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Develop your theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to Cognitive Behavioral theory
Since its inception nearly fifty years ago, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become recognized as perhaps the most effective therapeutic approach. Indeed, CBT has myriad uses, and is applied in a number of situations, including depression, personality disorders, and wellness and rehabilitation. However, there also exist limitations to cognitive behavioral therapy, mainly surrounding treatment with patients from diverse cultures. This paper develops appropriate therapeutic orientations, discussing different therapeutic concerns and approaches. First, attention is paid to the nature of people; next, the role of the individual in families and other systems is addressed. Then, multicultural considerations, wellness and prevention, and the nature of problems are discussed. Finally, the paper addresses the process of change and how the orientations enacted are successful in practice.
The nature of people
People are diverse, not…
Beck, J., & Tompkins, M. (2007). Cognitive therapy. In Handbook of Homework Assignments in Psychotherapy. (pp. 51-63). New York: Springer Science.
Brown, J. (1999). Bowen family systems therapy and practice: Illustration and critique. A.N.J.Z. Family Therapy, 20(2), 94-103.
Lay, K.R., & King, L.J. (2007) Counseling strategies. In Drug Courts: A New Approach to Treatment and Rehabilitation. (pp. 166-182). New York: Springer Science.
Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 65(2), 98-109.
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484
Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.
Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…
Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam
Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.
Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Counseling Theory: Postmodern Approaches
Counseling orientation has experienced paradigm shifts over the decades from traditional pioneering theories such as cognitive theory, psychoanalysis, and humanism to the postmodernist theory. The rationale for the progression to postmodernism has been the evolving notion of a multiplicity of reality, a shift from modernist empiricism to constructivism (Shurts, 2015). The traditional counseling theorist considered counseling as a true mapping of the psychic phenomena depicting an accurate depiction of human psychological processes (Hansen, 2015). Contrasting with the modernistic approach that assumes a knowable reality, postmodernism assumes that observers create realities. Hansen (2015) notes postmodernism is grounded on the premise of anti-essentialism where observers always infuse phenomena with meaning as opposed to the true knowledge of phenomena being revealed by through objective observation. Postmodern therapy is anchored on the principle of collaborative and consultative stance between the patient and therapist as opposed to the unidirectional and authoritative…
Concise Summary of Theory
Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.
The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.
Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling…
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.
Anderson (2000) converses spiritual oppression and how Satan and his fallen angels are in the process of trying to overpower the believers will. He also provides the phases to independence, for example: fake vs. factual, dishonesty vs. truth, resentment vs. tolerance, revolt vs. obedience, arrogance vs. self-effacement, and oppression vs. lack of restrictions. Fake vs. real step show how we need to absorb to recognize God's certainty so we do not fall into Satan's trap. If fall for these tricks of deception then we automatically give up God's truth for what is considered a lie. Dishonesty vs. truth shows that we should battle Satan's trickery with God's reality. If we become deceived then we must do away with any misleading views for the truth that will bring us our liberation.
Bitterness vs. forgiveness is showing us that we do not need to harbor that illness in our hearts because Satan…
A., H.D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure: You Can Find Emotional Tranquility and Wholeness. Thomas Nelson, Inc. .
Adams, E.J. (1986). How to Help People Change: The Four- Step Biblical Process. Grand Rapids: Zondervan .
Anderson, T.N. (1990). The Bondage Breaker: Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational Feelings and Habitual Sins. . Boston: House Publishers, Inc.
Backus, W.C. (1980). Telling Yourself the Truth: Find Your Way Out of Depression, Anxiety, Fear, Anger and Other Common Problems by Applying the Priciples of Misbelief Therapy . Grand Rapids: Bethany Publishing Group.
Christian Counseling Theories
Christian authors present the very unique set of principles and strategies aiming at helping empower individuals going through counseling. Examining Christian literature and theory illustrates clear assumptions that different authors share, yet also pulled out some clear differences as well. For example, Backus and Chapain (2000) present fluidity, while Adams (1986) suggests Scripture. Still, these authors do all show that the word of God is a crucial element to the spiritual healing needed in modern counseling.
Backus and Chapain (2000) present a very simple, that individuals are plagued with discomfort and unhappiness because they think incorrectly. Essentially, when one does not think the proper manner, negative results come from it. Thus, ill-natured thoughts lead to anxiety, unhappiness, and depression, all of which are the main causes for people seeking counseling in a modern context. In order to combat these ill thoughts, Backus and Chapain present when is…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.
Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…
Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.
The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25drin.html
Buddy, T. (2009, March 7). Are you a functional alcoholic?
About.com. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://alcoholism.about.com/od/problem/a/functional.htm
Some other factors may also be addressed such as the client's perception of his or her role in homosexuality, if he comes from a culture where it is normal or acceptable for men to be sexually active with other men, so long as he is not sexually passive -- this may affect his sense of his sexual identity as well.
It must be stressed, above all, at the first session, that the counselor cannot provide the client with an all-encompassing answer to his or her dilemmas regarding family and identity. The counselor cannot be the person who gives permission to 'leave,' or the person who orders the individual to 'stay.' Rather, the counselor is there as a sounding board. At this early juncture, once the client's readiness to leave or not leave his current marital session is assessed, it may be helpful to have another counselor deal with the problems…
Gladding, Samuel. (2005) Counseling Theories: Essential Concepts and Applications. New York: Prentice Hall
But did she mean well sometimes? Or is she always so rude towards you?
Analysis: This example illustrates a long process in a short amount of space, but it helps to point out some aspects of oger's theory. According to ogers, such dialogue can be observed with nearly every client as generalizations are broken down to acute experiences (ogers, 1951). Such breakthroughs in the origins of the problem rely on a patient's freedom to fully express the self while the therapist provides guidance and acceptance (ogers, 1951). The therapist guides the client as the client comes to understand the reasons for his or her thoughts.
Client: I feel like I can't talk to you, that you have judged me guilty. This feeling sticks with me, I don't know what to do, but I don't like you.
