Management Theory Essays (Examples)

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Management Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23685442

Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the Resource-Based View

Accurate comprehension of the article = blue

Critical analysis of the strengths and weakness of the ideas, concepts or theories = yellow

* Provision of specific comments in the form of criticism, disagreement, synthesis, paradox, curiosity or genuine confusion= green

Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the Resource-Based View

Using a thorough analysis of management theories and approaches to illustrate how the Resource-Based View (RBV) of management can deliver greater competitive advantage and more optimized use of internal resources, the authors seek to support this assertion with a comprehensive literature review. The synthesis of the Classical Approach, Human Resource Approach, Quantitative Approach, Systems Perspective, Contingency Approach and Information Technology Approach is used as the foundation for showing how the RBV approach to management can deliver exceptional results (Raduan, Jegak, Haslinda & Alimin, 2009). The authors concentrate on creating a taxonomy that emanates from each of these specific approaches to management, further showing their contributory effects across the factors that also impact the RBV of an organization.


The RBV concepts and frameworks are used effectively for showing how an…… [Read More]


Raduan, C.R., Jegak, U., Haslinda, A., & Alimin, I. (2009). Management, strategic management theories and the linkage with organizational competitive advantage from the resource-based view. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(3), 402-418.
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Management Theories Over the Last

Words: 5125 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66779535

Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)

Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result, this allows such entities to remain agile for the various situations they will encounter. However, such a structure would work poorly for large organizations. This is because the overall amounts of flexibility, allows managers to have undue amounts of influence on upper management. Once this takes place, it means that…… [Read More]


Building Emotional Capital. (2004, June 24). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Executive Education website:

Contingency Theory. (2010). Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Values-Based Management website: 

Babineck, M. (2006, March 13). The Enron Trial. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Chron website:

Bissonette, Z. (2008, August 1). How Does General Motors CEO Rick Wagoner Still Have a Job. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Blogging Stocks website:
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Management Theories Historical Records Show That People

Words: 2061 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99899559

Management Theories

Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial Revolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the Romans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons. Its base is a perfect square short only of 7 inches For the ancient Egyptians to have accomplished this marvel without the help of modern technology can only attest to superior management genius already in existence then.

The Chinese philosopher Mencius who lived in 372-289 BC already worked on conceptual…… [Read More]


1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. http://www.accel-team/scientific

2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision.

3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. sydication/hr.html

4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories.
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Management Theories as the Supervisor

Words: 4318 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15241304

In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them improve their performance.

Management Theory Potential Solutions

Clearly what was needed was more of a systematic and cohesive development plan that didn't first concentrate on nurturing trust, but more on shifting their perspectives to see an integrative model approach to conflict resolution as the best possible alleviate the frustration they…… [Read More]


Alexander, Kenneth O. "Worker Ownership and Participation in the Context of Social Change: Progress Is Slow and Difficult, but it Need Not Wait upon Massive Redistribution of Wealth. " the American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44.3 (1985): 337. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 25 Oct. 2008

Timothy Bartram, Gian Casimir. "The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader:the mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. " Leadership & Organization Development Journal 28.1 (2007): 4-19. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008

Douglas Brownlie, Paul Hewer, Beverly Wagner, Gran Svensson. "Management theory and practice: bridging the gap through multidisciplinary lenses. " European Business Review 20.6 (2008): 461-470. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008

Huei-Fang Chen, Yi-Ching Chen. "The Impact of Work Redesign and Psychological Empowerment on Organizational Commitment in a Changing Environment: An Example From Taiwan's State-Owned Enterprises. " Public Personnel Management 37.3 (2008): 279-302. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 27 Oct. 2008
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Management Theories of Likert Blake

Words: 2432 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4086879

As in the model of Likert, progressively the concern for people increases as we move down the line from 'Exploitative authoritarian' to 'Benevolent authoritarian' to 'Consultative' to finally 'Participative', similarly in the Blake's Managerial Grid the mapping of high concern for people and low concern for production is seen as the score comes to be 1,9. On the other hand a close comparison of G2 stage of the Vroom-Yetton model and the Participative management of Likert model it is seen that both of them bear similarities. In G2 stage of Vroom-Yetton model, the leader shares the crisis and difficulties with the subordinates of his group and based on a consensus all the parties build and evaluate alternatives and try to arrive at a consensus on a solution.

