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The literature review discussed risk factors for drop out extensively and presented studies that investigated risk factors for drop out. However, the research design did not clearly tie this research to the study examined by Dennison.
Students considered at-risk were chosen by the school and proper parental consent was obtained. It is not known how at risk students were chosen. Therefore, it cannot be determined it sample bias existed in the sample population. This lack of information regarding the study population makes it difficult to determine if any delimitations existed as well. Selection of Big Buddies was different from that of Little Buddies. Eligible students were required to be junior or seniors and members of the National Honor Society. This significantly limited the sample pool from which to obtain Big Buddies. However, it was felt that a certain level of maturity was needed to work with at risk children. Once…
Dennison, S. (2000). A win-win peer mentoring and tutoring program; a collaborative model. The Journal of Primary Prevention. 20 (3): 161-174.
Constraints in School Advisory Programs
In an era of high stakes testing and increasing calls for educator accountability for academic outcomes, identifying opportunities to use existing resources to their maximum advantage has assumed new importance and relevance today (Phillipo & Stone, 2013). A growing body of research confirms the importance of school advisory programs in achieving improved academic outcomes, but these initiatives are also characterized by a number of constraints that must be taken into account in order to achieve optimal results. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning school advisory programs to identify current theories, explanations, proposed relationships among constructs, as well as existing gaps in this body of knowledge. In addition, a discussion concerning the contradictions, inconsistencies, and ambiguities regarding the findings that emerged from the research concerning school advisory programs is following by a summary of the research and important findings in the…
Benson, J., & Poliner, R. E. (2013). Designing advisories for resilience. Educational Leadership, 50-55.
Bierman, K. L., Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Lochman, J. E., McMahon, R. J. & Pinderhughes, E. (2010). Conduct problems prevention research group. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 56-168.
Borgeson, P. (2009). Student and teacher perspectives of the effectiveness of middle school advisory programs on sense of belonging. ProQuest Education Journals, 47(3), 224-229
Cohen, M. (2012). Seniors take the lead. Principal Leadership, 13(3), 28-31
Each level influences and is influenced by those around it." (Costa, Kahaneo, Lipton, et al., 2001, p. 2).
Once the teacher understands how their performance and their teaching ability relate to the outcomes of the school as a whole, they will be able to understand the need for peer observation and coaching. They desire better outcomes for the school, but they are not accustomed to the openness of the peer coaching model, as we will see.
Barriers to Success
Through the course of this literature review, several key barriers to the success of peer coaching programs were discovered, Many of the problems related to logistical problems that could be easily solved through time management or creative scheduling. However, some of barriers to success related to the attitudes of the teachers themselves. This barriers will prove much more difficult to resolve.
One of the key barriers to professional development programs is…
Bird, T. & Little, J. (1983). An Interim Report of the Application of Research on Faculty Relations to the Implementation of Two School Improvement Experiments. Center for Action Research. ERIC ID 238141: 2-25.
Browne, L. (2006). Proposing a proximal principle between peer coaching and staff development as a driver for transformation. International Journal of Evidence-Based Coaching and Mentoring. 4 (1): 31-44.
Bruce, C. & Ross, J. (2008). A Model for Increasing Reform Implementation and Teacher Efficacy: Teacher Peer Coaching in Grades 3 and 6 Mathematics. Canadian Journal of Education. 31 (2): 346-370.
Costa, a., Kalaneo, D, Lipton, H., Lipton, L., & Yorktown, D. (2001). Holonomy: Paradox and Promise. Cognitive Coaching. Retrieved July 31, 2008 at http://www.cognitivecoaching.com/pdf/article4.pdf.
In addition, the participants were chosen differently between the two groups. The first cohort consisted of students that were chosen by teachers and the second was chosen randomly.
The purpose of this discussion was to examine the role of the mentor in the academic achievement of low-achieving students. The research also focused on History of mentoring, Description of the mentoring process and the relationship between mentoring and student achievement. The research indicates that in most cases studies have found a there is a positive relationship between mentorship and academic achievement. This relationship exists because mentoring provides students with the relationships needed to diminish certain risk factors associates with underachievement.
Black L.L., Medina S., Elisabeth C. Suarez. (2004) Helping Students Help Themselves: Strategies for Successful Mentoring elationships. Counselor Education and Supervision. Volume: 44. Issue: 1.
Candidate Outcome Indicators: Youth Mentoring Program." The Urban Institute.
Freedman, M. (1993). The kindness…
Black L.L., Medina S., Elisabeth C. Suarez. (2004) Helping Students Help Themselves: Strategies for Successful Mentoring Relationships. Counselor Education and Supervision. Volume: 44. Issue: 1.
Candidate Outcome Indicators: Youth Mentoring Program." The Urban Institute.
Freedman, M. (1993). The kindness of strangers: Adult mentors, urban youth, and the new voluntarism. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Miller a. (2002) Mentoring Students & Young People: A Handbook of Effective Practice. Kogan Page: London.
Some additional common characteristics of and criteria for selecting mentor teachers are: a clearly articulated vision of teaching and learning, knowledge of content, accomplished curriculum developer, professional interests, expressed educational philosophies, and compatible personalities (1986; Feiman-Nemser, 1996; Tillman, 2000). Awareness and facility with mentoring processes are seldom among selection criteria, but are often handled through mentor training mechanisms." Mullinix, 2002) Orientation is based on the five phrases of Ellen Moir's which characterize first-year teacher experiences which are:
The inclusion of mentoring program in a school is that which shows a clear commitment to students and staff and to traditional values of excellence. Confirmation of the importance of leadership, performance of staff and of a "robust and supportive collegiate community." (SOF eb, 2004)
Skills needed by mentors are:
Always have values-driven purpose
Be aware of the emotional and strategic landscape
Herszenhorn, David, M. (2004) Veteran Teachers in City Schools Help Colleagues Sharpen Skills. Education; New York Times 2004 Nov 1 Online available at [ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/01/education/01teach.html?ex=116129600&en=7dc914ee5e7632c1&e ...]
Mullinix, Bonnie B. (2002) Recruiting and Selecting Mentors ED477728 2002-12-00 ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education Washington DC. Online available at [http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/pd/tchdev/tchmentors.htm]
Darling-Hammond, L. (1996). The quiet revolution: Rethinking teacher development. Educational Leadership, 53(4), 4-10.
Feiman-Nemser, S. (1996). Teacher mentoring: A critical review. ERIC Digests. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education. ED 397-060.
As teachers are asked to do more and more by busy and demanding parents, it further fosters collaboration and support among teachers throughout the same school building. The purpose of peer teaching is not to judge the other teachers, but to encourage mutual reflection and analysis of teaching practice. It promotes specific feedback over time, rather than monitors teaching in glimpses, like a visit from a principle. (Robbins, 1991)
Selecting teams (matching teachers)
Teachers can be matched according to experienced/less experienced teachers. However, they can also be matched within subject areas, or across subject areas, such as English and History teacher in a high school. This fosters the potential for cross-fermentation of different disciplinary approaches. Another potential way of pairing teachers might be to have a workshop period, where teachers take a series of exams and do a series of exercises to determine their teaching styles. hile "when making decisions,…
Diaz-Maggioli, Gabriel. (2004) Teacher-Centered Professional Development. New York: ASCD.
Marzano, Robert J. (2004) What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. New York: ASCD.
Robbins, Pam. (1991) Implementing a Peer Coaching Program. New York: ASCD.
Mentoring and Coaching
Learning strong teaching skills is crucial to students looking to enter into the field of education. Part of their learning comes through experiencing lessons and actually teaching in classroom environments. This can then be augmented with professional guidance. This is essentially the aim of the program examined here. This program focuses on helping provide student teachers with better direction through methods of "support and challenge" (SchoolsWorldTV 2012). This includes providing mentors for student teachers in order to. Student teachers conduct an observed lesson and experiment, which is then gauged by the student teacher's mentor. There are a number of key focuses and findings of this program. The program really highlights the need for "focused feedback" (SchoolsWorldTV 2012). This includes mentors participating in observations of student teachers in order to provide the most detailed and efficient feedback is important. Findings show that student teachers often focus on the…
Henry, Marvin A & Weber, Ann. (2010). Supervising Student Teachers: The Professional Way, R&L Education.
