1000+ documents containing “management theory”.
Total Quality Management and other structural management approaches again exert direct control form the top down on each of the various departments and activities of the organization. This direct approach allows for a total and coordinated plan to be implemented, and has the advantage of being able to implement separate changes in each department/activity, leading to a possibility of more drastic changes and reversals (Kovel-Jarboe 1996). This approach also as the disadvantage, however, of unpredictability when such drastic changes are implemented.
The systems theory approach to management does a lot to mitigate this unpredictability in assessing how changes in one part of an organization will affect each of the others; overall organizational change in systems theory can result from more subtle shifts in certain dynamic areas of the organization, which will necessarily have an effect on the other parts of the organization (McNamara 2009). Systems theory, in fact, could be….
Kovel-Jarboe, P. (1996). "Quality improvement: a strategy for planned organizational change." Library trends. Accessed 28 October 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1387/is_n3_v44/ai_18015826/
McNamara, C. (2009). "Brief Overview of Contemporary Theories in Management." Free management library. Accessed 28 October 2009. http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/cntmpory.htm
Employees of today know that they must be constantly sharpening their skills.
Keeping people "excited" and "nimble" through continued training ensures that companies will have an extensive stock of in-house talent to promote during crunch times, and that employees will put in the extra hour at the office to show they are working hard (Hymowitz 2008). Some companies have attempted to foster worker loyalty with flexible scheduling, retirement planning and other financial services, better benefit packages, employee gyms equipped with personal trainers and extensive subsidized cafeterias (Lanzoni 2001:1). However, employees that are truly the managers of tomorrow will not simply want a more ambient workplace, or even more extensive benefits packages -- they want to know that the company regards their input as an asset, and they are being groomed for new positions that will open up in the future.
Promoting mainly from without is not simply time consuming in….
Hymowitz, Carol. (2008, January 28). "They Ponder Layoffs, but Executives Still Face
Gaps in Talent." Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), B.1. Retrieved February 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1419438441).
Lanzoni, Gene. (2001, November 14). "Despite Soft Economy, MetLife Study Shows that Employee Retention Tops List of Employers' Benefits Concerns. www.allbusiness.comBusiness Wire. Retrieved February 1, 2008, from AllBusniess database http://www.allbusiness.com/labor-employment/human-resources-personnel-management/6146299-1.html
From the beginning of Organizational Development (OD), the action research model (AM) has been the systematizing advance for doing OD. There are four stages that lead to continuous improvement. During the plan stage, choices are made about what may be undertaken to advance the organization and its practices, by means of a diversity of choice making apparatus. During the do stage, those tactics are put into practice in a provisional or test implementation. During the check stage measurements are done in order to establish whether the test implementation did, in actuality, produce the desired results. During the act stage, the course, if victorious, is put into practice. "Whether successful or unsuccessful, the next stage is to begin the cycle all over again with a Plan stage. If successful, the new plans should explore what more can be done to improve the processes. If unsuccessful, new data may be gathered to….
Management. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Kor-Man/Management.html
Mclean, G.N. (2009). Organization Development: Principles, Processes, Performance.
Retrieved from http://www.bkconnection.com/static/Organization_Development_EXCERPT.pdf
Participatory Action Research. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.incite-
As noted above, interpersonal skills are essential in modern-day management approaches. The definition goes beyond communicating well with others. It also entails the personal traits that a person has to be a leader, which include such traits as ethical orientation, ability to accept and manage change, desire to enhance diversity, problem solving, global perspective, ability to motivate, and resiliency.
Interpersonal skills, however, are not the only abilities that a manager needs. Because he or she is overseeing people who are designing and making a product or service, the manager has to be able to understand that product or service, its role in the marketplace, the customer needs and a forecast of what changes will occur. They have to be involved with today's nitty gritty, but also act as visionaries for tomorrow. This takes a special type of individual.
A survey done of it CIOs this past May, (obert Half, 2007) demonstrated this….
Argyris, C. (1957) Personality and organization: The conflict between system and the individual, Harper.
Katz, J.A., and Shepherd, D. (2004) Cognitive Approaches to Entrepreneurship Research
McGill, M.E., and Slocum, J.W. (1998). A Little Leadership Please? Organizational
Systems theory sees the individual person, group, business, and the organization's bigger set of mutually dependent organizations as a lively, unified whole. Changes in one or more parts of this multifaceted system involve changes for the others. "All system parts are in a state of more or less steady and active adaptation, and how well adjustment occurs becomes the serious question from a success perspective" (McCann, 2004).
