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Total Quality Management and other structural management approaches again exert direct control form the top down on each of the various departments and activities of the organization. This direct approach allows for a total and coordinated plan to be implemented, and has the advantage of being able to implement separate changes in each department/activity, leading to a possibility of more drastic changes and reversals (Kovel-Jarboe 1996). This approach also as the disadvantage, however, of unpredictability when such drastic changes are implemented.
The systems theory approach to management does a lot to mitigate this unpredictability in assessing how changes in one part of an organization will affect each of the others; overall organizational change in systems theory can result from more subtle shifts in certain dynamic areas of the organization, which will necessarily have an effect on the other parts of the organization (McNamara 2009). Systems theory, in fact, could be…… [Read More]
Employees of today know that they must be constantly sharpening their skills.
Keeping people "excited" and "nimble" through continued training ensures that companies will have an extensive stock of in-house talent to promote during crunch times, and that employees will put in the extra hour at the office to show they are working hard (Hymowitz 2008). Some companies have attempted to foster worker loyalty with flexible scheduling, retirement planning and other financial services, better benefit packages, employee gyms equipped with personal trainers and extensive subsidized cafeterias (Lanzoni 2001:1). However, employees that are truly the managers of tomorrow will not simply want a more ambient workplace, or even more extensive benefits packages -- they want to know that the company regards their input as an asset, and they are being groomed for new positions that will open up in the future.
Promoting mainly from without is not simply time…… [Read More]
From the beginning of Organizational Development (OD), the action research model (AM) has been the systematizing advance for doing OD. There are four stages that lead to continuous improvement. During the plan stage, choices are made about what may be undertaken to advance the organization and its practices, by means of a diversity of choice making apparatus. During the do stage, those tactics are put into practice in a provisional or test implementation. During the check stage measurements are done in order to establish whether the test implementation did, in actuality, produce the desired results. During the act stage, the course, if victorious, is put into practice. "Whether successful or unsuccessful, the next stage is to begin the cycle all over again with a Plan stage. If successful, the new plans should explore what more can be done to improve the processes. If unsuccessful, new data may be gathered to…… [Read More]
As noted above, interpersonal skills are essential in modern-day management approaches. The definition goes beyond communicating well with others. It also entails the personal traits that a person has to be a leader, which include such traits as ethical orientation, ability to accept and manage change, desire to enhance diversity, problem solving, global perspective, ability to motivate, and resiliency.
Interpersonal skills, however, are not the only abilities that a manager needs. Because he or she is overseeing people who are designing and making a product or service, the manager has to be able to understand that product or service, its role in the marketplace, the customer needs and a forecast of what changes will occur. They have to be involved with today's nitty gritty, but also act as visionaries for tomorrow. This takes a special type of individual.
A survey done of it CIOs this past May, (obert Half, 2007)…… [Read More]
Systems theory sees the individual person, group, business, and the organization's bigger set of mutually dependent organizations as a lively, unified whole. Changes in one or more parts of this multifaceted system involve changes for the others. "All system parts are in a state of more or less steady and active adaptation, and how well adjustment occurs becomes the serious question from a success perspective" (McCann, 2004).
Change was once believed to be intermittent and characterized by periods of comparatively low-level, managed disturbance, such as a new product introduction for interior operating needs, or a cautiously designed merger. "The growth of conglomerate forms of organization by way of acquisitions has been a way for many to diversify financial risk and smooth uncertainty. An organization's primary goal is to control change to protect the core business" (McCann, 2004).
Organizations continue to induce even greater rates of change through their own dynamics…… [Read More]
Leadership is an
ability which, either inborn or developed through hard work and ingenuity,
presents the members of the organization with a paragon to forging action
toward rational goals. hile it is the responsibility of managerial
personnel to issue directives, instructions and clarifications on goal-
orientation, it is only a leader who can find ways to motivate the members
of his organization. By finding ways to personally and professionally
invest these members into the shared goals of the organization, a manager
can evolve into a credible leader while positively impacting internal
Another quality which differentiates management from leadership is
that the former carries with it implications of top-down authority.