SchoolsWorldTV. (2012). Mentoring Student Teachers: Feedback and Target-Setting, Home, Web http://www.schoolsworld.tv/node/1999
Clinical Supervision and its Strengths and eaknesses
Annie Pettifer and colleague Lynn Clouder explain in the peer-reviewed journal Learning in Health and Social Care that clinical supervision is commonly used in professional contexts as a way to "guide reflection with the purpose of advancing practice" (Pettifer, 2008, 169). Clinical supervision "…enables critical practice and development of personal knowledge, professional expertise and competence" (Pettifer, 169).
Pettifer mentions that there is no hard and fast rule as to how the clinical supervision model should be presented. There are many interpretations, the author explains, and there is "conceptual ambiguity" as well; but the ambiguity can be explained because there can be no single model that meets all the professional needs of principals. But that said, there is a basic definition of clinical supervision that is presented by the authors:
"…[clinical supervision] is a formal process of support and learning which enables individual practitioners…
Gibble, J.L., and Lawrence, J.D. (1987). Peer Coaching for Principals. Educational Leadership.
Huston, T., and Weaver, C.L. (2008). Peer Coaching: Professional Development for Experienced Faculty. Innovations in Higher Education, Vol. 33, 5-20.
Pettifer, A., and Clouder, L. (2008). Clinical supervision: a means of promoting reciprocity between practitioners and academics. Learning in Health and Social Care, 7(3), 168-177.
Pfeifer, D. (2011). Transforming Staff through Clinical Supervision. Reclaiming Journal,
Peer tutoring was found to be an effective tool for teaching those with learning disabilities to read (Fuchs, Fuchs, and Saenz, 2005). This research supports the use of struggling readers in the first grade for the group that receives the tutoring. First graders that are enrolled in the program are already labeled as learning disabled. Whether their difficulty in reading is caused by an organic deficiency, or an emotional problem, intervention by way of peer tutoring will help to reduce its effects.
Strengthening mentor programs is an essential part of the equation when it comes to academic performance (King, et al., 2002). A strong mentoring program has many benefits for individual students, but it also has benefits for the school as well, including improved overall academic perforce and a decrease in school violence.
Peer mentoring programs were found to be better than intervention programs that used a teacher, especially if…
Chard, D.; Kameenui, E.. (2000) Struggling First-Grade Readers: The Frequency and Progress of Their Reading. Journal of Special Education, 34 (1), 128.
Dufrene, BA., Duhon, G.J., Gilbertson, D.N., & Noell, G.H. (2005). Monitoring implementation of reciprocal peer tutoring: Identifying and intervening with students who do not maintain accurate implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74.
Emler, Nicholas (2002) the costs and causes of low self-esteem. Youth Studies
Australia, 21(3) 45. Retrieved June 21, 2006, from the ULV Academic Search
Health organizations can experience a lot of employee turnover as well as a lot of employee non-performance: talk to any nurse about the phenomenon of "burnout" in the nursing profession, or talk to any hospital administrator about the problem of employee retention, and these issues will be described as relatively commonplace. These problems lead to an issue with what we must call "succession" -- the idea that, as an older generation of professionals passes on, the younger generation is ready to take over. The ideal way to deal with succession issues in a health organization (as well as handle issues such as employee training or employee non-performance) is through a mentorship program. However, a number of issues can hamper the installation of a successful mentorship program, and must be addressed.
One of the chief barriers in establishing such a program, however, has been outlined by Ledlow and Coppola (2013), as…
Bryant, S. E., & Terborg, J. R. (2008). Impact of peer mentor training on creating and sharing organizational knowledge. Journal of Managerial Issues, 20(1), 11-31.
Cahill, M., & Payne, G. (2006). Online mentoring: ANNA connections. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 33(6), 695-697.
Finley, F. R., Ivanitskaya, L. V., & Kennedy, M. H. (2007, July/Aug.). Mentoring of junior healthcare administrators by senior executives: A description of mentoring practices in 127 U.S. hospitals. Journal of Healthcare Management, 52(4), 260-270.
Ledlow GR and Coppola MN. (2013). Leadership for health professionals. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Thomas states that she never forgets 'where she came from.' She serves on numerous community boards including the Charlotte Mecklenburg Housing Partnership and the Women's Intercultural Exchange. As a golden life member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated, Thomas says that the need to be a member of something 'greater than herself' has always been an integral part of her character. She strives to better the community and to better herself through her many charitable efforts.
Thomas is testimony to the power of education and the ability to use one's natural talents for the good of others. Through education, Thomas has continually advanced in her vocational life, bolstering her credentials and framework of knowledge. She has a technical grasp of the power industry with 'people smarts' honed through personal experience and the academic study of management. She has made a passionate commitment to diversity part of her work life, through…
School African-American Males Who Are Attending a Community-Based After-School Program
ANTICIPATED ESEACH METHODOLOGY
A qualitative case study would be conducted by the researcher. As described by Gay, Mills, and Airasian (2009), a case study explores and analyzes the behavioral patterns of an exclusive group over an extended period of time. In this approach the researcher analyzes the behavior of the participants while they participate in the intended activities and their response to the outside stimuli. (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009) Case studies are bounded in an approach that connects time (existence) with a place (environment) (Stake, 2005). The case study approach provides the researcher with a stage to examine the patterns of behavior that the individuals portray.
PUPOSE OF THE ESEACH
The purpose of the study is to explore the behaviors of middle-school African-American males who are attending a community-based after-school program. In addition to that, the study will explore…
Afterschool Alliance (2004). After-School alert: Poll report. Retrieved from http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/documents/polling/poll_jan_2004.pdf
Apsler, R. (2009). After-school programs for adolescents: A review of evaluation research. Adolescence, 44(173), 1-19.
Baker, J., Rieg, S., & Clendaniel, T. (2006). An investigation of an after school math tutoring program: University tutors+ elementary students = A successful partnership. Education, 127(2), 287-293.
Baker, P. (2005). The impact of cultural biases on African-American students' education: A review of research literature regarding race-based schooling. Education and Urban Society, 37(3), 243-256.
Mentoring in Practice
The current educational system requires the recruitment of new teachers to meet the increasing student population. However, pre-service or beginning teachers face a variety of challenges associated with their new work environment and expectations. They lack knowledge about their expectations, having little knowledge of the policies of the school and lack of familiarity with their working colleagues. In addition, the new teachers often find themselves struggling with ensuring a balance between the classroom demands and their adjustment to their new working environment. As new professionals in the field, new teachers also face the challenge of curriculum freedom. The challenge is evidenced by the lack of proper guidance and resources required for facilitating effective learning in the school. A recent survey conducted in the school revealed that most of the new teachers in the school faced the challenges of unsupportive environment that failed to recognize their needs.…
Allen, T.D., and Eby, L.T. 2011. The Blackwell Handbook of Mentoring: A Multiple Perspectives Approach. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons
Brockbank, A. And McGill, I. 2006. Facilitating Reflective Learning through Mentoring and Coaching. London: Chapter 2.
Colaprete, F.A. 2009. Mentoring in the Criminal Justice Professions: Conveyance of the Craft. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, LTD.
Foster-Turner, J. 2006. Coaching and mentoring in health and social care: The essentials of practice for professionals and organizations. Abingdon: Radcliffe.
Mentoring Program: Squid Proposal
Mentoring Program Proposal: Company Squid
Proposed mentoring program
NO COSS TAINING AND HIGH TUNOVE ATEES ESULTING IN LACK OF MOTIVATION AMONG EMPLOYEES
One of the largest problems employers face today are high turnover rates. Many times the reasons given for turnover include lack of motivation and career advancement. This proposal will describe tools Squid company can utilize immediately to reduce high rates of turnover and increase employee motivation. The company will save thousands of dollars as demonstrated by the proposal table.