Therapist: So you think I have put you up for trial and…
Bozarth, Jared D., & Brodley, Barbara Temaner. (1991). Actualization: A Functional Concept in Client-Centered Therapy. Handbook of Self-Actualization, Vol. 6, 45-60.
Bugental, J.F.T. (1964). The Third Force in Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 19-25.
Pollack, N. (1993). Client Centered Assessment. Pub Med, 47, 298-301.
Rogers, Carl R. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Gushue, Clarke, Pantzer, et al., (2006) examine the application of social cognitive theories to career counseling, reporting that self-efficacy is a pertinent issue in this process. In particular, these authors report that:
Career decision making self-efficacy refers to the degree to which individuals feel confident in their ability to successfully engage in tasks associated with making a career choice and with commitment to a career. It has also been observed that career-related self-efficacy in general may prove to be an important element in formulating a model of career development...(p. 308).
Gushue and coworkers go on to argue that when career self-efficacy is high, individuals are more assertive in the career counseling process. Thus, by developing career self-efficacy, career counselors can effectively improve interactions with clients and facilitate a greater understanding of client needs with respect to career decision making.
Applying this to the larger context of social learning theory, it…
Arbona, C. (2000). Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "1999. Career Development Quarterly, 49(2), 98-134.
Flores, L.Y., Scott, a.B., Wang, Y.W., et al., (2003). Annual review: Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "2002. Career Development Quarterly, 52, 98-131.
Germeijs, V., Verschueren, K., Soenens, B. (2006). Indecisiveness and high school students' career decision making process: Longitudinal associations and the mediational role of anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), 397-410.
Giannantonio, G.M., & Hurley-Hanson, a.E. (2006). Applying image norms across Super's career development stages. Career Development Quarterly, 54(4), 318-330.
This is accomplished by using a number of different tactics in conjunction with each other to include: examining their lifestyle, developing client insights, establishing a strong relationship with the patient and creating a change in behavior. When interacting with children, these views are used to comprehend how: their connections with friends and family members are influencing their desire to be accepted. ("Theories of Counseling," 2010) (, Tice, personal communication, October 25, 2012)
The Freudian approach is looking at how the child is developing base upon their relationship with others and the way they are dealing with the different stages in their lives. These include: studying the unconscious mind, analyzing dreams, examining the effects on the id / ego / superego and psychosexual development. The combination of these factors are designed to provide the therapist with a complete picture of what events are impacting the social, mental and emotional development of…
School Counseling. (2012). All About Counseling. Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutcounseling.com/library/school-counseling/
School Counselors. (2012). Kids Health. Retrieved from: http://kidshealth.org/teen/school_jobs/school/school_counselors.html
Theories of Counseling. (2010). UNLV. Retrieved from: http://blogs.education.unlv.edu/csi/files/2010/02/nce-study-guide-theories-and-helping-relationships.pdf
Efford, B. (2012). Assessment for Counselors. Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole.
Defense mechanisms, the unconscious, coping mechanisms, self-actualization and archetypes are other examples. The ultimate and most useless example is the "little person," that resides in everyone and explains his behavior. These include ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self and personality. Skinner, instead, suggests that psychologists should put their energies on what is observable, such as the environment and human behavior occurring in the environment (oeree).
This therapy states three core conditions under which growth may occur (Mulhauser,
2011). These core conditions proceed from the assumption that a person naturally possesses the inner resources for growth. He is the best authority on his own experience. He also believes in his capability to realize his own potential for growth. The therapy, however, recognizes that the realization depends on favorable conditions. Under adverse conditions, a person is often denied unconditional acceptance and positive regard. He then fails to apprehend the…
Boeree, C.G. (2006). BF Skinner. Personality Theories C.G. Boeree. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html
Dodd, G. (2011). Counseling techniques and skills -- an introduction. Ezine Articles:
EzineArticles.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Conseling-Techniqes-and-Skills -- an-Introduction&id-2748802
Grant, S. (2011). Person-centered therapy. California State University Northridge.
theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.
In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
May, R. (1950). The meaning of anxiety. New York, N.Y.: The Ronald Press Company.
Stewart, I. (1992). Eric Berne. London, California, New Delhi: SAGE Publications Inc.
Personal Theory Paper
Since mid-1970s, a serious matter for integration between Christianity and psychology developed among Christian counsellors. The integration movement developed as a result of reaction to psychology being accepted in the sector dealing with pastoral counseling where it did not face any criticism from the Christians’ point of view. The efforts for integrating psychology with Christianity developed more energy in the last twenty years since the time when Jay Adams refused to have psychology included in the pastoral care sector (Kim, 2004). Attempting to create an integration in psychology with Christian faith is a tedious experience as a result of the different approaches of the two academic disciplines.
According to Alan C. Tjeltveit (2012), the daunting questions that come as a result of taking psychology as well as Christian faith in a serious manner have to be dealt with. The queries that come from the sectors in…
Integrative Approach to Counseling
The theories that the author will compare and contrast within this document include gestalt theory, choice theory and its practical application, reality therapy, and psychoanalytic therapy. There are definite points of similarity and variance between these theories. The natural starting point for comparison and contrasting lies with an analysis of gestalt theory and choice theory/reality therapy. Gestalt theory was largely founded by Frederick Perls (Wagner-Moore, 2004, p. 180) and Miriam and Erwing Polster (Jacobs, 2010, p. 25), whereas Glasser is widely credited with launching the notion of reality theory (Bradley, 2014, p. 6). A critical point of similarity between these theories is that they are unequivocally focused on the present, or the proverbial 'here and now' of the patient and his or her cognitive, emotional, and physical states. Interestingly enough, these theories take different perspectives for addressing those present needs of the individuals counseled. The primary…
Bornstein, R.F. (2010). Psychoanalytic theory as a unifying framework for 21st century personality assessment. Psychoanalytic psychology. 27(2), 133-152.
