Management Theory Essays (Examples)

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Management Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23685442

Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the esource-Based View

Accurate comprehension of the article = blue

Critical analysis of the strengths and weakness of the ideas, concepts or theories = yellow

* Provision of specific comments in the form of criticism, disagreement, synthesis, paradox, curiosity or genuine confusion= green

Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the esource-Based View

Using a thorough analysis of management theories and approaches to illustrate how the esource-Based View (BV) of management can deliver greater competitive advantage and more optimized use of internal resources, the authors seek to support this assertion with a comprehensive literature review. The synthesis of the Classical Approach, Human esource Approach, Quantitative Approach, Systems Perspective, Contingency Approach and Information Technology Approach is used as the foundation for showing how the BV approach to management can deliver exceptional results (aduan, Jegak,…… [Read More]

References

Raduan, C.R., Jegak, U., Haslinda, A., & Alimin, I. (2009). Management, strategic management theories and the linkage with organizational competitive advantage from the resource-based view. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(3), 402-418.
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Management Theories Over the Last

Words: 5125 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66779535

Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)

Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Building Emotional Capital. (2004, June 24). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Executive Education website: http://executive.education.insead.edu/programme/documents/Nissan_004.pdf

Contingency Theory. (2010). Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Values-Based Management website:  http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_contingency_theory.html 

Babineck, M. (2006, March 13). The Enron Trial. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Chron website: http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/special/enron/3718892.html

Bissonette, Z. (2008, August 1). How Does General Motors CEO Rick Wagoner Still Have a Job. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Blogging Stocks website: http://www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/08/01/how-does-general-motors-ceo-richard-wagoner-still-have-a-job/
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Management Theories Historical Records Show That People

Words: 2061 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99899559

Management Theories

Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific

2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374

3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html

4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
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Management Theories as the Supervisor

Words: 4318 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15241304

In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, Kenneth O. "Worker Ownership and Participation in the Context of Social Change: Progress Is Slow and Difficult, but it Need Not Wait upon Massive Redistribution of Wealth. " the American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44.3 (1985): 337. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 25 Oct. 2008

Timothy Bartram, Gian Casimir. "The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader:the mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. " Leadership & Organization Development Journal 28.1 (2007): 4-19. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008

Douglas Brownlie, Paul Hewer, Beverly Wagner, Gran Svensson. "Management theory and practice: bridging the gap through multidisciplinary lenses. " European Business Review 20.6 (2008): 461-470. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008

Huei-Fang Chen, Yi-Ching Chen. "The Impact of Work Redesign and Psychological Empowerment on Organizational Commitment in a Changing Environment: An Example From Taiwan's State-Owned Enterprises. " Public Personnel Management 37.3 (2008): 279-302. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 27 Oct. 2008
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Management Theories of Likert Blake

Words: 2432 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4086879

As in the model of Likert, progressively the concern for people increases as we move down the line from 'Exploitative authoritarian' to 'Benevolent authoritarian' to 'Consultative' to finally 'Participative', similarly in the Blake's Managerial Grid the mapping of high concern for people and low concern for production is seen as the score comes to be 1,9. On the other hand a close comparison of G2 stage of the Vroom-Yetton model and the Participative management of Likert model it is seen that both of them bear similarities. In G2 stage of Vroom-Yetton model, the leader shares the crisis and difficulties with the subordinates of his group and based on a consensus all the parties build and evaluate alternatives and try to arrive at a consensus on a solution.

oughly the same idea is conveyed in the Participative model of Likert wherein the management looks forward to build groups of employees who…… [Read More]

References

Conger, Jay a; Kanungo, Rabindra N. (1988) "Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness." Jossey-Bass Publishers. Retrieved at  http://www.coastwiseconsulting.com/Charismatic%20Leadership%20-%20OCRed.pdf . Accessed on 10 February, 2005 del Val, Manuela Pardo; Rodr'guez, Sonia Das'; "Participative management and organizational culture." Retrieved at http://www.sses.com/public/events/euram/complete_tracks/managing_cultures_identities/pardo-del-val_perez_rodriguez.pdf. Accessed on 10 February, 2005

Inman, Mark Lee. (01 Jun 2000) "The relevance of traditional management theories to the 21st Century" Retrieved at http://www.accaglobal.com/publications/studentaccountant/32495Accessed on 10 February, 2005

Leadership Model and Theories" Retrieved at http://www.cda-acd.forces.gc.ca/CFLI/engraph/research/pdf/12.pdf. Accessed on 10 February, 2005

Likert's leadership styles" Retrieved at  http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/likert_style.htm . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
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Analyzing the Management Theories

Words: 849 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20645877

Management Theory and Associated Urinary Tract Infections

Infection of the urinary tract constitutes a great share of all infections acquired in hospitals (Klevens, Edwards, & ichards, 2007); of these, most cases are of CAUTI or catheter-associated urinary tract infection, which is "reasonably preventable," according to the CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). CMS doesn't reimburse medical facilities for this disease any more. Of the best strategies to reduce CAUTI is ensuring never to employ urinary catheters unless one perceives an appropriate symptom.

Several research works, some even dating back many decades, can be found, of ways to decrease or prevent the development of CAUTI. Over the years, a few of the recommendations have reformed; for instance, at one time, routine catheter irrigation was recommended; however, presently, the medical profession deems it as a practice that must be avoided. Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare organizations to make sure their…… [Read More]

References

Barnard, C.I. (1952). Leadership and the law. New York University Law Review, 27(1), 112-116

Fanning, M., & Oakes, D. (2006). A tool for quantifying organizational support for evidence-based practice change. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 21(2), 110-113.

IHCI. (2011). How-to guide: Prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Cambrige, MA. Retrieved from http://www.mnreducinghais.org/documents/CAUTI_How_to_Guide.pdf

Klevens, R. M., Edwards, J. R., & Richards, C. L. (2007). Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep, 122(2), 160-166.
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TQM Theory in Airport Passenger Handling

Words: 1443 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39330340

Total Quality Management Theory

Total Quality Management Development

How Total Quality Management (TQM) Theory can be applied to improve the airport passenger handling

Total Quality Management (TQM) specifically deals with work process and people. Implementation of TQM calls for team work and employee involvement. All operations, suppliers, and customers have to be involved. Besides, it also calls for performance measurement. TQM is normally implemented by business organizations to satisfy its customers. It improves organizational performance (Asher, 1996).

Work processes have to be coordinated for continuous improvement in business units to be realized. The underlying reason behind this is meeting customer expectations. TQM endeavors a scenario where quality is enhanced in all facets of an organization while costs are kept at bare minimum. Any organization irrespective of its size can implement TQM especially if it wants to meet the demands of the customers. A major setback has however been the non-compliance…… [Read More]

References List

Alamdari, F. (1999). Airline In-flight Entertainment: The Passengers' Perspective. Journal of Air

Transport Management, 5(4).

