clearly defined. However a certain amount of literature has indicated that a certain level of motivation is necessary in order to achieve certain desired results from the workforce.
Link between organizational strategy and the management of reward & performance
The Telstra management is strongly motivated towards the attainment of the various levels of superb performance by their employees towards their customers. There are however certain areas that are not consistent with the norm at the company. The organization strategy at Telstra is geared towards the attainment of unparalleled customer satisfaction .The reality on the ground however is that this is achieved via a series of moves such as the implementation of the Performance Improvement and Conduct Management (PICM), a system that has…
Hau-Siu Chow, I and Liu S (2007),Business strategy, organizational culture, and performance outcomes in China's technology industry http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/166051342_2.html
Holmstrom, Bengt (1979 )"Moral hazard and observ^ility." Bell Joumal of Economics, 10(1): 74-91.
India Telecom Series: Vol. 2: Cellular & Wireless Market, Information Gatekeepers, Inc.
Read more: http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2010/05/strategic-analysis-of-the-telstra-corporation-australia.html#ixzz15rgRkhoj
Often employees also receive an end-of-year lump sum bonus that is not included in their base pay (Employee Compensation, 2010).
Perkins and Balkin can choose to do any types of compensation plans that they want to. They can have plans for different areas within the organization. For example, everyone in the company could be on an hourly compensation plan while say the sales department could be on a pay for performance plan. The key is to make sure that everyone that is within a department is on the say type of plan so that everything is kept fair and ethical.
A high performance work system has many benefits for both employees and organizations. If employees feel that they are part of a high performance system then they will be happier employees and thus more productive. There are seven steps that a company must go through in order to establish a…
Employee Compensation. (2010). Retrieved May 23, 2010, from Novelguide Web site:
Fogleman, Sarah L. (2004). Creative Compensation. Retrieved May 23, 2010, from Web site:
Having managers justify their reviews to their superiors will give little quality control if the supervisors wish the reviews to have a predetermined positive or negative conclusion. Using pay-for-performance and performance reviews in general when the outcomes are foregone conclusions and shaped by rater needs to motivate employees, preserve workplace harmony, or conversely cut a department is both unjust to employees and fosters worker cynicism and resentment. While fears of lawsuits may be valid, having a paper trail of positive or negative assessments that contain known errors is unlikely to help the organization prosper in the long run and can create legal complications of its own.
Employers must first ask if performance reviews can be meaningful in the organization, of if the work culture is better suited to team-based reviews, rather than individual reviews. Pay-for-performance strategies should only be used if supervisors have enough data about employees to make meaningful…
Curtis, Ami B., Richard D. Harvey & Daran Ravden. (2005, February). Sources of political distortions in performance appraisals. Group & Organization Management, 30(1): 42-60.
Retrieved February 21, 2010 at http://www.buec.udel.edu/beckert/BUAD%20875%2009S/Pres%203%20article%20appraisal.pdf
Staudenmayer, N, M Tyre, L Perlow. (2002, September-October). Time to change:
enablers of organizational change. Organization Science, 13(5): 583-587.
Sometimes, an apparently poor performance on a standardized proficiency exam may be a remarkable performance for an individual student, although not when compared to the rest of the district's more privileged or capable children,
Linking pay to student performance provides a profound disincentive for teachers not to take the risk of teaching in historically disenfranchised and underperforming school districts. Why work twice as hard to deal with students who are more difficult to educate, for less pay? Finally, linking pay to performance assumes the validity of the test used to measure student performance. Teachers who teach 'to the test' may receive a bonus, while teachers who spend time devising creative assignments, or who cover material in a way that deals with all of the student's multiple intelligences, rather than just the verbal and mathematical capabilities tested on standardized proficiency tests, may not be rewarded adequately.
I believe that Keith was entirely justified in insisting that the job, not the person, be evaluated. If a company has established protocol, then that protocol should be followed. The receptionist in question has a boss who is in charge of evaluating her performance on a regular basis; the committee would likely be overstepping its boundaries if they had decided to evaluate a single person, rather than the position they were intended to evaluate. Keith would likely be justified in reminding the other committee members of their responsibilities and duties regarding the committee's purpose.