Roughly the same idea is conveyed in the Participative model of Likert wherein the management looks forward to build groups of employees who can arrive on decisions and the process of communication is two way within the organization. However, there are situation where the participative management is best however in other situations it is not. There are a lot of situations when participation is the best. And of late this is becoming increasingly…… [Read More]


Conger, Jay a; Kanungo, Rabindra N. (1988) "Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness." Jossey-Bass Publishers. Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 February, 2005 del Val, Manuela Pardo; Rodr'guez, Sonia Das'; "Participative management and organizational culture." Retrieved at Accessed on 10 February, 2005

Inman, Mark Lee. (01 Jun 2000) "The relevance of traditional management theories to the 21st Century" Retrieved at on 10 February, 2005

Leadership Model and Theories" Retrieved at Accessed on 10 February, 2005

Likert's leadership styles" Retrieved at Accessed on 10 February, 2005
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Analyzing the Management Theories

Words: 849 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20645877

Management Theory and Associated Urinary Tract Infections

Infection of the urinary tract constitutes a great share of all infections acquired in hospitals (Klevens, Edwards, & Richards, 2007); of these, most cases are of CAUTI or catheter-associated urinary tract infection, which is "reasonably preventable," according to the CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). CMS doesn't reimburse medical facilities for this disease any more. Of the best strategies to reduce CAUTI is ensuring never to employ urinary catheters unless one perceives an appropriate symptom.

Several research works, some even dating back many decades, can be found, of ways to decrease or prevent the development of CAUTI. Over the years, a few of the recommendations have reformed; for instance, at one time, routine catheter irrigation was recommended; however, presently, the medical profession deems it as a practice that must be avoided. Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare organizations to make sure their methods, educational matter, and policies, remain in line with the latest evidence-based, recommended policies and procedures. Four care elements are recommended, to lower/prevent CAUTI cases:

1. Do not utilize urinary catheters until necessary.

2. Use aseptic technique for inserting urinary catheters.

3. Urinary catheter maintenance should be done on the…… [Read More]


Barnard, C.I. (1952). Leadership and the law. New York University Law Review, 27(1), 112-116

Fanning, M., & Oakes, D. (2006). A tool for quantifying organizational support for evidence-based practice change. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 21(2), 110-113.

IHCI. (2011). How-to guide: Prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Cambrige, MA. Retrieved from

Klevens, R. M., Edwards, J. R., & Richards, C. L. (2007). Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep, 122(2), 160-166.
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TQM Theory in Airport Passenger Handling

Words: 1443 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39330340

Total Quality Management Theory

Total Quality Management Development

How Total Quality Management (TQM) Theory can be applied to improve the airport passenger handling

Total Quality Management (TQM) specifically deals with work process and people. Implementation of TQM calls for team work and employee involvement. All operations, suppliers, and customers have to be involved. Besides, it also calls for performance measurement. TQM is normally implemented by business organizations to satisfy its customers. It improves organizational performance (Asher, 1996).

Work processes have to be coordinated for continuous improvement in business units to be realized. The underlying reason behind this is meeting customer expectations. TQM endeavors a scenario where quality is enhanced in all facets of an organization while costs are kept at bare minimum. Any organization irrespective of its size can implement TQM especially if it wants to meet the demands of the customers. A major setback has however been the non-compliance of these organizations with the principles and procedures of TQM implementation (Asher, 1996). A number of organizations run TQM as a program that can perform magic by itself. Some organizations have also failed to achieve the customer satisfaction bit because of selective use of the principles.

Leading world airlines have…… [Read More]

References List

Alamdari, F. (1999). Airline In-flight Entertainment: The Passengers' Perspective. Journal of Air

Transport Management, 5(4).

Andrle, J. (1994). Total Quality Management in Public Transportation. Research Result Digest,

3, 1-33.
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Project Management Theories Traditional Theories

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89030485

In addition to this, the event chain methodology is used in counteracting the effects of different biases. This model also requires the use of Gantt charts.

The thermostat model is a model of management control that is based on performance standards, performance measured at the output, and the difference between standards and measured values is used for correcting the process in order to reach the established standards (Koskela & Howell, 2002). The management as planning theory is represented by the operational level management referring to creation, revision, and implementation of plans. This theory focuses on the relationship between the project's actions and the objectives of the company. The dispatching model refers to the fact that the activities and tasks planned in project management can be performed based on the project manager's approval.

