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From here, the revival spread throughout the United States as leaders from various states who were present, carried the message back to their own churches (Stephens pp). Stephens notes that "diversity characterized their beliefs and theology, Pentecostals ranged from esleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian" (Stephens pp).
The historiography of Pentecostalism is multifaceted and the initial historical works came from within the movement itself (Stephens pp). Stephens notes that Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework that focused on the role of God rather than human and natural causation, and these histories were apologetic and largely "ahistorical" (Stephens pp). They more or less depicted the Pentecostal revival as "dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor," as evident in the titles of early works such as the 1916 The Apostolic Faith Restored, and the 1961 Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (Stephens pp).
Prior to 1970, there were…
Pentecostalism. Retrieved November 01, 2005 at http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/penta.html
Pentecostalism1. Retrieved November 01, 2005 at http://hirr.hartsem.edu/research/research_pentecostalism.html
Stephens, Randall J. Assessing the Roots of Pentecostalism. Retrieved November 01, 2005 at http://are.as.wvu.edu/pentroot.htm
Synan, Vinson. Holy Spirit Research Center: The Origins of the Pentecostal
1) What are the main arguments of the author?
The main arguments of the author are that Pentecostal Christians are the victims of violent attacks in India at a rate that is inordinately high. Yet the subject receives little attention either in the mainstream press or in the Indian media. It appears that there is a cultural hostility directed towards Christians in general in India and towards Pentecostalism in particular. The book’s intention is to shed light on this phenomenon by highlighting the details of the Pentecostals in India, their relationship to anti-Christian violence and what can be learned from the examination.
The author seeks to apply an “everyday” lens to the work and show that the violence against this Christian group is “routinized” and “entrenched as one relatively regular form…of communication between Hindus and Christians.”[footnoteRef:1] He also seeks to show that the mainstream Catholic and Protestant churches are not…
Bauman, Chad. Pentecostals, Proselytization, and Anti-Christian Violence in
Contemporary India. UK: Oxford University Press: 2015.
"One of the most important contemporary developments in the religious field among U.S. Latinos has been the rapid growth of evangelical Protestantism, particularly Pentecostalism," (Vasquez 617). Pentecostalism is a charismatic, evangelical Protestant denomination. Known best for its espousal of "speaking of tongues, faith healing, divine visions and miracles," Pentecostalism has enjoyed a strong presence in Latin America alongside Catholicism (Kunerth). Pentecostalism is growing among American Hispanics, too, both because of immigration from countries with an already strong Pentecostal base but also because of social, political, and personal psychological changes within the Hispanic-American community. Many new immigrants from Latin America, especially Nicaragua, Honduras and the Caribbean, are already Pentecostal because of the religion has flourished there for decades (Kunerth)
However, Pentecostalism was born in the United States. The religion reflects a uniquely American religious culture. William J. Seymour is widely credited with being the "father of Pentecostalism," after starting what…
DePalma, Anthony. "God's Word, Echoing in English; Hispanic Pentecostal Churches Face Bilingual Problem." The New York Times. 02 Jan, 2003. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/02/nyregion/god-s-word-echoing-english-hispanic-pentecostal-churches-face-bilingual-problem.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
Espinoza, Efraim. "Hispanic Pentacostalism." Enrichment Journal. 2011. Retrieved online: http://enrichmentjournal.ag.org/199904/059_hispanic.cfm
Garza, Jennifer. "Hispanics Increasingly Drawn to Pentecostal Church." Hispanic News. 9 May, 2009. Retrieved online: http://hispanic.cc/hispanics_increasingly_drawn_to_pentecostal_church.htm
Kunerth, Jeff. "Hispanics Flock to Pentecostal Churches." Orlando Sentinel. 02 Jan, 2010. Retrieved online: http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2010-01-02/features/os-hispanic-pentecostals_3-20100101_1_pentecostal-churches-hispanic-congregation-pew-hispanic-center
History of the Pentecostal Movement
The Pentecostal Movement, also known as Classical Pentecostalism, is a Christian-based faith that emphasizes a direct personal experience with God through Baptism, Prayer, and evangelism. There is not one version of Pentecostalism, but all are based on the name derived from the Jewish Feasts of Weeks, commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit onto the followers of Christ, described in Acts II: "When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place… all of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them" (Acts 2).
Pentecostalism is an evangelical sect, which focuses on the belief that the scriptures are 100% true, accurate and vital in contemporary life. Pentecostals accept Christ as a personal lord and savior and also that baptism with the Holy Spirit is separate from conversion. It is…
Anderson, A. (2009). Evangelism and the Growth of Pentecostalism in Africa. Centre for Missiology and World Christianity -- University of Birmingham. Retrieved from: http://artsweb.bham.ac.uk/aanderson/Publications/evangelism_and_the_growth_of_pen.htm
Cox, H. (1995). Fire from Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality. New York: DaCapo Press.