Initially, Keith was bothered by the possibility of a confrontation at the meeting with certain committee members. It would therefore behoove Keith to approach the situation with care and consideration, while maintaining a sense of balance and humbleness. One thing that Keith does not want to do is approach the other members of the committee…
Baumann, A. & Kolotylo, C.; (2009) The professionalism and environmental factors in the workplace questionnaire: Development and psychometric evaluation, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 65, Issue 10, pp. 2216-2228
Johnson, R.E.; Silverman, S.B.; Shyamsunder, A.; Swee, H.Y.; Rodopman, O.B.; Cho, E.; Bauer, J.; (2010) Acting superior but actually inferior?: Correlates and consequences of workplace arrogance, Human Performance, Vol. 23, Issue 5, pp. 403 -- 427
Roberts, G.E.; (2001) An examination of employee benefits cost control strategies in New Jersey local governments, Public Personnel Management, Vol. 31, pp. 301 -- 315
Tocher, N.; Field, H.S.; Giles, W.F.; (2006) Valuations of compensation and benefit items by new entrants into the professional workforce: Do men and women differ?, Journal of Employment Counseling, Vol. 43, Issue 2, pp. 84 -- 96
Other benefits include payouts or large severance packages should an executive leave a corporation, whether or not they fulfilled the terms of their initial contract (Griner, 1996). There has been some criticism of late of agencies and organizations that offer compensatory packages for CEOS that do not meet organizational objectives. Employees in many instances are not afforded the same benefits or exemptions that executives are. Most employees are likely to be fired or laid off without any benefit or pay out particularly when their performance is considered marginal. This is not always the case however with executive pay.
Change on the Horizon
One of the biggest challenges that lies ahead for H managers and organizations will be holding executives accountable for the results they produce within an organization. Boards must more and more take a "rigorous approach to ensure that pay reflects performance" so that stakeholders can measure executive contributions…
Bowlin, W.F., Renner, C. & Rives, J.M. (2002). "The significance of gender in explaining senior executive pay variations: An exploratory study." Journal of Managerial Issues, 14(3): 331
Chingos, P. (2004). "Perspective: Responsible executive compensation" Mercer Human
Resources. Retrieved May
20, 2005: http://www.mercerhr.com/referencecontent.jhtml?idContent=1126240 .
With the ever-changing health care sector, reimbursement has increasingly been tied to care quality and health care outcomes. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have particularly been changing the way hospitals are reimbursed, with hospitals that deliver high quality care and report better health outcomes getting higher reimbursements than those that perform poorly. This has led to increasing prominence of the pay-for-performance approach. Under this approach, hospitals that report greater patient satisfaction, reduced error rates, lower readmission rates, and higher recovery rates for chronic illness get higher reimbursements than their poorly-performing counterparts. The implication is that health care organizations must pay greater attention to performance, especially in terms of quality, safety, and individual performance. Measurement and models used in the commercial world for these three aspects are considerably relevant to the health care sector. This paper discusses the usefulness of the total quality management (TQM) model, the Organization…
Staff Performance Development Reviews
Performance reviews became necessary as soon as the first worker was employed. For good or bad, performance reviews are an absolutely essential part of the workplace; properly administered, such reviews have been shown time and again to be enormously positive and motivating forces in employees' lives by helping them identify their strengths and weaknesses and by encouraging them to achieve even greater successes -- and avoid comparable failures -- in the future. Improperly administered though, performance reviews can be the source of an enormous amount of controversy and friction within an organization; improperly administered performance review programs can also result in legal action against the employer. Taken together, it quickly becomes clear that providing workers with timely and accurate feedback concerning their performance is a vitally important function within almost any organization, but many managers are either unable or unwilling to provide such reviews for a…
Bommer, William H., Jonathan L. Johnson, Scott B. Mackenzie, Philip M. Podsakoff and Gregory A. Rich. 1995. "On the Interchangeability of Objective and Subjective
Measures of Employee Performance: A Meta-Analysis." Personnel Psychology, 48(3),
Denton, D. Keith. 1992. Recruitment, Retention, and Employee Relations: Field-Tested
Strategies for the '90s. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
WOKPLACE LEANING AND MANAGE'S PEFOMANCE IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTY
elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry
elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry
Manager's ole as a Leader
Why is Workplace Learning Important
The 'ideal' Workplace Learning Situation
Methods of Workplace Learning
Hospitality Industry Supports and Values Training and Learning
Management Skills in Workplace Learning
Manager's ole in the Hospitality Industry
Optimize Communication between Managers and Employees
Effective Managers in Hospitality Industry
elationship between Workplace Learning and Managers' Performance in the Hospitality Industry
Impact of Managers' Performance
Why Should Managers be Involved in Workplace Learning in Hospitality Industry?
Skills Learnt in Workplace Learning in Hospitality Industry 13
There is a direct relationship between workplace learning and manger's performance in a hospitality industry. This paper deciphers the roles and responsibilities of the manager in…
Lucas, R.E. (2003). Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. New York: Routledge.
Lucas, R.E. (2003). Employment Relations in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. New York: Routledge.
Theresa, B., Blackbourn, S., Hussey, D., & Linda, N. (2009). Developing the Local Workforce: Is Work-Based Learning the Solution? British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 18-28.