The PRINCE 2 theory is a project management approach based on different methodologies developed by IBM. The objective of this model is represented by developing procedures intended to manage human resources and activities in different projects, supervising the project, and managing different modifications if required. In addition to this, the technique improves communication within the project.

Process-based managed is another important project management theory. In this case, projects…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Koskela, L. & Howell, G. (2002). The Theory of project
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Disney Australia Case Study Management Theories Aim

Words: 3227 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83732105

Disney Australia Case Study

Management theories aim to improve the operational and financial performance of business organizations and help them in achieving their strategic goals. The internationally accepted Management theories provide a framework to organizations in every aspect of their business. The policies and procedures formulated in the light of these theories can give them a competitive advantage and a sustainable future in the industry (Tripathi & Reddy, 2006).

Organizations follow the internationally accepted Management theories to improve their productivity, organizational strategy and structure, leadership and motivational practices, control systems, workplace cultures, risk and quality management, information management, and human resource management practices.

The purpose of this report is to discuss the aforementioned thesis statement for one of the most renowned organizations in the World's Entertainment industry -- the Walt Disney Company, Australia. The report starts with an ample introduction to the company and its specific operations into the Australian region, and proceeds by giving a brief analysis of its internal and external environment. The main section of the report discusses the business practices of this entertainment giant in the light of international management theories, concepts, and models. The focus of the report is to highlight the major management issues…… [Read More]


Bearden, W.O., Ingram, T.N., & LaForge, R.W. (2007). Marketing: Principles and Perspectives. 5th Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill

Brassington, F., & Pettitt, S. (2006). Principles of Marketing. 4th Edition. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall

Davidson, P., Simon, A., Woods, P. & Griffin, R. (2009). Management, 4th Australian Edition. Brisbane: John Wiley and Sons

Dowling, P.J., & Welch, D.E. (2008). International Human Resources Management: Managing People in a Multinational Context. 5th Edition. London: Prentice Hall
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Performance Management Theories and Practices Course Application

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92874195

Performance Management Theories and Practices

Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.

The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on the performance; rewarding individual based on the learning outcomes; and monitoring changes to objectives and activities.

The theories that were most applicable were the goal setting theory proposed by Edwin Locke and the Expectancy theory proposed by Victor Vroom. The goal setting theory states that individual goals that are established…… [Read More]


Leeuw, S. & Berg, P (2011). Improving Operational Performance by Influencing Shopfloor Behavior via Performance Management Practices. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. (29) 3, 224-233. Retrieved from

Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results. (1st Ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
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Nursing Leadership Management Theories and

Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47845342

When this happens, they will be effective in reaching out to different patients (from a host of backgrounds). This is the point that the underlying quality of care will improve. As a result, I have learned how to apply these concepts to real world health care environments. This will help in day-to-day practices by preparing me for the new challenges that will be faced on a continuing basis.

Recommendations / Conclusions

The only recommendation is to show how leadership strategies must be adjusted to the health care environment and situation. Having this kind of flexibility will give nurses a major advantage in addressing a host of challenges in the future. This is when they can deal with the increased responsibilities and control the added amounts of stress. Once this takes place, is the point they are capable of maintaining high standards of professionalism, quality and ethics at all times. This is when effective leadership will have a positive impact on the health care environment.… [Read More]


Benner, P. (2010). Educating Nurses. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Finkelman, a. (2012). Professional Nursing Concepts. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Lockwood, L (2011). Therapeutic Communication Techniques. E How. Retrieved from: 

Nagelkerk, J. (2006). Leadership and Nursing Care Management. St. Louis, MO: Saunders.
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Theory vs Creativity in Design Leaders Have

Words: 2363 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 863919

Theory vs. Creativity in Design

Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.

How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates

Integrity and honesty: Organizations must always reconsider the use of theories to keep up with the realities of the business environment. The management must be prepared for change and handle changes appropriately in the rapidly evolving world. Some of the relevant theories include situational, relationship, participative and transactional. Organizations have varied goals…… [Read More]


American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from 

Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.

Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.

DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
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Managing Changing Managing Change Reflect Critically Personal

Words: 2703 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92211068

Managing Changing

Managing Change

reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester Drawing learning experiences semester (group case study, relevant change management theory, reflections relevant personal experiences organisational change), reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester.

Managing change

The world we are living in is always changing. The nature of the business world today is very different than the way it was decades ago. Change is inevitable. This is because, as people are always faced with new problems and as such, come up with new ways of doing things in order to better their lives. The people therefore come up with new technologies to meet this needs. For an organization to remain relevant, it must be flexible enough to change with the changing times. Resisting to the wind of change will make the organization obsolete and lead to their collapsing Zilwa, 2010.

