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Perception, Personality and Individual Differences and Ethics
The following pages focus on analyzing three articles on perception, personality, and individual differences and ethics. These issues were selected because of their importance to human interrelationships, influence on human behavior, and importance on communication. In order to understand how these concepts can be efficiently used, it is important to study articles that explain the processes behind these concepts, how they work, and how they can be improved.
The articles presented in this paper represent the point-of-view of specialists in the field. Their opinion can be considered subjective. This is because their opinion was formed based on their individual knowledge and experiences. It is important to understand the motivation used by the authors of these articles in their attempt to provide a point-of-view on these issues.
The issue of perception is of great importance to all target audiences. This is because everyone should…
1. Hall, M. (2010). Perception is not Reality. International Society of Neuro Semantics. Retrieved May 25, 2013 from http://www.neurosemantics.com/nlp-critiques/perception-is-not-reality .
2. Cruz, H. (2002). Personality Could Affect Bottom Line. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 25, 2013 from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2002-03-19/business/0203190214_1_american-savings-education-council-retirement-planning-Matthew-greenwald-associates .
3. Beaver, J. (2006). Individual Differences in Reward Drive Predict Neural Responses to Images of Food. The Journal of Neuroscience. Retrieved May 25, 2013 from http://www.jneurosci.org/content/26/19/5160 .
Perceptions at a Party
Different sensations from the environment are processed through sensory receptors, such as the eyes, ears, nose, skin and mouth, which are then perceived and processed in the brain to be organized and interpreted (Huffman, 2007). For the party example, several sensations are being processed through our sensory receptors. hen we arrive to the party, it is already dark outside, so when we enter the hosts' house, the amount of light within is very important. Luckily, the light is neither too bright nor too dim. Probably the first sensation our body would notice is smell. This rounds out our experience, perhaps because we have arrived hungry, and thankfully, the smell of delicious food is wafting through the air. If the house smelled unpleasant, such a cat litter box badly in need of scooping, our experience would be much less pleasant. hat is also interesting about smell is…
Huffman, K. (2007). Psychology in action (8e): Chapter 4. Power Point Presentation, Department of Psychology, Palomar College, San Marcos, CA.
Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology: Themes & Variations, briefer version (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Perception of Customer Behavior
The Psychological State of Consumer Behavior
The psychological state of the customer plays an important part in determining the consumer satisfaction. The perception and behavior of the consumer has an impact on the service climate as well as customer perception of service equality. According to Benjamin Schneider, Suzan White and Michelle Paul in the journal of applied psychology (Schneider, White & Paul, 1998), a given set of foundation issues that usually holds up employee work and service worth is conceptualized as essential cause of a climate for service. The climate for service is also reflected in the customer services. A cutthroat international competition, slower growth and mature markets characterize the current environment for many businesses organizations. Therefore, various organizations are making the perceptions of customers of quality of service a priority to in order to stay competitive and retain customers.
Apparently, it is relatively less expensive…
Hoyer, W.D., & MacInnis, D.J. (2008). Consumer behavior. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Kardes, F.R., Cronley, M.L., & Cline, T.W. (2011). Consumer behavior. Mason, OH: South-
Western, Cengage Learning.
This explanation is problematic because once the rotation of the drum slows down the invariant disappears (Wertheim,1994). On the other hand the inferential theory asserts that moving retinal image creates a retinal signal, however when the eyes are stationary they create a zero extraretinal signal (Wertheim,1994). Thus, because the two signals are not equal and the drum is seen to move (Wertheim,1994). Consequently, when using the inferential theory of perception the criticism is that the drum appears to be stationary even after once vection is saturated (Wertheim,1994).
For the purposes of this discussion we focused on evaluating two fundamental approaches to explaining perception; Direct perception and Inferential Theory. We found that the direct perception theory describes an approach, which asserts that the visual world reveals itself as an organized pattern of light. This pattern, called the optic array, is composed of information because it has specific structural features, described…
Knapp, T.J. & Robertson, L.C. (Eds.). (1986). Approaches to Cognition: Contrasts and Controversies. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=89378105
Warren, R. & Wertheim, a.H. (Eds.). (1990). Perception & Control of Self-Motion. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Wertheim, a.H. (1994). Motion perception during self-motion: The direct vs. inferential controversy revisited. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2): 293-355. / retrieved March 17, 2005 at http://www.bbsonline.org/documents/a/00/00/04/63/bbs00000463-00/bbs.wertheim.html
Perceptions About Muslims:
In the past few years, negative perceptions about Muslims have continued to grow and affected the relations between Muslims and non-Muslims. As these relations are hugely affected, many Muslims across the globe are constantly fighting negative perceptions. These negative perceptions about Muslims and Islam in general have been stimulated by recent events in the Muslim and non-Muslim world. These events have continued to receive huge media coverage and generated a tremendous amount of mutual suspicion. One of the major reasons for the growth of negative views about Muslims by non-Muslims is that Muslims are disproportionately prone to violence.
Negative Perceptions about Muslims:
The negative perceptions about Muslims have increased because of the negative media representations of these people and the negative attitudes towards them in various societies. The negative attitudes are in turn linked to the development of stereotypes, which affect social interactions between Muslims and non-Muslims.…
Danios. "All Terrorists Are Muslims…Except the 94% That Aren't." Loonwatch.com. Loonwatch.com, 20 Jan. 2010. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. .
Deane, Claudia, and Darryl Fears. "Negative Perception Of Islam Increasing." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Mar. 2006. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. .
Maher, Kate. "Social Interaction and Attitudes towards Australian Muslims: 'we' and 'they' Constructions." The Australian Sociological Association. TASA, 2009. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. .
Spencer, Robert. "Why Do Muslims Tolerate Jihadist Evil They Claim to Abhor?" Human Events: Powerful Conservative Voices. HUMAN EVENTS, 22 June 2006. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. .
Perception is the basis of a human's ability to see, hear, and make sense out of these senses. The different types of perception include bottom-up processing, which researchers sometimes refer to data-driven processing, top-down processing, which is sometimes called conceptually driven processing. There are also different ways of viewing perception. An alternative theory believes there are two ways people use perception, the direct view, and the constructive view. Direct relates to the top-down method, while constructive relates to the bottom-up method.
It is probably possible to function cognitively solely on one type of perception, but that would make for a very narrow and constricting view of the world. In reality, the two processes of perception actually compliment and aid each other, leading to a greater depth of perception and understanding as people attempt to make sense of the world around them. Just as perception relies on many senses, it relies…
Basics of perception and awareness.
Perception is our own individual sense of the world we live in and it is comprised of our recognition of stimuli in the environment as well as actions made in response to these environmental stimuli (Cherry, 2012). The function and purpose of the process of perception is to provide us with information regarding the environment that is necessary for continued survival (Cherry, 2012). Furthermore, perception dictates the way our environment is experienced and it also provides the stage where we can choose different actions within the environment.
Human perception is comprised of five distinct senses that provide the brain with different information about the world. These five senses are sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch. Proprioception is also a component of perception, which involves the brain effectively detecting changes occurring with regard to movement or position of the body (Cherry, 2012). Cognitive processes are also involved in perception, as they…
Cherry, K. (2012). Perception and the Perceptual Process. Retrieved 18 March, 2012 from http://psychology.about.com/od/sensationandperception/ss/perceptproc_10.htm .
Alice in the Wonderland
Like Carroll's, "Alice In Wonderland" perception forms. In text, talk "perception lenses".... As personal standpoint influences opinion, discern "inference" "judgment"? As a final point, C. Wright Mills "Sociological Imagination."