Bradley, E.L. (2014). Choice theory and reality theory: An overview. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Theory. 34(1), 6-13.
European Association for Gestalt Therapy. (2006). Code of ethics and professional practice. http://www.eagt.org / Retrieved from
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Life can be shattering. Deception, lies, and tremendous heartache can derail the most prodigious, honest, and sincere individual. Devastation can acquiescent a beautiful and wonderful spirit into a horrendous downward spiral to where there appears to be no hope. When our 'bubble' of a world is popped, we often become disoriented, unable to ascertain the fact from fiction, and can then start having negative and harmful thoughts.
Given the circumstances to which I have had to overcome, a tremendous amount of resolve was required, which enabled me to persevere through my darkest moments. Betrayal and heartache can ruin one's perception of what life is about. Indeed, there are many who never enjoy the love or reach a pinnacle of happiness that I've enjoyed. To these individuals, I feel my empathy given my triumphs and set backs will undoubtedly enable a clear perspective, rich with insight to…
For mental health professionals, working with patients can be challenging. This is because they will have issues that could be directly associated with their condition. In the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, it is discussing these problems. To fully understand how this relates to crisis theory and intervention requires comparing different scenes from the film that are relevant. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the precipitating event, identifying the type of crisis, examining the material / personal / social resources available, studying the different perspectives, looking at how it was handled by the protagonist, suggesting coping skills, discussing referral sources that are available and biblical perspectives. Together, these elements will provide specific insights as to the way it is illustrating crisis theory and intervention challenges.
Identify precipitating events
The main event is when andal Patrick McMurphy is sent to a mental hospital from the state prison.…
Holly Bible New International Version. (1985). Oak Ridge, TN: Gideon's International.
How Do I Find a Local Support Group. (2012). NMHA. Retrieved from: http://www.nmha.org/go/find_support_group
Douglas, M. (Producer), & Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. USA: United Artists.
Wright, N. (2011). The Complete Guide to Crisis and Trauma Counseling. Ventura, CA: Regal.
Counseling and Coaching
Coaching: Case Study
Key Differences Between Coaching and Counseling
In considering the case of Antti Kytolandd it is critical to differentiate his possible mental health needs from those that are strictly work performance issues. As we consider the differences between formal psychological counseling and employment coaching models it is obvious that there are key differences in the approaches and the most useful and correct approach can often be determined by the client's specific needs (Egan, 1998). To that end it's critical to first consider Antti's overall mental health and stability prior to making key decisions regarding how to counsel or coach him.
The main differences between counseling and coaching lie in the fact that coaching clients are primarily well functioning individuals seeking ways in which to actively participate in the improvement of personal or employment issues. In a psychological counseling model clients may have an underlying mental…
Egan, G. (1998) The Skilled Helper: A problem Management and Opportunity Development Approach. Thomson Learning.
Glassman, W., Hadad, M. (2009) Approaches To Psychology. Open University Press
Kidd, J.M. (1996). The Career Counseling Interview. In A.G. Watts, B. Law, J. Killeen, J.M. Kidd & R. Hawthorn, Rethinking Careers Education and Guidance: Theory, Policy and Practice. London:
McLeod, J. (2003). An Introduction to Counselling. Open University Press.
PESONAL & OGANIZATIONAL ETHICS
Personal and Organizational Ethics Values for, for-Profit and Non-Profit Organizations
Ethics is a requirement of the society to both individuals and organizations. Ethics are applied to business and personal behaviors, and are used to determine how companies and individuals abide to policies. To indicate the application of ethical principles in organizations, an analysis is carried out of For-Profit and Non-For-Profit organizations, in this case Bank of America and Boys Club of America. This is by analyzing an ethical dilemma they are experiencing, their approach to the problem, and the legal, political, and social outcomes emerging from this cause of action.
The Boys Clubs of America is a non-for-profit organization founded in 1860s in Harford, Connecticut Formed with the aim of giving boys who roamed the streets a positive alternative. The club has undergone major changes beginning in 191 when several boys' clubs affiliated to…
Anonymous. (2009, Dec 16). Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Lowe's Announces $1 Million
Bach, R. (2010, March). A Letter from our Chairman Emeritus: March 2010. Retrieved from Boys and Girls Club of America: http://www.bgca.org/chairman/Pages/MarchLetterfromOurChairman.aspx
Bank of America. (2013). Retrieved March 21, 2013, from Bank of America: http://message.bankofamerica.com/heritage/#/ourheritage
BCOA. (2011). Boys of America. Retrieved from Boys of America: http://www.bgca.org/Pages/index.aspx .
Counseling is described by Kobeisy as the professional form of guidance that is aimed at addressing concerns as well as aid individuals in improving their attitude, coping skills as well as behavior (Kobeisy 1).Counseling can help people, families as well as groups in achieving optimal growth and development for the stages of life in which they go through. Counseling as a profession has many specialties like marriage, grief, and pastoral as well as career. It is worth noting that apart from pastoral counseling, the field of counseling is meant to be a free.This is to imply that the counselor should be open minded while approaching their clients with an attitude that is non-judgmental. They are also not allowed to impose or even direct their clients. The counseling process should therefore help the clients to clearly see their choices, appropriately set their objectives while making the necessary changes in order to…
Caldwell, Benjamin E, Woolley, Scott R, Caldwell, Casey J. Preliminary estimates of costeffectiveness for marital therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33:392 -- 405, 2007
Carr, Alan. Family Therapy: Concepts Process and Practice (2nd edn). Chichester:
Cohl, D'Vera "At Long Last, Divorce." Pew Research Center < http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1617/long-duration-marriage-end-divorce-gore
Frankel (2008) argues that formal on-to-one supervision facilitates positive staff development. . Effective supervision practice promotes professional growth and development. An individual staff needs to interact always with a supervisor to enhance knowledge development. With the shortcoming identified in the supervision practice in various professions and my work place, the paper provides recommendations to enhance supervisory practice.
ecommendations to enhance Supervisory Practice.