Kalu, O. (2008). African Pentecostalism: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pentecostal World Fellowship. (2013). Leadership and Ministries. Retrieved from: http://www.pentecostalworldfellowship.org/
Meanwhile, Huckabee supports local political jurisdictions passing laws that punish undocumented immigrants, and he asserts those laws "protect the economic well-being, physical safety, and quality of life" for citizens in those communities. By using "physical safety" Huckabee frames this issue in the context that immigrants are criminals out to harm people. But the Immigration Policy Center (IPC) (Rumbaut, et al., 2007) reports that "Foreign-born Mexicans" had an incarceration rate" of 0.7% in 2000, "more than 8 times lower than the 5.9% of native-born males of Mexican descent." And while the "undocumented population has doubled to 12 million since 1994," violent crime in the U.S. has declined 34.2%, the IPC reports.
Moreover, according to the American Immigration Law Foundation (Esbenshade, 2007) local ordinances such as the ones Huckabee believes in (that make it illegal to rent to undocumented immigrants, for example) - if they conflict with federal immigration law - are…
Dougherty, Michael Brendan. "The Audacity of Huck: The Religious Right roils the Establishment by backing one of its own." The American Conservative 7.2 (2008): 6-8.
Esbenshade, Jill. "Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing
Ordinances." American Immigration Law Foundation. Retrieved 7 February 2008, at http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml.
Guidelines for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis. "The Guidelines." Retrieved 6 February, 2008 from http://core.ecu.edu/engl/snyderh/1100/raguide.html
S. were not "hostile" to evangelicalism (Bebbington, p. 367). After II, the Church of Scotland and British Methodism launched "sustained evangelistic thrusts" and in Britain the "National Young Life Campaign" got involved in evangelical activities, Bebbington continued.
The American Presbyterian denominations announced in 1946 that they were to become "a crusading organ for evangelical religion" (Bebbington, p. 367). And when Billy Graham began preaching and healing in the post-II era he did "almost as much" to bring the evangelical movement strength in Britain as he did in the United States, Bebbington asserts. Even in the staid, conservative Church of England there was a "new evangelical revival" by 1959; further promoting the movement was the fact that the British and American evangelical movements linked their talents and strengths across the Atlantic Ocean.
Bebbington notes that the charismatic movement in Britain during the 1960s was in part inspired by the writings of…
Bebbington, David. 1994. Evangelism in Its Settings: The British and American Movements
Since 1940. Eds. Mark a. Noll, David W. Bebbington and George a. Rawlyk, in Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles, and Beyond, 1700-1990. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bebbington, David W., and Bebbington, Davi. 1989. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A
History from the 1730s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge.
An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"
The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.
In Persona Christi
Historical Background: the Vestments
Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…
Staley, V. (1894). The Catholic Religion. London, UK: Mowbray.
Tanner, N.P., ed. (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. London: Sheed
Montanism / Theology
Like many early heresies, Montanism has not left behind much in the way of written testimony: only one Montanist writer, Tertullian, has works that survive, and it is primarily in his work that the statements of the Montanist movement (Montanus, Prisca and Maximilia) survive in quotation. Gonzales notes that, among many differing interpretations of Montanism, one view sees them as something like "an early Pentecostal group." [footnoteRef:0] It is clear from accounts of Montanism that it included the emphasis on the Holy Spirit, including manifestations of glossolalia, that are seen in contemporary Pentecostals. ut overall, Montanus seems to have combined several contradictory impulses into his schismatic movement. The first hinged upon greater involvement of women in ministry: the heresy of Montanus is seldom mentioned without reference to "those demented women Prisca and Maximilia," as Saint Jerome calls them in his letter to Marcella refuting the Montanist heresy.[footnoteRef:1]…
Gonzales, Justo L. And Gonzales, Catherine Gunsalus. Heretics for Armchair Theologians. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2008.
Saint Jerome, Letter XLI. Accessed online at: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf206.v.XLI.html
Saint Justin Martyr, First Apology XXVI. Accessed online at: http://www.crossroadsinitiative.com/library_article/269/first_apology_of_st._justin_martyr.html
Swift, Jonathan. A Tale of a Tub. Accessed online at: http://www.online-literature.com/swift/tale-of-a-tub/8/
Schulman illustrates this by reference to ob Dylan's lyrics, whose images (such as Isis) evoke the spiritual quests of the New Age mysticism and whose outlaw heroes voice an angry suspicion again established institutional authority (Schulman, 147). The same hostility to mainstream values was repeated in iconoclastic directors such as Cassavetes and Scorsese. One sees as well that the 1970s critiques of religion were not based on evolutionary science as in Dumenil's portrait. They were grounded in psychology. Nor does Schulman describe a mass secularization to the extent it happened in the 1920s. Rather, there seemed to be a return to and reinvigoration of religion in the 1970s.