Like Carroll's, "Alice in Wonderland" perception forms. In text, talk "perception lenses".... As personal standpoint influences opinion, discern "inference" "judgment"? As a final point, C. Wright Mills "Sociological Imagination"
Things do not exists out there; rather it is the mind of the individual who perceive the existing objects with its own set of mind. The lens of perception provides a practical view of the real world and also provides the guidance regarding how better we could relate ourselves with the world. Lens of perception is considered as a thing of utmost importance in the field of psychology and sociology. With the help of this lens of perception individuals often create a sense of reality. This…
Chaffee, John, (2009). Thinking Critically, 10th edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, ISBN: 0495908819
Halpern, D.F. (1996). Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved September 20, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=34635950
Deducing with Sociological Imagination (n.d.). In www.cliffsnotes.com/. Retrieved September 20, 2011, from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Deducing-with-Sociological-Imagination.topicArticleId-26957,a .
Perceptions of Success by Non-Traditional Students
Non-Traditional Students' Perceptions of Academic Support Needs
Perceptions of the Adequacy of College Services by Non-Traditional Students
This purpose of this paper is to review two studies relevant to the topic of the perceptions of non-traditional students about their programmatic and service needs as matriculated students in institutions of higher education. The first section reviews an article by Luzius and Webb (2002) on the satisfaction levels of non-traditional students with regard to library services at their institution. Luzius and Webb (2002) distributed a questionnaire to students on a public university that was designed to gauge satisfaction with library hours and resources. Luzius and Webb (2002) identified several potential improvements for library services. The second section reviews a comparative study of traditional and nontraditional students' identities and needs by Senter and Senter (1998). Using extant data, Senter and Senter (1998) compared the perceived needs of…
Luzius, J. & Webb, B. (2002, Fall). Nontraditional students' library satisfaction. Library Philosophy and Practice, 5(1). Retrieved March 3, 2011, from University of Washington Libraries J. Gate Open Access at http://www.openj-gate.org/Search/SearchResults.aspx?SearchTerm=%22nontraditional%20students%22&Field=All&res=10&type=0&sub=All&update=None&from=-1&to=2012&pr=2
Senter, M.S. & Senter, R. Jr. (1998). A comparative study of traditional and nontraditional students' identities and needs. Journal of Student Affairs Research & Practice, 35(4). Retrieved on March 3, 2011, from University of Washington Libraries Web site Open J. Gate at http://www.openj-gate.org/Search/SearchResults.aspx?SearchTerm=%22students%20identities%20and%20needs%22&Field=All&res=10&type=0&sub=All&update=None&from=-1&to=2012&pr=2
Marks & Spencer is currently met with a wide array of challenges, among which the emergence of the internationalized economic crisis which reduces the buying powers of the individuals, but also the incremental pressures for sustainable development. As the rest of the retailers, Marks & Spencer promotes its development through high levels of consumption, but given the unstable state of the environment, the governments militate for sustainable and limited consumption (Jones, Comfort and Hillier, 2007).
Another challenge is constituted by the need to adapt to the cultural values in the regions into which it expands and opens new stores (Amine and Smith, 2009). Also, the organization deal with financial and legal challenges derived from the international feature of business, such as the competition with local purveyors or the ability to combine and centralize the losses and profits of its international subsidiaries (Graetz and Warren, 2006).
2.5. Perceptions of Thai…
Amine, L.S., Smith, J.A., 2009, Challenges to modern consumer segmentation in a changing world: the need for a second step, Multinational Business Review, Vol. 17, No. 3
Arize, a.C., Chooekawong, P., Prasanpanich, V., 2000, Foreign trade behavior in Thailand: stable or unstable? American Economist, Vol. 44, No. 2
Chang, T., Liu, W.R., Thompson, H., 2002, the viability of fiscal policy in South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand, ASEAN Economic Bulletin, Vol. 19., No. 2
Child, P.N., Heywood, S., Klinger, M., 2002, Do retail brands travel, the McKinsey Quarterly,
The results of this study found that some negative bias towards a patient's socioeconomic standing -- particularly from less-experienced dental students -- can result in "differential treatment" (e.g., less attentive care) (Carson, 675). But by "heightening awareness" of potential biases (that are based on accent or perceived lower socioeconomic status, or on racism) among dental students, through educational initiatives, stereotyping and bias can be reduced if not eliminated (Carson, 678). Another suggestion (Carson, 678-79) in terms of ensuring the quality of treatment is to "inhibit social categorical thinking." This would require not treating the patient as "unique" but rather as a "collections of symptoms."
Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical
Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),
Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
A Constraint in Children's Action Planning? The Journal…
Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical
Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),
Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
it's been earned" (emphasis added) (Klawans, 2003, p. 32). In their synopsis of the movie, the producers report that, "Having been gunned down by her former boss (David Carradine) and his deadly squad of international assassins, it's a kill-or-be-killed fight she didn't start but is determined to finish! Loaded with explosive action and outrageous humor, it's a must-see motion picture event that had critics everywhere raving!" (Kill Bill Volume 1 Synopsis, 2005, p. 1). As noted above, critics in fact from just about everywhere have been raving about "Kill Bill, Volume 1" (and 2), but not necessarily in a positive fashion; the possible reasons for these negative assertions about Tarantino's work are discussed further below.
Gender-Based Differences in the Perception of Violence
According to Adler and Denmark (1995), there have been a number of theories advanced over the years concerning violent behavior based on various psychodynamic, social learning, cognitive, and…
Adler, L.L. & Denmark, F.L. (Eds.). (1995). Violence and the prevention of violence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Alleva, R. (2004, May 7). East Meets West: 'Goodbye, Lenin!' & 'Kill Bill-Volume 2.'
Commonweal, 131(9), 23.
Arsham, Hossein. (2002). Questionnaire Design and Surveys Sampling, SySurvey: The Online Survey Tool. Retrieved March 2, 2005 at http://ubmail.ubalt.edu/~harsham/stat-data/opre330Surveys.htm#rsi.
Using the Gestalt principle, "The whole is greater than the sum of the parts," describe a preconceived perception of a college class, three details that you now know are different from your initial perception, and your continuing perception in spite of the details.
In church and in convocation, announcements are made that affect you. Instead of falling asleep, you need to pay attention to them! Label and describe four techniques the speaker could use to keep your attention, Using Attention theory from Gestalt.
You have come through stages of Piaget's cognitive development, in your professional beliefs and in your theological beliefs. Name and trace the development of any one of your beliefs through all four stages, giving at least one specific characteristic for each stage, using terms from the theory of Piaget. Even though you may not remember your cognitive development in every stage, trace what must have happened…
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
We cannot process information in the same manner because we have no prior knowledge of the object.
erception organization refers to the way we process information or stimuli to make sense of what we are observing. We can thus give them meaning which we can understand easily. There are some important steps in perception organization or we can say types of steps we can take to reach a conclusion.
These are: figure and Ground, Stereotyping, perceptual schemes, closure, proximity and similarity. Figure is what we immediately notice and it is the object of our attention. Ground is the area or stimuli surrounding that image. For example when a friends calls us from a distance, his voice becomes the point of focus while everything else around us like other people's voices become the ground. erceptual schemes are also used to make sense of information. These are based on appearance, social roles,…
Proximity refers to how close something is to the other. And Similarity refers to how similar it is to something we already know. This is the perceptual organizational process which helps us finally reach a rich percept.