Andrle, J. (1994). Total Quality Management in Public Transportation. Research Result Digest,

3, 1-33.
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Project Management Theories Traditional Theories

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89030485

In addition to this, the event chain methodology is used in counteracting the effects of different biases. This model also requires the use of Gantt charts.

The thermostat model is a model of management control that is based on performance standards, performance measured at the output, and the difference between standards and measured values is used for correcting the process in order to reach the established standards (Koskela & Howell, 2002). The management as planning theory is represented by the operational level management referring to creation, revision, and implementation of plans. This theory focuses on the relationship between the project's actions and the objectives of the company. The dispatching model refers to the fact that the activities and tasks planned in project management can be performed based on the project manager's approval.

The PINCE 2 theory is a project management approach based on different methodologies developed by IBM. The objective…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Koskela, L. & Howell, G. (2002). The Theory of project
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Disney Australia Case Study Management Theories Aim

Words: 3227 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83732105

Disney Australia Case Study

Management theories aim to improve the operational and financial performance of business organizations and help them in achieving their strategic goals. The internationally accepted Management theories provide a framework to organizations in every aspect of their business. The policies and procedures formulated in the light of these theories can give them a competitive advantage and a sustainable future in the industry (Tripathi & eddy, 2006).

Organizations follow the internationally accepted Management theories to improve their productivity, organizational strategy and structure, leadership and motivational practices, control systems, workplace cultures, risk and quality management, information management, and human resource management practices.

The purpose of this report is to discuss the aforementioned thesis statement for one of the most renowned organizations in the World's Entertainment industry -- the Walt Disney Company, Australia. The report starts with an ample introduction to the company and its specific operations into the Australian…… [Read More]

References

Bearden, W.O., Ingram, T.N., & LaForge, R.W. (2007). Marketing: Principles and Perspectives. 5th Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill

Brassington, F., & Pettitt, S. (2006). Principles of Marketing. 4th Edition. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall

Davidson, P., Simon, A., Woods, P. & Griffin, R. (2009). Management, 4th Australian Edition. Brisbane: John Wiley and Sons

Dowling, P.J., & Welch, D.E. (2008). International Human Resources Management: Managing People in a Multinational Context. 5th Edition. London: Prentice Hall
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Performance Management Theories and Practices Course Application

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92874195

Performance Management Theories and Practices

Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.

The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on…… [Read More]

References

Leeuw, S. & Berg, P (2011). Improving Operational Performance by Influencing Shopfloor Behavior via Performance Management Practices. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. (29) 3, 224-233. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/866083571/50E9B56B076C4E25PQ/1?accountid=39364

Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results. (1st Ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
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Nursing Leadership Management Theories and

Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47845342

When this happens, they will be effective in reaching out to different patients (from a host of backgrounds). This is the point that the underlying quality of care will improve. As a result, I have learned how to apply these concepts to real world health care environments. This will help in day-to-day practices by preparing me for the new challenges that will be faced on a continuing basis.

ecommendations / Conclusions

The only recommendation is to show how leadership strategies must be adjusted to the health care environment and situation. Having this kind of flexibility will give nurses a major advantage in addressing a host of challenges in the future. This is when they can deal with the increased responsibilities and control the added amounts of stress. Once this takes place, is the point they are capable of maintaining high standards of professionalism, quality and ethics at all times. This…… [Read More]

References

Benner, P. (2010). Educating Nurses. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Finkelman, a. (2012). Professional Nursing Concepts. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Lockwood, L (2011). Therapeutic Communication Techniques. E How. Retrieved from:  http://www.ehow.com/about_5098131_therapeutic-communication-techniques-nursing.html 

Nagelkerk, J. (2006). Leadership and Nursing Care Management. St. Louis, MO: Saunders.
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Effective Utilization of Natural Resources for Food Depends on Sound Management Theories

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 660641

Food Crisis

Effective utilization of Natural esources for food Depends on Sound Management Theories

elationship between the world food crisis and the world financial crisis

According to Howard G. Buffett, an organizer of the philanthropic Buffet Foundation, the world food crisis and the world financial crisis coincided at a particularly unfortunate time. Despite the fact that the financial crisis temporarily caused fuel and thus commodity prices to decrease, the majority of the world's consumers were still "spending 70 to 100% of what you make on food, and the balance of what you don't spend on food you may easily spend on transportation or cooking or producing food in small agriculture, those two things are killers. You have an increase in the problem and a reduction of funds. It's the worst possible scenario" ('The worst possible scenario,' 2009, World Food Programme). The devastation of the global economy and reduced availability of…… [Read More]

References

Gentleman, Amelia. (2009). Global financial crisis hits world's poor hardest. The Guardian.

Retrieved: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/mar/27/global-crisis-impact-poor 'The worst possible scenario.' (2009). World Food Programme. Retrieved:

 http://www.wfp.org/stories/%E2%80%98-worst-possible-scenario%E2%80%99 

Shattuck, Annie. (2008). The financial crisis and the food crisis: Two sides of the same coin.
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Theory vs Creativity in Design Leaders Have

Words: 2363 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 863919

Theory vs. Creativity in Design

Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.

How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates

Integrity and…… [Read More]

References

American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from  http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51 

Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.

Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.

DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
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Managing Changing Managing Change Reflect Critically Personal

Words: 2703 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92211068

Managing Changing

Managing Change

reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester Drawing learning experiences semester (group case study, relevant change management theory, reflections relevant personal experiences organisational change), reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester.

Managing change

The world we are living in is always changing. The nature of the business world today is very different than the way it was decades ago. Change is inevitable. This is because, as people are always faced with new problems and as such, come up with new ways of doing things in order to better their lives. The people therefore come up with new technologies to meet this needs. For an organization to remain relevant, it must be flexible enough to change with the changing times. Resisting to the wind of change will make the organization obsolete and lead to their collapsing Zilwa, 2010.

Nevertheless,…… [Read More]

SINGH, M. & WADDELL, D. 2004. E-business innovation and change management, Hershey, Idea Group Publ.

WILLIAMS, A.P.O., DONBSON, P. & WOODWARD, S. 2002. Managing change successfully: using theory and experience to implement change, London, Thomson.

ZILWA, D.D. 2010. Academic units in a complex, changing world adaptation and resistance, Dordrecht, Springer.
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Management Aptitude Analysis

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82017037

Management Aptitude Analysis

The results of the management aptitude questionnaire were fairly conclusive and useful in regards to my propensity for this particular application in organizational behavior. My scores point out both my strengths as well as those areas in which I can use improvement. Additionally, this information is valuable to see what exact management skills I would be best suited to employ to help a contemporary organization progress.