Leadership is instead a process of give-and-take, where one's effectiveness
may be inclined by his susceptibility to the counsel and talent of others
within the organization. Again, I have found that this has a variety of
effects on the dynamics…… [Read More]
How is bounded rationality related to decision making?
Bounded rationality is the property of an agent that behaves in a manner nearly optimal to its goals as its resources will allow. Simon suggests that researchers not just look at the surface answers in their research, but look to the reasons why something acts like it does (Simon, p. 50).
Decision-making can benefit by following this rule. If one looks at the basis for a negative attitude that one wants to change, one might be more successful in changing that attitude forever. And if one decides to get rid of an obstacle in a field, one might want to investigate how that obstacle came to be there or whether it has more components than immediately present themselves. If the obstacle in the field is a tree, if one does not dig up the roots, the tree will grow again and remain…… [Read More]
Clearly, the different management theories that are being used will determine how a company will operate in a particular country or region. This is important, because depending upon the type of management structure being utilized. The different theories mentioned above, can be used to adapt an organization to the culture and business environment of a country. Where, each theory can work in conjunction with the basic structure and strategy that the company has in place. At which point, the different tools and theories will allow managers to customize their message, to specific teams / departments. When you can reach these levels within a business, it is a sign that customizing the strategy to cultural traditions will improve productivity. This is because, managers can understand the environment that they are working in and employees can understand the overall big picture. Once this takes place, the amounts of risk that…… [Read More]
The term 'matrix' is derived from the representative diagram of a matrix management system, which resembles a rectangular array or grid of functions and product/project groups" (Malonis 2000). In a matrix structure, different facets of the marketing team internationally might meet together to discuss ways to brand Sara Lee worldwide. Or, when launching Sanex into a new country, the regional marketing, advertising, and IT team might meet to create a new website for the region that was uniquely responsive to local, cultural needs. The management within a matrix structure is more fluid, and the relationship of authority figures to subordinates is more diffuse.
Matrix structures are often associated with 'creative' firms, such as advertising agencies, where different ad teams have a great deal of autonomy in their decision-making. However, Sara Lee's image and the image of its other, signature products such as Hillshire Farms and Jimmy Dean sausage all have…… [Read More]
Values are the personification of what an organization stands for, and should be the foundation for the behavior of its members. A disconnect between individual and organizational values often leads to dysfunction. "Additionally, an organization may publish one set of values, perhaps in an effort to push forward a positive image, while the values that really guide organizational behavior are very different. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is acceptable" (Strategic Leadership and Decision Making, n.d.).
Structural Contingency Theory (SCT) says that contingency plans are a necessary part of making sure that a business continues to function efficiently when it is faced with challenges and difficulties. When put into motion, contingency plans can change the scenery of the business provisionally or permanently. Structural contingency theory suggests that companies have a plan in place to guide organizational change when…… [Read More]
2. Putting together alternative plans and thinking about the following before choosing the appropriate one: difficulty, goals, flexibility, side effects, and reward proportions.
3. Plainly relaying set down goals, aims, and predictable results. The majority considerably, relay any alterations completely and on a stable foundation (obert, 2009).
The manager will have to entrust responsibilities to their subordinates, effectual designation of tasks includes defined goals, acceptance, appropriate feedback, and curative events. Allocation means a shared accountability and not passing off responsibility. The supervisor hands over by delegating tasks, yielding appropriate stages of authority to perform those tasks, and generating agreements to carry out the tasks. Universal obstacles concerned with allocation includes: lack of self-assurance in employees, lack of appropriate development, manager loss of job approval, fear of making mistakes and approaches of lack of confidence. The manager has the responsibility of supplying recurrent feedback in regards to performance. It is the…… [Read More]
Ethics is also a big concern for many modern companies. Moral issues and choices that deal with right and wrong behavior can make or break a company in today's business world. There are many factors in the cultural, organizational and external environment that influence ethical behavior, but the major ethical issues that organizations have to address are sexual harassment, discrimination in pay and promotion, and the right to privacy (Introduction to Organizational Behavior, 2012).