Gregory Robinson-Riegler and Bridget Robinson-Riegler. Cognitive Psychology: Applying the Science of the Mind, Second Edition, Allyn and Bacon. 2008
In order to understand the reality of any complex situation, it is essential to understand basic critical thinking principles. In fact, without realizing that there are several "perceptual blocks" that most people harbour in their "view" of any situation, greatly improves one's probability of having an accurate understanding of the issues involeed -- espeically when that situation is highly charged with emotion, polarization, or conflict. One excellent example in my own life when I was highly influenced by perceptual blocks was my perception of the Israeli/Palestian problem.
As a young person, I was greatly impressed by the story of the creation of the State of Israel. Indeed, the image of the beleagured state of the dispersed Jewish Tribes, especially following the horrors of the Second World War only buoued my impression of Israelis as "Exodus-like" (as in the Leon Uris Novel) idealists, forging a new, free land,…
2006). According to Branch et al., "Essentially, a public participation program may be deemed effective to the extent that it provides for open disclosure and addresses all four acceptability dimensions in ways that are appropriate and effective for a particular community and situation" (2006, p. 724). Therefore, the EPA's decision-making process in this case would likely have been different had all four of these dimensions being taking into consideration and efforts made to adequately satisfy each of these requirements in the final outcome.
Arentsen, M.J., Bressers, H. & O'Toole, L.J. 2001 'Institutional and Policy esponses to Uncertainty in Environmental Policy: A Comparison of Dutch and U.S. Styles.' Policy
Studies Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 597.
Benton, . & Funkhouser, G.. 1994 'Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge: An
International Comparison among Business Students.' Journal of Managerial Issues, vol.
6, no. 3, pp. 366-368.
Branch, K.M., Bradbury, J.A. & Malone, E.…
Arentsen, M.J., Bressers, H. & O'Toole, L.J. 2001 'Institutional and Policy Responses to Uncertainty in Environmental Policy: A Comparison of Dutch and U.S. Styles.' Policy
Studies Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 597.
Benton, R. & Funkhouser, G.R. 1994 'Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge: An
International Comparison among Business Students.' Journal of Managerial Issues, vol.
One trend that needs to be altered is the development of perceptions that stress the ways in which the environment of the classroom and school can be improved to better accommodate and support LD students, which will likely in turn assist all students with self-efficacy and self-perception. This should be done to alter the historical challenges that LD students face with regard to the perception that all LD students are alike or that they are all in need of self-development in order to fit into the mold of general education, rather than the reverse. Educator understanding of the individual and specific LD diagnosis will likely help a great deal as will advanced training for general educators with regard to these specific abilities and needs.
Bear, G.G., Kortering, L.J., & Braziel, P. (2006). School Completers and Noncompleters with Learning Disabilities: Similarities in Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Self and Teachers.…
Bear, G.G., Kortering, L.J., & Braziel, P. (2006). School Completers and Noncompleters with Learning Disabilities: Similarities in Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Self and Teachers. Remedial and Special Education, 27(5), 293.
Busch, T.W., Pederson, K., Espin, C.A., & Weissenburger, J.W. (2001). Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities: Perceptions of a First-Year Teacher. Journal of Special Education, 35(2), 92.
Gerber, P.J. (1992). Being Learning Disabled and a Beginning Teacher and Teaching a Class of Students with Learning Disabilities. Exceptionality, 3(4), 213-231.
Houston-Wilson, C., & Lieberman, L.J. (1999). The Individualized Education Program in Physical Education: A Guide for Regular Physical Educators. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 70(3), 60.
If we were to lose our perception of depth, we might indeed fall off of the cliff: even if we could sense the change of color we might mistakenly believe that the ground and the depths below were on the same plane. Auditory illusions have similar effects and can cause people to distort reality. One of the most notable examples of auditory illusions causing a distortion of reality is the ventriloquist who "throws" his or her voice.
Attention and concentration are also essential aspects of sensation and perception. Human beings are usually bombarded by a barrage of sensory data and must consciously or unconsciously filter out extraneous information. Although our senses are exposed to a multitude of material, much of the sensory data remains outside of our conscious awareness. For example, we tune out conversations in a crowded restaurant in order to listen to our dining partner, or we tune…
Bach, Michael (2005). "55 Optical Illusions & Visual Phenomena." Online at http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/ .
Researchers have identified three important areas which influence human perception. These are: artificial intelligence, neuroscience, and the Gestaldt Tradition (129). Human psychology has been researched, analyzed, and theorized. In recent years, psychological researchers have endeavored to apply psychological ideas to the concept of environment and also how the environment affects the psychology of the individual. J.J. Gibson founded the idea of the Gestaldt tradition and was the first individual credited with a new concept to psychology in many years. His specific insights had much to do with how the visual stimuli of the environment impacts and influences the psychology of the individual.
There is far more to stimulus than what is directly visible to the naked eye. hen describing stimuli, there are both distal and proximal types of stimuli. Distal stimuli are those which are perhaps on the peripheries of vision or which are not immediately recognized to…
"Environmental Perception and Aesthetics." Conceptual Areas of Study. 129-145.
Perception of acism and Colour Students
Historically, ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage in comparison to their White counterparts in real society. Living in poverty also plays a role in being considered a disadvantaged individual. According to Boyle (2008) and the 2006 U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, 25.3% Black/African-Americans, 21.5% Hispanics, and26.6% Native Americans and Native Alaskans live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008).In comparison, 10% of Whites and Asians live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008). The percentage of Black/African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and Native Alaskans living under the poverty line is doubled in comparison to Whites and Asians. For every one White or Asian individual living under the poverty line, there are two more Black/African-Americans, Hispanics or Native Americans and Native Alaskans that are living under the poverty line.
There is no coincidence that individuals living under the poverty line also live in areas where schools lack…
Alon, S. & Tienda, M. (2007). Diversity, opportunity, and the shifting meritocracy in higher education. American Sociological Review, 72(4), 487-511.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Cancian, M. (1998). Race-based verses Class-based affirmative action in college admissions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 17(1), 94-105.
Dee, T.S. (2004). The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, 4(2), 52-59. Retrieved from ERIC database.
In the same way, if one were to intentionally color the inside of a piece of apple a dark brown color, a color that is generally associated with rotten apples, then one would not taste it. In essence, this means that at times, one sense would effectively overwhelm the others, so that eventually, this sense would overtake the others. (Fields, 2004)
In this particular case of the brown apple, the sight of the brown color in the apple would overwhelm the other senses of smell and taste, until such time that one would feel tempted to throw the apple away rather than take a risk and taste it. This means that the sense of sight can prove invaluable to a person as far as tasting the food is concerned; it is the sense of sight that one may rely on to warn us that the food has gone bad, or…
Aitkin, Thomas Johnstone. (1838) "Elements of physiology"
Scott, Webster and Geary.
Brillat-Savarin, Jean; Brillat-Savarin, Anthelme. (2002) "The Physiology of taste"
Courier Dover Publications.
The way we perceive the world has everything to do with our thought process. People perceive the world in very different ways, and each person sees different things, even in the very same view, as the text notes. For example, a person who is color blind might not "see" the green of a tree or a lush lawn, but they would still see the beauty and stateliness of a 100-year-old oak tree, even beyond the color of its' leaves. More importantly, each person's perception helps color how they see the world and what they think about it. One person may perceive that the world is a negative, hostile environment, and they have to fight to survive. Their thought process would then see hostile actions even in the most meaningless of gestures, and they would be constantly on guard. Their perceptions may not be right, or even appropriate, but they…
Basics of perception and awareness.