Squid company employees more than 10,000 employees from across the world. Many of these employees seek career advancement, but have few resources available to them to allow them to realize their goals. In an ever-changing market, it is more important than ever that employers' recognize the need for cross training and mentoring. Mentoring is a tool that can provide employees with the knowledge…
Abrams, D., Wetherell, M.S., Cochrane, S., Hogg, M.A., & Turner, J.C. (1990). Knowing what to think by knowing who you are: A social identity approach to norm formation, conformity and group polarization. British Journal of Social Psychology, 29: 97-119.
Aldaq, R.J., & Fuller, S.R. (1993). Beyond fiasco: A reappraisal of the groupthink phenomenon and a new model of group decision processes, Psychological
Bulletin, 113: 533-52.
Ashforth, B.E., & Mael, E. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14: 20-39.
Indeed, the heightened emphasis on standardized testing and other practices related to No Child Left Behind has created a condition wherein the principal is found to be largely at the center of an array of very inflexible demands. The result is that the principal's performance evaluation is directly connected to the capacity of the school and its students to comport with the standards created by such legislation. Therefore, principals are increasingly finding it necessary to take a hands-on approach to providing leadership in public schools. The degree to which the experience and insight of the mentor can be instrumental in facilitating this capacity is significant.
As Lave & enger (2005) contend, there is a distinctly beneficial impact to the developing educational leader in exposure to a well-suited mentor. This is true at every level of education, where the challenges that can be disruptive are approached with strategies that have been…
Conway, C.M. (2006). Navigating Through Induction: How a Mentor Can Help. Music Educators Journal, 92(5), 56-60.
Cook, E.P., Heppner, M.J., & O'Brien, K.M. (2005). Multicultural and gender influences in women's career development: An ecological perspective. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33.
Craig, T. (2008). Spotlight on Mentoring Programmes. Peronnel Today.
Daresh, J. (2001). What is Mentoring and Why Is it So Important. Leaders Helping Leaders.
Though individual programs and sessions might have a limited time frame, the most effective organizations utilize ongoing training and mentoring programs, meaning that the time frame for such programs in a true learning organization is purposefully indefinite (Heathfield 2009). New hire training sessions might only last a week or even considerably less, but ongoing mentorship and continued training throughout an individual's time in a specific organization produces both longer-lasting and better-adapted results. There is no limit to the human capacity for learning and change, and this should most definitely be taken into account when attempting to establish an adequate time frame for such programs, especially in the case of mentoring, where experience continually increases (Heathfield 2009).
Perhaps the most effective method of evaluating the success of a given training or mentoring program is also the most simple and direct -- asking participants what they took away…
Heathfield, S. (2009). "Coaching / Mentoring / Knowledge Management / Learning Organizations." Accessed 25 October 2009. http://humanresources.about.com/od/coachingmentorin1/Coaching_Mentoring_Knowledge_Management_Learning_Organizations.htm
HR. (2009). "Mentoring." HR.com. Accessed 25 October 2009. http://www.hr.com/sfs
This approach to preventing the development of an unfair burden that might otherwise result from adding to the workload. Of participants requires non-participants to relieve an appropriate amount of participants' conventional workload.
More particularly, this proposal recommends reducing the number of direct reports assigned to participating mentors and adding them to the number of reporting personnel supervised directly by non-participating upper-level employees. In principle, the idea is simply to reduce the workload of supervisory-level employees who choose to participate in the mentoring program as mentors as necessary to maintain their productivity and avoid resentment on their part. The corresponding consequences of non-participation by prospective mentors provides a natural incentive to choose to participate in the program to avoid the alternative increase in conventional professional responsibilities.
Maintaining Motivation on the Part of Mentors:
The first element of maintaining the motivation on the part of mentors is allowing the voluntary element previously…
Locker, K.O. (2000). Business and Administrative Communication. Boston, MA:
Myers, D.G., Spencer, S.J. (2004). Social Psychology. Toronto, Canada: McGraw-Hill.
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…
Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.
Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.
Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.
Treating Juvenile Delinquency
Delinquency treatment program:
Peer mentoring program for African-American male juveniles
A brief description of your community
African-American males are disproportionately represented in the incarcerated juvenile population, relative to their percentage of the general population. The reasons for this have been hotly debated amongst criminal justice professionals and laypersons. Possible reasons include racism within the police and justice systems, the ways laws are written, and also a lack of vocational opportunities. According to one study conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice in New Jersey, while 10% of white juveniles were adjudicated and sentenced for their first-degree offenses, more than 31% of African-American juveniles received sentences for the same crimes; white juvenile offenders were similarly found to receive lesser sentences than African-Americans in the state of Florida (Drakeford & Garfinkle 2000). Dealing with the unique problems of African-Americans within juvenile detention centers is clearly an essential…
Black male dropouts lead nation in incarceration. (2012). PR News wire. Retrieved:
Drakeford, Will & Garfinkle, Lili Frank. (2000). Differential treatment of African-American
The National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice. Retrieved:
Performance Management System in the Organization
The objective of this study is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the performance management system in the organization in which the writer of this work is employed and to make recommendations to improve this system.
The writer of this study is employed in a government organization that is aligned with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) hiring standards and selections. Each separate government organization is required to develop their own hiring and onboarding procedures therefore, these are unique to each individual agency. A 45-day model is used to recruiting and hiring of new employees.
Assessment of Organization Processes
Day One and Two
Noted as a weakness in attracting the best talent is the many steps involved in the process since the first ten steps in the hiring process are redundant and seemingly ambiguous and little excitement is present until the candidate…
Onboarding and Engaging New Employees (nd) Dartmouth. Retrieved from: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~hrs/manager/toolkit/hiringonboarding/onboarding_engaging.pdf
Pimentel, R. (nd) Peer Mentoring for the New Employee: Making a Difference One Employee At A Time. Retrieved from: http://www.miltwright.com/articles/PeerMentoring-NewEmployee.pdf
Schooley, Claire (2010) Drive Employee Talent Development Through Business Mentoring Programs. 6 Aug 2010. Forrester. Retrieved from: http://www.3creek.com/research/Forrester_Business_Mentoring_Aug10.pdf
etention in Higher Education
Evolution across the Globe
Challenges of Institutes
Factors Influencing Student etention
Alignment of expectations and experience
Social and academic integration
Attitudes and Satisfaction
Measures to Improve Student etention
Orientation and Induction
Student-Centered Active Learning
Integration of Study Skills
Students from Under-represented Groups
Organization of Program
Cultural Issues in Classrooms
ole of Presidency in Dealing with etention
Accepting the Change
easons Given by Students for Withdrawal
This paper is designed to figure out the reasons which cause the failure of educational institutes to retain the students. It also gives comprehensive overview of the measures that can be adopted by the leadership and higher authorities to nullify the negativity prevailing in the institutes and how to effectively control and retain students.
Student retention has become a major concern for institutes across the globe.…
Bean, J.P. (1980). Dropouts and turnover: The synthesis and test of a causal model of student attrition. Research in Higher Education, 12(2), 155-187.
Bean, J.P. (1985). Interaction effects based on class level in an explanatory model of college student dropout syndrome. American Educational Research Journal, 22(1), 35-64.
Crosling, G., & Heagney, M. (2009). Improving Student Retention in Higher Education. Improving Teaching and Learning, 9-18.
Fleming, J. (2012). Enhancing Minority Student Retention and Academic Performance: What We Can Learn From Program Evolutions. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Student Support Services
Education is a critically important aspect of survival in our society. Educators have long sought out ways to improve the post-secondary educational experiences of students. Many educators feel that first generation students in particular are at a disadvantage when entering college. To address student needs the federal government has created the Student Support Services SSS Program.
The purpose of this discussion is to analyze the impact and effectiveness of the Student Support Services Program. We will pay close attention to the effectiveness of the mentorship programs that are provided by the SSS program. In addition, we will explain both the negative and positive impacts of SSS programs at various Universities across the country.