Nevertheless, people are always resistant to change. They crave security and feel more secure doing things that they are have tested and are afraid of getting into unknown grounds. For these reasons, it is important that corporate managers be aware of how to manage change in order to be successful in…… [Read More]

SINGH, M. & WADDELL, D. 2004. E-business innovation and change management, Hershey, Idea Group Publ.

WILLIAMS, A.P.O., DONBSON, P. & WOODWARD, S. 2002. Managing change successfully: using theory and experience to implement change, London, Thomson.

ZILWA, D.D. 2010. Academic units in a complex, changing world adaptation and resistance, Dordrecht, Springer.
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Managing Organizations Hotel Management Managing Organizations the Marriot

Words: 3158 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32299056

Managing Organizations/Hotel Management

Managing Organizations

The Marriot Corporation

A look at Six Sigma and the 7S McKinsey Framework

The Marriott Hotel Chain is a global brand offering resort and luxury hotel furnishings at popular vacation and business destinations. As the Events & Kitchen Management for global operations, my responsibility includes the overseeing of banquet operations including the process management of the cooking and serving efficiency. I receive complaints from hosts and others that contract our services. Whether the meal is cold or late, or if the order was wrong, there are a number of complaints that I must address as a leader and business manager.

The Event and Kitchen operations must flow seamlessly as an efficient engine that everyone loves because no one notices that it is running. When demand on the system steps up, so does performance. This can be said when the event is in full swing and drinks are being served at any one of our tables. We need to be more reactionary to demand such that preparation is undertaken to address the need to serve more drinks to clientele and for them to waste less time waiting for drinks to spend more time mingling and making…… [Read More]


Feurer, R., & Chaharbaghi, K. (1997). Strategy development: Past, present and future. Training for Quality, 5(2), 58. Retrieved from 

Journal of Management. (2002). Raytheon Six Sigma.

Kohnen, J.B. (2006). What is six sigma: Process management? The Quality Management Journal, 13(1), 60. Retrieved from

Leadersphere (2009). HR Intelligence Report Organizational Diagnostic Models A Review & Synthesis.
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Management Aptitude Analysis

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82017037

Management Aptitude Analysis

The results of the management aptitude questionnaire were fairly conclusive and useful in regards to my propensity for this particular application in organizational behavior. My scores point out both my strengths as well as those areas in which I can use improvement. Additionally, this information is valuable to see what exact management skills I would be best suited to employ to help a contemporary organization progress.

The most encouraging part of this questionnaire was my score in conceptual skills, in which I achieved 25 points out of 30. In some ways, conceptual skills are the most important for a manager to possess, although human skills are becoming increasingly valuable as well (Daft, 2011, p. 11). However, conceptual skills are those in which a manager is cognizant of how the specific parts of an organization coalesce and work together. More importantly, conceptual skills are those which enable a manager to successfully adjust these different parts in order to improve performance and achieve organizational objectives. Conceptual skills are absolutely necessary for upper level management in large organizations; my high score in this department certainly supports the fact that with practice and improvement in the other two areas, I have…… [Read More]


Daft, R.L. (2011). Management. Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.
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Management Accounting Systems & Org

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65541936

The clear line drawn between accounting and managing, for example, illustrates that traditional accounting systems are of little use to the managers, and that they should have their own accounting systems to meet their needs.

Another way in which Fayol influenced managerial accounting systems is in the way he viewed organizational structure. Some of his key structural principles, such as centralization and scalar chain, reinforce the value of management accounting systems. The systems are needed to support the chain of command, and the top manager at the center of the system. The principle of unity of direction probably contributed the most to management accounting systems because it ties objectives together with a single manager. This guided management accounting systems towards meeting specific singular objectives, and framed the chain of tasks around goals.

Behavioral theories also helped to have an influence of the development of management accounting systems. Human relations is a key part of the functioning of almost any organization. As management theory became more sophisticated, it introduced the human element into Taylorism and administrative theory. Those theories were heavily focused on cold, rational concepts and outlooks. The introduction of the concept of human relations added the social workplace as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hoque, Zahirul. (2006) Methodological Issues in Accounting Research. Spiramus Press, London.