In fact, as early as the 1989-1990 school years, school-based decision making was implemented in three elementary schools in the Memphis City School System (Smith, Valesky & Horgan, 1991). Based on this seminal initiative, improvements were cited in: (a) the coordination provided by the school councils; (b) school-based staff development activities; (c) support and services provided by the district central office; (d) data and reports provided to the individual schools; and (e) the value of the school improvement plans (Smith et al., 1991).
A relevant study of the school-based decision-making process in the State of Tennessee by Etheridge (1990) evaluated the impact of different leadership styles used by school principals on the effectiveness of the school-based decision-making process in seven local school councils in Memphis including their elementary schools following their first 15 months of operation. According to Etheridge, the composition of SBDM councils in Tennessee largely reflects those being…
California State Board of Education Policy #89-01. (2010). California State Board of Education.
Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/ms/po/policy89-01-sep1994.asp .
Contract for excellence. (2009, December 31). New York State Education Department. Retrieved from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/10013.html .
Cowart, C. (2009). The Louisiana awakening: Church as portal for the emergence of a sustainable social reality. Anglican Theological Review, 91(4), 607-609.
Perceptions and Expectations:
Analyzing The Concert Experience In A Live
versus televised format
Perceptions and Expectations: Analyzing the Concert Experience in a Live vs. Televised Format
In experiencing a real-life situation in the flesh rather than in viewing its projection through a medium such as television, one's experience differs significantly. The expectations one brings to a live performance vs. The expectations one brings to the viewing of that same performance on television are radically different, as experiencing the performance in the flesh brings with it an entirely different experience that one expects to achieve upon deciding to attend. This type of expectation can be seen in viewing the example of attending a rock concert vs. watching the same concert on television. In looking at the two situations in comparison to one another, it can be seen that several factors come into play to distinguish the two from one another most…
Balzer, W. (2004) Boredom: Practical Consequences and a Theory. Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. 49(1): 289-294.
Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2009) Gatekeeping: A Critical Review. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. 43(1): 433-478.
Eilders, C. (2002) Conflict and Consonance in Media Opinion. European Journal of Communication. 17(1): 25-63.
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Available at: http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/methods / publications/frameanalysis/.
New Laws Makes Criminal Pasts Off-Limits in California City. (2013) Fox News. 3 Aug 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/08/03/new-laws-make-criminal-pasts-off-limits-in-california-city/
The article under reviewed was published August 3, 2013 by Fox News Network. The article states that a suburb of San Francisco has made it illegal for city contractors to inquire about the criminal histories of prospective employees. This city of 100,000 people stated to be "troubled by crime and high unemployment" is part of what is reported as a national trend with the design to bring about an improvement in the employment possibilities of community members "amid wider incarceration." (Fox News, 2013, p.1) Private companies who have contracts with the city and who employ more than nine people are prohibited from asking about the criminal record of applicants. Field research could be handled in this area of study through conducting a survey of applicants who have applied with companies with…
New Laws Makes Criminal Pasts Off-Limits in California City. (2013) Fox News. 3 Aug 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/08/03/new-laws-make-criminal-pasts-off-limits-in-california-city/
Surveymonkey (2013) Perceptions of Crime Survey. Retrieved from: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/59VSPHD
Depth can also be measured through accommodation of the eyes, as the eyes constantly have to adjust their lenses in order to focus on specific objects.
4. In order to classically condition a dog to blink his eyes when the phone rings, (considering the fact that the dog usually blinks when compressed air is released through a puff), one has to puff at the moment when the phone rings. If this is done several times, the dog will automatically associate the phone ringing with blinking its eyes.
5. In order for the children at the local day care to wash their hands every time before taking lunch, one has to present the children with the outcome that their performance would have. For instance, if the children were to be rewarded for washing their hands, they would wash every time before lunch. Also, the same thing would happen if they were…
Perceptions of Intelligence
Intelligence is a concept that has numerous meanings across time, geography and culture. Typically, most of the definitions connect some sort of skill, plan or understanding of concepts, new things, etc. -- and the way that knowledge is combined with other ideas to form something new or adaptive. Numerous psychologists and neurologists continue to debate the differing types of intelligence and the ways individuals combine them to form a unique (and individual) basis for the way they view the world (Garlick, 2010). Creative intelligence, for instance, is the way individuals perceive their universe -- the world around them, and how that changes. Of course, because of the differences in the way people perceive their world, and the differences in the way and manner the external world is constructed, all individuals may be creative in one way or another. For instance, imagine how creative it was for our…
Yuri Bronfenbrenner. (2005, September 26). Retrieved from Cornell University News:
Benjamin, L. (2009). The Birth of American Intelligence Testing. Monitor on Psychology.
40(1): Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/01/assessment.html
Perception, Success Rates and Barriers that Face E-Learning in Saudi Arabia
Analysis Based on Response
Below is a table showing the comparative analysis of two UAE universities, King Saud University and Tabouk University. The comparisons are done on a Likert scale (based on the scale formations agree, disagree, neither, strongly agree and strongly disagree) on the respondents views on whether or not E-Learning is a Useful Addition to the academic structure
E-learning is a useful addition
Neither agree nor diagree
Below is a graphical representation showing the comparative analysis of two UAE universities, King Saud University and Tabouk University. The comparisons are done on a Likert scale (based on the scale formations agree, disagree, neither, strongly agree and strongly disagree) on the respondents views on whether or not E-Learning is a Useful Addition to the…
Capgras syndrome is one disorder in which the individual cannot recognize familiar faces. The author relays several stories in which the male of the species rediscovers sexual appetites when new stimuli are introduced. Yet the author seems to have forgotten that the theory would only hold true for the human brain if it applied to more than fifty percent of the population.
amachandran's (2011) dismissal of the female brain is only one of several oversights in what is otherwise an enjoyable read. For example, Gottlieb (2011) points out that amachandran draws too many conclusions related to the peekaboo syndrome. Just as amachandran (2011) reveals a male bias with regards to Chapter 2 and information on seeing, knowing, and Capgras syndrome, the author also refers to research using male subjects who prefer partially clothed to topless women. Without including studies of female subjects, it is impossible to prove any theory of…
Bures, F. (2010). MIND Reviews: The Tell-Tale Brain. Scientific American. 24 Dec 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=mind-reviews-the-tell-tale-brain
Gottlieb, a. (2011). A Lion in the Undergrowth. New York Times. 28 Jan 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/30/books/review/Gottlieb-t.html
Ramachandran, V.S. (2011). The Tell-Tale Brain. W.W. Norton.
Shakespeare, N. (2011). The Tell-Tale Brain: Unlocking the Mystery of Human Nature by vs Ramachandran: review
This "seeing" of something that was not there, and that was of course absolutely known to be missing to the subject, helped the brain reconcile itself to the body's new shape and thus remove the need for the pain centers of the brain to continue to send phantom waves of pain. In just a few minutes, amachandran's subjects could overcome pain that had in many cases haunted them for years and even decades.
amachandran based this breakthrough on an established understanding that "that there's a complete map of the body's surface on the surface of the brain." However, the way in which the body is mapped on the surface area of the brain is not as straightforward as scientists had once expected, as amachandran explains:
So every point on the body's surface has a corresponding point in the brain. Now the curious thing about this map is, even though it's…
Ramachandran, V.S. (2011). The Tell-Tale Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Co.