Before we can understand the impact and effectiveness of the program, we must understand the purpose of the program and how it came about.
The Student Support Services Program
The Student Support Services Program…
Barnhardt, C. (1994). Life on the Other Side: Native Student Survival in a University World. PJE. Peabody Journal of Education, 69(2), 115-139. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95238730
Borkowski, F.T. (1988). The University President's Role in Establishing an Institutional Climate to Encourage Minority Participation in Higher Education. PJE. Peabody Journal of Education, 66(1), 32-45. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000945568
Bryant, A.N. (2001). Eric review: community college students recent findings and trends. Community College Review, 29(3), 77+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000740409
Management and Organizational Development
CHAPTE V - SUMMAY ESULTS
Fresno County Department of Children and Family Services emancipates twenty and thirty eighteen-year-old foster children each month. These children face many challenges as they work through a transition into the adult, working world. Children in a foster care setting have not had the stability needed for them to develop the life skills necessary to adjust to life on their own. Many of the emancipated youth have either not graduated from high school, nor hold a G.E.D. certificate. In addition, they do not have adequate basic living skills.. The youths typically do not have employment, nor have they built a history during their teen years of successful part time entry level jobs.
The housing experiences of these children, as they have moves from home to home, have not taught them the basic skills needed to keep a home, or apartment. These young…
director for this program, recommended by his or her peers from within the foster care system. This person should be someone who has demonstrated a high level of commitment to the foster care system, and has a track record of frequently going "above and beyond" the normal course of daily activities in order to benefit the well being of children in the system.
Funds for an additional training program to teach foster care workers about the benefits of mentoring relationships.
Standards, goals and objectives must be written for the Mentor, and for his or her case worker to follow and use as guidelines for the ongoing relationship
Connection event planning. Location, supplies, budget for event foods, decorations, and other ambiance.
Brandt (2003) offers ten ways to determine if a school indeed meets the criteria of a learning organization. The first characteristic of a learning organization is that it encourages adaptive behavior in response to differing circumstances. The second is that the learning organization has challenging, but achievable objectives and goals. The third is that members of the organization can accurately identify the organizations' stages of development (Brandt, 2003).
The learning organization can collect, process, and act upon information that fits their purposes (Brandt, 2003). Learning organizations have the knowledge base for creating new ideas. The learning organization has the ability to grow and adapt. They are dynamic and in a constant process of evolution. Learning organizations frequently exchange information with external sources (Brandt, 2003). This happens in educational workshops, in-services, and conferences.
Another feature of the learning organization is that is seeks feedback on their products and services (Brandt, 2003).…
Anderson, J. (2008). Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities. The Elementary School Journal. 109 (1): 36-60.
Beasley, E. (2008). New leadership model for business fits schools too. Statesman Journal. August 26, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008 at http://www.statesmanjournal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080826/Business01/808260315/1040/Business
Berenstein, L. (2006). Team Teaching with Academic Core Curricula Teachers: Using Aviation Concepts. Department of Aviation Technologies. Southern Illinois University. 43 (2): 1- 19. Retrieved October 19, 2008 at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/v43n2/pdf/berentsen.pdf
Brandt, R. (2003). Is this school a learning organization? 10 ways to tell. Journal of Staff Development. Winter 2003. 24 (1). Retrieved October 19, 2008 at http://www.nsdc.org/library/publications/jsd/brandt241.cfm
Differentiated Coaching for eading and Literacy
One approach to professional development that is gaining widespread acceptance among reading leaders is differentiated coaching. This paper examines how reading leaders can better engage in differentiated coaching for teachers of reading to meet the learning and culturally diverse needs of reading students in an elementary school, including the existing degree of comfort at my school with this tool, the readiness of the school's culture to implement this tool and a recommend approach for carving out time to use differentiated coaching in my school. Finally, a discussion concerning what type of data might be collected while using differentiated coaching concludes the paper.
What is the degree of comfort that exists with differentiated coaching at your school?
Although my school has used peer mentoring in the past, there has been no effort to employ the differentiated coaching model so the degree of comfort is currently…
Hall, P. & Simera, A. (2008). Building teachers' capacity for success: A collaborative approach for coaches and school leaders. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Robbins, P. (2015). Peer coaching: To enrich professional practice, school culture, and student learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Stover, K., Kissel, B., Haag, K., & Shoniker, R. (2011). Differentiated coaching: Fostering reflection with teachers. The Reading Teacher, 64(7), 498-509.
Yendol-Hoppey, D., & Dana, N. F. (2010). Powerful professional development: Building expertise within the four walls of your school. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
The first affect would be for the educator to want to implement the technique within their own classroom setting, which is the intent of the article. The reader then would have to research the issue further to see if this particular method of instruction was successful in other classroom settings and seek to adapt the method to their own classroom and subject matter. Finally the reader would have to present this article and a procedure of implementation to their administration for approval.
The second reaction could be the opposite one. The reader may notice the problems presented above and decide not to implement the procedure as demonstrated. They may also decide to modify it in a way that would allow for them to have success in their own classroom settings.
Anderson, John C., ungtusanatham Manus, Schroeder oger G. "A Theory of Quality Management Underlying Deming's Management Model." (1994) Academy…
Anderson, John C., Rungtusanatham Manus, Schroeder Roger G. "A Theory of Quality Management Underlying Deming's Management Model." (1994) Academy of Management Review 17(3), 472-509.
Douglas, Thomas J., and Frendenhall Lawrence D. (2004) "Evaluating the Deming Management Model of Total Quality in Services." Decision Sciences, 35(3).
Felder, Richard M., and Brent Rebecca. (1999) "How to Improve Teaching Quality." Quality Management Journal, 6(2), 9-21.
Krathwohl, David R., (2002) "A Revision of Bloom's taxonomy: An Overview-Benjamin S. Bloom University of Chicago." Theory into Practice.
Instructional Practices for High Level Learners
hen it comes to the right curriculum (instructional practices) that teachers and administrators should be developing -- that are effective in helping students achieve a high level of learning -- this paper points to a standards-based system (combined with creative curricula) as the most effective. There are a number of ways in which teachers can implement those practices that lead to a high level of learning in students -- and this paper reviews those strategies.
Explain various instructional practices designed to achieve high-level learning for all students in a standards-based curriculum.
Instructional practices in schools rarely stay static, according to a peer-reviewed article in the journal Computers in the Schools. In fact, many schools over the past few years have been actively engaged with "fundamental restructuring efforts" because teachers appear willing in many instances to try "…a range of instructional practices" that will be…
Copeland, S.R., and Cosbey, J. (2008-2009). Making Progress in the General Curriculum:
Rethinking Effective Instructional Practices. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe
Disabilities, 33(4), 214-227.
Liu, L., Jones, P.E., and Sadera, W.A. (2010). An Investigation on Experienced Teachers'
Student Nurse Ethics exploring ANA Code Ethics
Explanation of your own core personal values
Honesty, kindness, persistence, security, lifelong learning, and family are my core values and beliefs. I use these values to guide me in making my day-to-day decisions. It is my belief that to be a nurse one has to be caring and to have knowledge and integrity. Nursing as a profession concentrates on patient healing, patient needs, patient empowerment and patient safety. It is my belief that the professional objectives of nursing as a profession are in agreement with my personal values and beliefs because my values overlap the forces at the heart of nursing. The characteristics or values that make me effective at doing my job cannot be switched off like a switch the moment my shift ends, but are part of my core as an individual and I carry those values with me wherever I…
American Nurses Association. (2001). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Washington, D.C: American Nurses Publishing. Retrieved from Pitt.edu.
American Nurses Association. (2010). Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses: Interpretation and Application. (M. D. Fowler, Ed.) Silver Spring, Maryland: American Nurses Association.