Ideal supervisory practice requires good communication. Within a work environment, an organization should make it mandatory for a supervisor to implement effective communication with the supervisees to enhance the professional development.
Moreover, an organization should provide enough time for a supervisor to implement an effective supervisory role. For example, in my place of work, my supervisor always complains of lack of time. This means that my supervisor has been given more jobs that she can cope with, and this has affected her supervisory role. To avoid this issue,…
ACCEL (2011). Productive Workplaces People, Job and Environment. Theory and Practice. ACCEL Handbook.
Australian Institute of Professional Counselors, (2011). The Importance of Counseling Supervision. AIPC Article Library.
Beekum, S. (2008). Supervision from shame to curiosity. Supervision Association of Australia and New Zealand.
Claveirole, A. & Carroll, M. (2007).One More Time. What is Supervision? Psychotherapy in Australia. 13(3): 34-40.
Counseling Therapy Theories
Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT)
The solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a type of therapy that is used much in counseling and a lot of time referred to as talking therapy that is based on the social constructionist philosophy. This therapy focuses on the aim or goal of the customer rather than the problem that drove him to seek help. It does not focus on the past events but primarily pays attention to the future.
The SFBT at times referred to as solution-focused or solution-building therapy was initiated and developed by Steve Shazer (1940-2005) in collaboration with Insoo Kim Berg (1934-2007) and their colleagues from the late 1970's in Wisconsin. This therapy is future focused, focuses on the goals and the solutions rather than on the problem (Institute for Solution-Focused Therapy, 2011).
Here, it is the duty of the counselor to invite the client to try…
Alan Car, (1998). Michael White's Narrative Theory, Contemporary Family Therapy. Human Sciences Press Inc. http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=j42386l16060v3q0&size=largest
Cynthia Good Mojab, (2006). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy. Retrieved September 6, 2011
Freedman, J. & Combs, G. (1996). Shifting paradigms: From systems to stories. In Freedman, J. & Combs, G., Narrative therapy: The social construction of preferred realities, chapter 1. New York: Norton.
Counseling Skills and Their Use in Social ork
Counseling skills can encompass many different aspects of life, and they are of great use to those in social work. Unfortunately, many social workers do not realize just how important these kinds of skills are and therefore do not get the training in them that they really need. Since social workers are not counselors and do not usually see what they do as 'therapy' of any kind, they do not look to counseling as having a place in their work and the families that they often are called upon to help. However, much of what a social worker does for those that need help is actually counseling of a sort, and by learning more about counseling skills those that spend their time in the social work field can utilize what they already know, along with the counseling skills, to help many more…
Barak, A. (1999). Psychological applications on the Internet: A discipline on the threshold of a new millennium. Applied and Preventative Psychology, 8, 231-246.
Glancy, G., Regehr, C., & Bryant, A. (1998) Confidentiality in crisis: Part I: The duty to Inform. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 43(12), 1001-1005.
Hepworth, D., Rooney, IL, & Larsen, A. (1994). Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Marshall, M., & Von Tigerstorm, B. (1999). Confidentiality and disclosure of health Information. In J. Downie & T. Caulfield (Eds.), Canadian Health Law and Policy (pp. 143-177), Toronto: Butterworths.
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with a distant family relative. The relatives are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry, who is part wizard.
Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry is aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. However, Harry is about to face a serious crisis that will call into question his psychological resilience. The Ministry of Magic has undertaken a massive and coordinated attempt to undermine Harry's credibility. The Ministry's goal is sabotage of Harry's reputation, and his entire career as a wizard. Underlying the motivation of the Ministry…
Cherry, Kendra. "Trait Theory of Personality." About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com /od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm
"Resilience: An Integrative Mini-Chapter," Chapter 13 in Marianne Miserandino's Personality Psychology: Foundations and Findings (Boston: Pearson, 2012, pp. 373-392).
"Social Cognitive Theory." Retrieved online: http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Health%20Communication/Social_cognitive_theory.doc/
Issue in Counseling:
Helping clients deal with anxiety
Many individuals experience anxiety today. ith the help of therapeutic counselors, clients learn how to cope with their anxiety-related issues, in turn allowing them to live a healthy and manageable life. Many counselors choose to use the existential method in counseling clients with anxiety. The existential approach to counseling is an approach to helping clients of all cultures find meaning and harmony in their lives. Counselor's who use this approach focus on the eternal issues of love, loneliness, suffering and death that each of us face daily. It seeks to cultivate our philosophical mindedness in relating to ourselves, others, nature, and our faith. Existential counseling has no planned endpoint but is the beginning of a search for hope, love, and meaning in life. It is applicable to all problems in living, but it is especially appropriate when…
Carlson, L.A., (2003). Existential theory: Helping school counselors attend to youth at risk for violence. Professional School Counseling, 6 (5), 310.
Epp, L., (1998). The courage to be an existential counselor: an interview of Clemmont E.
Vontress. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20 (1), 1.
Krueger, M.J. & Hanna, F.J., (1997). Why adoptees search: an existential treatment perspective. Journal of Counseling and Development, 75 (3), 195.
Death anxiety was given a broad definition and seemed to point to how one dealt with the death of others also. I found that I did not deal with death very well. Mainly because I was not able to know my real father, and I felt betrayed by the man who was my actual father when I had to experience the abuse that my family went through. It was an ordeal because my father died, but it was a bigger ordeal because of the revelations that came afterwards. I found that one can regress from a level of maturity when a major negative event occurs.