The most encouraging part of this questionnaire was my score in conceptual skills, in which I achieved 25 points out of 30. In some ways, conceptual skills are the most important for a manager to possess, although human skills are becoming increasingly valuable as well (Daft, 2011, p. 11). However, conceptual skills are those in which a manager is cognizant of how the specific parts of an organization coalesce and work together. More importantly, conceptual skills are those which enable a…… [Read More]

References

Daft, R.L. (2011). Management. Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.
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Management Accounting Systems & Org

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65541936

The clear line drawn between accounting and managing, for example, illustrates that traditional accounting systems are of little use to the managers, and that they should have their own accounting systems to meet their needs.

Another way in which Fayol influenced managerial accounting systems is in the way he viewed organizational structure. Some of his key structural principles, such as centralization and scalar chain, reinforce the value of management accounting systems. The systems are needed to support the chain of command, and the top manager at the center of the system. The principle of unity of direction probably contributed the most to management accounting systems because it ties objectives together with a single manager. This guided management accounting systems towards meeting specific singular objectives, and framed the chain of tasks around goals.

Behavioral theories also helped to have an influence of the development of management accounting systems. Human relations is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hoque, Zahirul. (2006) Methodological Issues in Accounting Research. Spiramus Press, London.

No author. (no date). Session 5: Financial and Managerial Accounting Transportation Operations Management. Retrieved August 16, 2008 at http://cbdd.wsu.edu/kewlcontent/cdoutput/TOM505/page11.htm

No author. (2007). Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management. NetMBA. Retrieved August 16, 2008 at  http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/scientific/ 

No author. (no date). Administrative Theory (Fayol). Babson College. Retrieved August 16, 2008 at  http://faculty.babson.edu/krollag/org_site/encyclop/admin_theory.html
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Management as Organizations Become Larger in Both

Words: 912 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15924444

Management

As organizations become larger in both scope and scale, the need for both management and leadership compounds. Many organization problems today, correlate heavily to a lack of true management. Aspects such as fraud, high employee turnover, product recalls, and strikes, all have origins with management. To better combat many of these negative influences, companies must hire, attract and retain talented management. In order to do so, many companies use the administrative management theory of management. This theory emphasizes the use of planned procedures, job specialization, and merit pay to help facilitate business objectives. I believe this theory to be the most useful in regards to managing an organization. For one, specialization of labor helps increase operational efficiencies with a business. In addition, planned procedures allow both employees and management to have clearly defined goals and job expectations. Finally pay based on merit provides incentive for employee and management to…… [Read More]

References:

1) Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26 (2003).

2) Stroh, L.K., Northcraft, G.B., & Neale, M.A. (2002). Organizational behavior: A management challenge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

3) Paul C. Dinsmore et al. (2005) The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35-42

4) Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-147160-X p.110- 116
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Management -- Organizational Theory the

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6219004

519). The point before proceeding is that when employees sense that their organization is ethically responsible vis-a-vis citizenship, their work engagement is "likely stimulated" (Lin, p. 521). The procedure Lin follows in this research is to conduct empirical research using a survey of personnel from "20 large firm of an industrial zone in northern Taiwan" (high-tech and more traditional companies) (Lin, p. 522).

Of the 600 questionnaires Lin sent out, 428 "usable questionnaires" came back (a response rate of 71.33%). The system of measuring used by Lin: 5-point Likert scales modified from previous research. Lin's three steps: a) she first had the existing literature translated into Chinese from English and then a focus group of 4 (including 3 graduate students and a professor) that were very familiar with CSR modified the questions; b) two pilot tests were conducted to clarify the quality of the questions; and c) additional care went…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lin, Chieh-Peng. (2010). Modeling Corporate Citizenship, Organizational Trust, and Work

Engagement Based on Attachment Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 94, 517-531.
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Management of Change Balagon Julia

Words: 1404 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75740973

In my opinion, valuable organizational change is a process. It is nothing that comes from one day to the other. It requires the combined efforts of the organization as a whole: Skilled managers and the commitment of an organization's workforce alike.

Discussion of the paper's results: What are the key findings? What does it add to the body of knowledge?

The key findings of the paper are threefold.

First, the current management of organizational change tends to be reactive in its response to the pace of change that has never been greater than today. Second, successful management of change within organizations is a highly required skill. Third, further research into the nature of change management needs to be conducted and a new and pragmatic framework for change management is needed as a critical success factor for the management of change. It adds to the body of knowledge, that managerial skills…… [Read More]

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Theory Z Is a Paradigm

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48392064



Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z

Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.

Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.

Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management

Executives.18 (4): 108-117.

Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."

Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
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Theory of Planned Behavior and Theory of Reasoned Action

Words: 2175 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19468067

Management Theories

Behavior Management Theories and Applications

The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…… [Read More]

References

Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.

Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.

Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.

Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
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Management Moon Shots Shooting the

Words: 1285 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39825176

Again, this might seem like simple good sense; making decisions based on the factual merits of the situation rather than on face-saving or boss-pleasing seems like the only rational way of doing business. Not paying attention to political whims, however, can have serious repercussions for individuals and organizations alike, and truly depoliticizing decisions requires a great deal of introspection, honesty, and self-awareness in the top management officials and decision makers in a company (Hamel 2009).

Achieving this depoliticization is certain to be even more difficult than establishing a democracy of information, as it is difficult to convince people to relinquish power willingly once they have it. The problem is that politicized decision making is only a hair's breadth away -- one might even say is simply a euphemism for -- corrupt decision making. Few debates or issues are more heavily politicized than long-term (and even short-term) government planning, and though…… [Read More]

References

Burk, M. (1999). "Knowledge Management: Everyone Benefits by Sharing Information." Public roads 63(3).

Hamel, G. (2009). "Moon shots for management." Harvard business review (February), pp. 91-8.

Newman, P. (2009). "Markets, experts and depoliticizing decisions on major infrastructure." Urban research and practice 2(2), pp. 158-68.
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Management Concepts and Theory

Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72808712

Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.

According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468274.

Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).

Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm, nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728772.

Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from  http://www.abacjournal.au.edu/2009/jan09/article03_JanApr2009.pdf .
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Management Strategy Identify Four Factors That Affect

Words: 1855 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28368827

Management Strategy

Identify four factors that affect whether an industry does or does not present a company with a good business opportunity?

The business environment has become highly complex and challenging for firms due to various macro-environmental factors. These factors directly impact the operational and financial performance of firms in one way or another (Sharp, Bergh, & Li, 2013). The economic, political, legal, social, cultural, competitive, and technological forces collectively form the external business environment for business organizations (Hill & Jones, 2010). However, the four leading factors that drive the performance of organizations whether their industry does or does not present them with good business opportunities include: globalization, technological advancements, consumer behavior, and competitive intensity (Thompson, Peteraf, Gamble, Strickland, 2013).