Blackwell, A. (2008, September 22). What Are Your Values? The Most Important Values to Live By. Retrieved from The BridgeMaker: http://www.thebridgemaker.com/what-are-your-values-the-most-important-values-to-live-by/
Dahlin, B. (2015, September 19). Personal & Professional Philosophy of Nursing. Retrieved from ASU.edu: https://sites.google.com/a/asu.edu/brandi-dahlin/philosophy-of-nursing
Ground Rules With Your Learners
There are several effective ways for establishing ground rules for learners. The most useful methods involve both classroom participation in the germination of such guidelines, as well as mandates dictated from the teacher which serve to underpin his or her classroom authority. As an authority figure, the teacher should always have a number of ground rules in mind before entering the classroom, but the prudent pedagogue (with enough time at his disposal) will involve a classroom discussion of these matters, and with his or her gentle prodding, help students feel as though they have determined these rules on their own. Classroom participation in this critical component of determining in-class behavior often helps students to follow these guidelines themselves, since students take a sense of accomplishment in carrying out directives which they feel they have helped determine.
For younger students, ground rules are established with the…
1. Budden, Joe. 2010, Teaching English, viewed April 7, 2011. .
2. Gorski, Paul C. 2010, Guide For Setting Ground Rules, viewed April7, 2011.
3. Keeley-Brown, L. (2007) Training to Teach in the Learning and Skills Sector. Pearson Education Limited.
4. Reece, I. And Walker, S. (2006) Teacher, Training and Learning, 6th Revised Edition. Business Education Publishers.
maintain a culturally relevant and anti-bias program in a classroom setting as well as the identification of some principles and strategies for working effectively with English as second language students and what type of support or training teachers might need to implement these principles and strategies. Finally, a description concerning some ways that teachers can control the classroom environment to enhance cultural relevant learning and specific examples of materials and activities that might be used is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning strategies for developing anti-bias programming in the classroom in the conclusion.
Ways that a culturally relevant and anti-bias program can be established and maintained in a classroom setting
Humans are naturally biased creatures and the process begins early on. For instance, Barta and Winn (1996) report that, "Children begin to develop biases and prejudices long before they reach our classrooms. Research shows that…
A young girl from a multi-ethnic Hawaiian family join family members including aunts and grandmothers in the home's kitchen to make dumplings destined for the traditional dumpling soup that is being made for the family's traditional New Year's Eve celebration. This book discusses racial identities, family structure, and holidays.
Reiser, L. (1993). Margaret and Margarita. New York: Greenwillow Books.
This book describes how two young girls meet in a park and determine how to play despite the inability of the girls to speak each other's languages (Spanish and English). The book also describes the respective family structures of the two girls.
Leadership has been one of the most studied, researched and theorize topic which has been evaluated, discussed and described by many theorists and scholars. Whereas the truth is that it's no theoretical phenomenon or rocket science. We all act as leader in different situations. Also, we all have different leadership styles and tactics of handling situations. Furthermore, as a leader, we are required to show different leadership skills as per the recipient. This is where the concept of situational leadership comes in. We studied this concept of leadership during our group activity which was performed to determine individual leadership style based on peer evaluation. Where this activity was intended to find out the leadership style; it was also helpful in finding out one's strengths and weaknesses as a leader.
The fundamental concept of leadership has changed to a limited extent over time however over time organizations, society…
Blanchard, K. (2011), Are you delegating or abdicating, retrieved from http://howwelead.org/category/situational-leadership/
Casey Mulqueen, How SOCIAL STYLE Concepts Make the Situational Leadership Model More Effective. Retrieved from http://docs.tracomcorp.com/TPD/Whitepaper/Social_Style_and_Situational_Leadership_Whitepaper.pdf
Dunbar, Lisa, Situational Leadership: The 4D's of Your Employees, retrieved from http://www.newdirectionsconsulting.com/2011/06/situational-leadership-the-4ds-of-your-employees/
Hersey, P., and Blanchard, K., Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996)
The relevance of listening as a leadership skill cannot be overstated. This text evaluates the importance of listening. In so doing, the relevance of listening in the role of a leader will be highlighted. Further, the text will amongst other things also assess how leaders must listen to not only peers but also followers. Effective approaches to improve listening skills will also be discussed.
According to Skinner (1992), "active listening shows the leader's respect and love for those with whom he works…" In that regard, employees are more likely than not to respond positively to leaders who listen to them. Thus good listening skills on the leader's part could motivate employees towards better performance. As Junarso (2009) points out, based on their ability to make others feel important, leaders who listen have a higher chance of being listened to. This effectively enhances their efficiency.
Listening also promotes accuracy. It…
Guffey, M.E. & Loewy, D. (2009). Essentials of Business Communication (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Junarso, T. (2009). Leadership Greatness: Best Practices to Become a Great Leader. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.
Skinner, R.D. (1992). 22 Leadership Principles. Bountiful, Utah: Horizon Publishers.
Humor and Leadership" (Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 2005), Blane Anderson examines the use of humor by military leaders through a series of interviews with three leaders from the United States Armed Forces. The purpose of the study conducted by Anderson was to consider five specific issues in relation the role of humor in leadership practices: (1) whether humor can be used to improve leadership style; (2) whether humor in this context is more likely to be effective when it is practiced or spontaneous; (3) how the subjects developed their use of humor; (4) how the subjects know when to use humor and when not to use humor; and (5) whether humor is necessarily a natural gift or a tool that can be learned deliberately.
The researcher purposely selected subjects of similar age and demographic backgrounds to eliminate extraneous variables. He also deliberately selected subjects from each…
In the world of healthcare, strong leadership is something that requires reaching out to others. This means using specific practices and techniques that will help in accomplishing critical objectives. To be successful, it is imperative to embrace a certain mindset, behaviors and philosophy. This will have a lasting effect on the organization by establishing standards to improve quality and make it more responsive to the needs of stakeholders. Over the course of time, this will redefine their image and ability to adjust with them. (Sloane, 2003)
The best leaders are those individuals who have the ability to inspire others around them. They will embrace a flexible attitude through setting the example and treating everyone with a certain amount of respect. In these situations, the atmosphere means reducing the levels of intensity and troubleshooting critical challenges. These changes will help the team to work more effectively with one another.…
Sloane, D. (2003). Education levels of hospital nurses and surgical patient mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(12), 1617-1623.
Facilitating Teaching and Assessment
Facilitating, Teaching and Assessment
Facilitating, teaching and assessment in practice
The facilitation, teaching and assessment of nurses are important and critical jobs. Hospitals understand that it is cost effective for them to have a senior employee mentor the junior employees so that they are soon trained enough to be on their own at work. Mentors are employees that have supervisory as well as leadership qualities to teach and facilitate learners. The nurse mentor carries on the job by assessing and evaluating the methods that can be used to facilitate the nurse. These methods may include but are not limited to lectures and discussion. The processes of facilitation and teaching depends on the capacity of both the mentor as well as the learner. The following discussion will focus on mentor and learner backgrounds, learning needs of the learner and the responsibilities of both parties. It also offers…
American Medical Association, 2013, "Continuing Medical Education," Retrieved from:
Brown, J.S., 2005, "New Learning Environments for the 21st Century," Retrieved from:
The two SMART goals chosen for this assignment are Ethical Leadership in nursing and Nurse Mentoring. These SMART goals are both vitally important to the nurse in any context, because healthcare situations demand ethical approaches and mentoring is always a valuable component of nursing practice. As to Nurse Mentoring, this is a process that should not be limited to recent graduates of nursing schools but in fact should be conducted throughout a nurse's career as new procedures and technologies are introduced to the field of nurse care.
Ethics is a term that is used often in business and other genres. It is used so often that perhaps in some cases it becomes watered down. But in any healthcare environment the need for wholly ethical practices by nurses -- and all healthcare professionals -- is absolutely vital. This society is weary from news of ethical breakdowns in…
Cottingham, S., DiBartolo, M.C., Battistoni, S., and Brown, T. (2011). Partners in Nursing: A
Mentoring Initiative to Enhance Nurse Retention. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(4),
Eileen. (2013). "Ethical leadership and mentoring are an important part of nurses in the psychiatric facility where I work."