In 2011 Kaiser Permanente and Sodexo were ranked at the top of the worlds most ethical companies. Sodexo has over a hundred thousand employees in North America, all focused on providing solutions to their clients' biggest challenges. "Anne Marie Brown, a general manager at a New Jersey senior living center, works with community organizations in order to provide job opportunities for persons with disabilities. Thanks to her efforts, Sodexo recently hired 10 new employees to work…… [Read More]
However, her initial suggestions of improvement -- especially after a lack of positive response the first few times -- are not predicted by expectancy theory. It was obvious that she was not expected to make such suggestions, nor was she especially given an opportunity to do so, and both of these circumstances are considered necessary in expectancy theory. Furthermore, Lesley would have known that she was expected to perform her day-to-day tasks, and she was of course capable of doing so and afforded the opportunity, and she was rewarded for this. Again, while expectancy theory predicts her lack of motivation to achieve more, it fails to predict her dissatisfaction.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs comes somewhat closer to finding a true explanation for Lesley's behavior. The physiological and safety needs -- the two first levels of need in Maslow's hierarchy -- are certainly met by Lesley's employment. Her need for acceptance…… [Read More]
Eventually, when the rest of Europe became a solid, cultural entity at the end of the Middle Ages, it was no surprise that the Byzantine Empire did not survive since it had failed to hold true to its core values and, eventually, the Empire officially ended upon conquest by the Ottomans.
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also called the Islamic Renaissance and its generally thought of as ranging from the 8th century to the 13th century (Kraemer). During this period, Muslim engineers, scholars, traders, philosophers, poets, artists, laborers, scientists, and princes created a culture that thrived and grew in many areas and would have an influence upon future societies around the globe (Turner). It is no wonder then that the people were greatly committed to the pursuit of knowledge. Additionally, Islamic scholars gathered information from all over the world and translated it. In fact, many Muslim philosophers…… [Read More]
Management Theory Brings the Best Process for Change?
In these times of economic sluggishness - a period in which corporations face the grim realities of shrinking profits, restructuring, layoffs, cutbacks, downsizing, and overall belt-tightening - it would nonetheless seem to be an ideal time for rethinking / retooling a corporation's theory of management. And, what better time than during times of economic stagnation - when companies decide which workers to lay off and which employees to keep - to forge theories and policies that better prepare the corporation for future good times and bad times? Management theories that not only accept change, and plan for change, but theories that facilitate the process of change, would seem to be most applicable to today's gloomy economic landscape.
Meanwhile, new approaches and theories which potentially promote positive change - and could be beneficial to companies - are sometimes rejected just because they are…… [Read More]
Even moe, stong theoy should appoach mico pocesses, if necessay. In cetain situations, stong theoy leads to diections that cannot be obseved without the help of theoy.
Regading oganizational theoy, contibutos to building the basis of stong theoy in this field include: Fedeick Winslow Taylo (who studied human behavio at wok using a systematic appoach), Elton Mayo (who focused on the emotional side of employees and how it affects thei wok), May Pake Follett (who pomoted positive motivation fo employees), Douglas McGego (Wikipedia, the fee encyclopedia, 2007).
Regading stong theoy, Kal E. Weick's opinion is somehow moe complex than that of Sutton and Staw. The theoizing model that he poposes is based on the idea that theoy constuction involves imagination, kept unde contol by the pocesses of atificial selection (Weick, 1989). Weick's contibution to oganizational theoy esides in the appoach he developed to descibe the pocess used in collecting, managing,…… [Read More]
Likewise, Lynn points out that, "Japan's recent economic problems may have far more to do with its financial and bureaucratic systems than its managerial systems." According to Everett and Strach, "Japan experienced a decade of zero growth in the 1990s and slumped into recession," but, "The global dynamism and success of Canon, Hoya, Honda, Toyota, TDK, Rohm and Sony, known as the 'seven samurai,' contrasted with the quagmire of the Japanese economy." The company's leadership is clearly forward-thinking as well with its emphasis on R&D into production hybrid models.
Collaborative (about relationships)
Collaboration among the various business segments, as well as the managers within these units, has been a distinction at Toyota over the years, based in large part on the need to maximize scarce resources. Furthermore, the company's leadership has historically recognized when collaboration and cooperation with its major competitors can be in its best interests; for instance, the…… [Read More]
MGT/230 Management Theory Practice Decision-Making Process Paper esource: Management: Leading & Collaborating a Competitive World Identify a time life make a personal professional decision buying a home, changing jobs, enrolling school, relocating state region.