Ahu, T., & Ozbilgin, M.F. (2009). Understanding Diversity Managers' Role in Organizational Change: Towards a Conceptual Framework. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 45-52.
Secondly, performance-related pay increases prevents inflationary tendencies since such increases are the outcomes of increased productivity. Managers and employees are benefited by performance-related pay increases in the following way: when profit or performance goes up higher earnings go to the employees. However, when the profits come down, the lowering of performance-related pay can protect employees from job losses. Moreover, there is enhanced motivation as employee can identify with the success of the business. Depending on the information-sharing habits of the management, pay variations may result in employees knowing more about fortunes and misfortunes that a business goes through. (de Silva, 1998)
Other advantages of performance-related pay include the following: it is an effective method of coping with poor performance; introducing such a reward system can help to develop a performance culture within the company; it can work as a direct incentive for employees to help reach defined job targets; an…
Armstrong, Michael. 2002. Employee reward. CIPD Publishing.
Armstrong, Michael; Murlis, Helen. 2007. Reward Management: A Handbook of Remuneration Strategy and Practice. Kogan Page.
Bee, Roland; Bee, Frances. 1997. Project management: the people challenge. McGraw-Hill Education.
Bucknall, Hugh; Wei, Zheng. 2005. Magic numbers for human resource management: basic measures to achieve-. Wiley Publications.
compensation and traditional bases for pay.
Background- Mary is what you could call a perfect employee. She holds the post of a supervisor in a construction company. She has been with the construction company for over 15 years. Mary is one of the few females in the male-dominated company and also the only female supervisor. All her male colleagues joined the company at least five years after her, but got promoted ahead of her. She is the only one among them with an advanced degree. Mary is in love with her job and has no complaints about the treatment she gets. One day, after a long and rough day at work, she decided to go out with some of her colleagues for dinner. While dining with her colleagues, some of her male colleagues got into a discussion about their salaries and other job openings that offer better paychecks.…
(n.d.). DeGarmo -- Innovative talent acquisition and development solutions. Seniority vs. Performance-Based Pay Systems -- DeGarmo. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://www.degarmo.com/seniority-versus-performance-based-pay-systems
(n.d.). EEOC Home Page. Notice Concerning the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/epa_ledbetter.cfm
(2000). HR.com - The Human Resources Social Network. Importance of External Factors in Wage Determination - The Human Resources Social Network. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://www.hr.com/SITEFORUM?&t=/Default/gateway&i=1116423256281&application=story&active=no&ParentID=1119278025992&StoryID=1119642248468&xref=http%3A//www.bing.com/search%3Fq%3Dexternal+compensation+forces+%26form%3DPRUSEN%26pc%3DmsnHomeST%26mkt%3Den-us%26refig%3Ddd0c59e151db4075a5e5ef33af7da250%26pq%3Dexternal+compensation+forces+%26sc%3D1-29%26sp%3D-1%26qs%3Dn%26sk%3D%26cvid%3Ddd0c59e151db4075a5e5ef33af7da250
(2007). Justia U.S. Supreme Court Center. Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co: 550 U.S. 618 (2007): Justia U.S. Supreme Court Center. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/550/618/
Creating Word Class Performance in a Jaguar Assembly Plant
Multiple Cause Diagram
In the above multiple cause diagram, six feedback loops exist and they relate to the following sub-systems.
Stores, and Production
The model indicates that the goal is matching the demand with production and is causal to seamless back-to-back activities in the areas of purchasing, production and planning. The diagram explores significant areas such as the impact changes in customer schedule has on production requirements. Customer schedule changes are difficult to determine precisely, especially as pertains to production due dates and material needs (Tomar, 2008).
The diagram below can be very helpful in identifying the factors driving a certain change event. It can be used to identify "cause chains" and help in the identification of key elements. While it is relatively simple, it indicates clearly why a change is taking place and in doing so…
Belogolovsky, E. & Bamberger, P., 2014. Signaling in Secret: Pay for Performance and the Incentive and Sorting Effects of Pay Secrecy. Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), pp. 1706-1733.
Ahmed, A. & Hussain, E., 2014. Effect of Disturbance on Closed-Loop Control System. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(8), pp. 15672-15676.
Andrews, R., Boyne, G. & Enticott, G., 2007. Performance failure in the public sector. Public Management Review, 8(2), pp. 273-296.
Bajorek, Z. & Bevan, S., 2015. Performance-related-pay in the UK public sector: A review of the recent evidence on effectiveness and value for money. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(2), pp. 94-109.