Troubled Youth and Aged Individuals: Contemporary Community Case Study
There are two age groups in the present population with specific needs required to fulfill and direct them at a pivotal moment in their life's development when paired together represent reciprocal provision of care during a critical stage in the lives of each of these two representative groups of contemporary society. The two age groups at focus in this study are today's youth and the present aged population in the community. Youth are disproportionately characterized as having behavioral problems and the community elders are a reservoir of guidance for these youth who in return have much to offer the aged as well.
The research proposed in this specific study involves collaboration with teacher, the school board, and counselors to prepare a method of providing school credits in return for volunteer work on the part of students who are also categorized as…
A Year's Worth of Mentoring Activities: 52 Ideas -- One for Each Week of the Year, Legacy Project. Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/valentinekit/part1/yearsworthmentoring.pdf
Bosak, SV (nd) Effective Mentoring. Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/guides/mentors.html
Elements of Effective Mentoring Practices (nd) Legacy Project. . Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/valentinekit/part1/effectivementoring.pdf
MENTORING INITIATIVES: An Overview of Youth Mentoring. A Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Conference and Meeting Document. April, 2000. Retrieved: http://www.nationalfamilies.org/parents/mentor.pdf
Hershey's Management Case Study
Every enterprise which employs a diverse and multifaceted workforce to facilitate organization, production, and service, from major international corporations to local community churches, utilizes a concept known as performance management to maximize its efficiency and effectiveness. The field of performance management has been defined by managerial researchers as a "strategic and integrated approach to increasing the effectiveness of companies by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors" (Armstrong and Baron, 1998), and the technique has been used since the 1970's by businesses seeking to improve their organizational results. In the case of the Hershey Company, which has been built into the largest producer of quality chocolate in North America, a clearly defined mission statement defines crucial relationships with key stakeholders, including consumers, investors, suppliers, and employees. Manager Mary Parsons has applied the concept…
Armstrong, M., & Baron, A. (1998). Performance management: The new realities. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.
Bakht, A. (2006, November 06). Erp II: A new concept. Retrieved from http://www.expresscomputeronline.com/20061106/technology02.shtml
Motiwalla, L.F., & Thompson, J. (2009). Enterprise systems for management. New York, NY: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Leadership Training and Its elationship to Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, and Problem Solving Skills among Youth
Transformational leadership remains a critical phenomenon as described through behavioral components such as inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. Idealized influence is the first element and is reflected based on the conceptualization by transformational leaders who behave in a manner that allows them appear as role models among their followers. Such individuals are respected, trusted, and admired (Olive, Gottfried, Guerin, Gottfried & eichard, 2011). Followers relate with the leaders with the aim of emulating them.
Children's attachment style is normally attributed to parental factors or parenting style. Attachment styles are well formed at early ages even though they are predictive of outcomes for future leadership. Early life shows that bonds developed by infants with caregivers vary between from an insecure to secure attachment styles. The relationship identifies diverse infant attachment styles which…
Day, D.V. (2011) Integrative perspectives on longitudinal investigations of leader development: From childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly 22-561 -- 571.
Gottfried, A.E., Gottfried, A.W., Reichard, R.J., Guerin, D.W., Oliver, P.H., & Riggio, R.E. (2011). Motivational roots of leadership: A longitudinal study from childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(3), 510 -- 519.
Mortensen, J., Lichty, L., Foster-Fishman, P., & Warsinske, K. (2014). Leadership through a Youth Lens: Understanding Youth Conceptualizations of Leadership. Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 447 -- 462
Murphy, S.E., & Johnson, S.K. (2011) The benefits of a long-lens approach to leader development: Understanding the seeds of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 22. 459 -- 470.
Sampling a. No description of participants given.
b. The informants all appear to be appropriate to the study, all being engaged in the practice or training of nursing techniques and procedures, most in treatment settings.
Data Collection a. Data collection was entirely based on human experiences; only individual experiences/attitudes were recorded or used in the study.
b. Data collection strategies are not described in details, but appear to have consisted of an open questionnaires with free responses. These provide appropriate and significantly consistent results.
c. Human rights issues such as privacy are not explicitly addressed in the published study.
d. Data saturation is not described or achieved -- this was a very limited study drawn from a limited pool of informants.
e. Explicit procedures are not detailed in the published study, making the findings impossible to fully replicate. Other qualitative questionnaires that attempt to measure the same phenomenon could be…
Leading Change and Leading People
For more than 20 years, I have been a leader in both the government and in the private business environment. This encompasses both work in the United States Army as a noncommissioned officer, and work in the civilian world within the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Leading change requires a great deal of initiative and more than just having a vision for the future. This is an important lesson that I have learned through the experiences in my life and the work that I have done for myself and others throughout my career.
I have been fortunate enough to have been mentored by some very outstanding individuals during my career, and have been promoted 10 times to attain my current grade of GS-15, which indicates that I am able to lead both people and change, get support for programs, influence resources,…
Indeed, Weiss descibes the pocess as "ionic" and notes that, "The incentives to put clients fist undeplay the moe subtle logic behind encouaging knowledge shaing in the fist place: fims that effectively collect and connect what they know will bette seve thei clients" (1999, p. 62). The benefits that can accue to pofessional sevices fims that achieve this level of knowledge shaing among thei pactitiones ae wide anging and can contibute to the fim's pefomance and pofitability. By developing the netwoks, pocedues and outines that ae needed to delive efficient sevices, pofessional sevices fims can take advantage of individual expetise in a moden administative fashion. In this egad, Weiss advises that, "Clients typically want customized sevices, but they do not want to pay pofessional sevices fims to 'einvent the wheel.' Pofessional sevice fims can develop competitive advantages when they povide highe quality sevices that ae deliveed moe efficiently than thei…
references in professional services firms to maximize performance levels and staff morale.
Weiss, L. (1999). Collection and connection: the anatomy of knowledge sharing in professional service firms. Organization Development Journal, 17(4), 61-62.
One of the more valuable resources located during the research process, this study examined in detail how professional services firm can benefit from developing the appropriate blend of transformational (and other types of) leadership together with intrinsic motivational techniques tailored to individual staff members.
Wright, B.E. & Pandey, S.K. (2010). Transformational leadership in the public sector: Does structure matter? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 20(1), 75-77.
Authors present the results of their investigation that concludes some leaders can inspire
He has been expelled from three school since he began his education and is currently attending junior high school after last attending a small charter school in his community. The shoplifting incident also caused his mother to ask his father to take him back into his home, he has lived with mostly his mother with infrequent visitation from his father, except for a year period where he lived with his father and stepmother and their other children, which ended at age 12 when he tried to vocalize feelings of concern about puberty to his stepmother and she perceived the conversation as deviant and asked that he be returned to his mother.
Justin's anti-social behavior began at birth but has had periods of extremes, beginning with near constant conflict with his mother over mundane requests as well as other general rejections of authority, including an incident of extreme foul language focused…
Greene, R.R. (1999). 5 Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach. In Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice (2nd ed., pp. 145-161). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W.B. (1998). Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and Adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Van Lier, P.A., Vuijk, P., & Crijnen, a.A. (2005). Understanding Mechanisms of Change in the Development of Antisocial Behavior: The Impact of a Universal Intervention. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(5), 521.
The most successful training programs are concentrating on the cognitive side of emotions, specifically evaluating how leaders can provide individualized attention and support to help subordinates prioritize tasks, focus their efforts, organize their time and resources and attain a higher level of performance. The transition of managers into leaders is also determined by the level of trust the latter is able to create and sustain through greater authenticity and genuineness of interaction with subordinates. No longer directing activities in the short-term, a leader with a sufficiently high level of EI interprets acts on and promotes the vision the organization is attempting to accomplish by taking a much focused path to their fulfillment. This can only happen when a leader has a strong focus on the needs of the team while also underscoring the urgency to focus on and achieve goals. Transactionally-oriented leaders struggle with this trade-off of task orientation to…
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-Range Leadership Theory: The Way Forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and Overview of, Transformational and Charismatic Leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
Bar-on, R. (1997). The Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-I): Technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Hershey's Sweet Mission case study - A
Harshey's Sweet Mission case study
Harshey company case study
Hershey Company is one of the leading North American companies that specialize in manufacturing quality chocolates, chocolate related grocery and other non-chocolate products such as mint and gum. As a company with a humble beginning back in the year 1894, it has continued to manufacture chocolates and other products that were once perceived to be only for the wealthy making them affordable. Over the years in operation, the company has continued to unveil new products having embraced different technologies to keep pace with the demand and competition and more so to satisfy consumer tastes and preferences.