Decision-making process in real life: Buying a new car
Buying a car is a serious decision. It is an expensive purchase -- for many people a car is the most expensive item they own, after their house. When I decided to buy a car, my first step could be called the 'pre-decision' or reflective process. I asked myself: do I really need another car? My old car had broken down, and based upon my calculations, the mileage of my old car, and the cost of the repairs, I decided that buying a new one would be more sensible and cost-effective in the long run.
My second decision involved a major aspect of my research that…… [Read More]
Art of Security
1. I am not sure this is an art to contemporary security practice. Security is about identifying and mitigating risks. That's a fairly scientific exercise, and it has to be, because quite frankly any failure on the security front is a vulnerability. No client pays for an artistic who may or may not be on; clients pay for security from scientists who rigorously identify risks, test methods of preventing risk, and close off any opportunities. Being able to identify risk might be seen by some as an art, when the risk is unknown, but conceptualizing the unknown can also be done in a fairly scientific manner, just by observing, looking around and asking questions. If you think you have all the answers, you have not asked enough questions. I don't by the logic that there is an art to security.
2. McGrath (2014) argues that there have…… [Read More]
Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the esource-Based View
Accurate comprehension of the article = blue
Critical analysis of the strengths and weakness of the ideas, concepts or theories = yellow
* Provision of specific comments in the form of criticism, disagreement, synthesis, paradox, curiosity or genuine confusion= green
Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the esource-Based View
Using a thorough analysis of management theories and approaches to illustrate how the esource-Based View (BV) of management can deliver greater competitive advantage and more optimized use of internal resources, the authors seek to support this assertion with a comprehensive literature review. The synthesis of the Classical Approach, Human esource Approach, Quantitative Approach, Systems Perspective, Contingency Approach and Information Technology Approach is used as the foundation for showing how the BV approach to management can deliver exceptional results (aduan, Jegak,…… [Read More]
Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)
Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result,…… [Read More]
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…… [Read More]
In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…… [Read More]
As in the model of Likert, progressively the concern for people increases as we move down the line from 'Exploitative authoritarian' to 'Benevolent authoritarian' to 'Consultative' to finally 'Participative', similarly in the Blake's Managerial Grid the mapping of high concern for people and low concern for production is seen as the score comes to be 1,9. On the other hand a close comparison of G2 stage of the Vroom-Yetton model and the Participative management of Likert model it is seen that both of them bear similarities. In G2 stage of Vroom-Yetton model, the leader shares the crisis and difficulties with the subordinates of his group and based on a consensus all the parties build and evaluate alternatives and try to arrive at a consensus on a solution.
oughly the same idea is conveyed in the Participative model of Likert wherein the management looks forward to build groups of employees who…… [Read More]
Management Theory and Associated Urinary Tract Infections
Infection of the urinary tract constitutes a great share of all infections acquired in hospitals (Klevens, Edwards, & ichards, 2007); of these, most cases are of CAUTI or catheter-associated urinary tract infection, which is "reasonably preventable," according to the CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). CMS doesn't reimburse medical facilities for this disease any more. Of the best strategies to reduce CAUTI is ensuring never to employ urinary catheters unless one perceives an appropriate symptom.
Several research works, some even dating back many decades, can be found, of ways to decrease or prevent the development of CAUTI. Over the years, a few of the recommendations have reformed; for instance, at one time, routine catheter irrigation was recommended; however, presently, the medical profession deems it as a practice that must be avoided. Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare organizations to make sure their…… [Read More]
Total Quality Management Theory
Total Quality Management Development
How Total Quality Management (TQM) Theory can be applied to improve the airport passenger handling
Total Quality Management (TQM) specifically deals with work process and people. Implementation of TQM calls for team work and employee involvement. All operations, suppliers, and customers have to be involved. Besides, it also calls for performance measurement. TQM is normally implemented by business organizations to satisfy its customers. It improves organizational performance (Asher, 1996).