Globalization:

Globalization has a significant influence on the performance of local and international firms operating in a country. Now firms not only have to compete with their domestic competitors, but…… [Read More]

References

Batra, S.K., & Kazmi, S.H. (2008). Consumer Behavior: Text and Cases, 2nd Edition. New Delhi: Excel Books.

Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2010). Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach, 9th Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2013). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.

Johnson, G., Scholes, K., Whittington, R., & Pyle, S. (2011). Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases, 9th Edition. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
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Management Solutions for Electronic Waste

Words: 5441 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47148951

" (fom Wold envionmental news, Intenet edition)

Besides developing flexible legislation that will distibute the functions of ecycling between manufactues and municipal sevices thee has to be a definite and developed pogam that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electonic waste, eduction of e-waste landfills and incineation. Recycling pogam should not be limited to the ecycling of CRT monitos, as thei ownes ae moe likely to bing the whole obsolete compute system to the ecycling, not just compute monitos.

The benefit of integal pogam of ecycling is that it allows using a vaiety of mateials used in the electonics manufactuing like pecious metals, semi-pecious metals, and some electonic items in the euse.

The most impotant pat of the e-waste management is seach of the most appopiate and qualified patnes in the technical o pactical pat of the poblem solution. This poblem is of the essential…… [Read More]

reference: being reused repaired and modernized; being recycled and the most ecologically disadvantageous solution is simply being land filled. But the realization of these practices faces a lot of obstacles mainly of financial character. All of them are quite expensive and do not bring desired return.

That's why scientists and economists agree in the following: recycling of e-waste has to be the concern of electronics manufacturers. Loop industry is the most optimal solution to the problem as the manufacturer becomes responsible for the recycling of the products he makes. Introduction of such practices has the negative outcomes of course. Because technological process becomes more complicated and intensive, requires involvement of additional equipment and facilities on the hand with new labour the net value of the production increases and so the customers would have to pay more for electronics.

Another direction in the solution of e-waste problem is export of e-waste to the developing countries, where the process of recycling is cheaper and the possibility of e-waste to be reused, repaired and modernized is higher. Moreover some third world countries use unpopulated territories for e-waste. Anyways, this kind of solution is not appropriate again, because most of these practices somehow avoid law regulations of these countries and cannot have a mass character. It only creates additional problem which would have to be solved in close future.

As most of experts agree that recycling of e-waste has to be the problem of e-products manufacturers they have to develop different effective strategies and technologies for the most optimal solution of this problem: starting form transportation of e-waste from customer to the process of recycling. At this point global environmental community has to cooperate and share new practices and approaches in solving this problem. It refers both to technology and legislative regulation of the problem.

And in developing own strategy for e-waste management the officials of different countries have to work together and adopt practices of each other that are being effective. Countries of European Union had already made the first steps to the solution of this problem, making manufactures to be responsible for the waste caused by their products. The United Sates and Canada should start to introduce these practices as well, if they want to achieve ecological balance and safe coexistence of scientific and technological progress with health of humanity.
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Management and Leadership Strategic Management and Leadership

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86172725

Management and Leadership

Strategic Management and Leadership

Strategic management and leadership theories supporting organizational direction

TW

This document focuses on the leadership theories based on transformational and contingency approaches as well as the management theories based on supporting the accomplishment of organizational objectives. It attempts to review the different approaches and deliver a subjective leadership style that will guide the organization to achieving its goals.

Application of leadership and management theories to support organizational direction

Organizations exist to make profit. That is the sole purpose of corporation and combined companies. Effective organizations are those that are able to adapt to ever changing forces in the general and task environment. Therefore strategic management plays a vital role in helping organizations achieve the means necessary to gain profits and build customer loyalty.

Strategic management is the set of decisions and succeeding actions taken by management that will provide a competitively superior fit…… [Read More]

References

Balakrishnan, M.R., 2007, Transformational Leadership -- A Case Study, Life Insurance Corporation of India, India, viewed 27th September 2011,

Covey, S. 2007, The Transformational Leadership Report, www.transformationalleadership.net, viewed 27th September 2011,

Daft, R.L. 2008, Management, Daft, Nashville, Tennessee.

Kirk Jr., T.G. 2004, 'The role of management theory in day-to-day Management practices of a College Director', library management and leadership special section, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 35 -- 38, viewed 27th September 2011,
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Management Styles in the Business

Words: 2161 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90996901



Partnership Management

As the workplace and management techniques have developed over the decades, employees have enjoyed an increasingly powerful position in their companies. According to Eisler and Montuori (2001), the changes in both business and its surrounding environment in terms of society, the economy and the environment have necessitated new paradigms of the employer-employee relationship. It is no longer sufficient to mindlessly follow traditional methods such as marionette management. Instead, the workplace needs to be assessed in terms of which management styles will most efficiently drive the specific business.

Partnership management is one of these new paradigms. In partnership management, it is acknowledged that employees are more than entities to perform specific functions for a specific time during the day. In this management style, employees are recognized as an important part of business growth and success. As such, they are expected to provide input that would be valuable for the…… [Read More]

Sources

Eisler, Riane and Montuori, Alfonso. (2001). The Partnership Organization: A systems approach. OD Practitioner, vol. 33, no. 2. http://www.partnershipway.org/html/subpages/articles/organization.htm

Eisler, Riane. (1991). Women, Men and Management; Redesigning Our Future. Futures, January/February. http://www.partnershipway.org/html/subpages/articles/management.htm

Heller, Robert. (2007). Business Enterprise: Entrepreneurship and spotting business opportunities. Thinking Manager's Blog. http://www.thinkingmanagers.com/management/business-enterprise.php

Nowicki, Michael & Summers, Jim. (2003, Oct). "The benevolent autocrat: is it the right fit for the times?." Heatlhcare Financial Management. Online database: FindArticles.com
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Managing Demographics

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76159648

Managing Demographic

The change in the world structure population and the trend of migration of people from developing to developed countries raises critical issues that no company can ignore. Demographic changes are already influencing human resource and other departments of companies across major cities of developed nations like Japan, United States and German (Florian Kohlbacher, 2010). Demographic, therefore can be defined as the study of composition of social entity in terms of its members attributes which includes such factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, seniority, salary level and marital status (Kirton. Greene 2011).