V.S. Ramachandran's Tales of the 'Tell-Tale Brain'. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2011/02/14/133026897/v-s-ramachandrans-tales-of-the-tell-tale-brain
The study had two central purposes:
1. To identify reform-related practices in mathematics instruction that have increased, decreased, or not changed since the implementation of high-stakes testing, based on educators' perceptions.
2. To determine educators' perceptions of the effects of reform-related practices on improving student achievement since the implementation of high-stakes testing.
High-stakes testing in mathematics has redefined the way teachers instruct students who underperform or learn at different rates or in different ways. Many educators feel that testing has had positive effects on student achievement and has produced positive curriculum and instructional changes in mathematics (Phelps, 2005). Others believe that reform efforts have not gone far enough or have been detrimental to honest achievement, as they focus on objective tests rather than subjective analyses of conceptual learning (Phelps, 2005). The problems continue to be how to teach all types of students, including those who do not learn…
3. Reports on the performance of individual students, schools, and districts to serve as one basis of accountability for students, schools, and districts (MDESE, 1997).
For the purposes of this study, the following definitions also apply:
Reform-related teaching practices
"Mansfield's characters share the topical hopelessness that characterized much of early Modernist writing. Characters like Miss Brill seem to be living on the brink of personal disaster; the sense of community has vanished; they are largely alone" (Devi). Miss Brill must face the dreadful truth that the community she felt so much a part of could easily go on without her. By the time she reaches her dark room, she is already gone. Robert Peltier maintains, that she "has now withdrawn so far from the world that has hurt her, that she does not realize that it is she who is crying" (Peltier). Finally, Miss Brill has the right, albeit, the most painful perception of the world.
Miss Brill" is a story that forces us to consider our place in the world and it also challenges us to question our place in the world from time to time. Miss Brill…
Devi, Gayatri, "Literary Contexts in Short Stories: Katherine Mansfield's 'Miss Brill.'" 2006. EBSCO Resource Database. Information Retrieved November 8, 2008. http://search.ebscohost.com/
In this essay, Gayatri provides various literary contexts of "Miss Brill," including historical, societal, and religious context. In addition, Scientific and technological contexts are applied to the short story.
Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill." The Bedford Introduction to Literature. Meyer, Michael, ed. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press. 1993.
Robert Peltier. "An Overview of Miss Brill." Short Stories for Students. 1997. GALE Resource Database. Information Retrieved November 8, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
He would sometimes be wheel chaired to the door through which he would enter to make a public appearance, but once at the door, his leg braces would be put on him, and he would rely on his son's arm for support and balance (43-48). Later, with his son's support, he was able to use a cane, and the extent of his disability was successfully downplayed by the force of his political platform and the attention he commanded with powerful words and the presentation of himself in a dignified way with strong posture (43-48).
"Deeply concerned that the image of a 'permanently crippled man' seeking to lead a crippled nation out of the Depression would be damaging to his campaign, oosevelt's aides every effort to portray the Democratic nominee as a man who had conquered polio and who could walk. As he traveled across the country, his leg braces, without…
Bardes, Barbara A., Shelley, Mark C., Schmidt, Steffen W. (2008).
American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials,
Coates, Peter A. (2006). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive
Species: Strangers on the Land,
The authors begin with the understanding that "organizations are cooperative systems that rely on the willingness of members to behave in ways that support the organization" (p. 453). They use attribution theory to develop their hypotheses regarding not only how influence tactics affect employee resistance to change, but also the ways these relationships are moderated by the leader-member exchange.
A total of 167 employee surveys, from two different companies entitled OIL and BANK to protect their anonymity, were received and analyzed. It was found that most change efforts fail to reach the objectives. econciling past findings, Furst and Cable (2008) surmise that for managerial influence tactics to be effective, the leader-member exchange had to be strong. Employees used the quality of their relationship with their management to determine the intent and meaning of the influence tactics being utilized. When high levels of leader-member exchange is available, employees exhibited lower resistance…
Furst, S. & Cable, D. (2008). "Employee resistance to organizational change: Managerial influence tactics and leader-member exchange." Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2). p. 453-462.
Rafferty, a. & Griffin, M. (2006). "Perceptions of organizational change: A stress and coping perspective." Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5). p. 1154-1162.
. .] a sure recipe for a second wave of financial disaster" (Segal, 2010), has an overall nonpartisan tone. Instead of focusing on the controversy between the parties, Segal, like Balassa, draws attention to facts. He discusses the vast amount of bankruptcies declared every year in the U.S. As a direct result of health-care costs (Segal, 2010).
The most conservative, and by far the largest publication, in the region is the Denver Post; it too sees the issues surrounding of health-care reform apolitically. Turning away from slander and political infighting, the article "Health Care eform Bill Cuts Deficit," by obert Pear and David Herzenhorn, discusses what they believe to be the basic concern of the health-care bill as it stands today: the cost to the consumer (2010). Their primary consideration is that the health-care reform bill currently under consideration does little to ease the financial burden of the insured (Pear…
Associated Press (2010, February 26). After Summit Democrats push ahead with health care reform. The Colorado Daily. Retrieved from http://www.coloradodaily.com/ci_14476700?!ADID=search.html
Balassa, John (2010, March 19). Not-for-Profit financing is key. The Colorado Daily.
Retrieved from http://www.coloradodaily.com/ci_144767700?!ADID=search.html
Gay, Chris (2009, September 3-9). The Wrong Argument: the democrats approach doesn't explain why the market can't fix health care. The Boulder Weekly.
Cultural Differences in the Perception of Intelligence
For the purposes of this assignment, two cultures will be compared with respect to how they perceive intelligence. Culture is relative, as is perception, as will be demonstrated in this paper with specific regard to intelligence. The two cultures that will be compared are American culture and Japanese culture. These two cultures have an intense past and interconnected present; they are very different with respect to social context, perspective, and perception. The paper will consider how these cultures interpret and perceive intelligence differently. The paper will reflect upon how intelligence, among other characteristics and elements, is measured differently because of variations in culture. The paper will further consider how, within varying social contexts and cultures, one might test for a spectrum of cognitive abilities, with respect to the two cultures of focus, Japanese and American.
American culture is very self-centered relative to…
Furnham, A., & Fukumoto, S. (2008). Japanese parents' estimates of their own and their children's multiple intelligences: Cultural modesty and moderate differentiation. Japanese Psychological Research, 50(2), 63 -- 76.
Smith, M.K. (2002, 2008). Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, Web, Available from: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm . 2012 December 20.
Sternberg, R.J., & Grigorenko, E.L. (2004). Why We Need to Explore Development in Its Cultural Context. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 369 -- 386.
These different perspectives were based upon their language learning experiences from the past, their language proficiency, their current academic needs, and also their future career choices. To bridge the gap, the teachers engaged in dialogue with the students to determine the best ways to engage the students individually (Pazaver, and Wang 35).
In a study in the International Journal of English Studies, the authors used ELT materials in order build of a reliable instrument to help in the potential for the promotion of implicit and explicit components in ESL learning by students. The found that implicitness and explicitness were promoted equally by the ESL teaching units in three different textbooks (Criado Sanchez, Sanchez Perez, and Cantos Gomez 129). In an article in the journal of Applied Linguistics, .W. Schmidt analyzes issues that impact upon explicit learning modalities. He concludes that subliminal language learning is impossible. Also, he notes that it…
Akakura, Motoko. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2
knowledge." Language Teaching Research. 16.1 (2012): 9 -- 37.