No author. (no date). Session 5: Financial and Managerial Accounting Transportation Operations Management. Retrieved August 16, 2008 at

No author. (2007). Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management. NetMBA. Retrieved August 16, 2008 at 

No author. (no date). Administrative Theory (Fayol). Babson College. Retrieved August 16, 2008 at
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Management as Organizations Become Larger in Both

Words: 912 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15924444


As organizations become larger in both scope and scale, the need for both management and leadership compounds. Many organization problems today, correlate heavily to a lack of true management. Aspects such as fraud, high employee turnover, product recalls, and strikes, all have origins with management. To better combat many of these negative influences, companies must hire, attract and retain talented management. In order to do so, many companies use the administrative management theory of management. This theory emphasizes the use of planned procedures, job specialization, and merit pay to help facilitate business objectives. I believe this theory to be the most useful in regards to managing an organization. For one, specialization of labor helps increase operational efficiencies with a business. In addition, planned procedures allow both employees and management to have clearly defined goals and job expectations. Finally pay based on merit provides incentive for employee and management to perform their job correctly (Lewis, 2006).

To begin, Adam Smith, and economic pioneer, once wrote a book describing the specialization of labor and its merit. Through use of the administrative theory of management, individuals are required to specialize in a particular task or objective. In regards to managing an organization,…… [Read More]


1) Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26 (2003).

2) Stroh, L.K., Northcraft, G.B., & Neale, M.A. (2002). Organizational behavior: A management challenge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

3) Paul C. Dinsmore et al. (2005) The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35-42

4) Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-147160-X p.110- 116
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Management -- Organizational Theory the

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6219004

519). The point before proceeding is that when employees sense that their organization is ethically responsible vis-a-vis citizenship, their work engagement is "likely stimulated" (Lin, p. 521). The procedure Lin follows in this research is to conduct empirical research using a survey of personnel from "20 large firm of an industrial zone in northern Taiwan" (high-tech and more traditional companies) (Lin, p. 522).

Of the 600 questionnaires Lin sent out, 428 "usable questionnaires" came back (a response rate of 71.33%). The system of measuring used by Lin: 5-point Likert scales modified from previous research. Lin's three steps: a) she first had the existing literature translated into Chinese from English and then a focus group of 4 (including 3 graduate students and a professor) that were very familiar with CSR modified the questions; b) two pilot tests were conducted to clarify the quality of the questions; and c) additional care went into making certain there was "no translation biases in the Chinese version" of the questionnaire (Lin, pp. 522-23).

Flaws in the design of the study: The "predictors in the research model were measured perceptually at a single point in time"; and also, the research was conducted in a single country…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lin, Chieh-Peng. (2010). Modeling Corporate Citizenship, Organizational Trust, and Work

Engagement Based on Attachment Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 94, 517-531.
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Management of Change Balagon Julia

Words: 1404 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75740973

In my opinion, valuable organizational change is a process. It is nothing that comes from one day to the other. It requires the combined efforts of the organization as a whole: Skilled managers and the commitment of an organization's workforce alike.

Discussion of the paper's results: What are the key findings? What does it add to the body of knowledge?

The key findings of the paper are threefold.

First, the current management of organizational change tends to be reactive in its response to the pace of change that has never been greater than today. Second, successful management of change within organizations is a highly required skill. Third, further research into the nature of change management needs to be conducted and a new and pragmatic framework for change management is needed as a critical success factor for the management of change. It adds to the body of knowledge, that managerial skills alone will not be sufficient to successfully change the management of an organization. There is much more needed, including the involvement of all stakeholders including an organization's workforce.

What does it tell us about change?

The article tells us that change is an ever-present element that has an impact on…… [Read More]

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Theory Z Is a Paradigm

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48392064

Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z

Consensual Decision Making -- When employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.

Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.

Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly ROI. This encourages employees and managers to think strategically and anticipate the market rather than simply react to it.

Research as to the efficacy of Theory Z has mixed results. The processes involved can be time consuming, and certain types of organizations resistant to such change (e.g. large, multi-generational factory…… [Read More]


Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management

Executives.18 (4): 108-117.

Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."

Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
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Theory of Planned Behavior and Theory of Reasoned Action

Words: 2175 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19468067

Management Theories

Behavior Management Theories and Applications

The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of Reasoned Action

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of Reasoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects as influencing intention (and behavior); perceived behavioral management. This is the perceived difficulty or ease with which the person will be able to execute or bring out the behavior, and is very just like thoughts of self-efficacy.