However, during times of global economic and financial crisis, many companies usually deal with issues that seem to be more urgent, but with demographic change the issue is more complex, for example German's companies doing business in Japan need to face the challenges of demographic change in Japan population if they want to be successful in…… [Read More]

Resources in Latin America,

An Agenda for International Leaders book third edition

(2010). A Demographic Analysis -- Part II: Recruitment and Retention Issues

In the P & C. Insurance Industry In Canada

Constantinos, Fotakis (2010). DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING, EMPLOYMENT GROWTH
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Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills Antisocial

Words: 9724 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69077262

Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills

Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…… [Read More]

References

Butterworth, F. (1998, July 26). Why the South's murder rate is so high. The New York Times on the Web. ( http://www.nytimes.com )

Capra. F. (1996). The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books.

Carlson, N.R. (1994). Physiology of behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Cohen, D., Nisbett, R.E., & Bowdle, B.F. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: an "experimental ethnography." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945-960.
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Managing Change in the Criminal Justice System

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39022642

Managing Change in the Criminal Justice System

One organization within the American criminal justice system that has undergone significant changes during the last few decades is the parole board, which is the institution responsible for determining when a prisoner is eligible for early release. Historically, parole has been used by the criminal justice system to regulate overcrowded prison inmate populations, while providing rehabilitated criminals with a second chance to assimilate into society. Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, a confluence of increased security during the War on Terror, rising crime rates across the nation, and widely publicized instances of recidivism has spurred politicians and the public alike to call for the abolishment of the parole system. According to the United States Senate esearch Center's brief on the shifting landscape of parole boards in the American criminal justice system, "while some states have abolished parole, systems similar to parole…… [Read More]

References

Bahe, E. (2004, March 22). Organizational change: Managing transition -- part 1. weLEAD Online Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.leadingtoday.org/Onmag/dec04/eb- dec04.html

Reimers, T. United Sstaes Senate, Senate Research Center. (1999). Parole: Then and now. Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:  http://www.senate.state.tx.us/SRC/pdf/ib0599.pdf
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Theory Help You to Make Sense of

Words: 3357 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34639519

Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?

Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.

But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…… [Read More]

References

Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.

Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.

Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.

Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
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Managing Diversity Matters a Study on Qantas

Words: 3911 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22883136

Managing Diversity Matters

A Study on QANTAS

Women Representation at QANTAS

QANTAS' Focus on Diverse Needs of Customers

QANTAS Ideology Regarding Recruitment of Youth

Challenges Faced y QANTAS

In today's challenging global scenario where competition is rising every day, it is necessary for Multinational organizations to address the basic need of today's business world: diversity. Customers, employees, strategic alliances, competitors, industry norms etc.; they are all subject to changes every day. This is the reason why organizations must need to show adaptability to the change and address the diverse needs of all these stakeholders. Furthermore, while discussing MNCs, it is noticeable that one of the industries (with highest degree of diversity in its operations) is the aviation industry. Australia is one of the most culturally diverse in the world, according to a 2009 study by L. Leveson in the International Journal of Manpower. The study explored current attitudes to diversity…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arthur, J.B 1994, 'Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover', Academy of Management Journal, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 670-687.

Australian Human Rights Commission. 2008, The Right to a Discrimination-Free Workplace, Legal Section, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission

Beer, M., Spector, B., Lawrence, P., Mills, D.Q. And Walton, R 1985, Human Resource Management: A General Managers Perspective, New York: Free Press

Berman, E., West, J. And Wang, X 1999, 'Using Performance Measurement in Human Resource Management', Review of Public Personnel Administration, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 5-17.
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Management Development Process Has Been

Words: 4207 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23880192

Previously the element of interest and personal motivation were found missing, the technical capabilities of the employees have never been a matter of debate, however the personal and mental capacities and limitations are either ignored or not respected which resulted in the poor performance of the organization. Apparently, the rise in the demands pertaining to the particpation of the employees and the industrial democracy has also distorted the professional environment. Such all complains were lately resolved and answered through the unique approach of the organization, the organization has understood the significance of the employees, and had realized that their performance is not based upon their professional capabilities, but rather it is the function of the mental capability of the employee related to the friendly and conducive environment offered to the employees occasionally. The need of the employees that focus upon peaceful, conducive and liberal environment has been ensured, which required…… [Read More]

References

Hamel, G. Leading the Revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 2000. Pp. 123-124.

Keely, L. Strategic Choices. Dublin Group presentation materials, unpublished. 1999.

Mahler, W., & Drotter, S. The Succession Planning Handbook for the Chief Executive, Midland Park, NJ: Mahler Publishing Co. 1986.

McKinsey and Co. The War for Talent Survey, New York, NY: McKinsey and Co. publication. 1997.
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Management in Spite of the

Words: 3753 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74113939

Another 110 individuals would be necessary in administrative positions; 120 people in the cleaning crews and the rest of 150 should occupy diverse positions.

4.2. ecruitment, selection and hiring

Once the event coordinator has identified the staffing need, he moves on to recruiting and selecting the individuals to occupy the available positions. ecruitment and selection is generically "concerned with any means available to meet the needs of the firm for certain skills and behaviors" (Armstrong, 2000, p.201). What these processes generally do it to attract prospective employees and determine which of the candidates are best suited for the available positions. It is imperative that the processes of recruitment and selection be efficient, effective and fair (ACAS). As the best candidates are identified, the human resource manager, after an understanding with the executives, makes an employment offer to the individual. This employment offer will not only include the specification of the…… [Read More]

References:

Acuff, J., Wood, W., 2004, The relationship edge in business: connecting with customers and colleagues when it counts, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471477125

Armstrong, M., 2000, Strategic human resource management: a guide to action, 2nd Edition, Kogan Page Publishers, ISBN 0749433310

Arthur, D., 2001, The employee recruitment and retention handbook, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, ISBN 0814405525

Bohlander, G.W., Snell, S., 2007, Managing human resources, 14th Edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0324314639
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Managing Organizational Culture

Words: 9860 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60831953

Human esources

Managing Organisational Culture

The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.

In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…… [Read More]

References

Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at:  http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html  [Accessed 18 August 2012].

Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].

Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at:  http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm  [Accessed 24 August 2012].

Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at:  http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36  [Accessed 18 August 2012].
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Management and Decision Sciences From

Words: 25680 Length: 90 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55501983

76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…… [Read More]

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Management Style for an Entire Country Simply

Words: 2045 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3454919

management style for an entire country simply because there are too many possible variables. The citizens of a nation as large as Australia vary greatly from one individual to another - and even a single manager varies in style from one day to the next or one project to the next. Moreover, the management style of one industry is not likely to be the same for another industry with very different needs and goals.

However, these caveats aside, it is possible if one concentrates on a single industry to make some generally true statements about the management style of that industry throughout Australia. The particular industry chosen for this project may actually show greater uniformity of style than other Australian industries do since the topic - organic farming - is in fact one that tends to attract people who are like minded to begin with.

We should perhaps begin with…… [Read More]

References

James, Abigail. (2002). Personal communication.