These figures dwarfed what other big businesses paid for discriminatory practices. These businesses included Texaco, Inc.; Shoney's, Inc., Winn-Dixie, Stores, Inc.; and CSX Transportation, Inc. Critics saw Coca-Cola's settlement as signaling a major breakthrough among big businesses as coming to terms with diversity in the workplace (King). ecause the company has been a leader in many areas, these critics regarded it as setting an example of greater openness to promotions across races of employees (King).
Settlement terms included $23.7 million as back pay; $58.7 million as compensatory damages; and $10 million as promotional achievement award fund distributed to the complainants. A remaining $20 million went to attorney's fees and $36 million to the implementation of internal program reforms. Coca-Cola would also create an external, seven-member task force to insure that the terms were complied with and to oversee the company's diversity efforts (King).
According to Social Networks. - Connections in…
Bland, T. (1999). Equal pay enforcement heats up. 4 pages. HR Magazine: Society for Human
Bronstad, a. (2001). EEOC alleges Beverley Hilton discrimination. 2 pages. Los Angeles
Business Journal: CBJ, LP
However, when an employee sees that his or her employer is stepping up and trying to do something that the employee wants or needs, instead of just what is good for the company and not the employees, motivation can result. People need to feel that they matter to their employer. Few people are content with only receiving monetary compensation for the work that they do for their boss. They are all individuals and they have a desire to be recognized. They have goals that do not match up with the goals of the organization for which they work, but they may also have goals which are similar in nature to those of the company by which they are employed. Has anyone asked them what they really want to do with their lives and how the company can help facilitate those dreams? Companies that are concerned about the health and…
Austin, J. & Carr, J.E. (2000). Handbook of applied behavior analysis, New York: Context Press. 2000. Understanding the behavior of individuals in the workplace and in other areas of daily life can be very difficult. However, it is vital that an employer or anyone who is in charge of people focus on learning about the behavior of the individuals of which he or she is in charge. It is not possible to properly motivate people for employment or any other reason without being clearly aware of what motivates those people and what they are focused on in their careers and in the rest of their lives. Gaining information on how to analyze the behavior of those individuals is a way in which leaders can see more success.
Bedeian, A.G. (1993). Business owners (3rd ed.). New York: Dryden Press. Owning a business may sound enjoyable because there is no "boss" to which to answer. However, having a business of one's own is more complicated than most people think. This is especially true in the hiring of employees because there are so many different areas to consider. Reading up on how a business operates and the kind of information which is needed to successfully run a business is something that all leaders should do, even if they are not the head of the business in which they are working. Those who are high up in management are particularly susceptible to not realizing the needs of other people, and that can start them down a slippery slope of not doing what is right by their employees -- and those employees will leave, causing the business to struggle if it cannot quickly find good help.
Bowen, B.E., & Radhakrishna, R.B. (1991). Job satisfaction of agricultural education faculty: A constant phenomena. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 (2). 16-22. No matter what kind of business a person operates or what kind of career that person has, job satisfaction is a big issue. Some people assume that they are capable of handing any job as long as they are well-paid, but this is often not really the case. People who are paid well but not treated respectfully quickly tire of their jobs. By focusing on one type of job it is possible to see just how diverse a group of workers might be and just how significant it is that these workers all get what they need in order to feel satisfied at their job. There is much more than money involved where the satisfaction with one's career is concerned. Strong businesses are aware of this, and work to make sure their employees are satisfied with what they are doing for the company.
Brethower, D. & Smalley, K. (1998). Performance-based instruction: Linking training to business results. Pfeiffer; Har/Dis edition. 1998. How a person is trained when he or she begins a job can have a large influence on whether that person continues to perform well. Getting a job is not always difficult, but enjoying that job and performing well in it are other areas where employees may not succeed. If an employee is properly trained, he or she will statistically perform better at the job to which he or she has been assigned. One of the best ways to train an employee properly is to make sure that employee learns on the job.
ABC power when doing their performance evaluations. The first problem is they are attempting to use one form for both exempt and non-exempt employees. In the performance appraisal arena one size just doesn't fit all. "The best approach is to have separate forms designed for the four key job families: Managerial/Supervisory, Professional/Technical, Administrative / Operations, and Sales. Appraisal forms should assess only two areas: behaviors and results" (Grote, 2001).
In other words they should focus on the how and the what of job performance.
The first part of the appraisal form should be dedicated to evaluating the individual's performance against the competencies that an organization has determined as vital to success. Competencies is the encompassing term that is used to portray those abilities, talents, proficiencies, qualities, attributes and aptitudes that associate with superior job performance and predict success in organizational life. The best way to assess any person's performance in…
Berg, S. (n.d.). Should pay raises be tied to performance? Retrieved from http://www.courtsideconsulting.com/Documents/Perf%20reviews%20and%20pay%2
Grote, D. (2001). Is there a perfect appraisal form? Retrieved from http://www.groteconsulting.com/resources/pdfs/HR_Briefing -
doctors make too much money, and if so, what is a fair wage for doctors. Do doctors make too much money? Many people think so. In fact, doctors are one of the highest paid occupations in the United States. What do they actually do for all that money? Many dissatisfied patients would say that they run their practices like factories, do not spend enough time with them, and their staff can be rude and disinterested. They would also note that doctors who treat their patients like robots make far too much money, especially for the service they offer.