Change was once believed to be intermittent and characterized by periods of comparatively low-level, managed disturbance, such as a new product introduction for interior operating needs, or a cautiously designed merger. "The growth of conglomerate forms of organization by way of acquisitions has been a way for many to diversify financial risk and smooth uncertainty. An organization's primary goal is to control change to protect the core business" (McCann, 2004).
Organizations continue to induce even greater rates of change through their own dynamics and constant….
Charlton, B.G. & Andras, P. (2003). What is management and what do managers do? a
systems theory account. Philosophy of Management, 3, p. 1-15.
McCann, J. (2004). Organizational effectiveness: Changing concepts for changing environments. People and Strategy, 27(1), 42-50.
Synergy. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Str -
Leadership is an
ability which, either inborn or developed through hard work and ingenuity,
presents the members of the organization with a paragon to forging action
toward rational goals. hile it is the responsibility of managerial
personnel to issue directives, instructions and clarifications on goal-
orientation, it is only a leader who can find ways to motivate the members
of his organization. By finding ways to personally and professionally
invest these members into the shared goals of the organization, a manager
can evolve into a credible leader while positively impacting internal
Another quality which differentiates management from leadership is
that the former carries with it implications of top-down authority.
Leadership is instead a process of give-and-take, where one's effectiveness
may be inclined by his susceptibility to the counsel and talent of others
within the organization. Again, I have found that this has a variety of
effects on the dynamics of interpersonal relations therein, the most
significant being the indication that the input and talents….
How is bounded rationality related to decision making?
Bounded rationality is the property of an agent that behaves in a manner nearly optimal to its goals as its resources will allow. Simon suggests that researchers not just look at the surface answers in their research, but look to the reasons why something acts like it does (Simon, p. 50).
Decision-making can benefit by following this rule. If one looks at the basis for a negative attitude that one wants to change, one might be more successful in changing that attitude forever. And if one decides to get rid of an obstacle in a field, one might want to investigate how that obstacle came to be there or whether it has more components than immediately present themselves. If the obstacle in the field is a tree, if one does not dig up the roots, the tree will grow again and remain an obstacle.….
Gale Group, Inc. (2006). Encyclopedia of Small Business. Retrieved May 31, 2007 at http://www.answers.com/library/Small+Business+Encyclopedia-cid-478801899.
Pounds, Jerry, (15 Aug 2006). The behavior-consequence relationship. Management Issues. Retrieved May 31, 2007 at http://www.management-issues.com/2006/8/15/opinion/the-behavior-consequence-relationship.asp .
Secord, P.F. And Backman, C.W. (1964). Social Psychology. New York, McGraw-Hill.
Simon, H.A. (1957). Models of Man. New York: Wiley.
Clearly, the different management theories that are being used will determine how a company will operate in a particular country or region. This is important, because depending upon the type of management structure being utilized. The different theories mentioned above, can be used to adapt an organization to the culture and business environment of a country. Where, each theory can work in conjunction with the basic structure and strategy that the company has in place. At which point, the different tools and theories will allow managers to customize their message, to specific teams / departments. When you can reach these levels within a business, it is a sign that customizing the strategy to cultural traditions will improve productivity. This is because, managers can understand the environment that they are working in and employees can understand the overall big picture. Once this takes place, the amounts of risk that….
Bierman, H. (2008). Dabhol Power Plant. Accounting / Finance Lessons of Enron. (pp. 34 -- 35). Singapore: World Scientific.
Ghosnal, S. (2005). Bad Management Theories. Academy of Management and Learning, 4 (1), 75 -- 91.
Lynch, T. (1983). Introduction. Organization Theory and Management. (pp. 6 -8). New York, NY: Marcel Decker.
McNamara, C. (2010). Brief Overview of Contemporary Theories in Management. Retrieved July 15, 2010 from Management Help website: http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/cntmpory.htm
The term 'matrix' is derived from the representative diagram of a matrix management system, which resembles a rectangular array or grid of functions and product/project groups" (Malonis 2000). In a matrix structure, different facets of the marketing team internationally might meet together to discuss ways to brand Sara Lee worldwide. Or, when launching Sanex into a new country, the regional marketing, advertising, and IT team might meet to create a new website for the region that was uniquely responsive to local, cultural needs. The management within a matrix structure is more fluid, and the relationship of authority figures to subordinates is more diffuse.
Matrix structures are often associated with 'creative' firms, such as advertising agencies, where different ad teams have a great deal of autonomy in their decision-making. However, Sara Lee's image and the image of its other, signature products such as Hillshire Farms and Jimmy Dean sausage all have….