Harvey, William. (2002). Personal communication. http://tbs-intranet.tees.ac.uk/international/ccd/ccd_block2b.htm http://www.bfa.com.au http:/www.ofa.org.au http://www.onepine.deuk/phof.htm http://www.stuart.iit.edu www.nre.vic.gov.au http://ww.bfa.com.au http://www.nre.vic.gov.au

Abigail James 2002. http://www.onepine.demon.co.uk/phof.htm http://www.stuart.iit.edu

William Harvey 2002. http://tbs-intranet.tees.ac.uk/international/ccd/ccd_block2b.htm http://www.bfa.com.au  http://www.ofa.org.au
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Management and Leadership Strategies Were

Words: 5635 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38896307

Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).

The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]

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Management Skills in China

Words: 2308 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34506591

International Business

To some extent, management can be defined as the harmonization of science, art, practice and implementation. Management takes into account knowledge and skills. On one hand, the knowledge aspect of management can be learned. On the other hand, the skills aspect of management encompasses the internalization and transferal of management knowledge, which necessitates not only time resources, but also incessant practice. Skills employed by managers are in connection with organizational efficiency and have a significant influence on performance (Ping et al., 2012). In everyday practical life, managers ought to lay emphasis on the role of management skills in advancing the performance of organizations and businesses. esearch has indicated that the lack of management skills is one of the major reasons that lead small and medium sized companies into bankruptcy. Therefore, this implies that organizations ought to focus and strengthen their management skills (Pang et al., 2012). From time…… [Read More]

References

Analoui, F., Labbaf, H., and Noorbakhsh, F. (2000). Identification of clusters of managerial skills for increased effectiveness: the case of the steel industry in Iran. International Journal of Training and Development, 4(3), 217-234.

Bai, X., Enderwick, P. (2003). Economic Transition and Management Skills: The Case of China. Business Education and Emerging Market Economies: Trends and Prospects Conference. Retrieved 28 November 2015 from: https://www.scheller.gatech.edu/centers-initiatives/ciber/projects/workingpaper/2003/04-004.pdf

Boyatzis, R.E. (1982). The Competent Manager. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY

Chunsheng, Z. (2014). What will happen when China becomes largest economy in the world? CKSB Knowledge. Retrieved 28 November 2015 from: http://knowledge.ckgsb.edu.cn/2014/08/27/china/what-will-happen-when-china-becomes-the-largest-economy-in-the-world/
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Evolution of Management Principle

Words: 1258 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28649614

Management Evolution

Evolution of Management

A Brief History of the Evolution of Management Principles and Models

The evolution of management theories and principles in modern management thought began in the late nineteenth century and advanced rapidly all through the twentieth century up until the present day. The need to define management and the role of managers became a vital part of production as well as the need to effectively complete many business functions. This led to the foundation of various management theories that were aimed at orchestrating different business functions in an environment where the separation of labor demand some level of coordination. Classical management theories focused on the best methods for assigning the labor of various individuals and there related tasks. This line of thinking was not only necessary, but evolved into a robust field of academic study as well as professional practitioners that specialize in management. This paper…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Deming, W. (2011, September 22). The Deming System of Profound Knowledge. Retrieved from The W. Edwards Deming Institute: http://deming.org/index.cfm?content=66

Mind Tools. (N.d.). Henri Fayol's Principles of Management. Retrieved from Mind Tools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/henri-fayol.htm
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Organization Management Issues and Concepts

Words: 2186 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89266145

Management of Organizations

Significance of Managers in Achieving Organizational Success

Organic vs. Mechanistic Organization

Process of Formulating Corporate Strategy

Meaning of Organizational Culture

Management of Organizations

Organizational management is one of the most crucial components for organizational success and productivity. This is primarily because the process entails handling various aspects that are geared towards achieving the organization's overall objectives. Some of the most important issues in organizational management include effective decision making and conflict resolution. These important aspects are usually handled by the organization's top management, which play a vital role in ensuring organizational success. For managers, the process also entails formulating corporate strategy and creating a suitable organizational culture that helps in realization of the overall goals and objectives.

Significance of Managers in Achieving Organizational Success

As previously mentioned, organizational managers play an important role in the success of an organization, especially in relation to decision making. Actually, organizational…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, S., Eimicke, W. & Heikkila, T 2008, The effective public manager: achieving success in a changing government, Jossey-Bass, New Jersey.

Gitman, L & McDaniel, C 2007, The future of business: the essentials, Thomson Higher

Education, Mason: Ohio.

Hill, C & Jones, G 2012, Strategic management theory: an integrated approach, Cengage
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Applying Organizational Theory to the Military

Words: 2010 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83399619

Management Theory

As we shift into a new era of management, the outmoded theories rooted in Classical and Scientific Management apply only to specific organizations in specific situations. Newly emerging theories of management take into account not only diversity issues but also issues related to workplace satisfaction, which in turn reduces employee turnover and therefore can improve overall performance. Management theories now need to promote learning organizations and a managerial culture that is supportive and ethical. Morgan (2006) highlights the role of the learning organization, also referring to the ways organizations can be viewed as cultures with norms and values all their own. Based on Morgan's (2006) analyses, a theoretical approach to management that is both effective and ethical takes into account the following ten points.

Ubuntu and espect for Others: Senge (2014) discusses the Zulu concept of "Ubuntu," and how it applies to modern management theory and practice. Ubuntu…… [Read More]

References

Dupre, K.E. & Day, A.L. (2007). The effects of supportive management and job quality on the turnover intentions and health of military personnel. Human Resource Management 46(2): 185-201.

Figler, R. & Hanlon, S. (2008). Management development and the unconscious from an analytical psychology framework. Journal of Management Development 27(6): 613-630.

Holbrook, C., Sousa, P. & Hahn-Holbrook, J. (2011). Unconscious vigilance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication DOI: 10.1037/a0024033

Morgan, B. (2006). Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
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Classroom Management Theories and Application

Words: 3998 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89714392

fresh student groups enrolling in education, constant evolutions in student affairs systems are needed for meeting the unique requirements of students. Student affairs practitioners are required to make student transition easier through adoption of programs and policies that aid transition. Students face challenges when moving between educational levels. ecent literature has focused greatly on this topic, as transition is apparently related to 'mental health crises' among students (Eisner, 2011). Students unable to deal with such transition find it hard to complete their degrees/diplomas and achieve educational requirements for enjoying civic and economic security (Bonanni, 2015, p. 1-2; Conley, Kirsch, Dickson, & Bryant, 2014; Mattanah, Ayers, Brand, & Brooks, 2010; Eisner, 2011). Generally, educational institutions' environment, culture, expectations, and structure differ across the nation. But implementation of transition initiatives in school can promote student success. College and high school leaders can collaborate and aid student success. Systems and programs have been…… [Read More]

References

Bonanni, M. (2015). In Transition: Examining Students with Learning Disabilities' Transition from High School to College Through Schlossberg's Transition Theory. Theses and Dissertations.