Work processes have to be coordinated for continuous improvement in business units to be realized. The underlying reason behind this is meeting customer expectations. TQM endeavors a scenario where quality is enhanced in all facets of an organization while costs are kept at bare minimum. Any organization irrespective of its size can implement TQM especially if it wants to meet the demands of the customers. A major setback has however been the non-compliance…… [Read More]
In addition to this, the event chain methodology is used in counteracting the effects of different biases. This model also requires the use of Gantt charts.
The thermostat model is a model of management control that is based on performance standards, performance measured at the output, and the difference between standards and measured values is used for correcting the process in order to reach the established standards (Koskela & Howell, 2002). The management as planning theory is represented by the operational level management referring to creation, revision, and implementation of plans. This theory focuses on the relationship between the project's actions and the objectives of the company. The dispatching model refers to the fact that the activities and tasks planned in project management can be performed based on the project manager's approval.
The PINCE 2 theory is a project management approach based on different methodologies developed by IBM. The objective…… [Read More]
Performance Management Theories and Practices
Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.
The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on…… [Read More]
The theory outlines three stages including the unfreeze, make changes and refreeze stages (Levasseur, 2001). In the unfreezing stage, the current processes are unearthed to examine how matters are undertaken. This implies examining each phase and human interrelation for prospective improvements. The second phase encompasses the deployment of the changes and providing guidance to the team as they adapt. In this stage, aspects such as constant communication, training and support are pivotal in order to restrict any for, of challenges in the transition. It also includes a change in the organization’s policies, norms, and policies. The final phase of refreezing is aimed to stabilize the new change to safeguard it from regressing. Frequent reviews need to be undertaken to ascertain that the new approaches are being adhered to (Hossan, 2015). In the first phase, the staff becomes cognizant of and acknowledges the need for a change. The…… [Read More]
The Garbage Can Model in Greater Detail
In theory, the GCM views the entire universe of organizational problems and solutions to those problems as a garbage can in which all problems and all possible solutions are tossed (Daft, 2005). The GCM also views the garbage can as containing solutions to some problems that might not have even manifested themselves yet in the organization but which might become useful in connection with some of those problems that materialize after solutions have already been devised generally (Daft, 2005).
There are four principal parameters that Cohen and March described in relation to the organizational problems encountered in anarchistic situations are: (1) Problems, defined as issues requiring change to the existing situation; (2) Solutions, defined as ideas proposed to address problems; (3) Participants, defined as employees who may come and go from the organization; and (4) Choice Opportunities, defined as situations requiring decisions (Daft,…… [Read More]
Organizational Change Management Theory
The organization this document will assess in terms of its readiness for change is Dataversity. It operates within the data management industry. Its primary operations are two-fold. It hosts a website centered upon the education of consumers and businesses for data-driven applications. Also, the company hosts myriad conferences each year. These conferences are also dedicated to data-driven applications and technologies. This organization is a small one. There are only five full-time employees. However, it strongly relies on contractors and their work. The organization has been in existence for the past 10 years. It started off as simply hosting conferences before it branched out to publishing in the way of its internationally renowned web site.
The primary human resources practice employed by Dataversity that could benefit from change is the way that it hires is contractors. Presently, there is a decided dearth of protocol and consistency in…… [Read More]
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
Integrity and…… [Read More]
reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester Drawing learning experiences semester (group case study, relevant change management theory, reflections relevant personal experiences organisational change), reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester.
The world we are living in is always changing. The nature of the business world today is very different than the way it was decades ago. Change is inevitable. This is because, as people are always faced with new problems and as such, come up with new ways of doing things in order to better their lives. The people therefore come up with new technologies to meet this needs. For an organization to remain relevant, it must be flexible enough to change with the changing times. Resisting to the wind of change will make the organization obsolete and lead to their collapsing Zilwa, 2010.
Nevertheless,…… [Read More]
Management Aptitude Analysis
The results of the management aptitude questionnaire were fairly conclusive and useful in regards to my propensity for this particular application in organizational behavior. My scores point out both my strengths as well as those areas in which I can use improvement. Additionally, this information is valuable to see what exact management skills I would be best suited to employ to help a contemporary organization progress.