About Sara Lee. (2010). Sara Lee Corporation. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://www.saralee.com/AboutSaraLee.aspx
Malonis, Jane. (2000). Matrix management and structure. Encyclopedia of Business. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://www.enotes.com/biz-encyclopedia/matrix-management-and-structure
Values are the personification of what an organization stands for, and should be the foundation for the behavior of its members. A disconnect between individual and organizational values often leads to dysfunction. "Additionally, an organization may publish one set of values, perhaps in an effort to push forward a positive image, while the values that really guide organizational behavior are very different. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is acceptable" (Strategic Leadership and Decision Making, n.d.).
Structural Contingency Theory (SCT) says that contingency plans are a necessary part of making sure that a business continues to function efficiently when it is faced with challenges and difficulties. When put into motion, contingency plans can change the scenery of the business provisionally or permanently. Structural contingency theory suggests that companies have a plan in place to guide organizational change when needed. Structural….
Chatterjee, S. (2010). Behavioral Aspects of Organizational Learning and Adaptation.
Retrieved from http://opendepot.org/392/
Chiva, R., Grandio, a., & Alegre, J. (2010). Adaptive and Generative Learning: Implications
from Complexity Theories. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(2),
2. Putting together alternative plans and thinking about the following before choosing the appropriate one: difficulty, goals, flexibility, side effects, and reward proportions.
3. Plainly relaying set down goals, aims, and predictable results. The majority considerably, relay any alterations completely and on a stable foundation (obert, 2009).
The manager will have to entrust responsibilities to their subordinates, effectual designation of tasks includes defined goals, acceptance, appropriate feedback, and curative events. Allocation means a shared accountability and not passing off responsibility. The supervisor hands over by delegating tasks, yielding appropriate stages of authority to perform those tasks, and generating agreements to carry out the tasks. Universal obstacles concerned with allocation includes: lack of self-assurance in employees, lack of appropriate development, manager loss of job approval, fear of making mistakes and approaches of lack of confidence. The manager has the responsibility of supplying recurrent feedback in regards to performance. It is the obligation of….
Applied Management Science: Making Good Strategic Decisions. (2009). Retrieved October 7,
2010, from Web site: http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/opre640/opre640.htm
BPO Services Association Unlimited (Philippines. (2010). Retrieved October 7, 2010, from Web
Ethics is also a big concern for many modern companies. Moral issues and choices that deal with right and wrong behavior can make or break a company in today's business world. There are many factors in the cultural, organizational and external environment that influence ethical behavior, but the major ethical issues that organizations have to address are sexual harassment, discrimination in pay and promotion, and the right to privacy (Introduction to Organizational Behavior, 2012).
In 2011 Kaiser Permanente and Sodexo were ranked at the top of the worlds most ethical companies. Sodexo has over a hundred thousand employees in North America, all focused on providing solutions to their clients' biggest challenges. "Anne Marie Brown, a general manager at a New Jersey senior living center, works with community organizations in order to provide job opportunities for persons with disabilities. Thanks to her efforts, Sodexo recently hired 10 new employees to work….
Chavel, G. (2011). The Diversity & Inclusion Journey Continues. Retreived from http://blogs.sodexousa.com/commentary/2011/03/03/the-diversity-inclusion-journey-continues/
Introduction to Organizational Behavior. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.icmrindia.org/courseware/Organizational%20Behavior/OB-DS4.htm
Kaiser Permanente Wins National Awards for Commitment to Environmental Health. (2009).
Retrieved from http://xnet.kp.org/newscenter/pressreleases/nat/2009/051909cleanmedawards.html
However, her initial suggestions of improvement -- especially after a lack of positive response the first few times -- are not predicted by expectancy theory. It was obvious that she was not expected to make such suggestions, nor was she especially given an opportunity to do so, and both of these circumstances are considered necessary in expectancy theory. Furthermore, Lesley would have known that she was expected to perform her day-to-day tasks, and she was of course capable of doing so and afforded the opportunity, and she was rewarded for this. Again, while expectancy theory predicts her lack of motivation to achieve more, it fails to predict her dissatisfaction.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs comes somewhat closer to finding a true explanation for Lesley's behavior. The physiological and safety needs -- the two first levels of need in Maslow's hierarchy -- are certainly met by Lesley's employment. Her need for acceptance….
Adams, J. & Berkowitz, L. (1976). Equity theory: toward a general theory of social interaction. New York: Academic Press.