Brown, K. M., & Anafara, V.A. (2001). Competing perspectives on advisory programs: Mingling or meddling in middle school? Research in Middle Level Education Annual, 24, 1-22.

Cossy, L. S. (2014). Transition and Thriving in University: A Grounded Theory of the Transition Experiences and Conceptions of Thriving of a Selection of Undergraduate Students at Western University. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. Paper 2531.

Conley, C. S., Kirsch, A. C., Dickson, D. A., & Bryant, F. B. (2014). Negotiating the Transition to College: Developmental Trajectories and Gender Differences in Psychological Functioning, Cognitive-Affective Strategies, and Social Well-Being. Emerging Adulthood, 1-16. doi: 10.1177/2167696814521808
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Managing Human Resources Change and Conflict Are

Words: 2759 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9037122

Managing Human esources

Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.

Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.

Introduction

Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…… [Read More]

References

Knudsen T.(2003).Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(2),42-45.

Humphreys, M. (2005). Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4), 23-36.

Kindler, H.S. (2005). Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace. London: Thomson/Course Technology.

Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
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Management and Organisational Behaviour the

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98877248

In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).

In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.

The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.

Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…… [Read More]

References

Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.

Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.

Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/motivation-theory.htmllast accessed on September 15, 2008

2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com/en/us/default.aspxlast accessed on September 15, 2008
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Management Principles Explain the Terms

Words: 2651 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8020024



3. What are the main developments that have enabled more flexible work arrangements to flourish?

The pervasive adoption of the Internet as a means to collaborate, communicate and accomplished shared objectives has been the single greatest contributor to the development of virtual teams. The many software applications that are used across the Internet, from shared workspaces called groupware and secured portals to real-time chat and collaboration platforms designed to secure connect workers globally, innovation continues to make new levels of productivity (Hayman, 2010). The Internet set the foundation for free services including Skype that can connect virtual teams globally in seconds with both voice and video connections. Cloud computing is also increasing the adoption of shared collaboration and communication platforms, leading to the creation of applications that can enable 24/7 development of complex products and services across virtual teams. There are also advances in performance management applications and tools that…… [Read More]

References

Jeffrey H. Dyer, and Kentaro Nobeoka. 2000. Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks 21, no. 3, (March 1): 345-367

Golden, T., and S. Raghuram. 2010. Teleworker knowledge sharing and the role of altered relational and technological interactions. Journal of Organizational Behavior 31, no. 8, (November 1): 1061.

Hayman, J.. 2010. Flexible Work Schedules and Employee Well-Being. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (Online) 35, no. 2, (May 1): 76-87.

Valerie J. Morganson, Debra A Major, Kurt L. Oborn, Jennifer M. Verive, and Michelle P. Heelan. 2010. Comparing telework locations and traditional work arrangements: Differences in work-life balance support, job satisfaction, and inclusion. Journal of Managerial Psychology 25, no. 6, (August 20): 578-595.
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Managing International Conflict Diversity in

Words: 1757 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79564218

' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.

Conclusion

The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…… [Read More]

Reference

Mayer, Claude H. (2009). Managing conflicts through strength of identity. Management Revue.

Retrieved through FindArticles.com on January 21, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5454/is_200907/ai_n42039398/
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Management Challenges the Role of

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99133228

This qualitative study, which used the methods of case study, in-depth interviewing, and focus group discussions (FGDs) is particularly vital to the implementation of change in organizational structures, from being a hierarchical to being decentralized. Like Perry, the study puts the manager's role as the most pivotal within the organization, primarily because s/he serves as the 'catalyst' for change and innovation in it.

Other literature also stress the role of power and control in helping the "new managers" of the 21st century to further develop their significant positions in the organization. Hill's (2005) study of managers for the century reflects how learning is achieved through experience, backs up theoretical assumptions that management for the 21st century does not demonstrate parallelism between its theories and actual applications. This assertion is mirrored in a theoretical study by Drejer (2004) and Klagge (1998), wherein he found out that training and learning for new…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Balogun, J. (2004). "Organizational restructuring and middle manager sensemaking." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47, Issue 4.

Callanan, G. (2004). "What would Machiavelli think? An overview of the leadership challenges in team-bases structures." Team Performance Management, Vol. 10, No. 3.

Drejer, a. (2004). "Back to basics and beyond: Strategic management -- an area where theory and practice are poorly-related." Management Decision, Vol. 42, Issue 3.

Hill, L. (2004). "New manager development for the 21st century." Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 18, Issue 3.
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Management Healthcare Define and Describe

Words: 2739 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32263576

Some or all such authority may be in fact unlimited. This is when a committee can counterbalance authority and diffuse power within an organization since effectively only a small faction is making important decisions. The best use of committees is to have limited power to make decisions but have unlimited power to make recommendations on how things should be done.

2. Identify the initial issue that should always be thoroughly addressed when the establishment of a committee is recommended.

The initial issue that should be addressed is that of making sure that those on the committee are the people capable of carrying out the agenda of the committee and that the committee will have limited power to make organizational decisions.

3. In what ways may committees be said to dilute the recognition and diffuse the blame or responsibility? Where, based on your personal experience, have you seen one of these…… [Read More]

References

Baker, L. 2002. "Managed care, medical technology, and the well-being of society," viewed 21

February 2011, <   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12055455  >

Carlson, Gail. 2009. "Managed Care Understanding Our Changing Health Care System," viewed

21 February 2011,
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Managing Uncertainty in Production Planning

Words: 3299 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45356919



esearch Objectives and Scope

The main objective of the research then relates closely to the research problem. It is to research the problem of uncertainty as it manifests in the global business environment. Specific issues to be investigated include supply chain management and its related uncertainties, the production process itself and uncertainties related to it, as well as the post-production phase and market uncertainties that are related to it.

Time is also an important factor. Some industries require a long-term time frame in their planning process, which exacerbate uncertainties. The time factor should also be an important consideration in terms of creating a model that can effectively help businesses achieve their manufacturing and revenue goals.

To achieve these aims, the main objective of the research will then be to research industries and companies that operate on a global scale. They will be investigated for the models they have implemented to…… [Read More]

References

Alonso-Ayuso, A., Escudero, L.F., Garin, A., Ortuno, M.T. And Perez, G. An Approach for Strategic Supply Chain Planning under Uncertainty based on Stochastic 0-1 Programming. Journal of Global Optimization, No. 26, 2003. Retrieved from http://chentserver.uwaterloo.ca/aelkamel/che720/che720-methods-of-optimization-pse/stochastic_optimization/05100412180122714.pdf

Eppler, Martin J., Platts, Ken, and Kazancioglu, Emre. Visual Strategizing: the Systematic Use of Visualization in the Strategy Process. Institute for Corporate Communication, Dec. 2006. Retrieved from http://doc.rero.ch/lm.php?url=1000,42,6,20061207091432-KB/wpca0607.pdf

Gupta, Anshuman and Maranas, Costas D. Managing demand uncertainty in supply chain planning. Computers and Chemical Engineering, No. 27, 7 Feb. 2003. Retrieved from www.sciencedirect.com.