I look back at my life through the prism of these two theories and there is not much that I regret, even though there were some significant bumps along the way. I agree with the precepts because I can see a lot of what both…
Boeree, G.C. (2005). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/ewaters/345/2007_erikson/erikson.pdf
Bruess, B.J., & Pearson, F.C. (2002). Are there gender differences in moral
reasoning as defined by Kohlberg? College Student Affairs Journal, 21(2),
In that regard, the counselor would want to explore any possible connection between the social turmoil that might have been responsible for generating his subsequent social disillusionment. To the extent the counselor determines that the subject's social disenfranchisement is attributable to his involvement or response to those social conflicts he would assist the subject evaluate the objective conclusions and expectations that have shaped his outlook as an older adult in substantially different social circumstances and living in a very different society than the one responsible for his feelings about government representatives and authority figures in general (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
B. Preliminary Hypotheses of Main Apparent Problems
Hypothesis # 1 -- Multiple Causes of Intimacy Issues
First, it is likely that there are multiple concurrent causes of the subject's apparent difficulty establishing and maintaining close intimate relationships and effective communications within his marriage. The psychodynamic perspective teaches that it is…
Adler, a. (1927) Understanding Human Nature. Center City: Hazelden
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Volume 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life.. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
" In the process, one learns to see oneself as strong and resilient, courageous, and empowered. Whether the individual can get up and go on and have a happy life after the loss depends on how the person views self
Is he or she a victim or a survivor? A strong person making spiritual progress or weak and debilitated? Whiting & Bradley (2007) argue that there must be an outcome for every loss. Whether the outcome is "reconciliation" or "vulnerability" or "victimization" depends on successful and positive identity reconstruction.
It used to be believed that the grieving individual had to achieve detachment from the person who had died. This was Freud's theory, that "grieving people need to break free from the deceased, let go of the past and reassert their individualism by charting a new course for life.
A healthy grief experience, according to Freud [was] one in which the…
Anderson, R.A. (2006). Immunity and grief. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, 276, 128.
Briggs, C.A. And Pehrsson, D. (2008). Use of bibliotherapy in the treatment of grief and loss: A guide to current counseling practices. Adultspan Journal, 7 (1), 32-43.
Bush, H.K. (2007). Grief work: After a child dies. The Christian Century, 124 (25), 36-40.
Care of the elderly - bereavement: An essential guide (2006). The Practitioner (June 29), 22-29.
Integrated Counseling Orientation
Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach
My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.
In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Hofmann, S.G. (2012). An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems. John Wiley & Sons
Wubbolding, R.E. (2010). Reality therapy. American Psychological Association
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…
Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/
Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.
Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
Supervisee should have a clear view on what to expect during the supervision process.
Supervisor: Are there any courses or resources that would develop your standards in relation to services delivery?
Supervisee: Learning provides room for improvement, and that would be no different to my scenario. I would attend to relevant courses to boost my confidence and expertise level in dealing with clients on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. Structural coaching on relevant issues would enhance my development to tackling therapeutic problems in the clinical field of study. The structural coaching would supplement the pertinent information from this and the previous supervision programs. Much exposure such as working in large organizations would improve the level of standards in dealing with cultural problems among different clients.
Supervisor: What are the six dimensions of multicultural competencies supervision?
Supervisee: The first dimension is the Supervisor-Focused Personal Development that reflects examination of the…
Ancis, J.R., & Marshall, D.S. (2010). Using a multicultural framework to assess supervisees'
perceptions of culturally competent supervision. Journal of Counseling & Development,
88, 277 -284.
Ancis, J.R., & Landany, N. (2010). A multicultural framework for counselor supervision. In N.
Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.
Table of Contents
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.
West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:
Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
online Human Services class people counseling career. You book paper, therefor I've downloaded Professor's lesson overviews. Please contact . The book "Effective Helping: Interviewing Counseling Techniques" Seveneth Edition By, Barbara F.
Application of helping theories
Creating efficiency and effectiveness in the counseling career is a challenge for every counselor since they are required to apply different theories of helping which emphasize on the behavior, attitude, techniques and methods that are used by the counselor. With each theory having its own set of concepts and ideas, they create a daunting task for the counselor who is required to combine these to devise a technique for counseling the client that varies on the basis of the client's personal counseling needs and bears a cultural awareness that presents effective counseling for the patient Okun & Kantrowitz, 2008.
The patient chosen in this case is one that is suffering from inferiority complex. This means…
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Mosak, H., & Maniacci, M. (1999). The analytic~behavioral~cognitve psychology of alfred adler New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
Okun, B.F., & Kantrowitz, R.E. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
The primary objectives of the training seminar are as follows:
To assist the trainee in developing a content knowledge base of counseling theory, research and practice from a multicultural point-of-view.
To assist the trainee in defining their professional identity and knowlegde and adherence to ehtical practice.
For the trainee to receive monitoring of their strengths and weaknesses as a counselor.
To acquire new skills in counseling.
To be able to identify personal issues involved with being a counselor.
To learn to develop and write case studies in a professional manner.
To be able to have a comfortable and supportive environment wherein sharing information, reactions and concerns can take place.
Knowing that individual, group, and seminar situations are important in providing a student optimal training it is also important to be able to recommend new situations wherein counselor training can be brought about. To this end, an area that has been…
Graf, Noreen M. And Stebnicki, Mark a. (2002). Using e-mail for clinical supervision in practicum: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Rehabilitation. July-Sept.
Herbert, J.T., Ward, T.J., & Hemlick, L.M. (1995). Confirmatory factor analysis of the supervisory style inventory and the Revised Supervision Questionnaire [Special Issue].
Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 36(4), 334-349.
Hillerband, E. (1989). Cognitive differences between experts and novices: Implications for group supervision. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 293-296.
Role of Counseling
Counseling entails giving professional support to a client who is experiencing a personal challenge, with the aim of promoting their well-being and personal growth. For counseling to be effective, a trusting relationship between the counselor and his/her client has to be built and sustained. The competency-based approach provides effective avenues for the breeding of this kind of relationship. This approach requires a guidance counselor to demonstrate competence in three core areas; i) knowledge; ii) counseling skills; and iii) ethical and professional attitudes and practice, each of which is subdivided into specific components. However, the three competencies above do not work independently; rather, they qualify each other to give every counselor a unique integration.