The company survived the hard times during recession, stayed profitable and retained its workforce. As they continued to unveil more products and incorporated innovative ideas, it has grown globally thereby diversifying into other food products, expanded its confectionary…
Hershey's, (n.d). Hershey's Story. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from https://www.thehersheycompany.com/about-hershey/our-story/hersheys-history.aspx
Hershey's, (n.d). Our Values. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://www.thehersheycompany.com/social-responsibility/our-values.aspx
leadership capability relation accepted model leadership management. Part 1. 'Situational leadership redundant a task .' As a future leader teams, present arguments statement.
The internal environment within economic agents is suffering dramatic changes within the modern day society and this is the result of numerous pressures from the internal and external environments, such as technology, competition or increasing demands from the various categories of stakeholders. In such a setting, the role of the leaders and managers gradually increases, as these come to portray the link between executives and employees, and they are more essential in ensuring that the firms attain their overall objectives.
As the role of leaders and managers increases, the emphasis placed on the formation of the leaders and managers must also increase. In such a setting then, the current project sets out to discuss the situational leadership model through the lenses of its applicability within…
Haydon, G., 2007, Values for educational leadership, SAGE
Humphreys, J., Zhao, D., Ingram, K., Gladstone, J., Basham, L., 2010, Situational narcissism and charismatic leadership: a conceptual framework, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, Vol. 11, No. 2
Ireh, M., Bailey, J., 1999, A study of superintendent's change leadership styles using the situational leadership model, American Secondary Education, Vol. 27, No. 4
2012, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online, http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/feedback last accessed on May 22, 2012
SMAT Goal 1: Leadership Development
Who is involved in the goal, what is the goal, where will it take place?
Self, Colleagues, Supervisors and Subordinates. The development of leadership comes with not only "doing," but in learning to listen, to find opportunities to exert leadership in a number of ways, and to use leadership theory to buttress a tool box of information that will help in a variety of situations.
(How are you going to achieve the goal?
Goals will be measured and achieved based on three factors: personal inventory of success or failure; feedback from stakeholders; feedback (written and verbal) from supervisors.
What resources/expert available to assist you with attaining your goal?
Bibliographic sources on leadership theory, use of contemporary nursing theories (Watson, Lenninger, etc.) on specific aspects of leadership behavior, feedback from stakeholders.
Is this goal something that is realistically obtainable in…
Bridon, M. (September 8, 2008). In the Know: Sharpen Your Organizational Skills. Stressed Out Nurses.Com. Retrieved from: http://www.stressedoutnurses.com / 2008/09/in-the-know-sharpen-your-organizational-skills/
Buchwach, D. (2009). Time Management for Nurses. HC Pro. Retrieved from: http://www.hcmarketplace.com/supplemental/7538_browse.pdf
Katzenbach, J. (1996). Change Management: Real Change Leaders. The McKenzie Quarterly, 1(1), 148-63.
Kuzmenko, T., Montagno, R., & Smith, B. (2004). Transformational and Servant Leadership: Content and Contextual Comparisons. Journal of Leadership and Organization Studies, 10(4), 80-91.
PLANNING Produce a lesson plan states: session aims learning outcomes; learners; teacher activities; resources learning checks ============ Microteach Delivery the Microteach 15 minutes long: 5 minutes introduction set 10 minutes feedback tutor peers.
My fifteen minute 'microteaching' session involved the presentation of Arabic language material to a classroom of student learners. It was entitled: "The Arabic language: Greetings, alphabet and introduction to the language" and was designed to give a basic overview to what can seem to non-native speakers a very complex and impenetrable language (Greene 2005). My lesson plan involved the use of multiple types of presentation formats to ensure that the content was disseminated correctly yet students were also able to interact with the material in fun and engaging ways. Multiple methods of information transmission were also useful to ensure that the needs of different 'types' of learners were addressed by the session (Lane n.d.). The…
Chang, E. (2005). Tongue twisters. The Washington Post. Retrieved from:
Greene, R. (2005). Why learning Arabic is so hard. Slate. Retrieved from:
Five-Year Skills Development Plan:
The modern working environment is characterized by limitless employment opportunities and minimal worker loyalty. As a result, today's workplace is an environment where organizations need employees more than employees' need for the business. The emergence of this difficult working environment has contributed to several challenges to both employers and businesses. Some of the major challenges employers encounter includes difficulties in finding skilled workers and the need for more employee motivation in order to promote workers' loyalty. The need for increased motivation in the workplace is associated with the need for businesses to recruit and retain skilled workers. Therefore, the major challenge in the modern workplace revolves around employee motivation due to its role in retaining good employees and managers.
Vision for My Career or Professional Life:
As a Human esource Manager, I will develop new strategies and techniques that focus on improving motivation in the workplace…
Carlopio, J & Andrewartha, G 2012, Developing management skills: a comprehensive guide for learners, 5th edn, Pearson Australia: Frenches Forest
Council of Social Service of New South Wales 2007, Models of Workforce Development,
Council of Social Service of New South Wales, viewed 28 May 2013,
Feinberg, T n.d., Five-Year Career Development Plan, viewed 28 May 2013, SelfGrowth.com,
Forgotten Group Member
There are four main stages of group development: forming, storming, norming and performing (MindTools, 2013). During the forming stage, members are attempting to discover their roles and logistics. Team leadership is solidified during the forming stage. The storming phase involves people clarifying roles and begin to work on the project; some group members may try to avoid tasks. The norming stage involves the establishment of a hierarchy, solidification of leadership skills, a greater commitment to the team goal, and progress towards the goal. The performing stage involves hard work leading to the attainment of the goal (MindTools, 2013).
Christine's group is in the performing stage of development. The team members are all working to the attainment of the goal. Even Mike, the team member who is failing to meet expectations has performed some work to teach the goal. However, because there are problems in the…
Mind Tools. (2013). Forming, storming, norming, and performing: Helping new teams perform effectively, quickly. Retrieved September 19, 2013 from Mind Tools website: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_86.htm
The human resources directorial position remains a core position in the company and because all organizations are out to draw, motivate, and even continue to own the best and performing employees to the company, in specific duties that they perform, the human resource director's position should always be part on the reward program in the pet industry. This will enable them get additional motivations, just like others, either junior or senior that they determine and organize for their rewarding. In addition, there should be a wide variety of rewarding top management, and this should include material things to bring diversity in the program that can add motivations to the director's position as well as separating salaries from other financial benefits (rewards) as well as other recognitions that can prove necessary (Employee ewards and Incentives, 2010). This procedure opens the program so that the respective parties benefiting can truly feel the…
Chaudron, D.G. (n.d.). Organized change: A tale of three villages, approaches to implementing organizational change. Bizforum.org. Retrieved from http://www.bizforum.org/Journal/www_journalDC001.htm
Employee Rewards and Incentives. (2010, March 4). How to motivate and inspire your employees. Employee-reward-incentives. Retrieved from http://employee-rewards-
Occupational Outlook Handbook. (2009, December 17). Human resources, training, and labor relation mangers and specialists. Bureau of labor statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos021.htm
In contrast, a "selling and coaching" (S2) approach is demanded when the leader knows the follower may be uncertain about how to perform the task, but the subordinate has a high level of commitment, as in the case of an intern or a new hire. S2 is a motivational or mentoring approach. The employee craves direction, but will be motivated more by personality and praise than 'carrots and sticks' versus the S1 situation (Straker 2004).
A "participating/supporting" leadership situation (S3) is when the leader knows that the employees can complete the task but the manager wants more of an emotional investment or a higher level of excellence. An example of this approach might be a manager of a fast food establishment with a teenage, low-skilled workforce. The employees can do the job, but needs more motivation to perform at a high level rather than task-specific direction. Finally, an (S4) situation…
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald.