Cullen, D. & Gottel, L. (2002). "From orgasms to organizations: Maslow, women's sexuality, and the gendered foundations of the needs hierarchy." Gender, work, and organization 9(5), pp. 537-55.
Furnham, a. (2005). The psychology of behaviour at work: the individual in the organization. New York: Psychology Press.
Green, T. (1999). Performance and motivation strategies for today's workforce. Westport, Ct: Greenwood Publishing.
Eventually, when the rest of Europe became a solid, cultural entity at the end of the Middle Ages, it was no surprise that the Byzantine Empire did not survive since it had failed to hold true to its core values and, eventually, the Empire officially ended upon conquest by the Ottomans.
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also called the Islamic Renaissance and its generally thought of as ranging from the 8th century to the 13th century (Kraemer). During this period, Muslim engineers, scholars, traders, philosophers, poets, artists, laborers, scientists, and princes created a culture that thrived and grew in many areas and would have an influence upon future societies around the globe (Turner). It is no wonder then that the people were greatly committed to the pursuit of knowledge. Additionally, Islamic scholars gathered information from all over the world and translated it. In fact, many Muslim philosophers sought….
Management Theory Brings the Best Process for Change?
In these times of economic sluggishness - a period in which corporations face the grim realities of shrinking profits, restructuring, layoffs, cutbacks, downsizing, and overall belt-tightening - it would nonetheless seem to be an ideal time for rethinking / retooling a corporation's theory of management. And, what better time than during times of economic stagnation - when companies decide which workers to lay off and which employees to keep - to forge theories and policies that better prepare the corporation for future good times and bad times? Management theories that not only accept change, and plan for change, but theories that facilitate the process of change, would seem to be most applicable to today's gloomy economic landscape.
Meanwhile, new approaches and theories which potentially promote positive change - and could be beneficial to companies - are sometimes rejected just because they are misunderstood….
Greenhouse, Steven. "Going for the Look, but Risking Discrimination."
The New York Times 13 July 2003.
Mendenhall, Mark E., & Wiley, Carolyn. "Strangers in a strange land: the relationship between expatriate adjustment and impression management." American Behavioral Scientist 37 (1994): 605-616.
Publisher's Weekly (2003). "Business Process Management: the third wave." http://www.publishersweeklyreviewsnews.com.
Business - Management
Total Quality Management and other structural management approaches again exert direct control form the top down on each of the various departments and activities of the organization. This…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Employees of today know that they must be constantly sharpening their skills. Keeping people "excited" and "nimble" through continued training ensures that companies will have an extensive stock of…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
From the beginning of Organizational Development (OD), the action research model (AM) has been the systematizing advance for doing OD. There are four stages that lead to continuous improvement.…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
As noted above, interpersonal skills are essential in modern-day management approaches. The definition goes beyond communicating well with others. It also entails the personal traits that a person has…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Systems theory sees the individual person, group, business, and the organization's bigger set of mutually dependent organizations as a lively, unified whole. Changes in one or more parts of…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Leadership is an ability which, either inborn or developed through hard work and ingenuity, presents the members of the organization with a paragon to forging action toward rational goals. hile it…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
How is bounded rationality related to decision making? Bounded rationality is the property of an agent that behaves in a manner nearly optimal to its goals as its resources will…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
(McNamara, 2010) Clearly, the different management theories that are being used will determine how a company will operate in a particular country or region. This is important, because depending…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
The term 'matrix' is derived from the representative diagram of a matrix management system, which resembles a rectangular array or grid of functions and product/project groups" (Malonis 2000).…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
d.). Values are the personification of what an organization stands for, and should be the foundation for the behavior of its members. A disconnect between individual and organizational values often…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
2. Putting together alternative plans and thinking about the following before choosing the appropriate one: difficulty, goals, flexibility, side effects, and reward proportions. 3. Plainly relaying set down goals, aims,…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Ethics is also a big concern for many modern companies. Moral issues and choices that deal with right and wrong behavior can make or break a company in…Read Full Paper ❯
However, her initial suggestions of improvement -- especially after a lack of positive response the first few times -- are not predicted by expectancy theory. It was obvious…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Eventually, when the rest of Europe became a solid, cultural entity at the end of the Middle Ages, it was no surprise that the Byzantine Empire did not…Read Full Paper ❯
Management Theory Brings the Best Process for Change? In these times of economic sluggishness - a period in which corporations face the grim realities of shrinking profits, restructuring, layoffs,…Read Full Paper ❯