Everyone knows that doctors are some of the highest paid professionals in this country. Specialists in certain areas can make almost $1 million dollars a year, and even the newest physicians regularly rake in over $100,000 a year after only three years in practice. Even the lowest paid doctors around the country…
Brownlee, Shannon. "Overdose: The Health-Care Crisis No Candidate Is Addressing? Too Many Doctors." The Atlantic Monthly; Dec. 2007. 36+.
Editors. "Physician Salary Survey." Physician Search.com. 2009. 12 Oct. 2009.
Gilmore, Amanda S., et al. "Patient Outcomes and Evidence-Based Medicine in a Preferred Provider Organization Setting: A Six-Year Evaluation of a Physician Pay-for-Performance Program." Health Services Research; Dec. 2007, Vol. 42 Issue 6. 2140-2159.
CEO's salary, bonus, and long-term compensation with respect to various organizational, financial and CEO factors such as corporate reputation, growth in employees, company size, and return on equity, CEO tenure and CEO stock ownership. In relation to the general performance of the organization
This paper utilizes the various measurement of chief executive compensation as exploited by the various detailed pieces of literature and employed as the dependent variable in a model based on multiple regression theory. It explores the extent to which the CEO's compensation package affects the overall performance of the whole firm or corporation for which he or she works for.
The purpose of this research is to determine the extent to which the CEO's remuneration a large corporation such as Coca Cola has on the general performance of the organization.
The CEO's compensation has for a long time been source of attention from various groups in…
Anderson, R.C & Bizjak, J.M. 2003) An Empirical Examination of the Role of the CEO and the Compensation Committee in Structuring Executive Pay.Journal of Banking and Finance, 27.
Baiman, S. And Verrecchia R. (1995).Earnings and price-based compensation contracts in the presence of discretionary trading and incomplete contracting. Journal of Accounting and Economics, Vol. 20:1, pp. 94-120.
Barro, J.R.; Barro, R.J. (1990) Pay, Performance and Turnover of Bank CEOs, Journal of Labor Economics, 8.
Bebchuk, L.A & Fried, J.M.( 2003) Executive Compensation as an Agency Problem. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 9813.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
A detailed analysis of how differing organizations use various blends of extrinsic and intrinsic compensation and benefits strategies to maximize organizational potential to meet the needs of the workforce. Describes the myriad factors including the industry, strategic planning, compensation philosophy and recruitment/retention strategies that when balanced, create a changing yet dynamic and motivated generational workforce that succeeds in accomplishing workplace goals.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
The purpose of this analysis is to describe how different organizations can potentially use different blends of extrinsic and intrinsic compensation and benefits strategies to maximize organizational potential to meet the needs of their workforce. Traditionally compensation has been a highly volatile and controversial aspect of human resource management, with managers typically siding on the intrinsic or extrinsic side of compensation strategies. However research suggests that a program must address multiple factors that will balance both extrinsic and intrinsic factors…
Hendriks, P. & Sousa, S. 2008. Motivating University Researchers. Higher Education Policy, 21,
Kunz, J. & Quitmann, A.2011. The influence of incentive systems on intrinsic motivation.
Zeitschrift fur Personal forschung, 25(1), 55-76.
Measures should be developed at every level of the organisation as this will help in the measurement of performance at those levels. Again all services and teams will have action plans that they will have to meet which will make sure that the organisation reaches its goal. There has also got to be indicators for individuals as this will determine their performance for their teams and the organisation. (Measures of performance) the total service plan has to focus on the corporate and service objectives, highlight the important matters to the customers and staff, and the decision about the ultimate user of the information and their purpose for getting the information. (Key steps to effective performance measurement)
The measurement of the task done is against the information and there details that one has indicators for the objectives and also decides whether the task done will be meaningful and robust. The total…
Foundations of performance management. Retrieved at http://www.idea-knowledge.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=76249
Glick, Bryan. 2005. Trudy Norris-Grey, Sun Microsystems UK managing director. 13 April. Retrieved at http://www.computing.co.uk/analysis/1162459
Hats Off to Communicators a Great Success in Denver. 2001. Spring, Volume: 9; No: 3.