Criado Sanchez, Raquel, Aquilano Sanchez Perez, and Pascual Cantos Gomez. "An Attempt to Elaborate a Construct to Measure the Degree of Explicitness and Implicitness in ELT
Materials." International Journal of English Studies. 10.1 (2010): 103-129.
How does depth perception occur in a person who gains sight after being congenital blind?
Depth perception is necessary for the ability to perform many tasks including driving, and many other activities. The ability to perceive the distance of objects is a complex process. hen people are born blind in one eye, regardless of the reason, they do not develop the ability to perceive depths. Their world is flat compared to that experienced by the rest of the world. hen that person undergoes surgery or other procedures to restore sight to the blind eye many of these patients are able to perceive depth. The ability to do this defies commonly held views on the connection between visual acuity, depth perception and motor development.
This research explores current research on depth perception and the development of depth perception. Studies in this area are limited to animal studies and those involving…
Bushnell, E. & Boudreau, P. "Motor development and the mind: the role of motor abilities as a determinant of aspects of perceptual development." Child Development. August 1993.
64.4: 1005-1021. Web. 21 October 2012.
Deregowski, J. "Difficulties in Pictorial Depth Perception." Africa British Journal of Psychology. August 1968. 59.3: 195-204. Web. 21 October 2012.
Fulcher. E. "Gibson's theory of direct perception." Crucial, a division of Learning Matters Ltd.
perception and on the circumstance that selective perception may be more dominated by images than by any other factor. We are prone to making impressions, yet as the study in this essay shows it may be images that subconsciously form our impressions and direct judgment to be made about them accordingly.
All too often, selective perception gets us into difficulties as witnessed by the Northwest Airlines Flight 259 that crashed after forgetting to extend the flaps for takeoff. This was as minor aspect, yet the pilots completely overlooked it. Selective perception works in social areas of life too where people are regularly hired for certain characteristics that employers observe yet gloss over others. esearch shows that much of causal perceptions or interview selection is made of fleeting instinctive impressions where discrete components are aggregated into a holistic whole. This is called a stereotype and stereotypes are instinctive, unconscious, and often…
Asch, SE. (1946). forming impressions of personality Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 41 258-290
Ivcevic, Z & Ambady, N (2012) Personality Impressions From Identity Claims on Facebook, Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1, 38-45
Gazzaniga, MS, Ivry, RB, & Mangun, GR (2001)Cogntiive Neuroscience Norton & Co.
Glaser, W.R., & Glaser, M.O. (1989). Context effects in Stroop-like word and picture processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 13-42.
Conversely when respondents see the risk as being controllable and to an extent observable, the factor of interest would inversely correlate to the knowledge of risk axis while clustering on the controllable vs. uncontrollable risk vertical axis, settling into the region of the quadrant where motorcycles, fireworks and alcohol accidents are. Again this is an approximation yet is the strength of psychometrics overall and the use of orthogonality to enforce validity and reliability is shown in this example.
In terms of communication of risk statement, it's clear from psychometrics that the more known a risk can become with credible, third-party data that accurately portrays its true threat in conjunction with an accurate measure of how controllable a risk is or not, equitability and individuality of risk, and the risk not being globally catastrophic would minimize risks as analyzed using the psychometric paradigm as defined in Figure 1 and throughout the…
Myers-Briggs Foundation (2006) - Overview of the personality programs and the basics of their testing programs, accessed from the Internet on September 1, 2006 from location:
Slovic (1987) - Perception of Risk., Science Magazine. Volume 236. April 17, 1987.
Where, Russia feels that the altic States are having an input on what kind of policy will be used, and how it is applied to the country. This is problematic, because it gives Russia a sense as if they are losing influence.
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
The different strengths of this relationship are: it allows the EU to be able to use their economic, political and military power collectively. For the Russia, their biggest strength is the natural resources they produce and the fact that they are in between Asia / Europe. As far as the altic States is concerned, their strength would be the ability to embrace the ideas of the West and to become productive members of the EU.
The various weaknesses for the EU are: pushing Russia to embrace changes to fast and not being flexible, in how their policies are applied. In the case of…
Antonenko, C. (2005). Estonian Russian Relations. Russia and the European Union. (pp. 211 -- 212). New York, NY: Routledge.
Buhbe, M. (2005). Russia, the EU and the Baltic States. (pp. 5 -- 27).
Chebakova, A. (2010). Rethinking a Problematic Relationship. University of Victoria.
Melvin, N. (2008). The EU Strategy for Central Asia. EU Central Asia Monitoring. 1.
The term 'perception' deals with more than simply sensing a thing or accepting optical stimulation. Rather, it entails gleaning meaning from the things one views, hears, senses, smells and tastes (Pearson 6).
Role Concept: One may describe roles as being a collection of behavioral requirements and expectations linked to a station within any given societal institution or system, which may be outlined as follows:
Subjective (wholly personal) (Pearson 18)
How does a citizen's perceptions of the police affect the way the citizen acts toward a police officer?
Civilians normally do not pay attention to law enforcement officials unless they fall into trouble. Instead of remembering law enforcement's public safety efforts, they remember the speeding tickets law enforcers impose on them. For instance, if policemen ended up saving one's life, this would greatly impact one's perception of them (Cubbage).
When not on duty, the police feel alienated in society…
Thee ae seveal aspects of June Jodan's piece of liteatue, "A New Politics of Sexuality," which was deliveed to a live audience at Stanfod Univesity in 1991, that challenge conventional views of gende. What was supising about the addess was the fact that the geneal motif evolved about compaisons between acism and sexism. Although thee is a definite histoy of this sot of paallel in the United States (stemming fom ealy suppotes of women's ights embacing the abolitionist movement), it was a little supising to see an Afican-Ameican woman eadily accepting and even calling fo such a compaison. Most of the Afican-Ameicans I am awae of in contempoay times shun such a compaison, and do not believe that they should be likened to homosexuals simply because thee ae moe Caucasians that Afican-Ameicans in the county.
Howeve, Jodan was a homosexual, so that is pehaps why she found the…
references towards sex and gender, the rest of the population is also limited in the degree of freedom which it is able to utilize. This is not a commonly perceived idea associated with people keeping their true selves in the closet, and may even change the popularity of this notion if other people understand the author's idea about it.
(Grossman, 2003, Academic Search Elite)
It is hoped that a greater understanding of the human brain's ability to recognize faces in a specific sequence, group of patterns, density and also in whole or part will further assist the purveyors of new technology to train machines to do the same. "The most serious threats to our freedom often advance in small steps. Face recognition systems may one day provide significant benefits in military applications...." (Taslitz, 2002)
Though the different systems still have problems and kinks, specific to each type the promises of face recognition technology being used in this manner is a highly developing theory with a great deal of research to back it. "...the Pentagon is funding a fifty-million dollar initiative to use face-recognition technology a s a means for combating terrorism." (Taslitz, 2002)
The collective information available to the researcher is substantial with regard to the issue of…
Bower, B (7/6/2002) "The Eyes Have it," Science News, 162(1) Database: Academic
Ferber, D. (2/14/2004) "Autism Impairs Face Recognition," Science Now, Database:
Academic Search Elite Psychinfo at EbscoHost.com.
In this way, the article is constructed in a logical way in order to arrive at its more complex presentations and finally at its conclusions. Interestingly, the concepts are explained in very clear language, without an overflow of academic jargon, even while at the same time explicating academic concepts upon the basis of philosophy and neuroscientific research.