A practitioner ought to have knowledge of;
factors that influence distress and well-being systemic and contextual social, biological, and family factors affecting human conditioning
The nature of cultural and human diversity, particularly in…
Effective Biblical Counseling
The primary goal of counseling should not be to “make the client happier” but rather to get one to a point where the client wants instead to do God’s will. This is the Christian approach to counseling that often goes missed and it is a goal that many people seeking counseling often forget they should be trying for, even though they are Christian. They imagine that if they do everything right they should be rewarded with peace and happiness—and yet the Christian’s life is only peaceful and happy when it is lived in accordance with God’s will, and that is the point that Crabb (1977) makes here. The goal of counseling should be to get the patient to see how he or she could be more in line with God’s will because that is where peace is to be found.
Development of Problems and…
The purpose of David Powlison’s Biblical Counseling Movement is to provide readers with a history of the approach and then to provide readers with Powlison’s own perspective on what works and why. The aim of the book is to provide context about the nature of Biblical counseling, how it has been used throughout history, and then to make rational, common sense assessments about how it can be applied in one’s own life and career. Thus, the primary goal of the book is to give the reader context and the ability to implement the acquired knowledge in practice.
Development of Problems and Personal Need
The issues came about when Jay Adams reasoned that modern psychology was really just “bad theology” as Powlison puts it. There was a personal need among patients and providers who knew better to provide a Biblical counseling approach that could truly address the needs…
Egan's 3 Stage Model
Various counseling practices allow individuals to identify, cope with, and manage areas of self-improvement and to address physical, mental, and emotional needs. The reasons why individuals seek counseling range from romantic relationship issues, adjustments to chronic illness, spiritual concerns, grief, to career choices, stress, addiction, and adjusting to the effects of trauma. In the counselor-client relationship, the counselor aims to listen to and question the client to establish how the client understands, to clarify thoughts, provide new perspective to the situation, and generate approaches to the problem (owland, 1993, p. 18-19). One effective model that structures the counseling theory within the counselor-client relationship is Egan's 3-Stage Skilled Helper model. Egan's model offers a framework to help individuals discover solutions to their problems and develop new opportunities. Egan's Skilled Helper model is comprised of three stages, in which each stage involves three sub-stages. Clients and guided through…
Crago, H. (2000). Counselling and psychotheraphy: is there a difference? Does it matter?.
Australlian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 21(2), 73-80.
Forrest, D. (n.d.). Egan's skilled helper model. Informally published manuscript, Continuing
Professional Development Unit, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://www.gestaltuk.com/Resources/Egan_skilled_helper_model.pdf
Similarly, I have learned that counter-transference is also a risk within any relationship potentially prone to transference (Mitchell & Black, 2003). As a practical matter, I intend to maintain awareness of any tendencies on my part toward counter-transference by being aware of any tendency to think about clients in between sessions in any manner other than in direct connection to their clinical issues. At the first sign of any potential risk of counter-transference, I would consider discontinuing the relationship and referring the patient to a colleague.
What qualities do you have that will make you an effective psychologist?
I believe my most important personal quality that will make me an effective psychologist is empathy, because I genuinely care about other people. There is empirical evidence suggesting that this is, indeed, one of the most important qualities of good psychologists (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). I believe that I am conscientious and…
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2009). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Krasner, M., Epstein, R., Beckman, H., Suchman, a., Chapman, B., and Mooney, C. "Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 302, No. 12 (2009): 1284-1292.
McWilliams, N. (2004). Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford.
When will you begin that long journey into yourself? One of the most famous philosophers in history of mankind, Rumi emphasized on exploring or discovering one self. Self-exploration is one of the fundamentals of philosophy. efore contemplating over the wonders of universe, man asked himself the very basic questions about his own existence. Without knowing one's origin and the reason of being born, man cannot shape his beliefs and thus remain directionless. As Aristotle said that the foundation of all wisdom is based on self.
The ideas, beliefs, values and norms of a person originate from his immediate surroundings. Among them, the first encounter is with parents. Parents transmit their own beliefs and values into the child's mind. Later on, siblings, family members and close friends influence a person's self-concept. Gradually, a man's social circle expands and as he becomes able to identify and choose among things,…
Dyer, W.W. (1995). Your Sacred Self: Makin the Decision to be Free. HarperCollins Publishers.
Eccles, J.S. & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational Beliefs, Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol 53, 109-132. The H.W Wilson Company.
Maslow, A.H. (1987). Motivation and Personality. HaperCollins Publishers.
Pasnau, R. (2011). Philosophy of Mind and Human Nature. Epistemology of Life and Human Nature. 348-368.
From the basis of psychoanalysis and existential therapy, I will then listen for any problems relating to attitudes that can be driven by repressed emotions. I will use dialogue in order to gain an understanding of how the clients see their problems, and what they think is needed to help.
In the dialogue session, I will provide the client with my own insight on how I believe the best progress will be made in future therapy, and also on how long I estimate such therapy to take. I will however emphasize that I will not terminate therapy if the clients feel in any way that they will not benefit from such termination. Dialogue and collaboration means that I should be able to modify my approach according to input from my clients. If a client for example disagrees with an approach I am using, we will discuss various options of changing…
Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Person-centered Therapy. http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html
Hoffman, Louis. 2004. Existential Psychotherapy. http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm
Psychological Schools of Thought. Psychoanalytical Psychology. http://www.webrenovators.com/psych/PsychoanalyticalPsychology.htm
Yontef, Gary. Gestalt Therapy: An Introduction. http://www.gestalt.org/yontef.htm
My reasons for seeking a counseling degree are that I grew up with a desire to help others. I have myself been counseled, as a child, by therapists whom, I noted, attempted to streamline me according to particularistic beliefs. Wondering whether it were possible for psychotherapy to be objective, I read a lot on the subject and observed people who were therapists. At the time I naively thought counselors to be wonderful, and considered them almost as though they were God's second-in-command. I was later to read that psychotherapists do project that image, which is partially what renders the profession of psychotherapy to be somewhat controversial (e.g., Dawes,1994).