Retrieved at http://www.nagc.com/newnewsletter.pdf
pay good wages I a lot money; I a lot money I pay good wages." (obert Bosch) Explain quote, means . Using concepts textbook, (Contemporary Management, 7th Ed. Gareth . Jones & Jennifer M. George) apply explain managerial significance.
The quote that obert Bosch said is "I don't pay good wages because I have a lot of money, I have a lot of money because I pay good wages." What he meant by this is that the salaries he paid his employees were not the result of his wealth, but his wealth was the result of paying good salaries to his employees. In other words, he valued and acknowledged his employees' work.
The success of obert Bosch and his businesses are relied on his management skills. This refers to innovation, but also to people management skills. Most of obert Bosch's businesses were innovations, technological advancements. But there are…
1. Jones, G. & Goerge, J. (2010). Contemporary Management. Retrieved September 23, 2013 from http://www.ebay.com/ctg/Contemporary-Management-Gareth-R-Jones-and-Jennifer-M-George-2010-Hardcover-/80457592 .
Performance of the Company
Statements of corporate goals
SWOT analysis of United Health Group
9A PESTEL Analysis
In this paper, we present a systematic analysis of the United Health Group through a SWOT and PESTEL analysis. The analysis is aimed at the identification of an internal problem within the company's environment and then prescribing a suitable solution to it. The identified problem is poor Ergonomics. This is then explored and then recommendations provided.
The creation of a better health care system has been one of the key drivers of change in the American social, economic and political reform agenda. Quality health care to al citizens has been a piped dream for many. In this paper we presents an analysis of the effectiveness of United Healthcare in the provision of quality health care. Our focus is on its environmental analysis with the aim of isolating the genesis of the…
Amick, B., Robertson, M., Moore, A, DeRango, K and Mendez, CC .The Impact of Two Ergonomic Interventions on Health and Productivity: A Quasi-Experimental Field Study
Amick III, BC, Robertson M, DeRango K, et a (2003) Effect of office ergonomics intervention on reducing musculoskeletal symptoms. Spine 2003;28:2706-2711.
Amick., B., Roberson, M., DeRango, K ., Palacios, N., Rooney, T and Bazzani, L (2002).The Health Consequences of an Office Ergonomics Training Coupled with an Ergonomically Designed Chair: Preliminary Results.Proceedings of the Conference WWDU 2002 World Wide Work - May 22-25, 2002 - Berchtesgaden pg 371-373
Bergqvist U.(1995) Visual display terminal work -- a perspective on long -- term changes and discomforts. Int J. Ind Ergon.;16:201 -- 9.
Performance Management System in the Organization
The objective of this study is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the performance management system in the organization in which the writer of this work is employed and to make recommendations to improve this system.
The writer of this study is employed in a government organization that is aligned with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) hiring standards and selections. Each separate government organization is required to develop their own hiring and onboarding procedures therefore, these are unique to each individual agency. A 45-day model is used to recruiting and hiring of new employees.
Assessment of Organization Processes
Day One and Two
Noted as a weakness in attracting the best talent is the many steps involved in the process since the first ten steps in the hiring process are redundant and seemingly ambiguous and little excitement is present until the candidate…
Onboarding and Engaging New Employees (nd) Dartmouth. Retrieved from: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~hrs/manager/toolkit/hiringonboarding/onboarding_engaging.pdf
Pimentel, R. (nd) Peer Mentoring for the New Employee: Making a Difference One Employee At A Time. Retrieved from: http://www.miltwright.com/articles/PeerMentoring-NewEmployee.pdf
Schooley, Claire (2010) Drive Employee Talent Development Through Business Mentoring Programs. 6 Aug 2010. Forrester. Retrieved from: http://www.3creek.com/research/Forrester_Business_Mentoring_Aug10.pdf
The company which is responsible for assigning the issuers of particular kind of debt obligations and debt instruments the credit ratings is known as a credit rating agency (CA). There are a few cases in which the ratings are given to the underlying debt servicers. It is the special purpose entities, non-profit organizations, companies, national governments and the state and local governments who, in majority of the cases get the securities issued. The credit worthiness (i.e., the ability to pay the loan back) as well as the rate of interest which is applied to a specific security being issued is taken into consideration while assigning a credit rating to an issuer. After the financial crisis which took place in 2007/2009 the value of this kind of ratings was questioned to a great extent. A report was submitted by the Securities and Exchange Commission to the congress in 2003…
Blochwitz, S., When, C. And Hohl, S. (2003), Reconsidering ratings, Working Paper. Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt.
Bolton, Patrick, Xavier Freixas, and Joel Shapiro, (2008), "The Credit Ratings Game" Mimeo, UPF, Barcelona.
Dittrich, Fabian, (2007), "The Credit Rating Industry: Competition and Regulation," Working Paper, University of Cologne - Department of Economics.