The most encouraging part of this questionnaire was my score in conceptual skills, in which I achieved 25 points out of 30. In some ways, conceptual skills are the most important for a manager to possess, although human skills are becoming increasingly valuable as well (Daft, 2011, p. 11). However, conceptual skills are those in which a manager is cognizant of how the specific parts of an organization coalesce and work together. More importantly, conceptual skills are those which enable a…… [Read More]
As organizations become larger in both scope and scale, the need for both management and leadership compounds. Many organization problems today, correlate heavily to a lack of true management. Aspects such as fraud, high employee turnover, product recalls, and strikes, all have origins with management. To better combat many of these negative influences, companies must hire, attract and retain talented management. In order to do so, many companies use the administrative management theory of management. This theory emphasizes the use of planned procedures, job specialization, and merit pay to help facilitate business objectives. I believe this theory to be the most useful in regards to managing an organization. For one, specialization of labor helps increase operational efficiencies with a business. In addition, planned procedures allow both employees and management to have clearly defined goals and job expectations. Finally pay based on merit provides incentive for employee and management to…… [Read More]
In my opinion, valuable organizational change is a process. It is nothing that comes from one day to the other. It requires the combined efforts of the organization as a whole: Skilled managers and the commitment of an organization's workforce alike.
Discussion of the paper's results: What are the key findings? What does it add to the body of knowledge?
The key findings of the paper are threefold.
First, the current management of organizational change tends to be reactive in its response to the pace of change that has never been greater than today. Second, successful management of change within organizations is a highly required skill. Third, further research into the nature of change management needs to be conducted and a new and pragmatic framework for change management is needed as a critical success factor for the management of change. It adds to the body of knowledge, that managerial skills…… [Read More]
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…… [Read More]
Behavior Management Theories and Applications
The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…… [Read More]
Again, this might seem like simple good sense; making decisions based on the factual merits of the situation rather than on face-saving or boss-pleasing seems like the only rational way of doing business. Not paying attention to political whims, however, can have serious repercussions for individuals and organizations alike, and truly depoliticizing decisions requires a great deal of introspection, honesty, and self-awareness in the top management officials and decision makers in a company (Hamel 2009).
Achieving this depoliticization is certain to be even more difficult than establishing a democracy of information, as it is difficult to convince people to relinquish power willingly once they have it. The problem is that politicized decision making is only a hair's breadth away -- one might even say is simply a euphemism for -- corrupt decision making. Few debates or issues are more heavily politicized than long-term (and even short-term) government planning, and though…… [Read More]
Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.
According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…… [Read More]
Identify four factors that affect whether an industry does or does not present a company with a good business opportunity?
The business environment has become highly complex and challenging for firms due to various macro-environmental factors. These factors directly impact the operational and financial performance of firms in one way or another (Sharp, Bergh, & Li, 2013). The economic, political, legal, social, cultural, competitive, and technological forces collectively form the external business environment for business organizations (Hill & Jones, 2010). However, the four leading factors that drive the performance of organizations whether their industry does or does not present them with good business opportunities include: globalization, technological advancements, consumer behavior, and competitive intensity (Thompson, Peteraf, Gamble, Strickland, 2013).
Globalization has a significant influence on the performance of local and international firms operating in a country. Now firms not only have to compete with their domestic competitors, but…… [Read More]
" (fom Wold envionmental news, Intenet edition)
Besides developing flexible legislation that will distibute the functions of ecycling between manufactues and municipal sevices thee has to be a definite and developed pogam that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electonic waste, eduction of e-waste landfills and incineation. Recycling pogam should not be limited to the ecycling of CRT monitos, as thei ownes ae moe likely to bing the whole obsolete compute system to the ecycling, not just compute monitos.
The benefit of integal pogam of ecycling is that it allows using a vaiety of mateials used in the electonics manufactuing like pecious metals, semi-pecious metals, and some electonic items in the euse.
The most impotant pat of the e-waste management is seach of the most appopiate and qualified patnes in the technical o pactical pat of the poblem solution. This poblem is of the essential…… [Read More]
Management and Leadership
Strategic Management and Leadership
Strategic management and leadership theories supporting organizational direction
This document focuses on the leadership theories based on transformational and contingency approaches as well as the management theories based on supporting the accomplishment of organizational objectives. It attempts to review the different approaches and deliver a subjective leadership style that will guide the organization to achieving its goals.