Kazaz, Burak, Dada, Maqbool and Moskowitz, Herbert. Global Production Planning Under Exchange-Rate Uncertainty. Management Science, Vol. 51, No. 7. July 2005. Retrieved from http://myweb.whitman.syr.edu/bkazaz/kazaz-MS-2005.pdf
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Management Perspective on Aviation Safety

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72634333

Management Perspective on Aviaton Safety

Aviation Safety Management

However, this topic narrows substantially when one considers it from a management perspective. Management has a number of diverse concerns that it must consider in regards to aviation safety. For the most part, these safety issues are typically balanced out with issues related to cost and customer satisfaction. Although safety should always be the principle point of concern, management oftentimes has to temper this with practical considerations related to finances regarding time and money spent. Management can help to mitigate the severity of financial constraints, however, by involving as many people as possible in the safety and quality assurance process via a team-based approach. Additionally, there are certain Safety Management System (SMS) programs that can help to stratify different facets of safety management. Finally, it is important for management to make aviation safety a continuous process which is increasingly refined and improved.…… [Read More]

References

Burnside, J.E. (2013). "Top five pre-flight mistakes." Aviation Safety Management. Retrieved from  http://www.aviationsafetymagazine.com/issues/33_5/features/Pre-Flight-Check-Mistakes_10554-1.html 

Conyers, B. (2013). "Safety management systems: beyond theory." SM4 Safety. Retrieved from http://sm4.global-aero.com/articles/safety-management-systems-beyond-the-theory/?disp=pdf

Grosenick, C. (2002). "Quality assurance: how does it impact maintenance?" Aviation Pros. Retrieved from  http://www.aviationpros.com/article/10387519/quality-assurance-how-does-it-impact-maintenance?page=3 

Waikar, A., Nichols, P. (1997) "Aviation safety: a quality perspective." Disaster Prevention and Management. 6 (2): 87 -- 93.
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Management of Work-Related Stress Who Is Responsible

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45603803

Management of Work-elated Stress

Who is responsible for the management of work-related stress? While there are those who are convinced that the responsibility of managing work-related stress lies primarily with the management of an organization, others are of the opinion that individual employees have the primary responsibility for managing work-related stress. In this text, I not only state but also substantiate my position on these divergent points-of-view.

The Management of Work elated Stress

In basic terms, "stress is the experience of opportunities or threats that people perceive as important and also perceive they might not be able to handle or deal with effectively" (George & Jones, 2010, p. 245). It is important to note from the onset that although stress related to work is somewhat normal, excessive stress on this front could be counterproductive. This is more so the case in those instances where it affects both the emotional and…… [Read More]

References

George, J.M. & Jones, G.R. (2010). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior (6th ed.). New York: PH Professional Business.

Hawkins, L. (Ed.). (2003). Tolley's Guide to Managing Employee Health. Ohio: LexisNexis Group.
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Managing to Keep Apple Fresh

Words: 810 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73692733

Managing to Keep Apple Fresh: Organizational Culture

Issue Identification

Employees

Competitors

Critical Discussion

Path-goal Model

Today, Apple can be regarded one of the most successful companies in the industry within which it operates. At some point, the company was headed for collapse. After Steve Jobs took control as CEO (from 1997), he instituted a drastic turnaround of the firm which has since then more or less dominated the industry. A number of factors have contributed to Apple's success; one of those being effective leadership skills. Steve Jobs knew how to set goals and get everyone to work towards achieving them by amongst other things aligning the organizational culture with the organizational goals. Apple's success story is proof that effective culture management is one of the ingredients of effective leadership. This text will explore the different culture-management practices that have been employed by Apple's leadership.

Issue Identification

Organizational culture refers to…… [Read More]

References

Balthazard, P.A., Cooke, R.A. & Potter, R.E. (2006). Dysfunctional Culture, Dysfunctional Organization: Capturing the Behavioral Norms that Form Organization Culture and Drive Performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (8), 709-732.

Bucker, J. & Poutsma, E. (2010). Global Management Competencies: a Theoretical Foundation. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25 (8), 829-844.

Keller, D. (2007). Leading on Top of the World: Lessons from 'Into Thin Air'. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9 (2), 166-182.

McLaurin, J.R. (2006). The Role of Situation in the Leadership Process: a Review and Application. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 5, 97-113.
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Management and Leadership Examine the

Words: 2461 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99285054

He wished to build the happiest place on the planet and this message continues to be handed over to the new recruits who join the organization presently also. Disney exists to give a guarantee to the Americans that are there for real. Disneyland is not just unreal, rather it is hyper-real. As a result it is possible to express of the corporate culture of Disney as being created. ("eading Organizations from behavior and experience to representation and experience," n. d.)

4) Explain how the four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture

The four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture as it leads to planning, organizing, leading and coordinating of resources and it is these 4 activities which recur across the institution and are extremely unified. Present features relating to management cover claims leading are distinct from…… [Read More]

References

Arnold, Paul. V. (2002) "Fixing manufacturing" MRO Today Magazine, Retrieved at http://www.progressivedistributor.com/mro/archives/mro%20coach/Lynch/FixingJJ02.htm

Bryman, Alan. (1995) "Disney and His World"

Routledge.

N.A. (2007) "Disney Institute Homepage" Retrieved at http://www.disneyinstitute.com/index.cfm
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Management and Leadership in Nowadays

Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34010655

"The most important issues which have to be addressed here are precise monitoring (diagnosis) of current results and their comparison with what has been planned. Effective managerial control must always be followed by feedback for correcting initial plans " (http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm).

The observation of the way in which people within an organization behave is of extreme importance. ut leaders and managers obtain feedback not just from observations, but directly from people. This provides them with a better understanding of the relation between the actions performed by the individuals and the beliefs which guide their behaviour. An efficacious control upon these factors implies the contribution to the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture.

There are various strategies that an organization can choose to implement in order to make sure it preserves a healthy organizational culture. Among them we can mention the adoption of various principles, such as the following: a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, Kathryn (2002), Organizational Culture, 19 May, 2007, <

Four Management Functions, 19 May, 2007, http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm

Schein, Edgar, H (1992), Organizational Culture and Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey -Bass Publishers