The TPB is designed for forecasting behavior and retrospective evaluation of behavior. It…… [Read More]


Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.

Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.

Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.

Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
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Management Moon Shots Shooting the

Words: 1285 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39825176

Again, this might seem like simple good sense; making decisions based on the factual merits of the situation rather than on face-saving or boss-pleasing seems like the only rational way of doing business. Not paying attention to political whims, however, can have serious repercussions for individuals and organizations alike, and truly depoliticizing decisions requires a great deal of introspection, honesty, and self-awareness in the top management officials and decision makers in a company (Hamel 2009).

Achieving this depoliticization is certain to be even more difficult than establishing a democracy of information, as it is difficult to convince people to relinquish power willingly once they have it. The problem is that politicized decision making is only a hair's breadth away -- one might even say is simply a euphemism for -- corrupt decision making. Few debates or issues are more heavily politicized than long-term (and even short-term) government planning, and though government entities are run very differently from businesses in many regards, in this area they are remarkably similar. The politicization of governmental decision making ceases to have the best interests of the citizens that government is beholden to at heart, and instead shifts the focus to the benefit of certain…… [Read More]


Burk, M. (1999). "Knowledge Management: Everyone Benefits by Sharing Information." Public roads 63(3).

Hamel, G. (2009). "Moon shots for management." Harvard business review (February), pp. 91-8.

Newman, P. (2009). "Markets, experts and depoliticizing decisions on major infrastructure." Urban research and practice 2(2), pp. 158-68.
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Theory Building There Are Many

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32989562

I would agree with this statement, since theory and practice, when applied to each other appropriately, inform each other and cannot in fact be separated into two distinct entities. It is vitally important to use theory for informing practice, while practice would further inform theory, making the statement that a good theory is, in fact, practically true.


Benedict Spinoza, a post-Cartesian philosopher in the 17th century, held ideas of which many are still applicable to research and knowledge today (Dutton, 2005). One of these is his assertion about facts and theory. Specifically, the philosopher said: "if the facts conflict with the theory, either the theory must be changed or the facts." In practice this means that the concept of "facts" are not necessarily as static as the word suggests. Facts can change if the theory that conflicts with them is stronger than facts that have been proven by previous theory. New theories are continuously created and hypothesized. Which means that facts can change according to the theories created. However, the fact that theories are hypothesized means that they first need to undergo rigorous testing before a proven fact can be changed. One example of this may be the previously…… [Read More]


Anderson, R., Moore, T., Nagaraja, S., and Ozment, a. (2007, May 23). Incentives and Information Security. Retrieved from: 

Dutton, B.D. (2005, Jul. 7). Benedict Spinoza. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from:

Vansteenkiste, M. And Sheldon, K.M. (2006). There's nothing more practical than a good theory: Integrating motivational interviewing and self-determination theory. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 45. Retrieved from:
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Management Concepts and Theory

Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72808712

Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.

According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no effect, but, when absent, increase dissatisfaction and lower motivation. This study sought to develop an analytical tool to identify and assess motivation and hygiene factors associated with patient satisfaction.

Bolm (2012) demonstrated the usefulness of the two-factor theory in health care administration by making managers aware of the contribution between…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/

Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).

Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm,

Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from .
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Management Solutions for Electronic Waste

Words: 5441 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47148951

" (from World environmental news, Internet edition)

Besides developing flexible legislation that will distribute the functions of recycling between manufacturers and municipal services there has to be a definite and developed program that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electronic waste, reduction of e-waste landfills and incineration. Recycling program should not be limited to the recycling of CRT monitors, as their owners are more likely to bring the whole obsolete computer system to the recycling, not just computer monitors.

The benefit of integral program of recycling is that it allows using a variety of materials used in the electronics manufacturing like precious metals, semi-precious metals, and some electronic items in the reuse.

The most important part of the e-waste management is search of the most appropriate and qualified partners in the technical or practical part of the problem solution. This problem is of the essential value, as the efficiency of e-waste management depends primary on the executives of the practical side more than on simple legislature. Legislature may pave the way to the problem solution but can not solve it all by ecological and environmental laws and bills. In order to involve partners and government…… [Read More]

reference: being reused repaired and modernized; being recycled and the most ecologically disadvantageous solution is simply being land filled. But the realization of these practices faces a lot of obstacles mainly of financial character. All of them are quite expensive and do not bring desired return.