The 1970s had another element not present in the 1920s. The New Age movement presented a new image of maleness. It sought to explore masculinity perhaps in a way that the 1920s explored femininity. Men's groups, forums, and retreats spread. Robert ly…
Dumenil, Lynn. The Modern Temper: American Culture and Society in the 1920s. New York: Hill and Wang, 1995.
Schulman, Bruce J. The Seventies: The Great Shift in American Culture, Society, and Politics. New York: The Free Press, 2001.
Therefore, we may conclude that the speaker has some cognitive function from the structure of the speech, even if it is based on a very basic set of language rules (Samarin 1972 120).
Three major linguistic traits emerged from other research into the subjec. Regardless of the geographic area, educational level, or age of the individual, glossolalia consists of:
Verbal behavior that has a certain number of consanants and vowels.
There seem to be a limited number of syllables that are reorganized into larger units.
These units are then rearranged using variations in pitch, volume, speed and intensity (e.g. A "word" group spoken with different inflections).
The "words" put together seem haphazard but emerge as word and sentence like because of the use of realistic timbre, rhythm, and melody (Samarin 1972).
Other research confims that glossolalia shows an oddly definitive syballant commonality with the particular spoken language of the speaker.…
Aquinas, T. "Summa Theologica Question 176." New Advent. March 2008. http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3176.htm (accessed September 2010).
Bock, D. Acts: Baker Exegetical Commentary. Ada, MI: Baker Academic, 2007.
Chavda, M. The Hidden Power of Speaking in Tongues. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image Publishers, 2003.
Coffman, J. "Commentary on Mark 16." Abeline Christian University Press. 1999. http://www.searchgodsword.org/com/bcc/view.cgi?book=mr&chapter=016 (accessed September 2010).
God's taking sides can be pushed to saying that the rich cannot be saved, or that God does not love everyone.
The Holy Spirit and iberation Theology
As Boff and Boff ( 1987) state: "Every true theology springs from a spirituality -- that is, from a true meeting with God in history. iberation theology was born when faith confronted the injustice done to the poor."
In this sense the Spirit is essentially perceived in terms of the interconnection between humanity and God. Put less blatantly, the Holy Spirit is the conduit of the absolute or divine to the domain of human existential experience. This view of the Spirit resonates with the focus on experiential suffering in the world. In other words, the Holy Spirit is not abstract but is rather perceived as a spiritual source of intervention in the world, which coincides with the focus of liberation theology.
Leonardo Boff, and Clodovis Boff, Introducing Liberation Theology /, trans. Paul Burns [book online] (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1987, accessed 4 May 2012), 91; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102085764 ; Internet.
Leonardo Boff, and Clodovis Boff, Introducing Liberation Theology /, trans. Paul Burns [book online] (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1987, accessed 4 May 2012), 91; available from Questia,
issionary efforts during the nineteenth century had led to a massive expansion of the Church and Christianity, and the first several decades of the twentieth century saw several international and inter-denominational conferences regarding the evangelical need for other missionary efforts and the practical means of carrying them out. Robert Speer was one of the most dedicated missionaries at these conferences, exhorting others with a great zeal that he exhibited in his actions, as well. The gains of the nineteenth century, however -- as well as some of those in the twentieth century -- had come at the cost of hundreds of thousands of Christian lives confirmed the unfortunate truth "that the blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church." The death of these martyrs had largely ended by the Edinburgh issionary Conference of 1910, which established a new consciousness regarding the missionary purpose and pursuit.
Missionary efforts during the nineteenth century had led to a massive expansion of the Church and Christianity, and the first several decades of the twentieth century saw several international and inter-denominational conferences regarding the evangelical need for other missionary efforts and the practical means of carrying them out. Robert Speer was one of the most dedicated missionaries at these conferences, exhorting others with a great zeal that he exhibited in his actions, as well. The gains of the nineteenth century, however -- as well as some of those in the twentieth century -- had come at the cost of hundreds of thousands of Christian lives confirmed the unfortunate truth "that the blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church." The death of these martyrs had largely ended by the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of 1910, which established a new consciousness regarding the missionary purpose and pursuit.
Though it is difficult to determine with precision the most important turning points in the history of Christianity in the twentieth century from such a close vantage point, but several key events and trends can be singled out. The rise of Pentecostalism throughout the twentieth century was certainly significant, with signs of the Holy Spirit felt by millions more today than ever before in Christian history. The Second Vatican Council and its decisions also had enormous ramifications for the Church in the latter half of the twentieth century and beyond, and major political and economic events that took place in the world -- the great Depression, the two World Wars, etc. -- also had large religious ramifications.