Application of leadership and management theories to support organizational direction
Organizations exist to make profit. That is the sole purpose of corporation and combined companies. Effective organizations are those that are able to adapt to ever changing forces in the general and task environment. Therefore strategic management plays a vital role in helping organizations achieve the means necessary to gain profits and build customer loyalty.
Strategic management is the set of decisions and succeeding actions taken by management that will provide a competitively superior fit…… [Read More]
As the workplace and management techniques have developed over the decades, employees have enjoyed an increasingly powerful position in their companies. According to Eisler and Montuori (2001), the changes in both business and its surrounding environment in terms of society, the economy and the environment have necessitated new paradigms of the employer-employee relationship. It is no longer sufficient to mindlessly follow traditional methods such as marionette management. Instead, the workplace needs to be assessed in terms of which management styles will most efficiently drive the specific business.
Partnership management is one of these new paradigms. In partnership management, it is acknowledged that employees are more than entities to perform specific functions for a specific time during the day. In this management style, employees are recognized as an important part of business growth and success. As such, they are expected to provide input that would be valuable for the…… [Read More]
The change in the world structure population and the trend of migration of people from developing to developed countries raises critical issues that no company can ignore. Demographic changes are already influencing human resource and other departments of companies across major cities of developed nations like Japan, United States and German (Florian Kohlbacher, 2010). Demographic, therefore can be defined as the study of composition of social entity in terms of its members attributes which includes such factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, seniority, salary level and marital status (Kirton. Greene 2011).
However, during times of global economic and financial crisis, many companies usually deal with issues that seem to be more urgent, but with demographic change the issue is more complex, for example German's companies doing business in Japan need to face the challenges of demographic change in Japan population if they want to be successful in…… [Read More]
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…… [Read More]
Managing Change in the Criminal Justice System
One organization within the American criminal justice system that has undergone significant changes during the last few decades is the parole board, which is the institution responsible for determining when a prisoner is eligible for early release. Historically, parole has been used by the criminal justice system to regulate overcrowded prison inmate populations, while providing rehabilitated criminals with a second chance to assimilate into society. Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, a confluence of increased security during the War on Terror, rising crime rates across the nation, and widely publicized instances of recidivism has spurred politicians and the public alike to call for the abolishment of the parole system. According to the United States Senate esearch Center's brief on the shifting landscape of parole boards in the American criminal justice system, "while some states have abolished parole, systems similar to parole…… [Read More]
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…… [Read More]
Managing Diversity Matters
A Study on QANTAS
Women Representation at QANTAS
QANTAS' Focus on Diverse Needs of Customers
QANTAS Ideology Regarding Recruitment of Youth
Challenges Faced y QANTAS
In today's challenging global scenario where competition is rising every day, it is necessary for Multinational organizations to address the basic need of today's business world: diversity. Customers, employees, strategic alliances, competitors, industry norms etc.; they are all subject to changes every day. This is the reason why organizations must need to show adaptability to the change and address the diverse needs of all these stakeholders. Furthermore, while discussing MNCs, it is noticeable that one of the industries (with highest degree of diversity in its operations) is the aviation industry. Australia is one of the most culturally diverse in the world, according to a 2009 study by L. Leveson in the International Journal of Manpower. The study explored current attitudes to diversity…… [Read More]
Previously the element of interest and personal motivation were found missing, the technical capabilities of the employees have never been a matter of debate, however the personal and mental capacities and limitations are either ignored or not respected which resulted in the poor performance of the organization. Apparently, the rise in the demands pertaining to the particpation of the employees and the industrial democracy has also distorted the professional environment. Such all complains were lately resolved and answered through the unique approach of the organization, the organization has understood the significance of the employees, and had realized that their performance is not based upon their professional capabilities, but rather it is the function of the mental capability of the employee related to the friendly and conducive environment offered to the employees occasionally. The need of the employees that focus upon peaceful, conducive and liberal environment has been ensured, which required…… [Read More]
Another 110 individuals would be necessary in administrative positions; 120 people in the cleaning crews and the rest of 150 should occupy diverse positions.