Fitch (2007), Sovereign Rating Transition and Default Study 1995-2006, February 7.
This brings us to the costs that both employees and JVA Corp. will face if this strategy is implemented. The employees will lose because, after the economic crisis, they will find themselves at the same professional levels as before the crisis. As no performance management has been undertaken, there have been no training programs etc. And the employees will simply find themselves not adapted to the challenges of the environment. They will find it difficult to move to another organization or be promoted in the near future.
The costs for the organization are even more significant and the previous paragraphs had hinted towards this. The main cost for the organization translates into the decrease in performance, over time, of its human resource and, indeed, of the overall quality of the personnel. At the same time, an additional cost will be the company's inability to make accurate strategic decisions, since the…
1. Richards, Brian. 2010. How to Create an Effective Employee Performance Management System. Accelerated Outcomes. On the Internet at http://acceleratedoutcomes.net/how-to-create-an-effective-employee-performance-management-system / Last retrieved on August 2, 2011
2. Heathfield, Susan. 2011. Performance Management is NOT an Annual Appraisal. On the Internet at http://humanresources.about.com/od/performanceevals/a/performancemgmt_2.htm . Last retrieved on August 2, 2011
performance management? Performance management is the company's goals equal the employee's activities and outputs. Defining performance, it specifies which aspects of employee's performance remain relevant to the business through job examination. Job examination or analysis means getting detailed data concerning jobs. Measuring performance involves measuring said aspects through performance evaluation. Performance evaluation is a method for managing performance. After evaluations, employees gain feedback and learn whether their performance has been effective or not.
Typically, businesses perform the process of performance management annually. Most of the reviews are for individual performance management while others are for pay decisions or establishing training priorities. In recent times, numerous business are moving toward ore streamline, frequent performance reviews. When examining the model of performance management, one may look at organizational strategies, individual attributes, and situation constraints, which all go to individual behaviors. From there it moves on to objective results. The three main purposes…
Sullivan, J. (2015). How Google Is Using People Analytics to Completely Reinvent HR. TLNT. Retrieved 19 February 2015, from http://www.tlnt.com/2013/02/26/how-google-is-using-people-analytics-to-completely-reinvent-hr/
Whatmakesagoodleader.com,. (2015). Job performance appraisal. Retrieved 20 February 2015, from http://www.whatmakesagoodleader.com/Job-Performance-Appraisal.html#Contrast
performance bonuses at companies. There are four subjects. The first is about the use of bonuses -- would I make use of them? Then there is the question of evaluating people based on specific performance measures. Then there is the question of group bonuses and whether or not those are a good idea. Lastly I explain why I wouldn't institute a bonus program.
The role of the human resources department is to structure and implement the human resources strategy in such a way as to help the company to achieve its strategic objectives. There are a number of different ways that this can be achieved. One such way is through performance bonuses, which help to orient employees to specific types of behavior. This paper will analyze the issue of employee bonuses, taking a lot at some of the relevant data on the subject.
Use of Bonuses
Personally, as a manager,…
Kishore, S., Rao, R., Narasimhan, O. & John, G. (2013). Bonuses vs. commission: A field study. Journal of Marketing Research. Ahead of print.
Grinstein, Y. & Hribar, P. (2003). CEO compensation and incentives: Evidence from M&A bonuses. Journal of Financial Economics. Retrieved May 3, 2014 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.212.2206&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Woodbury, S. & Spiegelman, R. (1987) Bonuses to workers and employers to reduce unemployment: Randomized trials in Illinois. The American Economic Review. Vol. 77 (4) 513-530.
Cooke, W. (1994). Employee participation programs, group-based incentives and company performance: A union-non-union comparison. Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Vol. 47 (4) 594.
However, as Murphy (2008) notes, these original scores, and the weightings, are given by biased humans who may have another agenda than simply giving the most accurate appraisal possible. In addition, there is also the question about whether a truly accurate (when negative) appraisal is the best course of action due to the possible negative consequences.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Sudarsan (2009) surmises that, in the past, researchers have concluded that there are primarily three approaches to performance appraisals. The first approach -- the results focused approach -- is centered on determining whether a specific job has been performed or not. If these performance targets are met or exceeded, the employee is rewarded. The second approach -- the behavioral approach -- focuses on employee behavior. The actual output of the employee is ignored, but instead the methods the employee is using is evaluated. This approach has the benefit of being…
Addison, J. & Belfield, C. (Sept 2008). The determinants of performance appraisal systems. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(3). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Addison and Belfield compare the findings of Brown and Heywood's analysis of the Australia Workplace Industrial Relations Survey with their findings in Britain, using the Workplace Employment Relations Survey. Of particular interest for this paper was the conclusion from both studies that tenured employees are not strongly motivated by performance appraisals. This shows the ineffectiveness of appraisals, no matter what system is used, for those employees with tenure.