Because the article is explicatory in nature, the author does not conduct practical research to establish a hypothesis and prove it, but rather engages in citing research already conducted in order to prove his hypothesis on perception and causation. In this way, the article is generally philosophical in nature, although it makes significant use of practical and scientific data established by others. In this way, it satisfies both the requirements of philosophy and science, while addressing a primarily philosophical idea.
Attribution theory has at its basis the premise the cause and effect relationship…
AllPsych Online. (2004). Our View of Self and Others. Heffner Media Group, Inc. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/attribution_attraction.html
Freeman, Walter J. III (2008). "Perception of time and causation through the kinesthesia of intentional action" Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science. 42 (2), pp. 137-143. Postprint available free at: http://repositories.cdlib.org/postprints/3375
Kearsley, Greg (2009). TIP Database: Attribution Theory. http://tip.psychology.org/weiner.html
If it was a dream, then the programmers clearly attempted to incorporate background realism. For example, the characters get dirty; like sweat, dirt is not something that the programmers would need to create to have realistic humans, but there is dirt on people. If one accepts the premise that the entire story is a dream, it is not difficult to take an additional step and assume that the programmers would think to have a character, who is supposed to appear nervous, sweating while he was on screen.
7. There are clues throughout the movie that the hero could use to discover whether his experiences were veridical or not. Perhaps the best clue is foreshadowed at the beginning of the movie and comes at the end of the movie; the appearance of the blue sky on Mars. Having never been to Mars, I have to rely upon my own conjecture, but…
Forster, M. (2006). Stranger than Fiction. Los Angeles: Columbia Pictures.
Jonze, S. (1999). Being John Malkovich. Los Angeles: Gramercy Pictures.
Nolan, C. (2000). Inception. Los Angeles: Warner Bros. Pictures.
Nolan, C. (2000). Memento. Los Angeles: Newmarket Capital Group.
Next, the literature will review the processes involved in collecting data and creating a method to guide counselors using a standardized curriculum. The literature review will also provide a history and information on the reasons for developing the ASCA model, and identify the individuals or leaders pioneering this model in the educational context. The researcher expects there will be much research both qualitative and quantitative available for review on the subject of school counseling and the ASCA model. The researcher also predicts however, that relatively little data has been systematically collected on the perceptions of teachers toward guidance counselors using the ASCA model. Thus, the intent of the literature review is primarily a synopsis and explanation of the events leading up to the ASCA implementation, and some review of any recent studies available describing the impact or influence this model has had on education, students, parents, teachers, the curriculum, administrators…
ACES-ASCA Committee on the Elementary School Guidance Counselor (1966),
Preliminary statement. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 44, 659-661.
ASCA, (2003) the ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Guidance
Counseling Programs. The American School Counselor Association. Retrieved October 19, 2007: http://www.schoolcounselor.org/files/execsumm.pdf
" Although the use of the word "aggressions" in this manner certainly suggests that Calhoun is of the opposite opinion of Seward, his treatment of the issue of slavery offers further insight into how the issue was treated in the mid-1800s. Instead of considering slavery a clear issue of right and wrong, Calhoun treats it like any other political issue, arguing that the real cause between the states' inability to coexist peacefully has more to do with the unbalanced equilibrium than slavery. However, Calhoun does address the moral component of slavery, saying that some in the North not only consider slavery to be a "sin" committed on the part of the Southerners, but they also see themselves as "implicated in the sin, and responsible for not suppressing it by the use of all and every means." The South, on the other hand, sees slavery as a necessary institution that would…
perceptions of the youth regarding branded sportswear in a developed and developing country. Specifically, the countries to be investigated will include the United States and Kenya. To make such a comparative investigation, a significant amount of qualitative data will have to be collected and analyzed. According to Shank (p. 140), this is one of the most important components of study, since data tends to be the foundation of research findings. Hence the quality of the data will necessarily also dictate the quality of the findings and the usefulness of the study for interested parties in the future. Specifically, the study can have implications for marketing professionals within sportswear companies, as well as for those who used on a freelance basis by sportswear companies in either country. Further implications could be important for sportwear manufacturers and sellers who attempt to make an entry from either Keny or the United States to…
perception or a common belief that work and fun should are impossible to blend together. Older generations have passed down attitudes regarding work, which imply that fun cannot be had at work. After all everyone has heard the saying "all work and no play." Past generations have described work as a simple virtue and a duty. These two descriptions of work leave no room for the concept of fun within their interpretation. It is important to recognize that the work place is so much more nowadays. ork encompasses so much more for individuals and if one analyses and takes into account the great multitude and variety of different fields in the workforce, one will definitely come away with the conclusion that indeed fun can be had at work. Old attitudes, saying and notions regarding the compatibility of fun and work are not necessarily true, they now appear to be outdated;…
Hemsath, Dave. 301 more ways to have fun at work . San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2001. Print.
Kreitner, Robert . Organizational Behavior 9th Edition With Egrade Plus Stand Alone 1 Term Set.. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. Print.
Kruse, Kevin. We How to Increase Performance and Profits Through Full Engagement.. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.
56th President of the United States which has represents an unprecedented race in the American Democratic Party between Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. he relationship of Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton's leadership styles from the perspective of four distinct variables: gender, culture, trust and likelihood of voting. he author believes that the perception of fairness is the single most essential leadership trait which leaders should acquire in order to garner trust and commitment among voters. Consequently, the author also believes that this also applies to leadership in the business world.
he article conducts a literature review that focuses on different aspects of leadership. here is some controversy in the study of leadership as the author alludes to. here are several research studies that show that there is empirical evidence to suggest that leaders play a critical part in an organization working toward organizational goals. However, some of works have…
The article continues to illustrate various components of leadership and how they are presented in the literature with Obama's and Clinton's leadership styles and campaign messages as the focal point. For example, the article mentions that Barack Obama's winning Democratic Party Nominee Elections campaign, his change message in particular, was far superior in 2008 from an ethical standpoint. This seems to be a fairly loaded assumption that is difficult to test empirically.
He contrasts Clinton's campaign as a more top down approach based on her political life that allowed her to mingle constantly with the political elite. By contrast, Obama's career formed from a more bottom up approach in he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. It is noted that transformational leadership can be facilitated by the level of trust in the leader. Therefore, based on these criteria, it is assumed that Obama's level of trust based on his bottom up career development would be higher and more legitimate among the populace. Although this seems like a reasonable statement, it is still highly speculative without any empirical analysis being conducted on the two candidates.
The actual experiment works to test some of the hypotheses that were generated in the literature review. The independent and dependent variables were measured with a survey that used the Likert Scale to measure responses. The study concludes that the leadership styles of Obama and Clinton are striking different. Barack Obama was perceived as a transformational leader while Clinton was perceived more as a transactional leader. Although I intuitively agree with the study's findings, the evidence that is presented is subject to some skepticism. There are a plethora of limitations that the study had to overcome to be able to test the hypothesis. One obvious one was the sample size. Another limitation that the author alludes to is the cultural variables of the sample which oversimplifies culture into either East or West categories as opposed to more specific geographies. Although I found the article interesting, I'm not sure that it adds significant value to the study of leadership.