DISC. (2010). Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://www.discprofile.com/
Homrig, Mark a. (2001, December 21).Transformational leadership. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm
Straker, David. (2004). Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. Changing Minds. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/situational_leadership_hersey_blanchard.htm
Reclaiming Children and Youth.. Retrieved October 02, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-206794465.html Wester, K, MacDonald, C & Lewis, T. (2008). A glimpse into the lives of nine youths in a correctional facility: Insight into theories of delinquency.(Report). Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. American Counseling Association. 2008. Retrieved October 02,
2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-178713105.html
Gibbs, J., Potter, G.B., DiBiase, a.M. & Devlin, R. (2008). The EQUIP program: Helping youth to see -- really see -- the other person: Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-183982220.html
Harkwick, K. & Brannigan, a. (2008). Self-control, child effects, and informal social control: A
direct test of the primacy of sociogenic factors. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Canadian Criminal Justice Association. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research:…
There are many theories of leadership which can help make a transition smoother. Contingency theory and situational theory are two such theories which states that no one leadership style can suit all situations but there is some difference between these two theories. Leaders need to understand that they will not be facing the same kind of situations each day and hence they must be willing to adopt a flexible style that can be altered according to the situation at hand. This is quite similar to situational theory of leadership with one major difference. Contingency theory maintains that some times a leader who appears very effective and successful in one situation may not find himself all that effective in a different situation simply because leadership is contingent upon some factors. Situational leadership on the other hand states that leaders can adopt certain behavior and traits for variety of situations and alter…
Ken Blanchard, Patricia Zigarmi, and Drea Zigarmi Leadership and the One Minute Manager: Increasing Effectiveness Through Situational Leadership (1999)
Certainly it would give rise to debate within the community, and would perhaps because it circumvents the authority that was asserted by the community in limiting the teen's awareness to abstinence, would eventually have to be abandoned because of the ways in which the community would relate the process to what it actually is: getting the kids the information on birth control.
If educating the kids as to the alternatives available to them is prohibited, then it becomes incumbent upon the health professionals to take the discussions to the parents. Since most kids, estimated at 47%, say that their decisions about sex are most influenced by their parents (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2007, found online at then educating the parents must become the focus of the effort. If Vermilion Parish and other places within and outside of Louisiana would tie the hands of educators and health professionals…
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Sexual Health Statistics for Teenagers and Young Adults in the United States, September, 2006.
The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 'American Opinion on Teen
Pregnancy and Related Issues 2007, found online at retrieved 14 March 2009.
At each incident, Delaire ranted and punished Nita severely, though her punishments were ineffective, as she did not carry through on monitoring.
Nita soon found another ally, a "boyfriend." An older boy had found that Nita would do almost anything for him in order to be accepted by the group and had her perform sexual acts with him, though she would not consent to intercourse in the beginning. However, as time went on, she did have sexual intercourse and became pregnant. Without her mother's knowledge, she and her girlfriend, who helped her, went to a clinic and Nita had an abortion. She told her mother what had happened in a moment of weakness and her mother was horrified, taking Nita's actions to mean that she was ruined. Delaire had been a Catholic, but was not then a practicing one. Her attitudes and ethics were derived from the Catholic religion, but…
Change may be difficult for a company, but necessary if the company is to survive. An effective leader is one who is able to harness and negotiate this change so that the company is able to deal with it and survive.
ome limitations to overcome
A leader has to possess the following characteristics: Empowerment; Risk-taking; Participation; and Development (Eicher; online). In a practical sense, this translates into the following schema: I need to empower employees listening to their ideas regarding how the organization can work. I would need to also inspire the employees to work independently and to gain their own knowledge.
Thirdly, I would need to inspire an atmosphere of innovation so that employees and myself together can decide how to work through difficult situations, and this must be accomplished in a face-saving manner in a supportive rather than in an accusatory atmosphere. Finally, I must endeavor to foster…
Sales, A. (2006). Substance Abuse and Counseling: A Perspective The International Child and Youth Care Network,. Cyc-Online. http://www.cyc-net.org/cyc-online/cycol-0106-sales.html
Sun Tzu, (2001). The Art of War Wylie, TX: Pickard & Son, Publishers.
Wheatley, M. (2002). Silence is the Problem. Shambhala Sun. Retrieved on 5/18/2010 from http://margaretwheatley.com/articles/silenceistheproblem.html .
Given the capriciousness of the human condition with respect to continuing redefinitions of personal and professional success, human resource managers are faced with some difficult choices in formulating recommendations for best practices. Therefore, the learning journal would undergo a series of draft versions that would be used to solicit feedback from experts in the field who could point out flaws and areas that required additional research or support to be valid and trustworthy. The solicitation of feedback process would follow the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who recommends having a manuscript reviewed by knowledgeable individuals who possess the requisite credentials to provide informed feedback. This feedback would be carefully reviewed and the collaborative process would result in changes and additions where they were deemed necessary and appropriate.
Outcomes and New Learning
Some of the overriding themes that emerged from the learning episodes outlined above was that the more researchers…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Cheverton, J. 2007. 'Holding our own: Value and performance in nonprofit organizations.'
Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 427-428.
First they must care about people. Organizational success depends on the efforts of the leader's people; therefore leaders must empower, inspire, enable, encourage, and support subordinates. Secondly, effective managers communicate the organization's direction in terms of vision, goals, priorities, and strategies. In order to gain maximum commitment to organizational success, people need to understand the organizational goals, and the strategies employed to achieve those goals. The organization benefits greatly when its people view their jobs not just as a set of tasks they get paid to do, but as work that contributes to the organization's success and the part they play in achieving those goals. Everyone must know what is expected of them. An effective manger must also embrace and instill a positive attitude. A success-oriented, can-do/will-do attitude is important in order to overcome the challenges that will present themselves during the course of operations. An effective manager is proactive.…
Raymond Shulstad (2009), a retired USAF Brigadier General, identifies six characteristics which I believe good leaders must possess in order to be effective managers. First they must care about people. Organizational success depends on the efforts of the leader's people; therefore leaders must empower, inspire, enable, encourage, and support subordinates. Secondly, effective managers communicate the organization's direction in terms of vision, goals, priorities, and strategies. In order to gain maximum commitment to organizational success, people need to understand the organizational goals, and the strategies employed to achieve those goals. The organization benefits greatly when its people view their jobs not just as a set of tasks they get paid to do, but as work that contributes to the organization's success and the part they play in achieving those goals. Everyone must know what is expected of them. An effective manger must also embrace and instill a positive attitude. A success-oriented, can-do/will-do attitude is important in order to overcome the challenges that will present themselves during the course of operations. An effective manager is proactive. They must not be afraid of making mistakes and when one is made they learn from it and move on. They strive to spend more time preventing problems and less time solving them. Finally, a manager must mentor and develop subordinates, provide professional development opportunities and move their people to new positions in which they can continue to grow. In so doing they are investing in the future of the organization.
Key Term: Management
According to Willis W. Harman people who lack self-motivation fit compliantly into a bureaucratic, hierarchical management structure. However, a growing portion of the population, displaying self-actualization tendencies, are bothered by the oppressiveness of hierarchical management and are insistent on a more participatory role. I believe effective leadership calls for decisions to
Leadership Plans for Upcoming Academic Year
Over the course of the upcoming academic year, I hope to pursue opportunities that will ground my academic work in educational experiences outside of the classroom. I will become part of an undergraduate research program that will enable me to marry my real-life work in the world with what I have learned about marketing theory in school. I also will join more activities that will enable me to connect with other students of similar interests and aptitudes. One difficulty with working full-time and pursuing an undergraduate degree is that time is often scarce; obtaining a scholarship would free up more of my time to delve deeper into extracurricular activities. I have come to realize how the opportunities afforded to me to network with my peers and future employers are essential. I seek new opportunities to lead and to learn from other student and professional…