Gradually it dawned on me that these people were playing with people's lives: That I and presumably many other individuals are either compelled to 'visit' these deities of fate, or they 'visit' them out of their own volition. It was…
American Psychological Association (APA) (2010) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
American Counseling Association (ACA) (2005) ACA Code of Ethics.
Chater, N., & Oaksford, M. (2001). Human rationality and the psychology of reasoning: Where do we go from here? British Journal of Psychology, 92, 193-216.
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
Procedures. All patients, regardless of whether they were participating in the study or not, received treatment as usual (TAU) for the first six months of the study. Measurement for this initial six-month period followed this sequence: A standard suite of measurements was administered at session one, session 6 and session 12; OS and SS assessments occurred at every treatment session for identified patients (IP) only. During this initial six-month period, counselors only received training in the use of the OS and SS as instruments to be added to the standard suite of outcome measures.
In the second six-month period, training in the client-directed outcome-informed approach to therapy was provided to all the counselors. The training components included the following: (1) 16 hours of formal introduction to theory of change according to the Duncan and Miller framework; (2) in-depth training on the use of OS and SS for obtaining client feedback…
Ardelt, M. And Eccles, J.S. (2001, November). Effects of mothers' parental efficacy beliefs and promotive parenting strategies on inner-city youth. Journal of Family Issues, 22(8), 944-972.
Boeree, C.G. (2006) Carl Rogers: 1902-1987. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
Brann, P., Coleman, G., & Luk, E. (2001). Routine outcome in a child and adolescent mental health service: an evaluation of HoNOSCA. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 370-376.
Cooper, M., Watson, J.C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
Although supervisors have an obligation to foster an atmosphere in which supervisees feel capable of being forthcoming with important information, we must also be concerned with the possibility that trainees may have predispositions toward nondisclosure, as well as the risk of liability associated with certain types of nondisclosure.
Ellis & Douce (1994) believe that there are eight supervisory themes and issues tend to recur in-group supervisor supervision (i.e., supervisor anxiety, intervention choices, group cohesion, responsibility, parallel process, power struggles, individual differences, and sexual attraction). Given the importance of supervisory issues in counselor supervision (Ellis, 1991), it is reasonable to expect that the eight issues may be important for effective supervisor supervision. In fact, our experience suggests that assessing and confronting these supervisory issues successfully is an integral part of supervisor supervision. Therefore, in the next section we discuss the eight issues and suggest intervention strategies to address them.
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (1999). AAMFT supervisor designation: Standards and responsibilities handbook. Washington, DC: Author.
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.
American Psychological Association. (2001). Draft of ethics code [Online] Available:
Millon Test Summary
Counseling Test eview
What follows in this report is a summary of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III, often referred to as the MCMI-III. One of the sources (but certainly not the only one) is the creator of the test, Mr. Million himself. Four other sources covering the Millon test are covered as well. There are a number of sections to this report and they are, in order, general information about the test, a description of the test, a technical evaluation of the test, a practical evaluation of the test and a summary evaluation of the test. A conclusion will wrap up the report.
General Test Information
As noted in the introduction, the title of the test involved here is the Millon Clinical Multi-Axial Inventory III. There is a "sister" test that is very similar and is known as the Millon College Counseling Inventory, with the main…
Grove, W.M., & Vrieze, S.I. (2009). An exploration of the base rate scores of the Millon
Clinical Multiaxial Inventory -- III. Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 57-67.
Millon, T. (1994, January 1). Product - Millon® Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Welcome to Pearson Assessments & Information / Clinical Assessments. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=PAg505
Counseling supervision entails that persons in a therapeutic role are supervised by a peer for the purpose of professional and personal development. The supervisor makes recommendations according to his or her observations, and helps the counselor to perform better or to make modifications for the benefit of the patients. Supervision could also occur in a group setting, where several therapists are involved in the supervisory role (Holloway 1995: 21).
In the United Kingdom, all counselors are required to undergo supervision, regardless of elements such as experience or perceived performance. The reason for this is that it is often seen by both professional supervising bodies and therapists themselves as ethically imperative. In the United States, however, many counselors work without supervision.
This is the result of the evolution of counseling and its associated practice in the United States and in the United Kingdom. In the former, supervision is required…
Carroll, Michael. 1996. Counseling Supervision: Theory, Skills and Practice. London: Cassel.
Hawkins, P., & Shohet, R. (1989). Supervision in the helping professions. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Holloway, E. 1992. Supervision: A way of teaching and learning. In S.D. Brown & R.W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (pp. 177-214). New York: Wiley.
Holloway, Elizabeth L. 1995. Clinical Supervision: A Systems Approach. London: Sage.
As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.
After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for…
Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.
Ziegler, S.M. (2010). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…
Beck, J. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstitute.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/#q-n-a-1773
"Cognitive Behavior Therapy." (n.d.). Beck Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstituteblog.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/
Hays, P.A. (2012). Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy in practice. Washington,
D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…
Fossey, E., C. Harvey, F. McDermott, and L. Davidson. (2002). "Understanding and evaluating qualitative research." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 36.
Laverty, S. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations." International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 2(3).
Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)
The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…
Resources and Services Administration (http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/)
American Psychiatric Association's Steering Committee to Reduce Disparities in Access to Psychiatric Care (2004) (Natl. Assoc. Social Workers 2007).
These and many more substantive readings from research are listed by the author for assimilating culture-centric education. (Sue, Zane, Nagayama Hall, & Berger, 2009)
As a Counselor, I will need to be aware that being culturally aware implies delivering services in a manner consistent with the recipient's culture, through regards to linguistic variation and cultural discussion. I would seek to be more sensitive to unaccultured ethnic minority clients. In addition, I would use discretion in cases where patients of a particular community or ethnicity are prone to certain clinical problems (for which I would study the ethnic group and its history in more depth) and if certain ethnic groups respond poorly to EBT (Evidence-based Treatment). (Sue et al., 2009)
I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or ogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of ogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).