4.2. ecruitment, selection and hiring
Once the event coordinator has identified the staffing need, he moves on to recruiting and selecting the individuals to occupy the available positions. ecruitment and selection is generically "concerned with any means available to meet the needs of the firm for certain skills and behaviors" (Armstrong, 2000, p.201). What these processes generally do it to attract prospective employees and determine which of the candidates are best suited for the available positions. It is imperative that the processes of recruitment and selection be efficient, effective and fair (ACAS). As the best candidates are identified, the human resource manager, after an understanding with the executives, makes an employment offer to the individual. This employment offer will not only include the specification of the…… [Read More]
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…… [Read More]
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…… [Read More]
My Utopia Job: CFO
Being a Chief Financial Officer (CFO) for a major Fortune 500 company would be my dream job. Capitalizing on a core base of competencies in accounting, cash flow management, and risk management, the CFO sits in the C-suite with a greater sense of purpose and a role that is instrumental in guiding the organization’s strategies (“Chief financial officer (CFO) job description,” 2017). An understanding of management concepts, theories, and principles will help me achieve this goal to help me manifest a utopic career. For example, systems theory shows how the CFO fits into the overall organization and its interdependent, multilateral nature. Likewise, the CFO must have mastered the main management concepts like those we have studied in this class including control and coordination. The CFO is role that balances strategy, tactics, vision, ethics, and communication. To be a successful CFO, one must also master essential conceptual,…… [Read More]
management style for an entire country simply because there are too many possible variables. The citizens of a nation as large as Australia vary greatly from one individual to another - and even a single manager varies in style from one day to the next or one project to the next. Moreover, the management style of one industry is not likely to be the same for another industry with very different needs and goals.
However, these caveats aside, it is possible if one concentrates on a single industry to make some generally true statements about the management style of that industry throughout Australia. The particular industry chosen for this project may actually show greater uniformity of style than other Australian industries do since the topic - organic farming - is in fact one that tends to attract people who are like minded to begin with.
We should perhaps begin with…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
Evolution of Management
A Brief History of the Evolution of Management Principles and Models
The evolution of management theories and principles in modern management thought began in the late nineteenth century and advanced rapidly all through the twentieth century up until the present day. The need to define management and the role of managers became a vital part of production as well as the need to effectively complete many business functions. This led to the foundation of various management theories that were aimed at orchestrating different business functions in an environment where the separation of labor demand some level of coordination. Classical management theories focused on the best methods for assigning the labor of various individuals and there related tasks. This line of thinking was not only necessary, but evolved into a robust field of academic study as well as professional practitioners that specialize in management. This paper…… [Read More]
Management of Organizations
Significance of Managers in Achieving Organizational Success
Organic vs. Mechanistic Organization
Process of Formulating Corporate Strategy
Meaning of Organizational Culture
Management of Organizations
Organizational management is one of the most crucial components for organizational success and productivity. This is primarily because the process entails handling various aspects that are geared towards achieving the organization's overall objectives. Some of the most important issues in organizational management include effective decision making and conflict resolution. These important aspects are usually handled by the organization's top management, which play a vital role in ensuring organizational success. For managers, the process also entails formulating corporate strategy and creating a suitable organizational culture that helps in realization of the overall goals and objectives.
Significance of Managers in Achieving Organizational Success
As previously mentioned, organizational managers play an important role in the success of an organization, especially in relation to decision making. Actually, organizational…… [Read More]
Management as a discipline is generally concerned with the art and science of getting a group of people to achieve a defined goal or objective (Griffin, 2008). The discipline has evolved significantly over the last one century or so (Roth, 1998). In the first half of the 20th century, emphasis was largely placed on structure, authority, and production; with little or no attention to employees (Adetule, 2011). There has, however, been a tremendous shift of management focus from structure and authority to people (employees) over the years (Griffin, 2008). The evolution of management theory over time depicts the ever changing role of managers or leaders in organizations. Each management orientation or school of thought, however, presents its own merits and demerits. With reference to Galaxy Toys, Inc., an American toy manufacturing company, this case study provides an analysis of how the style of management in the organization has evolved from…… [Read More]
Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…… [Read More]