Banu, C. & Umamaheswari, P. (Jul 2009). A study on 360 degree performance appraisal systems in Reliance Life Insurance, Udumalpet. ICFAI Journal of Management Research, 8(7). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Banu and Umamaheswari research the use of the 360-degree performance appraisal system on a life insurance company. It was found that this appraisal system was helpful in identifying training needs, in addition to evaluating the performance of employees. It was also found to be useful in determining rewards and incentives, as well as promotions. However, the authors failed to acknowledge the challenges inherent in this system, as found be other researchers.
Q1. Discuss specific reasons why personnel appraisals serve the interests of the organization.
Even in the most technologically-driven organizations, personnel appraisals are critical for ensuring high levels of quality control. Humans are still the primary operators of technology, and without good people at the helm, appropriate security protocols will not be enforced. People need to know on a regular basis how they are performing and usually desire feedback. Ideally, this feedback should combine both positive and negative input, since simply focusing on the negative can be disheartening from the employee’s point-of-view. Also, another function of performance appraisals is to communicate to employees the degree to which the organization takes a vested interest in their development. That is why, according to McCrie (2016), “In well-structured organizations, all employees deserve appraisals” (p.160). Performance appraisals are something employees deserve, to support their progress and to show that the organization does not regard them…
H Pay Model
The author of this report has been asked to assess the chapter titles for the class text and then compare them to the pay model shown in figure two of the assignment. The aim of the assignment is to align each chapter title with the corresponding part of the pay model. There are sixteen chapters in total and four overall parts to the pay model, with the latter being alignment, competitiveness, contributors and management. The class text in question is Strategic Compensation by Martocchio. While some of the chapters in the book could technically be assigned to more than one part of the pay model, the fit between chapter and one particular part of the pay model is usually pretty clear.
The first chapter in the book is called strategic compensation. One could really assign that to contributors, competitiveness or alignment in one form or another.…
Martocchio, J. (2015). Strategic compensation (8th ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
Drugs and sports [...] performance-Enhancing drugs, and their effect on athletes and the sports they play.
Athletes who use performance-enhancing drugs compromise the integrity of their sports for a number of reasons. First, there is the issue of the records they set. For example, Barry Bonds has set numerous home run records, including hitting more than Hank Aaron. However, now these records are suspect, because of his use of these drugs. He might not have set these records without the help of the drugs. In addition, baseball is doing very little, if anything, to punish the players who are using drugs, so there is little incentive for them to stop. It makes the players look bad, it makes the sport look bad, and it makes the entire sport suspect, because fans can no longer trust that their favorite players are not enhancing their performance not with hard work and dedication,…
Google Pay & Benefits
The author of this report has been asked to select a major company within the United States and focus on its compensation and benefits system and framework. The company selected for the purposes of this report is Google. hile Google was barely a twinkle in its founders' eyes a scant generation ago, it has grown to become a United States and international powerhouse. Indeed, they have a compensation and benefits program to match. This essay shall focus on the details and facets of that pay and benefits program. The data gleaned will emanate both from what Google itself has to say about the subject as well as what other sources have said. hile Google does not have a monopoly on offering robust pay and compensation packages, they are certainly among the elite companies within the United States and the world at large.
The first source…
Casserly, Meghan. 'Here's What Happens To Google Employees When They Die'.
Forbes. N.p., 2012. Web. 18 July 2015.
Emerson, Ramona. 'High-Tech Toilets, Free Haircuts And More: The Top 7 Perks
Google Offers Employees'. The Huffington Post. N.p., 2015. Web. 18 July 2015.
Performance Appraisal and the ole of Hr
ole of HM in Performance Management
The performance management process has to be connected with the H processes for success to be realized. The performance management process has to be consistent with the business strategy and ensure that all the processes are managed top-down. In most cases, employees must be provided with the right feedback for them to appreciate the feedback and work on it. Normally, it is the role of the HM in training managers to provide honest feedback concerning the performance of the employees. The role of the HM is related to making the process transparent and clear. This means that the performance management process should be consistent in every department in the organization. The HM ensures that the results of the employees are comparable as the outputs may be used in determining other H processes (Dusterhoff, Cunningham, & MacGregor, 2014).…
Bernardin, H. J., & Wiatrowski, M. (2013). Performance appraisal. Psychology and Policing, 257.
Dusterhoff, C., Cunningham, J. B., & MacGregor, J. N. (2014). The effects of performance rating, leader -- member exchange, perceived utility, and organizational justice on performance appraisal satisfaction: Applying a moral judgment perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(2), 265-273.