In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the ogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
The difference between law and ethics in counseling
In practice, ethics entails grasping and incorporating principles and standards of specific professional organizations. Ethical codes for professionals in the mental healthcare field aim at outlining the responsibility and professional conduct expected of them (Jennings, Sovereign, Bottorff, Mussell, & Vye, 2005). Graduate students have to establish their understanding of ethics theory and apply it in practice, before entering professional practice. As stated by Laureate Education (2010), modern practice involves applying conventional theoretical models to therapeutic processes involving clients. Moreover, it is responsible for uniting mental healthcare professions, as every profession inducts identical conventional approaches or procedures for guiding practice. The inverse is represented by post-modern practice.
Legal practice standards and ethical standards are different. Usually, legal standards relate to standard professional practices within a particular professional community, whereas ethical standards are often idealistic. The following aspects are included under legal standards:…
ACA. (2005). 2005 ACA code of ethics [White Paper]. Retrieved from American Counseling Association: http://www.counseling.org/Files/FD.ashx?guid=ab7c1272-71c4-46cf-848c - f98489937dda
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2000). Chapter 4 -- Therapeutic Issues for Counselors. In C. f. Treatment, Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP). Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (U.S.); .
Diaz, A., Neal, W. P., Nucci, A. T., Ludmer, P., Bitterman, J., & Edwards, S. (2004). Legal and ethical issues facing adolescent health care professionals. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 71(3), 181-185.
Dolgoff, R., Loewenberg, F. M., & Harrington, D. (2009). Ethical decisions for social work practice (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.
.....career through a greater understanding of the day-to-day operations of counselors and some of the procedural and formal issues that need to be thoroughly mastered prior to certification. With this practicum, I have engaged in 63 direct practice hours (130 nondirect), and this time has provided me with substantial real world experience that will prove invaluable in the future. The exposure to different counseling philosophies and approaches has opened my mind, and I intend to incorporate what I have learned in the practicum to my future practice. Direct client contact involved intake, group sessions, and a number of interactions that were rooted in what I have been learning previously in school. However, I also found that the indirect practice hours were helpful in showing me how counselors protect their clients, ensuring their information is kept private and confidential as well as accurate.
Eager to gain more knowledge, I believe that…
Goal of Christian Counseling
Dr. Larry Crabb sees human problems through two lenses: the first category involves problems that result from "…natural or physical causes" (things the individual has little or no control over). Examples of those kinds of problems include learning disabilities, a chemical imbalance within the person, and other issues that result from "perceptual dysfunctions." Crabb's goal is to fill the basic needs of a person, and under Christian counseling he feels the basic need is for "personal worth," which can be satisfied through two important inputs. One is a kind of "longing for significance" -- that is, the person longs for a purpose, for importance, for a meaningful job that has a positive impact. The other is to have security through being accepted (p. 2).
Part ONE: Goal of Rogerian Theory of Counseling (Client-centered therapy)
The client-centered approach by Rogers is designed to allow the…
Andrews, Linda Wasmer. (2010). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Encyclopedia of Depression.
Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Client-Centered Therapy. About.com Psychology. Retrieved February
18, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com .
Crabb's book, Effective Biblical Counseling and the theories presented there. This paper will examine how Crabb treats some of the more popular theories in the book and how he is able to summarize them for the reader -- largely accomplishing this in a very accessible manner.
For instance, Crabb's treatment of Abraham Maslow's theory of classical needs hierarchy is extremely astute and user-friendly. Crabb explains how the need on the lowest rung of the hierarchy needs to be met and completed in order for the individual to be able to have sufficient motivation to get the subsequent need met and so on (Crabb, 1986). According to these ideologies, the lowest needs are the physical ones: food, water and comparable needs -- these are the needs that the organism must fulfill in order to survive (Crabb, 1986). The following need is the need of security, which encompasses a general sense and…
Crabb, L. (1986). Effective Biblical Counseling. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing.
Diane seems to be undergoing many different problems that are present today because of her past. The way she was treated by her family and her husband now has gone to affect her psychologically and emotionally. The combination of post traumatic stress disorder, schizoaffective symptoms and previous satanic ritual abuse is very severe and psychological intervention is greatly required.
One of her presenting complaints is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a form of anxiety disorder that occurs as an emotional reaction to something that occurred in the patient's life. This trauma could be pain, injury, threat, or death of a loved one. (Valente, 2010) Some common examples of traumatic disorders are natural disasters, military combat or terrorist incidents. It is normal to have an adverse or a stressed response to a traumatic event. Normally, people come to back to their usual state of mind…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Brewin, C. And Holmes, E. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical psychology review, 23 (3), pp. 339 -- 376.
Clark, D. And Ehlers, A. (2004). Posstraumatic stress disorders from cognitive theory to therapy. In: Leahy, R. eds. (2004). Contemporary cognitive therapy: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford, pp. 141-160.
Clohessy, S. And Ehlers, A. (1999). PTSD symptoms, response to intrusive memories and coping in ambulance service workers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38 (3), pp. 251 -- 265.
Crisis Counseling and Therapy
The precipitating events that are brought forward in the movie "Girl Interrupted" are the attempted suicide of a young girl on nineteen years. It concerned her parents that she failed to go forward and receive her high school diploma in a prestigious northeastern community. They also got to find out that their daughter was involved with an affair with one of their friend's husband. This involved the granting of sexual favors. She is depressed and also lacks a direction in life even after finishing her high school education in fact she does not want to go to college but instead wants to become a writer. She makes an attempt to get rid of her delusions and does this through the taking of vodka in combination with aspirin even though she denies and fails to consider her actions as being a suicide attempt rather she saw it…
Bolyn, M. (2011).Activities for teaching coping skills to the youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/129996-activities-teaching-coping-skills-youth/
Salters-Pedneault, K. (2010). Coping Skills for Borderline Personality Disorder. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from http://bpd.about.com/od/livingwithbpd/a/Coping.htm