That's why scientists and economists agree in the following: recycling of e-waste has to be the concern of electronics manufacturers. Loop industry is the most optimal solution to the problem as the manufacturer becomes responsible for the recycling of the products he makes. Introduction of such practices has the negative outcomes of course. Because technological process becomes more complicated and intensive, requires involvement of additional equipment and facilities on the hand with new labour the net value of the production increases and so the customers would have to pay more for electronics.

Another direction in the solution of e-waste problem is export of e-waste to the developing countries, where the process of recycling is cheaper and the possibility of e-waste to be reused, repaired and modernized is higher. Moreover some third world countries use unpopulated territories for e-waste. Anyways, this kind of solution is not appropriate again, because most of these practices somehow avoid law regulations of these countries and cannot have a mass character. It only creates additional problem which would have to be solved in close future.

As most of experts agree that recycling of e-waste has to be the problem of e-products manufacturers they have to develop different effective strategies and technologies for the most optimal solution of this problem: starting form transportation of e-waste from customer to the process of recycling. At this point global environmental community has to cooperate and share new practices and approaches in solving this problem. It refers both to technology and legislative regulation of the problem.

And in developing own strategy for e-waste management the officials of different countries have to work together and adopt practices of each other that are being effective. Countries of European Union had already made the first steps to the solution of this problem, making manufactures to be responsible for the waste caused by their products. The United Sates and Canada should start to introduce these practices as well, if they want to achieve ecological balance and safe coexistence of scientific and technological progress with health of humanity.
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Management Strategy Identify Four Factors That Affect

Words: 1855 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28368827

Management Strategy

Identify four factors that affect whether an industry does or does not present a company with a good business opportunity?

The business environment has become highly complex and challenging for firms due to various macro-environmental factors. These factors directly impact the operational and financial performance of firms in one way or another (Sharp, Bergh, & Li, 2013). The economic, political, legal, social, cultural, competitive, and technological forces collectively form the external business environment for business organizations (Hill & Jones, 2010). However, the four leading factors that drive the performance of organizations whether their industry does or does not present them with good business opportunities include: globalization, technological advancements, consumer behavior, and competitive intensity (Thompson, Peteraf, Gamble, Strickland, 2013).


Globalization has a significant influence on the performance of local and international firms operating in a country. Now firms not only have to compete with their domestic competitors, but also with the multinational companies in targeting potential customers and availing attractive growth opportunities (Johnson, Scholes, Whittington, & Pyle, 2011). The increasing globalization factor has made it easier for firms to target customers beyond their geographical boundaries, achieve economies of scale through cost control, and gain competitive advantage (Hitt, Ireland,…… [Read More]


Batra, S.K., & Kazmi, S.H. (2008). Consumer Behavior: Text and Cases, 2nd Edition. New Delhi: Excel Books.

Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2010). Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach, 9th Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2013). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.

Johnson, G., Scholes, K., Whittington, R., & Pyle, S. (2011). Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases, 9th Edition. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
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Management and Leadership Strategic Management and Leadership

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86172725

Management and Leadership

Strategic Management and Leadership

Strategic management and leadership theories supporting organizational direction


This document focuses on the leadership theories based on transformational and contingency approaches as well as the management theories based on supporting the accomplishment of organizational objectives. It attempts to review the different approaches and deliver a subjective leadership style that will guide the organization to achieving its goals.

Application of leadership and management theories to support organizational direction

Organizations exist to make profit. That is the sole purpose of corporation and combined companies. Effective organizations are those that are able to adapt to ever changing forces in the general and task environment. Therefore strategic management plays a vital role in helping organizations achieve the means necessary to gain profits and build customer loyalty.

Strategic management is the set of decisions and succeeding actions taken by management that will provide a competitively superior fit between the organization and its environment.


Following is a summarized review of the existing theories of leadership and management that are coherent in maintaining organizational direction with the set path.


Leadership is defined as the ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals (Daft, 2008). This definition…… [Read More]


Balakrishnan, M.R., 2007, Transformational Leadership -- A Case Study, Life Insurance Corporation of India, India, viewed 27th September 2011,

Covey, S. 2007, The Transformational Leadership Report,, viewed 27th September 2011, < >

Daft, R.L. 2008, Management, Daft, Nashville, Tennessee.

Kirk Jr., T.G. 2004, 'The role of management theory in day-to-day Management practices of a College Director', library management and leadership special section, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 35 -- 38, viewed 27th September 2011,