The modern working environment has been characterized by numerous changes that ate attributable to various factors such as the increase in the number of millennials in the workplace. As a result of the changes in the working environment, organizations also started to change in order to enhance their reputation as the best places to work (Erol, n.d.). As workforce demographics continue to experience tremendous changes, organizations have been forced to change as part of establishing the most suitable working environments. Organizations have shifted their policies and practices in order to hire and retain highly qualified workers and provide the best compensation and benefits packages. Organizational shifts have in turned changed the roles of employees, which in turn affects individual behaviors and perceptions. Due to organizational shifts, employees have gained more decision-making roles as their relationships with employers have changed. The changes in employees' roles have influenced individual perceptions…
Arvinen-Muondo, R. & Perkins, S. (2013). Organizational behaviour. Retrieved June 1, 2017, from https://snhu.skillport.com/skillportfe/main.action?assetid=50777
Erol, B.O. (n.d.). The Corporate Shift: How Millennials Are Changing the World. Retrieved June 1, 2017, from http://switchandshift.com/the-corporate-shift-how-millennials-are-changing-the-world
Sakiyo, J. & Mohammed, A. (2016). Staff Perception on Conflict Management Strategies in Tertiary Institutions of Adamawa State, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(11), 840-846.
There is a big difference between perception of crime and actual crime statistics, a gulf that has become quite clear in recent years. The statistics show that crime of all types is decreasing, but it is still widely reported that the public has a perception that crime is increasing. There are a number of factors for this, but the reality is that crime is decreasing in the United States.
The FBI tracks hard numbers with respect to crime in the U.S. Violent crime in the U.S. has been trending down for a long time, and the statistics bear this out:
The decrease in property crime has been even more dramatic:
Perceptions of crime, however, can be influenced by the type of crime, with more severe crimes standing out more in people's minds. That said, murder rates have been steadily decreasing for several years,…
FBI (2015). About crime in the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved November 16, 2015 from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2014/crime-in-the-u.s.-2014
Thus the concentration is not on basketball, the sport he is supposed to love, but on sex. The picture in the book is clear about the happenings when the over-sexed teenagers reach college. Within a day of her arrival in college, Charlotte is "sexiled." This means that she was compelled to leave her room when her roommate brought a young man in for sex. The contest among the freshmen in fraternities is to find out how fast they can get fresh faces for sex. The least amount of time given in that book was seven minutes. (Bonfire of the sexuality)
egarding the view of women in media, one of the professors said that the American society is becoming a society of predators. The stage has come when 1.3 women are raped every minute and a large proportion of one in three women will be raped in her lifetime. This is…
Educators discuss student sexual activity. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.uwrf.edu/thisweek/20001113.htm . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Freeman, John. Bonfire of the sexuality. 11 November, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.newsreview.com/issues/sacto/2004-11-11/arts.asp . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Goulet, Nicole. Gender Barriers: When Will the Ridicule Cease? Retrieved at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/local/scisoc/sports02/papers/ngoulet.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Polk, Khary. Love and Basketball. 3 February, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.nyunews.com/brownstone/sexuality/6825.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
The author of this report has been asked to do a review and summary of a personal assessment that was completed. The assessment has three major sections, those including learning style, stress handling and a general assessment of relating to humans. Indeed, the ways in which people develop reactions and behaviors around these things shapes their personality, their experiences and how they move about through life. While there is no single "right way" to answer these questions, the author of this response feels that there are some methods and ways of approaching things that are better than others.
When it comes to learning style, there are two major choices. One choice is to watch and listen and the other is to get involve and participate. As with most things, neither answer could or should be used in all situations. There are times where a concept is new and…
The world's largest economy has seen much since the financial crisis of 2008 began the role toward the precipice in terms of the all Street corruption. Transparency president Nancy Boswell maintains that it is an "integrity gap "(Graham, 2010).
However, this author will identify a different issue. Indeed, this author's view is very long and will take a historical approach in order to prevent another Great Depression, the Congress under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt separated all Street investment banks and regular depository banks. This took away the potential to make incredible profits from trading mortgage-backed securities whose ratings were artificially high. These encouraged banks to take what otherwise would have been intolerable risks in the form of bad loans that were later termed "toxic debt." Under this regime, people were obtaining home loans too easily (known derisively as "liars loans") and that exacerbated the decline once it started (Krugman).
Gettleman, J. (2010, March 16). Somalia's president assails u.n. report on corruption.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/17/world/africa/17somalia.html .
Graham, D. (2010, October 26). U.s. slips to historic low in global corruption index.
Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/10/26/us-corruption-transparency-idUSTRE69P0X620101026 .
Interestingly enough, part of the economic conflict between the north and the south stemmed from the fact that the South could export its crops directly overseas and receive remuneration without involving the northern seaports. Thus, from this perspective, the slave-based economy of the south and the northern industry-based economy was mutually exclusive of one another, and therefore grounds for warfare. The social ramifications of the institution of chattel slavery in the south were no less vital than its economic ones, although the two were intrinsically related to one another. The plantation-based lifestyle upon which the South thrived required slaves for the simple fact that large landowners owned huge tracts of land without any means of effectively controlling it -- except through the use of slave labor. Plantations, then, regardless of their economic significance, would not be able to literally exist without slaves to actually populate them. So the south needed…
Johnson, Michael. Abraham Lincoln, Slavery, and the Civil War: Selected Writing and Speeches New York: Bedford/St. Martin's. 2010. Print.
Pillai, Prabhakar. "The History of Slavery." www.buzzle.com. 2012. Web. http://www.civilwar.com/index.php/slavery/history-of-slavery.html
Warsshauer, Matthew. Connecticut in the American Civil War: Slavery, Sacrifice, and Survival Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. 2012. Print.
The Classical and Active Theories of Perception
The only world that truly exists for any of us is the one inside our brains. Each of us experiences the world in our own special way. Our world is made up of our experiences and perceptions. The way that every individual perceives their world is different from the way any other individual perceives theirs. The way that we perceive our world is different than the way anyone else perceives their world, yet we all live in the same world. hat makes our world different are our perceptions, not the world itself. This research will explore two different theories on how we perceive our world. It will discuss the classical theory of perception and the active theory of perception in order to gain a better understanding of how our perceptions affect our world view.
Our own virtual reality exists because the brain…
Balcetis, Emily and Dunning, David. "See What You Want to See: Motivational Influences on Visual Perception." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 91. No. 4. Pp. 612-625.
Berliner, Todd and Cullen, Dale. "The Illusion of Continuity: Active Perception in the Classical Editing System." Journal of Film and Video. 2011. Vol. 63 No. 1. PP. 44 -- 63.
Conde, Toni and Thalmann, Daniel. F. "An integrated perception for autonomous virtual agents:
active and predictive perception." Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds. Vol. 17. pp. 457-468.
When I embarked upon this study of human perception, I did not anticipate learning any information that I would find new or exciting. After all, I had been perceiving things my entire life, and therefore felt experience had taught me all I needed to know about perception. However, as we continued to study perception, I began to understand that I had long confused my perception of reality with reality. This understanding had a dramatic impact on my approach to life: I began to teach my peers and professors with more respect and understanding, I developed a greater appreciation for philosophy and literature, and I began to question my own perceptions.
Perception and reality peacefully co-exist the majority of the time, but occasionally throw each other curve balls. Interestingly enough, nature has adapted to include some of these differences between perception and reality. There are species of both plant and…
Perceptions of Nurses Public and Media Perceptions of Nurses
Describe some positive and negative interactions you have had with people when you tell them that you are going to school to become a professional nurse. Discuss your perspective on how nurses are perceived in the media and by the public.
Most of the time, when I tell people I am a nurse or I am going to be a nurse, their reactions are overwhelmingly positive. Some people even tell me about how their lives were changed by a very special nurse who helped guide a family member through a difficult illness. Other people have said that it is nurses, more so than doctors, who are willing to take the time to talk to patients and explain how to cope with taking care of a sick parent or child. "I could never be around sick people day after day -- you…