..the astas have now penetrated the middle class. At present, the overwhelming majority of members are African, but there are also Chinese, East Indians, Afro-Chinese, Afro-Jews, mulattoes, and a few whites. astafarians are predominantly ex-Christians. "(Barrett, 1997, p. 2-3)
One of the early innovators and leaders of the movement,
Leonard Howell, stated a number of principles that have been the hallmark of astafarianism and still apply to a large extent today. These include the following:
1)hatred for the White race; (2) the complete superiority of the Black race; (3) revenge on Whites for their wickedness; (4) the negation, persecution, and humiliation of the government and legal bodies of Jamaica; (5) preparation to go back to Africa; and (6) acknowledging Emperor Haile Selassie as the Supreme Being and only ruler of Black people. (Barrett, 1997, p. 85)
Another essential aspect which is of cardinal importance in astafarianism is the concept of…
RASTAFARI: ACCORDING TO THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN
RELIGIONS. Retrieved 4 November, 2006, at http://www.inithebabeandsuckling.com/EAR.html
Rastafarianism. Retrieved 5 November 2006, at http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/rast.htm . Royackers, M. (1999). Jamaica Genesis: Religion and the Politics of Moral Orders. Theological Studies, 60(2), 387. Retrieved November 7, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001267576Vertovec , S. (2001). Transnationalism and Identity. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(4), 573+. Retrieved November 7, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000908861Wardle , H. (2003). Anthropology and History. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 9(4), 794+. Retrieved November 7, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002070480
Jim Cleveland introduced the nation to the 'Gospel Choir' and in 1968 organized the Gospel Music orkshop of American and due to his success has received three Grammy Awards and a star on the Hollywood alk of Fame (Moore Pp).
Leading a movement inside the Gospel music industry to go mainstream was Edwin Hawkins, who in 1969 recorded 'Oh Happy Day' which rose to number one on the Top Fifty Chart, and a new generation of Gospel was born (Moore Pp). Then other artists such as Andrae Crouch followed Hawkins' crossover success by writing gospel lyrics for more popular secular songs (Moore Pp). Beginning in the late 1980's, contemporary gospel groups such as Take 6 and the inans began to take the gospel message to an even wider audience (Moore Pp). Both groups could easily fill a concert hall as they played their new style to the sacred and the…
The Roots of Gospel Music
Petrie, Phil. "The History of Gospel Music." http://afgen.com/gospel1.html
African-American Music: Spirituals and Gospel Music. http://www.sbgmusic.com/html/teacher/reference/styles/spirituals.html
Are sign gifts for today or have they ceased? What is the purpose of the sign gifts, and if they are being practiced today, are sign gifts being practiced in a biblical manner?
Debate among Christians ranges on whether the spiritual gifts entailing; miracles, healing and prophecy are for today. There is consensus among Christians that the gifts were part of the first century church. The latter is a held in consensus among believers that the Bible is the word supreme being (God). The debate on Gifts and Signs for today looks at the more visible occult gifts which leave people asking does perform miracles through the special emissary individuals. The debates do not question whether God is still powerful, rather whether he demonstrates his powers through those who claim to be doing his work. The argument among this people is what signs the gifts are meant to…
Beardslee, William A. "New Testament Perspectives on Revolution as a Theological Problem." The Journal of Religion 51, no. 1 (1971): 15-33.
Bilimoria, Purushottama. "What Is the "Subaltern" of the Comparative Philosophy of Religion?" Philosophy East and West 53, no. 3 (2003): 340-366.
Daniel B. Wallace. Two Views on the "Sign Gifts": Continuity Vs. Discontinuity. Dallas Theological Seminary, 1997.
Gallagher, Sally K. "Building Traditions: Comparing Space, Ritual, and Community in Three Congregations." Review of Religious Research 47, no. 1 (2005): 70-85.
" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)
Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:
(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;
(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…
Bosch, David Jacobus (1991) Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission, American Society of Missiology Series; No. 16. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.
Gelder, Craig Van (2007) the Missional Church in Context: Helping Congregations Develop Contextual Ministry. Volume 1 of Missional Church Series. Missional Church Network Series. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.
Guder, Darrell L. (2000) the Continuing Conversion of the Church. Grand Rapids, NI: Eerdmans, 2000.
Hesselgrave, David J> (2007) Will We Correct the Edinburgh Error? Future Mission in Historical Perspective. Southwestern Journal of Theology.Vol. 49 No. 2 Spring 2007.